TRAFFICO URBANO

VEDI ANCHE:

per BIKE SHARING, CAR SHARING e CAR POOLING, vedi la voce SHARED MOBILITY - MOBILITA' CONDIVISA

per ROAD PRICING e CONGESTION CHARGING in ambito urbano, vedi la voce COSTI ESTERNI DEI TRASPORTI, INTERNALIZZAZIONE DEI COSTI

vai a


AGENZIE DELLA MOBILITA', CENTRALI DI MOBILITA'

Agenzia Milanese Mobilità e Ambiente è una struttura tecnica creata dal Comune di Milano per pianificare gli interventi relativi alla mobilità e all'ambiente e avviare un ampio e sistematico monitoraggio del territorio; pianifica, regola e controlla mobilità e ambiente, rispondendo a due esigenze dettate da un territorio ad alta densità operativa come quello dell'area urbana milanese.

Ami, Agenzia Mobilità Impianti, Ferrara.

Atr, Agenzia per la Mobilità della provincia di Forlì-Cesena.

Società Sistema Sosta Mobilità (SSM - Udine) è una società per azioni mista a prevalente capitale pubblico locale (Comune di Udine).

Centrale di Mobilità per Milano, Monza e la Brianza.

Mobilito. Die Mobilitätszentrale in Salzburg.


ASSOCIAZIONI, MOVIMENTI

8-80 Cities is a Canadian non-profit organization dedicated to transforming cities into places where people can walk, bike, access public transit and visit vibrant parks, streets and other public places (based in Toronto, Canada). We are dedicated to contributing to the transformation of cities into places where people can walk, bike, access public transit and visit vibrant parks and public places. Our approach is to engage communities at all levels and across multiple sectors to inspire the creation of cities that are easily accessible, safe and enjoyable for all.

Rete Mobilità Nuova (Italia). La Rete per la Mobilità Nuova è una realtà che unisce le persone che quotidianamente si muovono usando i treni, il trasporto pubblico locale, la bici e le proprie gambe, e che rappresentano una maggioranza ignara di esserlo. La Rete nasce con lo scopo di diffondere e promuovere la Mobilità Nuova tra cittadini, associazioni, movimenti, amministrazioni e istituzioni.


ATTUALITA': CONVEGNI, CORSI

Vedi anche

  • AGENDA

    Journée d'étude Rue de l'Avenir. RdA organise chaque année une journée d'étude, le dernier vendredi de septembre, à destination: des communes et des cantons romands, des bureaux d'étude, des associations et personnes intéressées.

    Conferenza Internazionale "Vivere e camminare in città" affronta ogni anno diverse tematiche relative alla qualità della vita in ambito urbano. Centro Studi Città Amica (CeSCAm), Università degli Studi di Brescia.

    Walk21 Conferences. "Walk21 exists to champion the development of healthy sustainable and efficient communities where people choose to walk. Through the Walk21 Conference series and the International Charter, Walk21 have a vision to create a world where people choose and are able to walk as a way to travel, to be healthy and to relax."

    Osservatorio sulla mobilità sostenibile: le nuove strategie di intervento della Provincia di Milano. Milano, 10/03/2005. Documenti del convegno.

    7-9 ottobre 2004, Città di Castello: Fiera delle Utopie Concrete sul tema : La mobilità cambia movimento, Vivibilità e sostenibilità dei centri urbani. (la Fiera promuove e presenta esperienze e soluzioni della conversione ecologica dell'economia e della società). Comprende un Corso di formazione "Pianificazione e attuazione della mobilità sostenibile nei centri urbani"; il sito conteva un approfondimento di Ray Lorenzo,L'auto contro l'infanzia e la vita comunitaria ora reperibile su web.archive.org : http://web.archive.org/web/20041027000128/http://www.utopieconcrete.it/Relazione_lorenzo.html.


    CAR POOLING (LIFT SHARING, RIDE SHARING) / COVOITURAGE ( = trasporto di più persone con una sola auto)

    BlaBlaCar, servizio di condivisione dell'auto via Web.

    carpooling.com, Europe's largest carpooling network. Carpooling.com connects people in over 40 countries so they can share their rides. Today the site is available in 7 languages: English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Polish and Spanish.

    Francesco Ciari (IVT – ETH Zurich), Why do people carpool? Results from a Swiss survey. Conference paper Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012), Monte Verità (CH), May 2 - 4, 2012, 25 p. [formato PDF, 190 kB]. "A recent study aimed to estimate the potential of carpooling in Switzerland. Part of this study was a survey in which the attitude of the public towards this transport option was investigated using both multi-response questions and a stated preference (SP) experiment. This paper reports on the results of the multi-response questionnaire. The main contribution of this paper is to give an insight on the reasons that motivate Swiss people to consider car-pooling as a possible alternative to driving alone with their own private car. Additionally, a subset of the questionnaire was the basis for factor analysis and cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found which are supposed to represent the main orientations toward carpooling among the population. This analysis is valuable to figure out possible strategies in order to introduce carpooling at a larger scale in Switzerland. The results of the questionnaire show that some parts of the population would be ready to embrace this mode of transport, in some cases even enthusiastically. This is true in particular for well educated, relatively affluent people. However, the responses suggest also that in order to exploit this potential, a system able to address some of the typical issues related to carpooling should be set-up. Safety is important but not the most important issue for potential participants. Practical aspects, like the guarantee of being able to go back home as a passenger if pools are arranged on a one-way basis, are those which worry respondents the most and, therefore, the most critical for carpooling success."

    Développer une infrastructure de covoiturage? Opportunités et spécifications d'une organisation fonctionnelle et spatiale en vue d'une expérimentation en Ile-de-France. Rapport complet. SETEC international, Paris, Juin 2010, 207 p. [formato PDF, 3,51 MB]. "Alors que beaucoup d'efforts sont portés sur les enjeux organisationnels du covoiturage (gestion dynamique de l'appariement des covoitureurs, développement des sites Internet, solutions via la téléphonie mobile, etc.), les besoins en termes d'infrastructures spécifiques nécessaires au développement du covoiturage spontané ou organisé ont été peu explorés, même si les aires de covoiturage en France se sont beaucoup développées depuis le début de l'étude (janvier 2009). Le postulat de la présente recherche est que le développement du covoiturage nécessite la création d'une nouvelle infrastructure : un réseau de stations de covoiturage. Avec des stations bien organisées, bien localisées et offrant un maillage pertinent, le covoiturage pourrait en effet trouver sa place dans le système de mobilité en étant un des éléments d'une offre globale de transport alternative à l'automobile comme mode individuel. Cette place, nécessairement complémentaire aux transports en commun, et tirant également parti du développement des modes doux, pourrait permettre d'entraîner des reports modaux importants, notamment pour les déplacements domicile - travail. L'existence de stations orientées vers l'amélioration du covoiturage régulier et la prise en charge du dossier par des autorités publiques peuvent permettre de lever les verrous limitant les initiatives qui ont déjà vu le jour dans la sphère des systèmes et services."

    DeinBus. Die Idee hinter DeinBus.de ist die einer "Busmitfahrzentrale". Einzelne Personen gründen eine Busfahr-Gruppe für eine bestimmte Strecke und suchen Mitfahrer. Finden sich genügend Leute zusammen, organisiert DeinBus.de einen Reisebus samt Fahrer. (Noleggio collettivo di autobus per effettuare singoli viaggi in comune, le prenotazioni si fanno in rete. In Germania la legge proibisce il trasporto di linea su autobus a lunga distanza e concede il monopolio alle ferrovie, il sistema "DeinBus" cerca di evitare questo divieto).

    eRideShare.com (United States, Canada, Asia, Europe).

    Covoiturage Grand Lyon, le portail du covoiturage dans le Grand Lyon.

    Autostradecarpooling. Servizio di car pooling organizzato da Autostrade per l'Italia sulle autostrade A8 e A9 (Milano-Varese e Milano-Como). Le autovetture con a bordo almeno 4 passeggeri hanno a disposizione una pista riservata al casello Milano Nord e pagano 50 centesimi di euro di pedaggio, anzichè 1,40 euro, dal lunedì al venerdì (escluse festività infrasettimanali), in due fasce orarie distinte.

    RoadSharing, servizio di Car pooling ed Autostop per trovare passaggi in auto, inquinare meno e risparmiare anche in autostrada. Lingue: English, Italiano, Français, Español, Deutsch.

    passaggio.it è il portale di car pooling che permette a chi cerca e a chi offre passaggi auto in Italia e in Europa di mettersi facilmente in contatto e viaggiare insieme.

    mitfahrgelegenheit.de ist die unabhängige Mitfahrzentrale im Internet zur Vermittlung von Mitfahrgelegenheiten in Deutschland und Europa.

    Carpoolplaza. Le site de référence du covoiturage partout en Belgique. Sito in lingua francese e fiamminga.

    Covoiturage-gif.fr, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Sito e servizio di car pooling realizzato per il comune di Gif-sur-Yvette dalla ditta Green Cove Ingénierie.

    Londonliftshare. Servizio di car pooling organizzato dall'azienda Transport for London. "Londonliftshare simply matches you with others wanting to travel in the same direction so you can share the journey and the costs. It allows you to benefit from the convenience of the car, whilst alleviating the associated problems of congestion and pollution."

    Paola Stolfa (Mobility manager Comune di Pesaro), Progetto mobilità condivisa. Presentazione Car pooling. Pesaro, 28 maggio 2008, 16 slides [formato PDF, 644 kB]. "Il progetto di car pooling sarà attivo da settembre per i dipendenti degli enti ed associazioni aderenti all' Osservatorio Tempi e Mobilità." Il servizio dovrebbe comprendere una polizza infortuni, un buono-taxi per imprevisti e dei buoni per la parziale copertura dei costi per gli autisti.

    Emidio Panna, Il car pooling urbano-rurale. Progetto sperimentale di car-pooling in Provincia di Bergamo. Presentazione al convegno "Mobilità leggera per aree fragili", Rovigo, 15 marzo 2008, 30 slides [formato PDF, 918 kB].

    Carpooling a Bergamo. Progetto sperimentale di car-pooling Bergamo organizzato dalla Cooperativa Sociale La Ringhiera di Albino, sostenuto dagli Enti Istituzionali quali la Provincia, Comune e ACI di Bergamo, e finanziato da alcune aziende private del territorio bergamasco.

    Jean-Christophe Ballet, Robert Clavel, Le covoiturage en France et en Europe. État des lieux et perspectives. (Rapports d’étude) Certu, Lyon, 2007, 86 p. [formato PDF, 1,42 MB]. (disponibile anche su www.certu.fr , necessaria registrazione gratuita) "Cette étude dresse un état des lieux des services de covoiturage en France et à l'étranger, en analysant l'ampleur du phénomène par le biais d'éléments quantitatifs collectés via internet. Elle donne également des éléments de recommandations pour encourager la pratique et franchir la « barrière psychologique » qui est un des freins importants. Le thème du covoiturage dynamique, service particulièrement souple de covoiturage, est également évoqué en mettant en lumière certaines expérimentations et outils techniques à disposition pour permettre une bonne exploitation."

    Covoiturage.fr. Le site national du covoiturage (France).

    123envoiture.com. Covoiturage en France et en Europe.

    E-covoiturage.ch servizio gratuito sostenuto dalla Confederazione Svizzera (in francese e tedesco)

    InMacchinaInsieme.com portale dedicato alla condivisione di percorsi automobilistici brevi e lunghi che fa incontrare i bisogni di guidatori che offrono posti auto liberi e viaggiatori che ricercano un passaggio (Italia)

    Muoversi Meglio servizio di Car Pooling in Italia

    Tandem è un software di car pooling che permette a persone che compiono lo stesso percorso ad orari compatibili di comunicare tra loro e organizzarsi in equipaggi al fine di condividere il tragitto verso una destinazione comune (servizio offerto dalla ditta Img Internet).

    RideShare Piattaforma online per condividere i viaggi in Svizzera. Sito in tedesco, francese ed italiano. (Servizio gratuito, bisogna possedere un telefono cellulare).


    CAR SHARING / CAR CLUBS / AUTOPARTAGE ( = uso in comune di un parco auto)

    Romeo Danielis, Lucia Rotaris, Andrea Rusich, Eva Valeri (Univ. di Trieste), The potential demand for carsharing from university students: an Italian case study. (Working paper SIET). SIET, 2015, 25 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB]. "The paper presents a methodology to estimate the potential demand for carsharing from university students. The methodology is based on two surveys: a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a detailed computer-assisted interview. The data collected are used to operationalize a model that estimates the generalized cost under alternative scenarios, with and without carsharing. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to estimate the probability that a person would use carsharing. The methodology has been tested with the students enrolled at the University of Trieste. The main finding is that, under the prevailing conditions, 32% of the sample students would benefit in terms of generalised cost from the use of carsharing if private car was unavailable. The model is also used to perform scenario analysis."

    Diana Jorge, Gonçalo Correia (Univ. of Coimbra), Carsharing systems demand estimation and defined operations: a literature review. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, EJTIR 13(3), 2013, pp.201-220 [formato PDF, 401 KB]. "Efforts have been made in the last few decades to provide new urban transport alternatives. One of these is carsharing, which involves a fleet of vehicles scattered around a city for the use of a group of members. At first, part of the research effort was put into setting up real life experiments with vehicle fleets and observing the performance of major private operators. In the meantime, with the growth of this alternative and the need to better plan its deployment, researchers started to create more advanced methods to study carsharing systems’ planning issues. In this paper, we review those methods, identifying gaps and suggesting how to bridge them in the future. Based on that review we concluded that carsharing demand is difficult to model due to the fact that the availability of vehicles is intrinsically dependent on the number of trips and vice versa. Moreover, despite the existence of carsharing simulation models that offer very detailed mobility representations, no model is able to characterise accurately the supply side, thus hindering the cost-benefit assessment that is fundamental to justify investment in this transport alternative, in particular those that are being endorsed by the European Union. More complex, however, is the operation of the emerging one-way carsharing systems, where a vehicle may be dropped off at any station, which adds uncertainty as to the location where vehicles can be picked up. Several optimisation approaches have been proposed to mitigate this problem but they are always limited in scope and leave other aspects out for model simplification purposes. Some simulation models have also been developed to study the performance of this type of carsharing system, but they have not included ways of balancing the vehicle stocks."

    Green Move, un servizio innovativo di vehicle sharing (Milano, Italy). Green Move (GM) è un progetto di mobilità sostenibile sviluppato dal Politecnico di Milano e finanziato da Regione Lombardia, con l’obiettivo di ideare e sperimentare un nuovo sistema di car sharing con veicoli elettrici per ll’area di Milano. Green Move punta a innovare la concezione dei servizi di sharing esistenti, attraverso una logica dinamica e aperta, basata su standardizzazione, interoperabilità, multi-business. GM supera infatti la concezione dei servizi a unico gestore, permettendo l’ingresso di vari operatori di car-sharing e di flotte aziendali, fino al singolo utente che desideri condividere la propria auto (peer-to-peer social vehicle sharing). Il tutto supportato da un’architettura tecnologia che permette a qualsiasi veicolo di integrarsi nell’offerta Green Move.

    Alberto Colorni (Politecnico di Milano), Green Move: a (sustainable) project of electric vehicle sharing for the city of Milan. Relazione a "Conception innovante des politiques publiques", Université Paris-Dauphine, 28.03.2013, 76 slides [file PDF, 4,68 MB]. "The objective of the project Green Move is to design and implement a vehicle-sharing system in Milan, able to offer to users different categories of ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicles). The system aims to be open, standardized, interoperable, modular and multi-business, in order to support the spread of the service both on the territory and among new vehicle fleets owners and users. The key characteristics of the service are the following. 1. Multi-ownership: the system will offer the opportunity for single users, private companies, associations, etc, to join the service not only using vehicles provided by the service itself but also sharing their personal electric car or fleet. The project aims to apply a peer2peer approach in the field of sustainable mobility: this is made possible thanks to a standardized (possible to be installed to any commercial vehicle) access system that will represent the bridge between the user, the vehicle and the control center. The to join the service. 2. Key-less-mobility: personal smartphone is the main tool to use shared vehicles; the application can solve seamlessly all the steps of the vehicle-sharing experience (registration, booking, localization vehicles, enabling the vehicle, lock-unlock for intermediate stops, navigation, re-fueling, billing, …). 3. Intermodality: the service is defined as a vehicle-sharing system offering to users a multi-modal fleets. One of the limitations of traditional sharing system is to offer to users a single typology of vehicle (usually car or bike). Potentially the system can be integrated with vehicle sharing already in place. 4. Multi-business: the standardized way to join the system gives the chance to design alternative services and flexible mobility solutions. 5. Green mobility credits: the opportunity to profile the user and to link his behavior to the effective consumption of energy makes possible to satisfy the personal will of low impact life style and to set up a credits system able to repay virtuous behavior. Focusing on the five listed above innovative points, the design of the full scale service will be projected by a multi-criteria analysis of a wide number of possible alternatives in order to identify the most feasible and effective one. A trial to test the operating modes and the service efficiency is now carried out with electric vehicles and docking stations in a specific area of Milan. The performance of the service in term of accessibility and usability for the user will be measured with specific monitoring system."

    John Moore, Jacob Rodriguez, Masayo Tokuhiro and Christopher Wang, Where Should the Public Sector Invest in Alternative Modes of Transport? A Comparative Study of Car Clubs and Electric Vehicles in London, The London School of Economics & Political Science in conjunction with Arup, March 2012, 70 p. [formato PDF, 0,98 MB]. "The objective of this report is to conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis to identify which of two alternatives – car clubs or electric vehicles (EVs) – might provide the greatest overall return through 2021, and therefore merits priority within London‘s strategic considerations. We ultimately conclude from our analysis that: 1. From the perspective of the public sector, car clubs provide a total social benefit that is four-times as great as that of EVs; 2. Much of this discrepancy in total social benefit stems from the reduction of CO2 and improved air quality, which car clubs contribute to significantly more than EVs; 3. From the perspective of the individual consumer, car clubs appeal to consumers across a wider spectrum of income levels than do EVs; 4. EVs still represent a highly positive social investment and significant opportunities to integrate EVs with car clubs. From these findings, we recommend that London's policymakers focus primarily on promoting car clubs over EVs in the short term. Specifically, they should: 1) increase their allocation of car club-designated parking spaces; 2) consider larger parking infrastructure projects for car club vehicles; 3) explore tax incentives for car club operators and consumers; and 4) help build consumer awareness of the benefits of car clubs outlined in this report by engaging in targeted marketing techniques, such as advertising throughout bus and tube networks. Since our analysis reveals a significantly positive net present value for EVs as well, policymakers should: 1) continue subsidising EV-related costs and investing in London‘s charging network; 2) focus on finding ways to enable vehicle manufactures to reduce the price of EVs, such as subsidies on R&D, battery research or direct tax incentives; and 3) promote the integration of EVs into car clubs."

    Marco Kouwenhoven, Eric Kroes, Cyrille Gazave, Eric Tardivel, Estimating potential demand for Autolib' - a new transport system for Paris, International Choice Modelling Conference 2011, Leeds, 4-6 July 2011, 19 p. [formato PDF, 418 kB]. "The City of Paris, together with surrounding “communes”, has created a public authority to investigate the possibility to launch by the end of 2011 a new transport system: Autolib'. The project is related to the highly successful Velib' project that was installed in Paris a few years ago. Autolib' is essentially a system of 4,000 “shared” electric cars that can be used for oneway trips of limited distance between 1,400 parking points within central Paris and the surrounding regions. Details of the fare system are still being studied, but it is envisioned that the user would pay a subscription fee and a variable cost depending on the duration of use. And importantly: there would be a guaranteed parking space at the destination of the trip. Avis, RATP, SNCF and VINCI Park formed a consortium to bid for the operation of the Autolib' system. They have commissioned research to estimate the potential demand and revenue for the new Autolib' service with the highest possible accuracy. This to help them to shape the service in the best possible way, to determine the financial conditions and the economic basis of the project. In the paper we briefly introduce the proposed new system, and report the stated choice research that was carried out to estimate the potential demand. The following three experiments were conducted: a stated intentions exercise to measure the absolute willingness to subscribe to the new Autolib' concept for different specifications of the system and its pricing; a stated choice experiment to measure preferences for different combinations of characteristics in the specification of the Autolib' system and its pricing; a stated choice experiment investigating mode choice among three alternatives: chosen mode, best alternative mode, newly proposed mode in varying specifications. In the paper we describe the chosen methodology, the way in which the results of the three experiments have been integrated, the implementation of the population simulator and what we feel are five important elements in estimating potential demand for a new transport mode using stated choice experiments."

    Susan A. Shaheen, Adam P. Cohen, Elliot Martin (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Carsharing Parking Policy: A Review of North American Practices and San Francisco Bay Area Case Study, (Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-10-08), 2010 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, March 15, 2010. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,68 MB]. "Carsharing provides users access to a shared vehicle fleet for short-term use throughout the day, reducing the need for private vehicles. The provision of on-street and public off-street parking dedicated to carsharing is an important policy area confronting public agencies. As of July 2009, approximately 377,600 individuals were carsharing members in North America in about 57 metropolitan areas. A total of 17 jurisdictions, one state (California), and eight public transit operators in North America have formal and informal carsharing parking policies, pilot projects, and proposed legislation. These are reviewed in this paper, along with a framework for carsharing parking policy that reflects three levels of governmental support. In addition, the authors examine carsharing parking policies in three jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay Area, which accounts for an estimated 50,000 carsharing members and 1,100 shared-use vehicles. Supporting this examination is an intercept survey on carsharing parking (n=425) conducted in the Bay Area. Results show that most people supported the conversion of some type of spaces for carsharing use, and 48% thought that carsharing organizations should compensate the city for on-street spaces. At the same time, converting most types of spaces was opposed by at least 20% of respondents. Neighborhood residents were generally more in favor of parking conversion for carsharing than people visiting the area for work or errands. Finally, a majority (61%) felt that non-profits should have priority over for-profit organizations for carsharing spaces and should pay less than for-profit organizations."

    Frédérique Prédali et Sophie Laurent, Autopartage et covoiturage à Londres, Berlin et Madrid. Quelle offre et quel rôle des pouvoirs publics ? Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme d'Île-de-France, Paris, Juillet 2010, 50 p. [formato PDF, 4,08 MB]. "Cette étude se situe dans la série des analyses comparatives entre les métropoles européennes de Londres, Berlin et Madrid pour apporter des éléments de référence sur la situation et les marges de progrès en Île-de-France. Les principales questions qui se posent et auxquelles cette étude tente de répondre pour les métropoles de Londres, Berlin et Madrid sont les suivantes : · quel est le paysage de l'autopartage et du covoiturage ? · comment s'organisent et fonctionnent l'offre et les pratiques : rôle des pouvoirs publics, liens avec l'autorité organisatrice de transport, financement de l'offre, tarifs, aménagements, articulation avec les transports collectifs, avec les taxis… ? · quels éléments intéressants peut-on en tirer pour alimenter la réflexion en Île-de-France ? L'étude propose un panorama de l'offre et des pratiques de l'autopartage et du covoiturage dans ces trois métropoles, sur la base des éléments de connaissance disponibles, et tente d'en tirer des enseignements ou de mettre en avant des thèmes de réflexion particuliers à approfondir."

    Marco Silvestri (Genova Car Sharing Spa), Il Car Sharing a Genova e Savona. Workshop "Il ruolo del Car Sharing per un'offerta integrata dei servizi di Trasporto Pubblico Locale", Roma, 12 ottobre 2010, 25 slides [formato PDF, 807 kB] in: Atti del workshop [file zip, 22,8 MB].

    Adam P. Cohen, Susan A. Shaheen, and Ryan McKenzie, Carsharing: a guide for local planners. American Planning Association, May/June 2008, 11 p. [formato PDF, 136 kB]. "Transportation issues can create seemingly no-win conflicts for planners, whether it's dealing with traffic demand management, wrangling over parking requirements, addressing quality of life issues that accompany traffic congestion, or trying to reduce vehicle emissions to forestall climate change. A new "product-as-service" approach to vehicle use, called carsharing, is springing up in major metropolitan markets, smaller districts, and university campuses all across the country. Where the conditions are right to support carsharing, these programs can give planners another flexible tool to help address these issues in their communities. Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners provides an overview of what local governments and urban planners need to know about carsharing and key policies that can be used to encourage carsharing as a transportation alternative in your city." Sintetica guida con esempi di car sharing negli USA e bibliografia.

    Marco Mastretta (ICS), Lo sviluppo del servizio di car sharing in Italia: analisi delle principali esperienze nazionali e linee evolutive. Relazione a MobilityTech, Bologna, 29-30.10.2007, 82 slides [file PDF, 5,46 MB].

    Nicola Nassisi (Atc Bologna), Car sharing a Bologna. Relazione a MobilityTech, Bologna, 29.10.2007, 17 slides [file PDF, 274 KB].

    Claudia Nobis (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt, Institut für Verkehrsforschung), Car Sharing as a Key Contribution to Multimodal and Sustainable Mobility Behavior - the Situation of Car Sharing in Germany. Transportation Research Record No. 1986 (2006) p. 89-97 [formato PDF, 112 KB]. "The present paper investigates, on the basis of a household survey, the awareness and the market potential of mobility service car sharing in Germany. The results show that the majority of the respondents do not know what the term car sharing stands for. Even within the sub-group of people who could explain what car sharing is, local car sharing offers are not well known. To measure the attitudes towards the different modes of transport and the acceptance of the general idea to share a car with other people, statement batteries were used. On the basis of factor analyses, linear and logistic regression models, the factors are determined that influence whether a person has a liking for car sharing or not. Furthermore, the correlation between attitudes and behavioral aspects are revealed. In this context, people with multimodal mobility behavior are found to be more open-minded for shared used vehicle systems. Finally, by taking subjective (attitudes) and objective criteria (current mobility behavior) into account, the potential of car sharing is estimated. The paper starts with a short history of the development and the current status quo of car sharing in Germany and a brief summary of the previous research. In the end recommendations for the further development of car sharing are given."

    Susan A. Shaheen, Adam P. Cohen, and J. Darius Roberts (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Carsharing in North America. Market Growth, Current Developments, and Future Potentials. Transportation Research Record No. 1986 (2006) p. 116-124 [formato PDF, 2,04 MB].

    Adam Millard-Ball, Gail Murray, Jessica ter Schure, Christine Fox and Jon Burkhardt, The Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds. (Transit Cooperative Research Program, TCRP Report 108), Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 2005, 264 p. [formato PDF, 10,4 MB]. "This report has covered some of the most important topics regarding car-sharing in North America. It has demonstrated that car-sharing brings substantial benefits in terms of reduced vehicle ownership and travel, and improved mobility. It can help partners such as developers, employers, universities, local governments and transit agencies achieve their goals."

    Pau Noy Serrano, El carsharing como instrumento de cambio al transporte público . (IV Jornada Técnica del Observatorio de la Movilidada Metropolitana). Barcelona, 27 de marzo de 2007, 25 slides [formato PowerPoint, 2,13 MB]. Introduzione al car sharing con dati sulla sua affermazione in Spagna e un confronto sulla crescita degli utenti a Strasburgo, Torino, Bruxelles e Barcellona.

    Torsten Perner, Patrick Schöne, Hagen Brosig, Das Dresdner Modell. Car-Sharing und ÖPVN. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage (Il modello di Dresda. Car sharing e TPL. Risultati di un'inchiesta) Dresden, 2000, 106 p. [formato PDF, 1,75 MB]. Dati, caratteristiche, motivazioni e comportamenti nel car sharing di Dresda, con un approfondimento sulle relazioni con il sistema di trasporto pubblico locale. Il rapporto constata che il successo del car sharing dipende fortemente dalla sua integrazione in una rete di trasporto pubblico.

    Willi Loose, Inventory and Criteria for further Development of Car Sharing in Germany and Europe, ECOMM 2004, May 5-7, Lyon, 12 slides [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Un'istantanea del car sharing in Europa, con dati su Germania e Svizzera.

    momo Car-Sharing, a European project supported by IEE - Intelligent Energy Europe (2009-2011). The key objective of momo is to contribute significantly to sustainable mobility patterns by establishing a mobility culture which is based on using various transport options instead of car ownership. Car-Sharing has a great, but mostly unexploited, potential in Europe.

    Progetto europeo moses: mobility services for urban sustainability : portale dedicato al Car sharing realizzato in 8 città europee. (Moses will develop mobility services to reduce dependence on the private car on a European scale - without restricting mobility. The existing small-scale system of Car-Sharing is to be improved significantly, with better service, integrated innovative technologies, intermodal co-operation with other mobility services (e.g. public transport, taxi, cycling, delivery services etc.) and integration of these innovative services into strategies of urban revitalisation and new developments to increase urban efficiency.) Contiene documenti, presentazioni a convegni, relazioni sulle realizzazioni.

    Carplus: rethinking car use, (UK). Portale. "Carplus is the national charity promoting responsible car use. Carplus plays a unique bridging role between green transport organisations and the motoring lobby. Whilst recognising the benefits cars bring to society, Carplus is acutely aware of the financial, environmental, social and health costs of motoring today. Responsible car use embraces vehicle choice, alternative fuel technology, minimising car use, car clubs, car-sharing, improved driving behaviour, promoting journey planning, responsible disposal of cars, and all aspects of how we perceive and use the car." Contiene il sito dei Car Clubs, versione inglese del car sharing, e ampie informazioni sul car sharing.

    ICS - Iniziativa Car Sharing, portale italiano dedicato al car sharing. ICS è la struttura di coordinamento delle realtà locali del Car Sharing, promossa e sostenuta dal Ministero dell'Ambiente, per fornire assistenza alle città che intendano sviluppare sistemi di Car Sharing con l'obbiettivo di istituire uno standard nazionale operativo e tecnologico, procedure unificate in una prospettiva unitaria ed evidenziare le caratteristiche che una organizzazione deve avere per avviare con successo un servizio di Car Sharing.

    Car Sharing Bologna, gestito dall'ATC (azienda trasporti pubblici) di Bologna, ha delle ottime FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions = risposte ai quesiti più richiesti) sul Car Sharing

    Car sharing BZ (Bolzano) cooperativa promossa dall'Ökoinstitut Südtirol/Alto Adige

    Ubeeqo (Milano). Società specializzata in carsharing presente nelle principali città europee. Ha preso il posto di GuidaMI, società di ATM (Azienda Trasporti Milanesi), già Car Sharing Italia s.r.l., società che aveva assorbito Milano Car Sharing, fondata da Legambiente Lombardia.

    CarCityClub. Società mista attivata nel 2002, gestisce il servizio di car sharing nei comuni di Torino e Rivoli.

    Genova Car Sharing. Società mista costituita nel 2003, gestisce il servizio di car sharing a Genova.

    CarSharingFirenze. Azienda mista, gestisce il servizio di car sharing a Firenze, Scandicci, Sesto Fiorentino.

    Car Sharing Palermo.

    Comune di Genova, Il car sharing a Genova: presentazione del nuovo Servizio di Mobilità, aprile 2004, 13 slides [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]

    già

    Mobility Car Sharing Schweiz  (Svizzera)  Nato da una cooperativa fondata nel 1987, ha raggiunto oggi il numero di 59.400 utenti del servizio. Il sito contiene documenti, dati sul funzionamento del carsharing, relazioni annuali sull'andamento economico della società (in lingua tedesca e francese).

    CarSharing.at, offerta presente in tutte le principali città dell'Austria, soprattutto a Vienna.

    cambio België / Belgique. Organizzazione per il car sharing del Belgio. Sito in lingua francese, fiamminga, tedesca e inglese.

    L'auto-partage en France. Sito informativo sul car sharing in Francia (dagli inizi al 2004).

    Avancar. Azienda per il car sharing in Catalogna (e prima azienda di questo tipo in Spagna), nata nel 2004 con la partecipazione degli enti locali. Sito in lingua catalana, spagnola e inglese.

    Caisse-Commune. Depuis avril 1999, est la première société à développer le concept d'autopartage en France.

    Greenwheels. Azienda che gestisce la rete di car sharing in Olanda.

    CS-FF Carsharing-Fachforum Wiki in lingua tedesca, destinato agli organizzatori del car sharing.

    Zipcar, grande azienda di car sharing diffusa negli Stati Uniti, Canada e Gran Bretagna. "Zipcar is the world's largest car sharing and car club provider".

    AutoShare - Car Sharing Network Inc. Azienda di car sharing di Toronto (Canada).

    Communauto. Azienda di car sharing nel Québec e a Montréal (Canada), nata nel 1994. "Communauto fait figure de pionnière en Amérique, en tant que gestionnaire du plus ancien et de l'un des plus importants services d'autopartage à avoir vu le jour de ce côté-ci de l’Atlantique".


    CAR SHARING TRA PRIVATI, PEER-TO-PEER

    Ilaria Mariotti, Paolo Beria, Antonio Laurino (Politecnico di Milano), Car sharing peer-to-peer: un'analisi empirica sulla città di Milano, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 5, 16 p. [formato PDF, 878 kB] "I sistemi di carsharing (di seguito CS) sono considerati un'alternativa promettente all'auto privata. Nonostante diverse iniziative si siano sviluppate nel mondo, l’impatto reale sulla mobilità privata rimane ancora trascurabile. Una delle possibili evoluzioni del carsharing è rappresentata dal carsharing “peer to peer” (di seguito P2P) per il quale le auto non sono fornite centralmente da un gestore, ma sono di proprietà di singoli individui che le affittano nei momenti di non utilizzo in cambio di un ritorno economico. A partire da un’indagine svolta nel 2012 tra gli abitanti del comune di Milano, l’articolo cerca di individuare i principali fattori che favoriscono l’adesione ad un sistema di carsharing P2P. In particolare, la probabilità di adesione ad un sistema P2P è indagata attraverso un’analisi econometrica che si avvale di due modelli a scelta discreta: un modello logit binomiale e un modello logit multinomiale. Quest’ultimo consente di investigare la probabilità di condividere l’auto personale tra diversi gruppi di persone (nessuno; amici, colleghi e vicini; chiunque). L’articolo contribuisce alla ricerca, ancora in nuce, sul tema P2P e rappresenta il primo tentativo di analizzare, attraverso una indagine specifica, la propensione ad aderire ad uno schema P2P di condivisione dell'auto personale."

    Contrat d'assurance adapté à l'autopartage entre particuliers. Guide à l'attention des autopartageurs et des assureurs. ADETEC, La Bourboule, 2013, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. Document réalisé par ADETEC avec le financement de la Direction Générale des Infrastructures, des Transports et de la Mer (DGITM) du Ministère de l'Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l'Energie.

    Guide pratique de l'autopartage entre particuliers. Une solution économique, écologique, souple et conviviale. ADETEC, La Bourboule, 2013, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB]. «Quand vous avez envie d'un verre de lait, achetez-vous une vache? Alors, pourquoi acheter une voiture quand vous n'en avez besoin que de temps en temps?». Document réalisé par ADETEC avec le financement de la Direction Générale des Infrastructures, des Transports et de la Mer (DGITM) du Ministère de l'Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l'Energie.

    Autonetzer, Privates Carsharing (Germania). Im Vergleich zu klassischen Mietwagen- und Carsharing-Anbietern steht hinter Autonetzer.de keine große Organisation mit eigenen Autos, sondern Privatpersonen, die ihr Auto besser auslasten möchten. Daher ist "Autonetzen" im Vergleich zu anderen Angeboten meist deutlich günstiger und man baut sich sein persönliches Carsharing Netzwerk direkt in der Nachbarschaft auf! Zudem ist privates Carsharing nachhaltiger, da es auf bestehende Ressourcen zurückgreift, statt neue anzuschaffen.

    Autopia est un service proposé par l'asbl Taxistop, dont le but est de mettre en place et de promouvoir le carsharing privé (Belgio). Autopia is het Vlaams steunpunt voor particulier autodelen en heeft als doel duurzame, mens- en milieuvriendelijke mobiliteit te bevorderen, meer bepaald via het particulier autodelen.

    Nachbarschaftsauto, Autos privat leihen und verleihen (Germania).

    tamyca ist Deutschlands erste Plattform für Carsharing unter Privatpersonen (sog. „peer-to-peer carsharing“). Vermieter stellen ihr Auto gelegentlich zur Verfügung, wenn sie es selbst nicht benötigen und legen dabei ihre eigenen Bedingungen fest. Mieter können diese Angebote der Vermieter online miteinander vergleichen und bequem das passende Auto buchen. Als Vermittler begleitet tamyca diesen Vorgang und hat hierfür maßgeschneiderte Abläufe, Verträge und Versicherungen entwickelt (Germania).

    PosodiAvto je prva slovenska skupnost za souporabo vozil (Slovenia).

    WhipCar (attivo nel Regno Unito). WhipCar is the world’s first neighbour to neighbour car rental service, connecting car owners with approved local drivers across the whole of the UK. A better way to run a car since 2010.

    DriveMyCar Rentals (DMCR) is a web-based service that promotes and facilitates private Car Rentals, also known as peer-to-peer (“P2P”) car sharing. The DMCR platform connects Drivers with Car Owners willing to rent out their Car. By renting privately, Car Owners can offset some or all of the fixed costs of car ownership. The benefits of the service extend to Drivers as well, giving them access to the largest range of private use vehicles in Australia, with savings of up to 80%, compared to traditional car rental prices. By offering over 40 car makes across short and long-term rental periods, DMCR fills a gap in the market not currently serviced by the car rental or automotive leasing sector (Australia).

    Wheelz "is the only car sharing platform that provides the benefits of car ownership and car sharing". Sistema di carsharing tra privati situato presso numerose università degli Stati Uniti.


    CENTRI DI RICERCA E INFORMAZIONE SULLA MOBILITA' URBANA SOSTENIBILE

    Innovative Mobility Research (IMR) is a group of researchers whose projects explore and evaluate innovative applications of new technologies, policies, and evaluation tools that seek to simultaneously expand and enhance the available transportation choices; better manage demand for transportation services; and improve the environment. IMR designs research projects and conducts evaluations throughout California, the U.S., and internationally. It is based at the Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) at the University of California, Berkeley.

    The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) is a national clearinghouse for information about health and safety, engineering, advocacy, education, enforcement, access, and mobility for pedestrians (including transit users) and bicyclists. The PBIC serves anyone interested in pedestrian and bicycle issues, including planners, engineers, private citizens, advocates, educators, police enforcement, and the health community.

    Rue de l'Avenir (RdA) est un groupe-conseil indépendant, actif en Suisse romande, au service des communes, des professionnels, des associations de parents et des groupes d'habitants.

    OPMUS (Osservatorio sulle politiche per la mobilità urbana sostenibile), promosso da Isfort e coordinato da Gerardo Marletto, contiene rapporti, studi e informazioni.

    Observatoire universitaire de la ville et du développement durable, Institut de géographie de l'Université de Lausanne (IGUL) (CH)

    Das Internationale Mobilitätszentrum (IMZ) ist eine Einrichtung zur Förderung stadtverträglicher, umweltfreundlicher und gesundheitsfördernder Mobilitätsformen. Ziel ist es zum einen, durch praxisbezogene Kurse und Schulungen Menschen vermehrt zur Nutzung muskelbetriebener Fahrzeuge zu bewegen. Zum anderen will das IMZ durch Diskussionsveranstaltungen, Vorträge, Events, Informationsbereitstellung und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit zum fachlichen Austausch anregen. (Green City e.V., München) (D)


    CULTURA DELLA MOBILITA'

    Mobilität ist Kultur, sito della città di Zurigo (CH) dedicato alla cultura della mobilità, la strategia della mobilità adottata dalla città di Zurigo, dati, informazioni, consigli e il gioco di simulazione MOBILITY (sito in lingua tedesca). Rimanda anche al sito Velostadt Züri dedicato alla mobilità in bicicletta.


    EDUCAZIONE ALLA MOBILITA' SOSTENIBILE, MOBILITA' DEI BAMBINI (PEDIBUS/PIEDIBUS, WALK TO SCHOOL, WALKING BUSES, SCUOLABUS, "YELLOW BUS")

    Ben Shaw, Martha Bicket, Bridget Elliott, Ben Fagan-Watson and Elisabetta Mocca, with Mayer Hillman, Children’s Independent Mobility: an international comparison and recommendations for action. Policy Studies Institute, University of Westminster, London, July 2015, 92 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "The study documents and compares children’s independent mobility in 16 countries across the world. It reviews the policy responses that have been made and how these could be developed to respond to the levels of independent mobility observed."

    Ruth Kaufmann-Hayoz, Heidi Hofmann, Oliver Tschopp, Martina Blaser (IKAÖ, Bern) und Rolf Steiner, Katja Schori, Rolf Albisser, Rolf (verkehrsteiner, Bern), Der Verkehr aus Sicht der Kinder: Schulwege von Primarschulkindern in der Schweiz (La circulation du point de vue des enfants: Les trajets scolaires des élèves du primaire en Suisse / Traffic and children: Primary school children's routes to school in Switzerland), Bundesamt für Strassen, Bern, Juli 2010, 181 p. [formato PDF, 6,76 MB]. "For several years now, the topics of children’s appropriation of public spaces and children’s mobility behavior have been increasingly investigated in planning and transportation sciences and in the fields of developmental psychology and education (e.g., Haefeli & Kaufmann-Hayoz, 2009). The goal of the present research study was to contribute towards improved consideration of children’s interests in traffic planning practice. The study aimed to (a) produce a practice-oriented summary of the diverse research findings in the different disciplines, (b) collect representative and up-to-date data, and (c) provide illustrative, specific descriptions of typical conditions regarding primary school children’s routes to school in Switzerland. The research questions focused on traffic hazards on the way to school and how they are perceived by children and parents, how children travel the route to school (especially means of transport chosen and reasons for the choice), type and amount of children’s everyday physical activity, and possible measures to improve the relationship between children and traffic, especially on routes to school."

    Pedibus a Trieste, promosso dalla UISP (Unione Italiana Sport Per Tutti).

    Piedibus a Cormons (Go). Promosso dall'associazione Aria.

    Piedibus in provincia di Como.

    Piedibus Tavagnacco (Ud).

    Pedibus Sacile, il sito del Progetto Pedibus della Città di Sacile (PN).

    Rossana Casadio, Progetto Pedibus : a scuola a piedi. Relazione 2007/2008. Comune di Sacile, 28 giugno 2008, 8 p. [formato PDF, 108 kB].

    Roger Mackett, Lindsay Lucas, James Paskins, Jill Turbin (Centre for Transport Studies, UCL) Walking buses in Hertfordshire: impacts and lessons. Centre for Transport Studies, University College, London, November 2005, 85 p. [formato PDF, 2,18 MB]. "The report examines a number of walking buses that have been set up in Hertfordshire, the area immediately to the north of London. The purpose of the evaluation of walking buses is to establish what the effects of walking bus are, and, as far as possible, establish a methodology that can be used to examine systematically initiatives to encourage children to use alternatives to the car, such as cycle training and pedestrian skills training, as well as walking buses. The data collected for the evaluation exercise comprises two parts: a postal questionnaire to schools across Hertfordshire and more detailed research on five case study walking buses within the county. This report presents the results from these two surveys."

    Lothar Eisenmann (ifeu-Institut Heidelberg), Michaela Mohrhardt (VCD e.V.), Nachhaltige Mobilität in der Schule. Beratungsleitfaden für allgemeinbildende Schulen. (Mobilità sostenibile nella scuola. Manuale per le scuole dell'obbligo). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, 2006, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,57 MB].

    My bus o "yellow buses". "Now 150 brand new yellow buses provide dedicated home-to-school transport for over 9000 pupils at 132 West Yorkshire schools." Grazie a un finanziamento del governo inglese, da alcuni anni è in corso un progetto per il trasporto casa-scuola nella regione del West Yorkshire (GB). Circa 150 autobus dedicati trasportano ogni giorno 8.000 scolari delle scuole elementari e medie verso 130 scuole. Di questi, circa il 70% (elementari) e il 20% (medie) prima veniva accompagnato a scuola in automobile.

    The Walking School Bus: Combining Safety, Fun and the Walk to School, The Walking School Bus Guide. This guide is intended for parents, teachers, public health educators, bicycle clubs, Safe Route to School coordinators, law enforcement officers and others who care about increasing the number of children who walk and bicycle to school in a safe manner. Any one or combination of these individuals can lead a walking school bus program.

    Roger Mackett, Belinda Brown, Yi Gong, Kay Kitazawa, James Paskins, Setting children free: children's independent movement in the local environment. (UCL Working Paper Series 118). Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College, London, March 2007, 154 p. [formato PDF, 429 kB]. "Parental concerns about children's safety and security are restricting children’s independent exploration of the local environment. Children are being denied important opportunities to exercise, to acquire decision-making skills, such as crossing the road safely, and to develop social skills through interaction with their peers. This paper presents findings from the project CAPABLE (Children’s Activities, Perceptions And Behaviour in the Local Environment) being carried out at University College London."

    [Complete] Safe Routes to School guide, developed by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) with support from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). This guide is maintained by the National Center for Safe Routes to School at www.saferoutesinfo.org. February 2007, 199 p. [formato PDF, 38 MB].

    Safe Routes to School Guidebook, Montana Department of Transportation, June 2007, 154 p. [formato PDF, 55 KB].

    Giuseppe Rossi, Roberto Moretti, Monica Pirone, Walter Locatelli, Lotta alla sedentarietà: a scuola con il Piedibus, in: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 28 (2004), p. 346-349 [formato PDF, 55 KB].

    Valter Baruzzi (a cura di), Bambini e bambine si fanno strada: percorsi sicuri casa-scuola e altri percorsi di autonomia (I quaderni di Camina, 1). Imola, La Mandragora, 2002, 145 p. [formato PDF, 1,49 MB].

    iwalk ... (io cammino ...). The official website of International Walk to School. La campagna internazionale (40 paesi nel 2006) dedica ogni anno l'intero mese di ottobre alla mobilità degli scolari.

    KUM – Forschungs- und Dokumentationsstelle “Kind und Umwelt“ (Centro studi e documentazione “Il bambino e l’ambiente”), sezione Kind und Verkehr (Il Bambino e il traffico), Muri (CH) : studi e documenti sulla mobilità dei bambini, in particolare sui percorsi casa-scuola (in lingua tedesca). "Kinder kommen nicht über die Strasse. Fussgängerstreifen werden aufgehoben. Kinder dürfen nicht mehr im Wohnumfeld spielen usw. Die Forschungs- und Dokumentationsstelle Kind und Umwelt untersucht diese Fragen seit über 20 Jahren. So konnte sie u. a. nachweisen, dass der Strassenverkehr nicht nur das Leben, sondern auch die gesunde Entwicklung der Kinder gefährdet."

    Piedibus.it,  Nuovo sito: nasce con lo scopo di diventare un punto di incontro per tutti coloro che sono coinvolti, nella propria scuola, nel proprio quartiere o nella propria città, nell’organizzazione di un Piedibus. Vuole raccogliere in un unico luogo, tutte quelle informazioni, notizie, documenti, e diventare una “biblioteca” di facile consultazione e di uso immediato, raggruppando in un unico sito il maggior numero di risorse. Vuole essere inoltre un luogo dove confrontare le proprie esperienze, aiutare a superare ostacoli o problemi che altri hanno già affrontato, diffondere e pubblicizzare le varie iniziative. Vuole raccogliere tutti i contributi possibili e metterli a disposizione di chiunque abbia interesse o voglia organizzare un Piedibus (percorsi sicuri casa-scuola).

    Vado a scuola a piedi percorsi sicuri casa scuola, a servizio degli alunni della scuola elementare Papa Giovanni nel quartiere di Monterosso (BG). (Piedibus, funziona già da tre anni scolastici)

    Schoolway.net [portale] : rete europea per una mobilità da e verso la scuola (in italiano)

    Progetto "A scuola da soli in sicurezza", progetto per le scuole elementari e medie inferiori del Comune di Reggio Emilia (dal 2002)

    Mobilità sostenibile dei poli scolastici, progetto sperimentale Agenda 21 Reggio Emilia (dal 2001)

    Reid Ewing, Christopher V. Forinash, and William Schroeer, Neighborhood schools and sidewalk connections: what are the impacts on travel mode choice and vehicle emissions?. TR News 237, March-April 2005, 4-10 [formato PDF, 196 kB].

    Pédibus à Lausanne (CH). Le Pédibus est né à Lausanne... à l'initiative de la déléguée à l'enfance de la ville de Lausanne et des habitants du quartier sous-gare. Face à l'urgence d'offrir une meilleure sécurité aux enfants non seulement aux abords immédiats du collège, mais sur le chemin de l'école, les parents et la déléguée à l'enfance se sont rencontrés en octobre 1998 et ont constitué un groupe de travail qui a mis sur pied le premier Pédibus. Ce nom splendide de Pédibus, qui image et définit parfaitement l'idée d'un bus à pied, émane d'un habitant du quartier qui s'est souvenu que sa grand-mère, pour dire qu'elle allait à pied, utilisait l'expression «aller à pédibus». Le Pédibus, ce sont des adultes qui offent aux écoliers un accompagnement à pied sur un trajet de l'école. Les enfants attendent le Pédibus au point de ralliement convenu, pour cheminer avec lui jusqu'à l'école. A Lausanne, c'est un réseau de 18 km de transports collectifs «à pied»; 32 lignes, de 575 m de longueur moyenne (la plus courte env. 160 m et la plus longue env. 1300 m); avec des horaires pour chaque tête de ligne et arrêt. Le Pédibus veut parier sur la capacité d'un quartier à faire d'une question individuelle - assurer la sécurité de son enfant sur le chemin de l'école - une question collective: assurer la sécurité des enfants du quartier sur le trajet scolaire.


    GESTIONE DELLA SOSTA, PARCHEGGI, PARK AND RIDE

    Milos Balac, Francesco Ciari, Rashid A. Waraich, Modeling the impact of parking price policy on free-floating carsharing: case study for Zurich, Switzerland. Transportation Research Procedia (2017)(13 p.) [formato PDF, 755 kB]. Conference Paper, World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR 2016), Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. "The research on carsharing has already shown that a substantial part of carsharing members give up a vehicle after joining a carsharing program, or avoid a vehicle purchase. This arguably reduces overall parking space needed. This might well be one of the most important impacts of a carsharing program on the transportation system but also one of the least researched. The rapid diffusion of free-floating carsharing, which for its very nature might have a stronger impact on parking, makes the relationship between carsharing and parking an appealing topic for new research. This work presents a method for the investigation of this relationship and explores the impacts of different parking prices on the demand for free-floating carsharing in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Three levels of free-floating diffusion in the city of Zurich coupled with three levels of parking prices were simulated. The obtained results show that free-floating vehicles are able to use parking spaces more efficiently than private vehicles. Moreover, the average parking occupancy tends to be more homogeneous with higher diffusion of free-floating carsharing and with the increase of parking prices, thus avoiding the spatial parking pressure peaks."

    Giulio Maternini, Francesca Ferrari (University of Brescia), Innovative parking strategies through the application of variable pricing techniques. The case of San Francisco. CSE Journal - City Safety Energy 2 (2014) 49-60 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,55 MB]. Open Access. "The goal of this paper is to propose a first methodological approach for the application of the variable parking pricing techniques to Italian mediumsized cities. After some consideration about the need of re-thinking the parking management systems, the pilot project implemented in San Francisco, CA, known as “SFpark”, has been analyzed, basing on the results described in a recent final evaluation report. This project represents the first application of variable rates in specific pilot areas for on-street and off-street parking spaces. Its application aimed mainly to optimize the use of existing parking, reducing time to access the city and to search free parking spaces. Starting from this case study, we highlighted the main steps to be implemented in Italian cities to better use the existing parking supply."

    Gregory Pierce and Donald Shoup (UC Los Angeles), Getting the Prices Right: An Evaluation of Pricing Parking by Demand in San Francisco. (UCTC-FR-2013-03). Forthcoming in the Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 79, Number 1, Winter 2013. University of California Transportation Center, UC Berkeley, May 2013, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB] "Underpriced and overcrowded curb parking creates problems for everyone except a few lucky drivers who find a cheap space; all the other drivers who cruise to find an open space waste time and fuel, congest traffic, and pollute the air. Overpriced and underoccupied parking also creates problems; when curb spaces remain empty, nearby merchants lose potential customers, workers lose jobs, and cities lose tax revenue. To address these problems, San Francisco has established SFpark, a program that adjusts parking prices to achieve a target parking availability of one or two open spaces on each block. To measure how parking prices affected parking occupancy in San Francisco we calculated the price elasticity of demand for on-street parking revealed by 5,294 individual price and occupancy changes during the program’s first year. Price elasticity varies greatly by time of day, location, and several other factors, with an average value of –0.4. The average meter price fell 1 percent during the first year, so SFpark adjusted prices up and down according to local demand without increasing prices overall. The city can improve the program by making drivers more aware of the variable prices, reducing the abuse of disabled parking placards, and introducing seasonal adjustments for parking prices."

    Andrea Ceudech (Univ. di Napoli Federico II), Politiche della sosta e riqualificazione della città storica (Parking Policies and the Requalification of the Historical Town). TeMA, vol. 2, n.1, marzo 2009, 29-38 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 892 kB]. English abstract.

    Greg Marsden (Univ. of Leeds), The evidence base for parking policies - a review. Transport Policy, 13 (2006) 447-457 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 316 kB]. "Parking policy is one of the key links between transport and land-use policy. Parking policies are often compromised in their effectiveness due to the perceived tension between three of the objectives that parking supports: regeneration, restraint and revenue. In particular the belief that parking restraint measures could damage the attractiveness of city centres to both retail and commercial enterprises limits the political acceptability of pricing policies and planning. This paper presents a review of the evidence base upon which commuter, leisure and shopping and residential parking policies are based. Whilst underdeveloped, the literature suggests that greater attention should be given to analysing and presenting the accessibility impacts that different parking restraint measures have on travelers of all modes. The research base in many instances does not support, or provides evidence counter to, the assumption that parking restraint makes centres less attractive. Further disaggregate work is needed to understand how context specific these findings might be."

    ISFORT, Federmobilità, Gli strumenti dissuasivi della mobilità privata nelle città italiane: un approfondimento sulle limitazioni alla circolazione e alla sosta. Rapporto finale. Roma, ottobre 2007, 92 slides [formato PDF, 1,08 MB zippato]. Presentazione dell'indagine conoscitiva condotta da Isfort e Federmobilità sugli strumenti dissuasivi della circolazione e della sosta nelle città italiane (in particolare le ZTL e la sosta a pagamento).

    Tariffazione e gestione dei parcheggi. (materiale didattico prodotto per il programma COMPETENCE dell'Unione Europea). 26 slides [formato PowerPoint, 5,94 MB].

    Technical Committee on Transport, Action 342, Parking policies and the effects on economy and mobility. Report on COST Action 342, Ede, CROW, August 2005, 133 p. [formato PDF, 3,20 MB]. (per scaricare il documento è necessaria la registrazione gratuita)

    La problématique du stationnement. Actes du colloque du 12 décembre 2002 (Liège), Namur, Union des Villes et Communes de Wallonie, 2002, 210 p. [formato PDF, 1,56 MB].


    LOW EMISSION ZONES (LEZ)

    Low Emission Zones in Europe. Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering an area. This means that vehicles are banned, or in some cases charged, if they enter the LEZ when their emissions are over a set level. They are also know as Environment Zones, Umweltzonen, Milieuzones, Lavutslippssone, Miljozone, Miljözon.


    MOBILITA' SOSTENIBILE, MODERAZIONE DEL TRAFFICO, "TRAFFICO LENTO" (PEDONALE+CICLISTICO), SHARED SPACE

    Lucia Martincigh, Marina Di Guida (Università Roma Tre), La mobilità sostenibile come strumento di riqualificazione delle infrastrutture stradali urbane: un approccio metodologico [Sustainable mobility as a way for upgrading urban street infrastructures: a methodological approach]. Techne (Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment) 11 (2016), 180-187 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Per migliorare la vivibilità dell'ambiente urbano e garantire un'accessibilità diffusa sembra utile affrontare il ridisegno delle strade e degli spazi pubblici in sinergia con la riorganizzazione della mobilità in chiave sostenibile. Questo contributo si riferisce a ricerche e sperimentazioni, svolte e in corso, che a tal fine hanno analizzato limiti e possibilità di applicazione dello strumento dell'Isola Ambientale e di uno specifico approccio progettuale, verificandolo poi in due quartieri universitari della città di Roma."

    Jordan Lewis and Mike Schwindeller (Univ. of Washington), Adaptive Streets. Strategies for Transforming the Urban Right-of-Way, 2014, 64 p. [formato PDF, 87,1 MB] "This handbook has been developed to serve as an encouragement and guide for planners, designers, engineers and citizens who see the many opportunities for utility, pleasure and human and environmental health that streets can provide. Developed by UW graduate students Jordan Lewis and Mike Schwindeller for their internship in the UW Green Futures Lab in Seattle and in the firms of Gehl Architects and Schulze + Grassov in Copenhagen, the document has been inspired and informed by worldwide movements to adapt urban streets to serve multiple purposes, from San Francisco to Seattle, Christchurch to Copenhagen."

    Dieter Schwab, Martina Strasser, Stefan Müllehner, Smartes Straßen-Design für Smart Cities. REAL CORP 2014, Wien, 21.-23. Mai 2014, 21 slides [formato PDF, 2,96 MB]

    Dr. W.P. Vlakveld, M.J. Boele, MSc, dr. L.T. Aarts & ing. G. Schermers, Natuurlijk Sturen in Limburg. Een kijkgedrag- en snelheidsonderzoek en een verkeerskundige analyse van twee aangepaste wegen (Natural traffic calming in the Dutch Province of Limburg; Pilot study of two adapted roads). (R-2013-2). Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid SWOV, Leidschendam, 2013, 87 p. [formato PDF, 5,98 MB] "The continuous search for infrastructural measures to further improve road safety motivated and stimulated a number of regions to use more ‘natural’ measures and territorial characteristics. These natural measures are expected to have a positive influence on the perception and behaviour of the road user, and, consequently, also on road safety: ‘natural traffic calming’. This actually involves ‘environmental and territorial traffic engineering design’. The Regional Road Traffic Safety Authority Limburg (ROVL) as well as the Province of Limburg is interested in the possibilities of Natural traffic calming. To gain experience with this relatively new approach, natural traffic calming measures have been implemented at two locations in the Province of Limburg."

    Verkehrsberuhigung 2011 – Bewährtes und Neues. (Heft 28). Amt der NÖ Landesregierung, Gruppe Raumordnung, Umwelt und Verkehr, Abteilung Gesamtverkehrsangelegenheiten, St. Pölten, 2011, 66 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]

    Patrick Eberling, Jennifer Bogner, Jörg Ortlepp, Aree di circolazione condivisa. Invitanti e sicure. (Documentazione tecnica dell'upi 2.083). upi – Ufficio prevenzione infortuni, Berna, 2011, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,28 MB] "«Shared Space», attualmente uno degli argomenti più dibattuti nell'ambito della pianificazione dei trasporti, è spesso indicato come soluzione nuova e innovativa. Eppure Shared Space non è un'idea nuova, bensì semplicemente un nome efficace nel dibattito pubblico per un principio convalidato: l'utilizzazione condivisa dell'area pubblica da parte di tutti gli utenti della strada. I responsabili nell'ambito della pianificazione dei trasporti sono però tenuti a effettuare analisi accurate prima di realizzare una filosofia di arredo che prevede un'area condivisa. Ormai esistono molti concetti con varie denominazioni che corrispondono a tale filosofia. La maggior parte di questi viene tuttavia presentata in modo erroneo al pubblico: misura di sicurezza stradale, soluzione per tutti i problemi nella circolazione stradale e spazio privo di regole stradali. La sicurezza stradale è considerata, se mai, soltanto marginalmente. Normalmente non si effettuano indagini distinte per migliorare la sicurezza; l'effetto di sicurezza viene semplicemente presunto. Questo procedimento ha comportato una serie di realizzazioni erronee di Shared Space e di filosofie simili. Di conseguenza sono aumentati gli incidenti ed è diminuita la qualità di utilizzo di tali aree. Ne risulta un pericolo particolarmente per gli utenti della strada privi di protezione come i pedoni, i ciclisti, gli utenti della strada anziani e i bambini nonché gli utenti della strada ipovedenti e non vedenti. Pertanto la Unfallforschung der Versicherer (GDV, Germania), l'Ufficio prevenzione infortuni (upi, Svizzera) e il Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit (KFV, Austria) hanno redatto questa pubblicazione in cui riassumono i criteri d'uso e le condizioni per un'area di circolazione condivisa e in cui spiegano come si può tener conto sistematicamente della sicurezza stradale e migliorarla. Con il termine «area di circolazione condivisa» si intende stabilire una definizione unitaria per la Germania, l'Austria e la Svizzera. Il termine «area di circolazione condivisa» non è protetto come Shared Space e un tale progetto può essere realizzato senza la partecipazione di una qualsiasi organizzazione certificata. Questa pubblicazione, destinata alle autorità locali e regionali, presenta le condizioni fondamentali di cui bisogna tener conto per la realizzazione di un'area di circolazione condivisa affinché la sicurezza stradale possa essere garantita per tutti gli utenti dell'area. L'opuscolo vuole essere uno strumento per poter realizzare con successo la filosofia di «un'area condivisa» che permette di aumentare ulteriormente la qualità di vita nelle nostre città e nei nostri paesi."

    Anci, Fiab, Legambiente, #salvaiciclisti, Comune di Reggio Emilia, Libro Rosso della Ciclabilità e della Mobilità nuova. Le soluzioni elaborate dagli Stati Generali della Bicicletta, 5-6 ottobre 2012 - Reggio Emilia. 2012, 25 p. [formato PDF, 291 kB]. "Il lavoro degli Stati Generali ha prodotto il presente documento, un Libro di Impegni per le Amministrazioni di ogni livello, che sintetizza le proposte principali in materia di mobilità nuova. Tra queste vi sono appunto la riduzione al limite dei 30 chilometri orari della velocità urbana, il rafforzamento degli investimenti sul trasporto pubblico e sulle infrastrutture minori e gli spazi a servizio di ciclisti e pedoni, il dimezzamento della mortalità causata da incidenti in ambito urbano, la creazione di una rete di slow cities impegnate a promuovere una nuova filosofia di mobilità nelle città e a continuare il confronto e lo scambio di idee e best practice, l’introduzione di corsi di mobilità ciclistica nelle scuole, il ridisegno delle città mettendo al centro della pianificazione pedoni e ciclisti. La sottoscrizione del Libro verrà considerata un impegno per le Amministrazioni attuali e future di tradurre in azioni concrete l’esigenza di una mobilità nuova, oggi dilagante nella società e che non deve essere sottovalutata. L’obiettivo è quello di rafforzare la lobby a sostegno degli interessi della mobilità collettiva alternativa alla lobby della mobilità individuale motorizzata." Altro titolo: Libro bianco degli Stati Generali della Bicicletta 2012.

    Marco Passigato (a cura di), La moderazione del traffico. (Quaderno del Centro Studi FIAB Riccardo Gallimbeni n.7). FIAB Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta, Milano, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 9,28 MB] "In occasione degli Stati Generali della bicicletta del 5 e 6 ottobre 2012, a Reggio Emilia, la FIAB mette a disposizione di un vasto pubblico il nuovo numero della Collana di Quaderni dedicata a Riccardo Gallimbeni. Il quaderno, curato dall’ing. Passigato, affronta il tema della moderazione del traffico (MdT) attraverso i contributi di numerosi tecnici tra i più preparati nel campo oggi presenti in Italia, ponendosi un duplice obiettivo: approfondire la normativa che disciplina tale materia e diffondere le migliori esperienze italiane sul tema. L’argomento trattato, infatti, benché ormai sviscerato da anni nei paesi europei più avanzati, risulta relativamente nuovo nel nostro paese e la stessa normativa di riferimento risulta parziale e in taluni casi, addirittura ostile. Questo non ha evitato, tuttavia che in Italia, gli interventi di moderazione si diffondessero in alcune aree territoriali grazie alo stimolo delle associazioni, alla professionalità di alcuni tecnici e alla sensibilità di alcuni amministratori. Le buone pratiche illustrate e descritte nel Quaderno dimostrano che un nuovo approccio con un occhio attento alla sicurezza di chi sceglie di muoversi a piedi e in bicicletta, ma manche alla qualità urbana delle nostre città, è possibile solo se pensiamo alla strada come allo spazio esterno della nostra abitazione. Da una parte una ridistribuzione dello spazio pubblico quando le dimensioni e il contesto lo consentono, dall’altro una condivisione dello stesso spazio con la massima garanzia di sicurezza per tutti gli attori della strada sono azioni che vanno nella direzione di una riduzione drastica dell’incidentalità che è il vero valore che dobbiamo difendere, considerato che è proprio in ambito urbano che si concentrano il maggior numero di sinistri dagli esiti molte volte drammatici. Il Piano Nazionale per la Sicurezza Stradale ha consentito da questo punto di vista di fare dei passi in avanti, ma proprio la distribuzione a macchia di leopardo degli interventi di moderazione ci segnala che molto, moltissimo resta da fare. La FIAB ha da tempo affrontato il tema nella sua complessità, sia organizzando viaggi di studio nei luoghi più significativi in Italia e all’estero, sia diffondendo pratiche e documenti nel proprio sito “Area Tecnica”. Questo Quaderno, per la stesura del quale vanno i ringraziamenti miei personali e di tutta la presidenza al curatore e a tutti gli autori, si aggiunge a questi strumenti nella speranza che la cultura della sicurezza stradale trovi terreno fertile e si affermi come primo elemento di contesto nella nuova pianificazione, e progettazione, delle nostre città." (Per scaricare il documento è necessaria la registrazione gratuita sul sito della FIAB).

    Simon Moody, Steve Melia, Shared Space – Implications of Recent Research for Transport Policy. (Working Paper). University of the West of England, Bristol, 2011, 15 p. [formato PDF, 798 kB] "Shared space is an approach to street design which minimises demarcations between vehicles and pedestrians. It has become particularly influential in the UK, where a comprehensive study of shared space schemes has informed recently published national guidance to local highway authorities. This article critically examines the claim made in the guidance that it is ‘evidence based’. Primary research reported in the article, examines one of the sites in the ‘official study’, in Ashford, Kent, in greater depth, using video observation and a street survey of pedestrians. The findings show that most pedestrians diverted away from their desire lines, gave way to vehicles in most cases and felt safer under the original road layout. This study casts doubt on some aspects of the methodology and findings of the ‘official study’ and its interpretation in the national guidance. The authors conclude that some claims made for shared space have been exaggerated. Shared space is not, in itself, a sustainable transport measure. It may be combined with, and form part of a sustainable transport strategy. It has also been proposed as an alternative to measures such as pedestrianisation, in which case its effects on modal share and the externalities generated by road traffic would be deleterious."

    Shared Space. Local Transport Note 1/11. Department for Transport, London, October 2011, 56 p. [formato PDF, 1,41 MB] "Shared space is a design approach that seeks to change the way streets operate by reducing the dominance of motor vehicles, primarily through lower speeds and encouraging drivers to behave more accommodatingly towards pedestrians. In the UK, shared space is usually applied to links and minor junctions with the aim of allowing pedestrians to move more freely within the space. This Local Transport Note (LTN) focuses on High Street environments, but many of its principles will apply to other types of shared space."

    Plan directeur de la mobilité douce adopté par le Conseil d’État le 31 mars 2011. Direction générale de la mobilité, Genève, mars 2011, 32 p. [formato PDF, 2,19 MB] "Le Plan directeur de la mobilité douce est un document cadre visant à mettre à disposition des pratiquants de la mobilité douce des réseaux de parcours attrayants, sûrs et continus ainsi que des infrastructures appropriées."

    TrafficCalming.org. This site serves as a practical guide to traffic calming and neighborhood traffic management, including: International and US history; A toolbox of calming devices; Measured results from traffic calming; Current programs around the world.

    Department for Transport, Traffic Calming. Local Transport Note 01/07. TSO (The Stationery Office), London, March 2007, 146 p. [formato PDF, 4,34 MB] "This Local Transport Note (LTN) brings together in one comprehensive document a summary of the research commissioned by the Department for Transport (DfT, formerly the DTLR, DETR and DoT), together with research from external sources, to provide advice on the use of traffic calming measures today. It covers relevant legislation and the design, effectiveness and installation (including signing and lighting) of measures. This LTN does not aim to cover issues such as driver education or speed limit enforcement." Ampia rassegna di esempi di moderazione del traffico.

    Les ralentisseurs: état de l'art et effets dynamiques. (I rallentatori (= dissuasori di velocità): stato dell'arte ed effetti dinamici). CERTU, Lyon, août 2009, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,01 MB] "La sécurité routière est un objectif de base des collectivités, et représente une attente forte de nombreux usagers vulnérables tels que piétons, cyclistes, et deux roues motorisées. C'est un enjeu important pour la qualité de vie. La vitesse excessive ou inadaptée est un des facteurs importants d’insécurité routière, et qui génère près de la moitié des accidents en milieu urbain. Par ailleurs, la gravité des accidents dépend fortement de la vitesse. Ainsi la probabilité de décès d’un piéton percuté par un véhicule motorisé passe de 100 % à 70 km/h, à 80 % à 50 km/h et 10 % à 30 km/h (rapport OCDE «la gestion des vitesses 2006»). En France, il existe actuellement des surélévations de chaussées connues, destinées à modérer la vitesse au plus à 30 km/h. Il s'agit des ralentisseurs de type trapézoïdaux et dos d'âne, dont le décret n° 94-447 du 27 mai 1994 rend obligatoire leur conformité à la norme NFP 98-300 et fixe des restrictions d'implantation. Il s'agit aussi des coussins et des plateaux, décrits dans le guide «des coussins et plateaux» du Certu publié en novembre 2000. Le Certu a été sollicité pour la remise à jour de ce guide. La publication est prévue pour 2010. Parallèlement, la démarche du code de la rue lancée en 2006 par le ministre des Transports, a conduit à un premier décret en juillet 2008, créant une nouvelle zone de circulation apaisée : la zone de rencontre. Cette zone à priorité piétonne, prévoit une vitesse limitée à 20 km/h pour les véhicules, afin que la priorité piétonne puisse s'exercer. Le décret prévoit également l'aménagement de la zone de rencontre de façon cohérente avec cette limitation de vitesse. Même si l'ambiance de la zone de rencontre est l'élément clef du respect des vitesses, il peut être nécessaire d'avoir recours à la contrainte physique. C'est pourquoi, le Certu a demandé au CETE Normandie- Centre de réaliser un état de l'art international des ralentisseurs existants pouvant apporter potentiellement des réponses. Le présent rapport d'étude a pour objectif d'illustrer les surélévations existantes. Par ailleurs, il donne un certain nombre de références bibliographiques parlant du sujet et analyse les approches existantes pour quantifier «l'agressivité» d'un dispositif de ralentissement." [Per scaricare la pubblicazione è necessaria la registrazione gratuita sul sito del CERTU].

    Nuova Mobilità, in cammino verso città sostenibili e stili di vita a misura d'uomo. Il diario italiano del trasporto sostenibile. Blog quotidiano realizzato in collaborazione con World Streets.

    Ton Hummel, Archie Mackie and Pat Wells, Traffic calming measures in built-up areas. Literature Review. Unpublished project report. TRL Limited, 2002, 52 p. [formato PDF, 1,01 MB] "This project for the Swedish National Road Administration examines the international literature on traffic calming in urban areas with a view to identifying methodologies and design ideas which have been developed and monitored in a wide range of different conditions. The literature review covers the context in which traffic calming should be used, including national policies and legal arrangements. It also looks at the detailed design of traffic calming measures and reviews their effects."

    Il traffico lento nei progetti d'agglomerato. Linee guida. (Documentazione sul traffico lento n.112). Ufficio federale delle strade (USTRA), Berna, Aprile 2007, 36 p. [formato PDF, 3,47 MB]. "Le presenti linee guida, destinate soprattutto agli agglomerati che non hanno ancora integrato sistematicamente il traffico lento nel loro progetto d’agglomerato, descrivono le esigenze che la Confederazione pone per questo tipo di mobilità e le misure che finanzia. Le linee guida si focalizzano sulla pianificazione del traffico lento, senza tuttavia dimenticare che anche la pianificazione del territorio e la pianificazione globale dei trasporti devono fornire un importante contributo."

    Lars Ellebjerg, Noise control through traffic flow measures - Effects and benefits. (Danish Road Institute Report 151). Hedehusene, Road Directorate, Danish Road Institute, 2007, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,28 MB]. "Based on a thorough literature study, the effect of various traffic flow measures on noise and annoyance is assessed. The measures in the study range from typical traffic calming measures, the effects of which are limited to the specific location, to congestion charging which aims at changing traffic flows in large areas and entire cities."

    Ingrid van Schagen (ed.), Traffic calming schemes. Opportunities and implementation strategies (R-2003-22), SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, 2003, 59 p. [formato PDF, 392 KB]. "The current report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level."

    Begegnunszonen, Zones de rencontre, "zone d'incontro" in Svizzera, cioè zone destinate prioritariamente ai pedoni, in cui vige il limite di 20 km/h. Portale con informazioni, documenti, storia e lista delle località svizzere che si sono dotate di queste zone.(in francese e tedesco)

    Piano di Zone 30 di San Pietro. Analisi degli effetti ambientali e di traffico degli interventi di moderazione del traffico realizzati . I risultati delle analisi: gli effetti indotti dagli interventi di moderazione del traffico a San Pietro all’Olmo (febbraio-luglio 2005), Comune di Cornaredo (MI). Pagine a cura di G. Di Giampietro, sito www.webstrade.it , 02.12.2005 [con documentazione online scaricabile]. "Alla conclusione dei lavori della fase 2 della realizzazione del Piano di Zone 30 di San Pietro, comune di Cornaredo (Febbraio-Luglio 2005), curata da Webstrade.it, è stata condotta una analisi degli effetti ambientali e di traffico degli interventi, con confronti incrociati, con e senza, prima e dopo la realizzazione dei lavori. Risultati soddisfacenti. Ridotte le velocità, diminuiti inquinanti dell'aria e rumore. Migliora la sicurezza e l'accessibilità per pedoni e ciclisti. Migliora soprattutto la qualità urbana e dello spazio pubblico."

    Living Streets, associazione per il recupero della vivibilità delle strade e per la mobilità pedonale : "the Living Streets initiative is a clear and urgent challenge to the authorities who, for decades, have allowed traffic priorities to overwhelm our local streets and public places, and failed to keep them clean and safe".

    RuotepulitER, sito dell’Assessorato Mobilità e Trasporti della Regione Emilia-Romagna dedicato alla mobilità urbana sostenibile

    Muoversi Meglio, progetto di ricerca e comunicazione ambientale per una mobilità sostenibile realizzato per i Comuni di Rimini, Cesena e Forli; ha attivato un servizio di Car Pooling e promuove tutte le altre forme di mobilità sostenibile

    Osservatorio sulla mobilità sostenibile: le nuove strategie di intervento della Provincia di Milano. Milano, 10/03/2005. Documenti del convegno.

    Osservatorio Città Sostenibili (Politecnico e Università di Torino) : sezione mobilità trasporti (con normative e documenti europei ed italiani, bibliografia, strumenti della pianificazione, link, ecc.)

    Riccardo Canesi, Le strategie per una mobilità urbana sostenibile (manifesto dell’Istituto Sviluppo Sostenibile Italia – ISSI sulla mobilità urbana sostenibile “In città liberi dall’auto”, Roma, 2002), contributo al Seminario ASSTRA Castello di Riomaggiore – Cinque Terre, 11-12 aprile 2002, 13 p. [formato PDF, 210 kB] (analisi, obiettivi e azioni proposte per una mobilità sostenibile). [necessaria la registrazione gratuita sul sito ASSTRA]

    Cosa sono e come si progettano le zone 30 / Giuseppe di Giampietro, Giovanni Rinaldi (da Le Strade, giugno 2002, p. 98-106, formato jpg)

    Taxibus , proposta dell’Intelligent Grouping Transportation(in inglese)

    Città Mobile, Associazione delle città italiane per la mobilità sostenibile e lo sviluppo dei trasporti

    WebStrade, il portale italiano su: progetto di strade, città, mobilità sostenibile, ambiente, trasporti, moderazione del traffico, sicurezza stradale, piani urbani del traffico

    Ecotrasportitestata giornalistica online

    Clickmobility.it il portale italiano della mobilità e del trasporto passeggeri


    MOBILITA' PEDONALE

    Bernd Herzog-Schlagk, Schritte zur Einführung einer kommunalen Fußverkehrsstrategie. Handlungsleitfaden. Fachverband Fußverkehr Deutschland FUSS e.V., Berlin, Juli 2018, 31 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "Der Leitfaden entstand auf der Grundlage von: zahlreichen Befragungen von Fußgängerinnen und Fußgängern verschiedener Alters- und Zielgruppen sowie von Fachleuten; Interviews mit Verbändevertreterinnen und -vertretern; intensiven Diskussionen in den drei Sitzungen des Projekt-Fachbeirates; Verwaltungsgesprächen in fünf Modellstädten und weiteren Kontaktstädten; Gesprächen und Erfahrungen im Rahmen von zwölf kommunalen Workshops; Recherchen zur Vorgehensweise in Städten, die sich eine Fußverkehrsförderung zum Ziel gesetzt haben (Konzept-Beispiele); Erfahrungen bei Ortsbegehungen und Fußverkehrs-Checks in fünf Modell- und einigen weiteren Kontaktstädten. In den Jahren 2016 bis 2018 waren insgesamt etwa 700 Menschen daran beteiligt, herauszufinden, wie eine strategische Förderung des Zufußgehens aussehen sollte und was deshalb in diesem Handlungsleitfaden zumindest auch als Thema benannt werden müsste. Dabei ging es nicht darum, ein völlig neues Konzept zu entwickeln, vielmehr soll der Handlungsleitfaden die vorhandenen Ansätze darlegen und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen ableiten."

    Maude Luggen Risse, Pascal Regli, Jenny Leuba, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgänger Zählen. Zählsysteme für den Fussverkehr und ihre Anwendung. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, Juni 2018, 32 p. [formato PDF, 26,8 MB]. "Wie viele Fussgänger queren eine Strasse? Wie viele kommen vom Bahnhof? Wie viele in der Spitzenstunde? Wie viele halten sich auf einem Platz auf? Wie gross sind die Unterschiede zwischen den Wochentagen? Diese und weitere Fragen wurden an einer Fachtagung - organisiert von Fussverkehr Schweiz, mit Unterstützung des Bundesamtes für Strassen - in Biel diskutiert."

    Mieux accueillir les piétons âgés. Recommandations d'aménagement. Fiche Marche n° 02. Cerema, novembre 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. La fiche est téléchargeable gratuitement. "Dans 30 ans, la part des plus de 75 ans dans la population aura doublé. La santé et l'autonomie de ces seniors dépendent en partie de leur mobilité piétonne. Or, les seniors sont surreprésentés dans les accidents de piétons. Les accueillir dans un espace public où les déplacements à pied sont effectués avec le moins de risques possibles de chuter ou d'être accidenté est donc un enjeu de société. Les recommandations proposées dans cette fiche destinée aux aménageurs montrent que cet objectif est atteignable en appliquant les règles de l'art et les recommandations d'accessibilité, tout en les complétant par des aménagements utiles à tous mais répondant spécifiquement aux besoins de la population âgée en perte de mobilité. Grâce aux aménagements proposés dans cette fiche, les seniors peuvent se déplacer de manière plus confortable et plus sécurisée."

    Fergus Browne, David Jordan, Measuring the Pedestrian Experience in Dublin: The Role of Urban Design Theory in Understanding and Redesigning Public Space in Cities. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 9-20 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "This paper examines the pedestrian experience as a frequently overlooked factor in city planning and design and demonstrates how urban theories can be utilised to measure, understand and promote better quality and more responsive public spaces. Too often urban design theories remain in the realm of academic discourse and although contributing implicitly to the formulation of policy, are rarely explicitly invoked. By distilling and applying these theories, it has been illustrated that such an approach enables the complexities of the city to be represented and understood from the perspective of the pedestrian. This paper is divided into two distinctive areas: theory and practice. In discussing theory, the bifurcation of urban design discourse into two distinct strands of the psychological and physical cities, provided an enhanced awareness and appreciation of the plethora of urbanism fields to which human perception and experience relates. By reflecting on a number of urban design-based studies, as previously conducted by the authors in Dublin, a case is made that such an alternative approach lends a greater understanding of cognitive perceptions to urban environments. Individually, they were designed to give specific information required as part of evaluating an urban space, but collectively the studies provided a series of vital buildable layers offering an insight into how a person experiences and interacts with a city on a daily basis and providing an indicator of the physical catalysts which impact on this relationship. The research argues that a greater link between pedestrian experience and the design of the public realm needs to occur and will demonstrate how this connection is frequently missing, leading to the production of non-responsive public space which fails to engage the pedestrian user. This paper aims to deliver a universal lesson that successful urban spaces are the ones which are the most responsive to the needs of the pedestrian. Indeed the authors believe that only through the adoption of a pedestrian-centred approach to designing and managing the public realm will sustainable mobility be fully realised in European cities."

    Noëlla Karusisi, Frédérique Thomas, Julie Méline, Ruben Brondeel, Basile Chaix, Environmental Conditions around Itineraries to Destinations as Correlates of Walking for Transportation among Adults: The RECORD Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 9(5): e88929 (May 2014) (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Introduction: Assessing the contextual factors that influence walking for transportation is important to develop more walkable environments and promote physical activity. To advance previous research focused on residential environments and overall walking for transportation, the present study investigates objective environmental factors assessed around the residence, the workplace, the home - work itinerary, and the home - supermarket itinerary, and considered overall walking for transportation but also walking to work and to shops. Methods: Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Multilevel ordinal regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental characteristics associated with self-reported overall walking for transportation, walking to work, and walking to shops. Results: High individual education was associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and walking to shops. Among workers, a high residential neighborhood education was associated with increased overall walking for transportation, while a high workplace neighborhood education was related to an increased time spent walking to work. The residential density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and with walking to shops, while the workplace density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation among workers. Environmental factors assessed around the itineraries were not associated with walking to work or to the shops. Conclusion: This research improves our understanding of the role of the environments on walking for transportation by accounting for some of the environments visited beyond the residential neighborhood. It shows that workers' walking habits are more influenced by the density of destinations around the workplace than around the residence. These results provide insight for the development of policies and programs to encourage population level active commuting."

    Alvaro Valera Sosa, Christine Nickl-Weller, Understanding walkability and walking rates in Berlin: an urban form and street pattern comparison. Die Psychiatrie (2016) V. 13 (Heft 2) 79-87 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 900 kB]. "This descriptive study provides information indicative of the interaction between physical features of neighbourhood environments with health behaviours such as walking and biking which consequently affect disease rates related to lifestyle. Aim: Through a summary of systematic observations at two urban scales, the macro and meso- levels, a neighbourhood comparisonol. was realized in Berlin, Germany, to explore how urban forms and street patterns can support walking or biking, or not, despite seasonal variations, socio-economic status, cultural backdrop or individual decisions to walk. For this study, a conceptual evaluation framework was conceived and structured to assess secondary data from public databases, conveniently decreasing time and costs. Result: The framework and preliminary results of the work aim to be a significant endeavour in promoting transdisciplinarity among researchers and practitioners mainly from public health, architecture, urban planning and design fields."

    Masterplan Gehen. Strategie zur Förderung der FußgängerInnen in Österreich. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft,Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft; Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, 2015, 60 p. [formato PDF, 8,42 MB]. "The Master Plan for Walking provides a new national strategic framework for the promotion of walking in Austria. Its aim is to increase the share of walking. The Master Plan for Walking makes important contributions to the Climate Change Act, the National Action Plan on Physical Activity and the Overall Transport Plan. With the Master Plan, Austria contributes to the implementation of important international agreements such as the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP, WHO, UNECE) and the Health and Environment Action Plan for Children. The aim of the Master Plan for Walking is to address all aspects of walking. Therefore, 10 fields of action have been defined: I. Increased cooperation and coordination: for pooling of forces with a view to motivation, information and the relevant activities. II. Promotion of mobility management to increase the amount of walking so as to create incentive systems for walking and provide increased support for walking. III. Infrastructure improvement and investment initiative to make the conditions for walking considerably more attractive and to reduce barriers. IV. Pedestrian-friendly transport, settlement and urban planning, to establish compact spatial structures and short distances, to promote mixed structures and to strengthen local economies and local shops. V. Pedestrian-friendly transport organisation and improved road safety, to create and ensure pedestrian-friendly framework conditions. VI. Optimisation of connections to other transport modes, to make use of synergy effects and to strengthen the entire eco-mobility system. VII. Information systems and awareness raising, to provide appropriate information for walking and raise awareness about the benefits of walking. VIII. Research, for innovations and intelligent technologies to support walking. IX. Education and training, to firmly establish long-term sustainability in pedestrian route planning and in the promotion of walking. X. Data and monitoring, for a realistic and comprehensive representation of walking in statistics."

    Melissa R. Marselle, Katherine N. Irvine and Sara L. Warber, Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5603-5628 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,19 MB]. Open Access. "The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708) were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), depression (Major Depressive Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity."

    Gunilla Björklund, Anna Mellin and Kristofer Odolinski, Fotgängares värderingar av gångvägar (Pedestrians’ valuations of footpaths). (VTI report 806). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 66 p. [formato PDF, 2,19 MB]. "The background to this study is an inquiry by the Swedish Transport Administration to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses for pedestrians’ appraisals of their walking environment and how different improvements in the environment affect decisions to walk. In the present report, three different studies are presented. The first is a pilot study involving a literature review, a focus group interview, and a questionnaire survey. The second study is a survey study aimed to estimate pedestrians appraisals of different walking environments. The third study is also a survey but with the purpose of studying commuters’ demand for various types of pathways. The issues that we in the pilot study tried to find methods for and in subsequent studies have attempted to answer are: 1. What type of road (environment) do pedestrians prefer when they choose which route to walk? 2. What is the willingness to pay to get more attractive footpaths (in terms of security, safety etc.)? 3. How many persons will start to walk if it is built more attractive footpaths? The third issue was unfortunately not possible to answer because of the low response rate in that part of the study. The most surprising result from the study is that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. Another result that is worth to highlight is that the visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing was not nearly as important. The lowest value for a travel time savings for walking, 79 SEK/h, was obtained in study 1 and regarded a walk on a separated pedestrian and bicycle path with good visibility, which is far from a road with motor vehicles and is well maintained. The highest value, 239 SEK/h, was obtained in study 3 and regarded walking to or from another travel mode along a roadside on a road with speed limit 50 km/h. Finally, it seems not impossible to investigate individuals' appraisals for various types of footpath attributes and choice of footpath using stated preference methodology. However, the interest in walking issues seems not to be high and many of the questions in the questionnaire seemed to be difficult to answer. In future studies about pedestrian appraisals it is therefore recommended that the investigations are carried out as some kind of interview as it is easier then to clarify some of the ambiguities."

    Thomas Schweizer, Statistiques piétonnes. (FicheInfo 2013/02). Mobilité piétonne (Fussverkehr Schweiz), Zurich, 2013, 10 p. [formato PDF, 0,98 MB]. "Le but de cette FicheInfo est de présenter les principales statistiques concernant les piétons en Suisse, suite à la publication par l’Office fédéral de la statistique des résultats du microrecensement mobilité et transports 20101. Cette enquête statistique a permis d’interroger plus de 62'000 personnes sur leurs comportements de mobilité. Après quelques résultats globaux sur la part de la marche par rapport aux autres moyens de transport, des analyses plus détaillées sur la distance, la durée de trajet et le nombre d’étapes à pied seront présentées."

    Todd Alexander Litman, Economic Value of Walkability. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2011, 28 p. [formato PDF, 256 kB]. "This paper describes ways to evaluate the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings, cost savings (reduced external costs), efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this paper, are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel."

    Robert James Schneider (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Measuring transportation at a human scale: An intercept survey approach to capture pedestrian activity. Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol 6, No 3 (2013), 43-59 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 6,07 MB]. Pedestrian travel data are critical for measuring and analyzing sustainable transportation systems. However, traditional household travel surveys and analysis methods often ignore secondary modes, such as walking from a street parking space to a store entrance or walking from a bus stop to home. New data collection and analysis techniques are needed, especially in areas where walking is common. This paper describes an intercept survey methodology used to measure retail pharmacy customer travel to, from, and within 20 shopping districts in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of the 1003 respondents, 959 (96 percent) reported all modes of travel used from leaving home until returning home, including secondary modes. Walking was the primary travel mode on 21 percent of respondent tours, but an analysis of secondary modes found that 52 percent of tours included some walking. Pedestrian travel was particularly common within shopping districts, accounting for 65 percent of all trips within 804 meters (0.5 miles) of survey stores. Detailed walking path data from the survey showed that respondents in denser, more mixed-use shopping districts tended to walk along the main commercial street as well as other streets connecting to the core shopping area, while respondent pedestrian movements in automobile-oriented shopping districts tended to be contained within specific shopping complexes.

    Esther Walter, Yvonne Achermann Stürmer, Gianantonio Scaramuzza, Steffen Niemann, Mario Cavegn, Fußverkehr. (bfu-Sicherheitsdossier Nr. 11). bfu – Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, Bern, 2013, 210 p. [formato PDF, 2,62 MB]. "Im Sicherheitsdossier «Fussverkehr» werden wissensbasierte Präventionsempfehlungen zur Steigerung der Sicherheit von Fussgängern auf Schweizer Strassen erarbeitet." "Nel dossier sicurezza "traffico pedonale" sono state rielaborate su base scientifica raccomandazioni di prevenzione per aumentare la sicurezza dei pedoni sulle strade svizzere."

    Fußverkehr in Zahlen. Daten, Fakten und Besonderheiten, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Walk-space.at, Wien, September 2012, 129 p. [formato PDF, 11,5 MB]. "Im Zuge der vorliegenden Studie wird die Bedeutung des Fußverkehrs als Teil des integrierten Gesamtverkehrssystems dargestellt und ein Überblick über den Fußverkehr anhand von Zahlen, Daten und Fakten aus den unterschiedlichsten Themenbereichen gegeben. Gerade der Fußverkehr ist traditionell auf nationaler wie auf internationaler Ebene wenig umfassend und genau erfasst. Die Verkehrspolitik und daraus abgeleiteten Ziele und Maßnahmen sind jedoch auf ein ausreichendes Mindestmaß an zuverlässiger statistischer Information angewiesen. Die Zusammenstellung von Zahlen, Daten und Fakten zum Fußverkehr soll sowohl eine Grundlage für EntscheidungsträgerInnen als auch einen Überblick für die interessierte Öffentlichkeit schaffen. Insbesondere sollen die hier aufbereiteten Daten zur Verbesserung des Verständnisses für den Fußverkehr mit allen seinen Facetten beitragen. Die Studie behandelt folgende Themenpunkte: Mobilitätsverhalten und Besonderheiten zu Fuß; Geh-Infrastruktur; Zu Fuß - aber sicher; Bewegung, Gesundheit und Ökologie; Wirtschaftliche Aspekte zum Fußverkehr; Raumstrukturen und zu Fuß gehen; Mobilitätseinschränkungen und Gehhilfen; Quellenverzeichnis und Links." Ampia ed analitica raccolta di dati statistici sulla mobilità pedonale in Austria e all'estero. Comprende dati sulla sicurezza, gli aspetti economici e sanitari, le relazioni con la struttura urbana.

    Colin G Pooley [et al.], Understanding walking and cycling: Summary of key findings and recommendations. Lancaster University, September 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 2,39 MB] "It is widely recognized that there is a need to increase levels of active and sustainable travel in British urban areas. The Understanding Walking and Cycling (UWAC) project, funded by the EPSRC, has examined the factors influencing everyday travel decisions and proposes a series of policy measures to increase levels of walking and cycling for short trips in urban areas. A wide range of both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in four English towns (Leeds, Leicester, Worcester, Lancaster), including a questionnaire survey, analysis of the built environment, interviews and ethnographies. Key findings of the research are that whilst attitudes to walking and cycling are mostly positive or neutral, many people who would like to engage in more active travel fail to do so due to a combination of factors. These can be summarised as: Concerns about the physical environment, especially with regard to safety when walking or cycling; The difficulty of fitting walking and cycling into complex household routines (especially with young children); The perception that walking and cycling are in some ways abnormal things to do so. It is suggested that policies to increase levels of walking and cycling should focus not only on improving infrastructure (for instance through fully segregated cycle routes), but also must tackle broader social, economic, cultural and legal factors that currently inhibit walking and cycling. Together, such changes can create an environment in which driving for short trips in urban areas is seen as abnormal and walking or cycling seem the obvious choices."

    Linee guida per la progettazione degli attraversamenti pedonali. ACI, Roma, novembre 2011, 187 p. [formato PDF, 7,22 MB]. Lo studio dell'ACI promuove un innovativo know how per la progettazione e la realizzazione degli attraversamenti pedonali, basato sull’analisi delle migliori esperienze europee e finalizzato all’incremento della sicurezza dei pedoni. L’obiettivo è anche quello di gettare le basi per la definizione di criteri uniformi per la normativa europea sugli attraversamenti pedonali: stesse regole per tutti, dai progettisti ai costruttori fino agli stessi pedoni. Le principali novità progettuali sono: il semaforo con un countdown che indichi ai pedoni il tempo a disposizione per l’attraversamento; l’accessibilità per tutti, con rampe più sicure e dispositivi specifici per le utenze deboli; la visibilità pedone-conducente con appositi layout per i marciapiedi e illuminazione artificiale dedicata; una segnaletica qualitativamente migliore, più percepibile dagli utenti e più duratura nel tempo. Il manuale realizzato dall’Automobile Club d'Italia si articola in quattro sezioni in cui si esaminano le normative in materia di attraversamenti pedonali in Italia, in Europa e nel mondo, con focus su Svizzera, Francia, Gran Bretagna, Usa, Australia, India e Nuova Zelanda. Un vademecum ribadisce le più corrette norme di comportamento. Vengono poi analizzate le caratteristiche funzionali degli attraversamenti pedonali con indicazioni sui criteri di progettazione: quando occorre un attraversamento, quale tipologia scegliere e dove posizionarla. Lo studio riporta anche molti schemi grafici degli elementi costruttivi che compongono un attraversamento pedonale.

    Daniel Sauter, Melanie Kunz, Dominique von der Mühll, Sonia Lavadinho, Country Report Switzerland. State-of-the-art in walking policy, communication and research. (COST Action 358 Pedestrian Quality Needs). Urban Mobility Research and EPFL/CHÔROS, September 2010, 119 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "This report describes the developments and assembles the relevant information on walking in Switzerland in the past 10 to 15 years. It contains data on walking and deals with the legal framework, policy-making and best practices and innovations, e.g. in terms of strategies, communication, pilot-schemes and evaluation. In addition, all relevant publications and research projects of the past ten years have been listed and annotated, providing for the first time an overview of the research performed in the field. This collection, together with the other parts of the country report, will allow researchers and interested persons to get a quick overview of current practices and available information. It will also serve as a monitoring instrument in the longer term allowing comparisons in the future with the state of today."

    Danielle Sinnett, Katie Williams, Kiron Chatterjee, Nick Cavill, Making the Case for Investment in the Walking Environment. A review of the evidence. University of the West of England and Cavill Associates; Living Streets, London, 2011, 77 p. [formato PDF, 2,61 MB]. "The report evaluates the health, economic, social and environmental benefits of investment in walking friendly public spaces. It draws on case studies of schemes which have resulted in safer and more attractive public places in neighbourhoods and city centres in the UK and elsewhere."

    Measuring Walking (Towards internationally standardised monitoring methods of walking and public space) is a joint (informal) project of the European COST Action 358 ‘Pedestrian Quality Needs’ and the WALK21 international conference series. The goal is to “establish a set of international guidelines for the collection, analysis and dissemination of quantitative and qualitative techniques for measuring walking” as was concluded at the WALK21 conference in Melbourne 2006. A range of documents, including some of the presentations from the workshops, are available on this website.

    Rob Methorst, Hector Monterde i Bort, Ralf Risser, Daniel Sauter, Miles Tight and Jim Walker, COST 358 – PQN Final Report. Pedestrians' Quality Needs. Part C: Executive Summary. COST Office / WALK21, Cheltenham, November 2010, 78 p. [formato PDF, 2,77 MB]. "The Pedestrians' Quality Needs Project (PQN) established what people need to choose to walk. This summary provides an understanding of those needs and how they can be met and supported by policy. It is hoped that this summary will help practitioners: 1. Improve their understanding of how the management of public space, the transport network and the social, legal and political context interrelate to influence pedestrian behaviour; 2. Advance the effectiveness of future policy to support and encourage more walking; 3. Enthuse relevant organisations to work collaboratively at a local level to ensure the full potential for more walking is realised; 4. Stimulate further research projects to benefit pedestrians in Europe. The PQN Final Report consists of 3 main parts. Part A (Introduction and conceptual framework) and Part B (Documentation) contain the detailed project results. Part C, the report in front of you, gives general information about the project results. Part A and B are an integral part of the PQN Final Report, but, because of the large volume of the report parts, they are captured on a CD, which also contains a folder with additional documentation that was produced in the context of the project such as the Country Reports, a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) report about pedestrian conditions in the PQN countries, a literature study, that was carried out to support substantiation of the PQN model policy process and the results of a survey on data availability in European countries."

    Jacques Stambouli (Université d'Artois), Les services de transport du développement urbain durable: innovations autour des métriques de la marche à pied. (Études et Recherches Économiques Interdisciplinaires de l'Artois 2008-07). Arras, 2008, 19 p. [formato PDF, 131 kB].

    Billie Giles-Corti, Robert J. Donovan, Relative Influences of Individual, Social Environmental, and Physical Environmental Correlates of Walking, Am J Public Health 93 (2003) 1583-1589 [formato PDF, 223 KB]. "Objectives. This study sought to examine individual, social environmental, and physical environmental correlates of walking. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among healthy workers and homemakers residing in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Results. Most respondents walked for transport or recreation, but only 17.2% did a sufficient amount of walking to accrue health benefits. After adjustment, the relative influences of individual, social environmental, and physical environmental factors were found to be almost equally important. Conclusions. Although walking is popular, few people do enough walking to benefit their health. Those who walk as well as engage in other physical activities appear more likely to achieve recommended levels of activity. Promoting walking may require a comprehensive strategy."

    Amando de Miguel, Tábula-V, Los peatones y el tráfico urbano. Instituto MAPFRE de Seguridad Vial, Madrid, 2000, 139 p. [formato PDF, 554 KB]. "Partiendo de la definición de peatón, se analizan los tramos peatonales de la ciudad, además de la percepción que éstos tienen del tráfico y el riesgo que ésta implica para los peatones."

    Lisa Aultman-Hall, Damon Lane, Rebecca R. Lambert (Univ. of Vermont), Assessing the Impact of Weather and Season on Pedestrian Traffic Volumes. 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, January 2009, 22 p. [formato PDF, 546 kB]. "Twelve months of automated hourly pedestrian counts in downtown Montpelier, Vermont (pop. 8,035) were analyzed along with weather data (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind) to determine the factors affecting count variability. The study is unique in that a large amount of data in a single location was collected in a locale with an extreme range of weather conditions. Results indicate consistent patterns in relative volumes by hour of the day and month of year that show that good adjustment factors can be developed to use with time-limited counts to estimate usage and pedestrian exposure to accidents. Some predictive relationships were found between weather variables, season and pedestrian volumes (no more than 30% of variation and 20% of volume are affected). Precipitation and season do impact pedestrian levels even when time of day and day of week are controlled, but other larger unmeasured factors are at play. The impact of weather on walking levels in a business and commercial downtown is large enough to consider programs and counter measures that might increase walking in adverse weather."

    Pedestrian Master Plan, City of San Diego, California (USA). [1 file PDF di 18 MB o 15 file PDF (capitoli)].

    Plan pietons de la ville de Geneve (CH). (Cartografia, informazioni e programmi del piano di mobilita' pedonale di Ginevra). In francese ed inglese.

    M.R. Tight, C. Kelly, F. Hodgson and M. Page, Improving Pedestrian Accessibility and Quality of Life. In: 10th World Conference on Transport Research, 4th-8th July 2004, Istanbul, Turkey. 21 p. [formato PDF, 602 kB]. "In the UK walking has been in decline for many years, but is still an important mode accounting for around 25% of all trips in 2002 (DfT, 2003). Walking has perhaps been partly overlooked by those responsible for urban areas because of its very ubiquity and the fact that it is seen as a benign mode of transport. By its very nature walking is something which virtually everyone does and which is self evidently an important mode, but which causes few problems to others and is relatively inexpensive to cater for. These advantages can sometimes lead to walking being overlooked as the more “obvious” modes, in terms of impacts and person kilometres travelled, are catered for. Hillman and Whalley (1979), concluded that: “in both transport policy and practice, it [walking] has been overlooked or, at the least, has been inadequately recognised.” However, even after this report, there was little explicit National Government recognition that walking required consideration beyond simply providing facilities. The dominant consideration was safety, which led to a segregationist design philosophy. As the pedestrian was usually seen as the less important road user, this often meant that pedestrian convenience was sacrificed in order to remove the vulnerable pedestrian from the danger. The most extreme form of this approach was pedestrian subways and footbridges, but this philosophy also underlies the use of guardrails, pelican and other light controlled crossings. This paper contains firstly an overview of the main pedestrian problems and the factors that influence both the decision to walk and routes taken derived from literature search. The second part of the paper examines results from a series of studies looking at methods for valuing different aspects of the pedestrian environment."

    Marc Schlossberg, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Katja Irvin, and Vanessa Louise Bekkouche, How Far, By Which Route, and Why? A Spatial Analysis of Pedestrian Preference. (MTI Report 06-06). Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, June 2007, 100 p. [formato PDF, 6,94 MB]. "There is an increasing interest in community walkability, as reflected in the growing number of state and federal initiatives on Safe Routes to School, the new concern over a national obesity epidemic, and the rising interest in smart growth and related policy approaches to urban development. In each of these cases, walking is recognized as a key mode of travel, and increased walking is viewed as a key goal. Despite the seeming simplicity of the goal of building communities that are good places to walk, planners and policymakers actually know very little about how the local built environment affects people’s willingness or capacity to walk to access their desired destinations. The central research questions for this study are thus: • How far do pedestrians walk to rail transit stations? • What environmental factors influence their route choice?"

    Taku Fujiyama (University College London), Investigating Use of Space of Pedestrians. CTS Working Paper. Accessibility Research Group, Centre for Transport Studies, University College London, 2005, 21 p. [formato PDF, 254 KB]. "Understanding use of space of pedestrian is important to plan/design street environments or large public transport facilities. The purpose of a series of our research is to investigate use of space of various pedestrians in a variety of environmental situations. The research is a part of PAMELA project designed to test existing and proposed pedestrian environments and street facilities (i.e. a bus stop) under controlled conditions. This paper is aimed at setting out the background of the research, and presenting a basic frame work for subsequent research. Strength of our approach is the microscopic heterogeneous approach, where each walking person is regarded different from others. Relations among characteristics of pedestrians, characteristics of facilities/ environments, and resulting actions of pedestrians are carefully examined."

    Living Streets, Walking in London. A Best Practice Guide for organising walking events. Transport for London, March 2006, 31 p. [formato PDF, 1,54 MB].

    Transport for London, Making London a walkable city. The Walking Plan for London, February 2004, 44 p. [formato PDF, 570 KB].

    Dimanche à pied, organisé par la Ville de Genève (CH). "Nous vous invitons à des balades à pied, à la découverte d'ateliers d'artistes genevois. Ces balades et ateliers sont gratuits et destinés à des adultes, à des adolescents et à des enfants dès 12 ans accompagnés." Domenica a piedi, iniziativa del Comune di Ginevra per invitare i cittadini a riscoprire la città e le sue risorse (tra cui un corso gratuito di riflessologia ...) collegata al Samedi du vélo, il sabato in bicicletta, 11 itinerari culturali proposti da maggio a ottobre.

    Daniel Sauter, Regine Bernet, Thomas Schweizer, Elemente einer Strategie zur Förderung des Fussverkehrs. Expertenbericht für das Leitbild Langsamverkehr des Bundes. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, 2001, 110 p. [formato PDF, 598 KB]. "The everyday problems for pedestrians are manifold: long distances, missing and dangerous links in the footpath network, long waiting periods at traffic lights, noise, exhaust gases, obstacles on the sidewalk etc. In the present expert report, it is advised that the federal government set the following targets for the next ten years: • to improve the networks of footpaths and the walking infrastructure in coordination with the cantons and municipalities, • to increase by 20% the share of walking trips in proportion to all trips and • to improve the safety of pedestrians, i.e. lowering the number of deaths and severely injured pedestrians by 50%. The report identifies the following areas, in which the commitment of the federal government is necessary and relevant: • Settlement structures with short-distance access as well as planning and implementation of footpath networks, • Improvement of pedestrian safety, • Re-organization of the financing of pedestrian traffic • Improvement of the data bases; monitoring and evaluation, • Instruction and further education; research and development • Information and marketing as well as an international commitment to walking."


    MOBILITY MANAGEMENT

    National Business Travel Network, The Essential Guide to Travel Planning. Department fo Transport, London, 2007, 94 p. [formato PDF, 5,31 MB]. "This guide, written for the DfT by Ian Taylor and edited by Carey Newson of Transport for Quality of Life, updates the previous 'Travel Plan Resources Pack for Employers' on developing and implementing travel plans for businesses. It draws together the tried and tested experience of those already in operation, offering a lively and informative overview of what you need to prepare a travel plan and get it up and running."

    Lorenzo Bertuccio, Emanuela Cafarelli, Federica Parmagnani, Mobility Management, le buone pratiche d'Italia. Euromobility, APAT, settembre 2006, 122 p. [formato PDF, 2,47 MB]. "Il volume segue la struttura del 1° Premio Nazionale sul Mobility Management (dal quale nasce) e raccoglie complessivamente le 23 esperienze di mobility management selezionate dalla Giuria, per tre differenti categorie: Mobility Management di Area, Aziende private o pubbliche, Istituti scolastici e Università."

    Euromobility, Associazione Mobility Manager (in italiano)

    Provincia di Bologna: sito del Mobility Management (contiene il Piano Spostamenti Casa-Lavoro, le iniziative di Car Sharing, Pronto Bus, gli incentivi alle imprese, documenti, normative)

    Sito del Mobility Manager di Area della provincia di Venezia, contiene informazioni generali e documenti specifici, tra cui gli atti del Convegno nazionale Mobilità sostenibile tenuto a Mestre il 26 novembre 2004.

    La Provincia di Venezia ha approvato il Piano spostamenti casa-lavoro del personale dipendente della Provincia di Venezia anno 2004 (in data 08/06/2004) [formato PDF, 1,52 MB]

    Provincia di Milano, Mobility management, per un trasporto compatibile. 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,33 MB] (introduzione divulgativa ai temi del mobility manager)

    Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Progetto Mobilità Intelligente: Banca CARIGE Genova, marzo 2003, 25 p. [formato PDF, 168 kB]

    Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Progetto Mobilità Intelligente: ENI - Genova Genova, marzo 2003, 24 p. [formato PDF, 177 kB]

    ENEA, Mobility management: stato dell’arte e prospettive, ENEA, 2001, 37 p. [formato PDF, 377 KB] (Opuscolo informativo)


    PERSONAL TRAVEL PLANNING (MOBILITY MANAGEMENT APPLICATO AI SINGOLI CITTADINI)

    Kiron Chatterjee (UWE, Bristol), Personal Travel Planning: the English Experience. Presentation at the CTS Seminar, Bristol, 5th June 2008, 42 slides [formato PDF, 1,49 MB]. Illustrazione dettagliata del processo per il Personal Travel Planning in Inghilterra.

    Integrated Transport Planning Ltd, Making personal travel planning work: research report. Department fo Transport, London, 2007, 164 p. [formato PDF, 972 KB]. "Personal Travel Planning (PTP) is an approach to delivering targeted information directly to travellers, to help them make sustainable travel choices. It seeks to overcome habitual use of the car, enabling more journeys to be made on foot, bike, bus, train or in shared cars. It can also seek to discourage unnecessary travel, through the provision of local or site-specific information. PTP can be applied in a number of contexts, for example schools, workplaces and residential communities. This report considers residential-based PTP. It contains evidence collated from an initial review of the literature accompanied by 12 in-depth case studies, 10 smaller vignette case studies and contributions from a panel of 17 experts in the field of PTP and smarter choices measures. The case study sites provide extensive evidence, collectively accounting for PTP programmes that have targeted 229,000 households."

    Integrated Transport Planning Ltd, Making personal travel planning work: case studies. Department fo Transport, London, 2007, 232 p. [formato PDF, 2,89 MB]. "This report, prepared for the DfT by ITP Ltd, provides information on the case studies underpinning the document 'Making Personal Travel Plans Work'." Lo studio esamina i casi di Worcester, Peterborough, Darlington, Lancashire, Bristol, Brighton and Hove, Transport for London, Nottingham e di Perth, Brisbane e Melbourne.


    PIANI DEL TRAFFICO, PIANI DELLA MOBILITA' URBANA, INDICATORI

    Enrica Papa, Rosaria Battarra (Univ. Napoli Federico II), Integrazione trasporti territorio nei PUM: esperienze a confronto. TeMA, v.3 n.1 (marzo 2010), p. 29-36 [formato PDF, 720 kB]. "Urban transport plan according to the Italian national Law n.340/ 2000 have the specific aim of improving the traffic situation in the cities. Mobility plans consider all modes of transport planned towards a sustainable urban development. The measures implemented are a mixture of material and immaterial interventions with the aim to reach a better traffic environment with reduced traffic volumes and emissions, increased accessibility and safety and an increased quality of life for all citizens. In Italy, according to the principle that the mobility strategies cannot be separated from the land use planning, many cities are developing innovative Mobility Plans that are integrated with urban planning actions. In order to underline these best practices, a comparative study is proposed between five different urban areas in the central and northern Italy. Most innovative plans have within their strategies the following points: – Promote integrated policies to deal with the complexity of urban transport systems, governance issues and the necessary coherence between different policies, for example between urban mobility and cohesion policy, environment policy or health policy. – Help to green urban transport by introducing new, clean vehicle technologies and alternative fuels and promoting smart charging to encourage transport users to change travel behavior. – Support sharing experience and knowledge to enable better access to this information and help stakeholders to capitalize on these experiences and on relevant data and statistics. – Optimize urban mobility to encourage effective integration, interoperability and interconnection between different transport networks. – Improve road safety to achieve a high level of road safety, especially for vulnerable road users such as young people and the elderly. However only some plans have specific actions towards a real urbanmobility integration. For example the Perugia Mobility Plan define the “urban and mobility planning areas” where the land use changes and the new transport infrastructures are planned and implemented at the same time. The Bolzano Mobility Plan defines specific actions for the open spaces and pedestrian networks, that are considered as an integrated part of the multi-modal transport system. Another example is the Reggio Emilia Mobility Plan, that defines specific actions for the Transit Oriented Development of the metropolitan area. These innovative plans are the first examples of a new approach for the integrated transport and land use planning and represent the first step towards an effective integration towards new mobility patterns in cities and sustainable development of urban areas."

    Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), Gli strumenti di programmazione europei e nazionali in materia di mobilità urbana: un inquadramento. Roma, 7 marzo 2007, 35 slides [formato Powerpoint, 298 KB].

    Osservatorio sulle Politiche per la Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile, Gli strumenti per la programmazione, Roma, ISFORT, Quaderno OPMUS n.5, settembre 2006, 63 p. [formato PDF, 706 kB]. Rapporto curato da Gerardo Marletto. Contiene una rassegna e proposte di indicatori per la valutazione delle politiche, gli strumenti europei e nazionali di programmazione, e una rassegna sull'adozione dei PUT e PUM.

    Comune di Bologna, Piano Straordinario per la qualità dell’aria e la mobilità sostenibile a Bologna (BO2) (piano ed elaborati grafici)

    Comune di Bolzano, Piano Urbano della Mobilità 2020 [file PDF, 4,39 MB] e tavole allegate [file PDF, 22 MB]

    Comune di Milano, Piano Urbano della Mobilità 2001-2010 (dati, obiettivi, interventi previsti, cartine e tavole)

    Comune di Padova, Piano Urbano della Mobilità, rapporto finale, dicembre 2001, 80 p. [formato PDF, 486 kB]

    Comune di Pesaro, Piano Generale del Traffico Urbano 2003 (relazione tecnica illustrativa, planimetria)

    Comune di Prato, Piano Urbano di Mobilità 2004-2006 (contiene i documenti del PUM e il progetto di nuova tramvia)

    Comune di Torino, Piano Urbano del Traffico e della mobilità delle persone (P.U.T. 2001) sintesi e relazione illustrativa, marzo 2001 [file zip, contiene 9 files PDF, totale 7,64 MB]

    Comune di Udine, Piano Urbano del Traffico settembre 2002 (testo del Piano, tavole allegate) [formato PDF, 14 files]


    PUMS (PIANI URBANI DELLA MOBILITA' SOSTENIBILE), SUMPs (SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY PLANS)

    Mateus Porto Schettino, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in Spain. Assessment of walking promotion and its impact in the quality of public space. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 151-168 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 814 kB]. "In recent years, several Spanish cities have taken action against the growth of individual motorized displacements, promoting active and socially equitable modes of transportation. They are contributing to a new mobility's culture in which walking should have a leading role. However, this change depends on complex socio-economic issues and requires planning. For that, according to European guidelines, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) is the suitable instrument to address this challenge. The instrument arises in Spain in the middle of the last decade and nowadays the majority of mediums cities have a SUMP. Nevertheless, we still do not know much about its effectiveness, especially about its impact over pedestrians. Therefore, with the aim to contribute to the knowledge about the SUMP experience in Spain, a doctoral thesis is being prepared for the Urban Planning Department at the Polytechnic University of Madrid. The study characterizes the planning instrument in a mobility policies panorama and analyses in detail its relation with urban features and planning. The adoption of a mobility plan represents a political commitment, but its implementation is not always successful, as the instrument has little legal implications in Spain. That is why its coordination with urban plans is so important. There is a hypothesis that SUMPs address mainly traffic and public transport, compared with little attention to pedestrian and cycling promotion or the restriction of private cars use. The analysis' methodologies and actions proposed still have traditional traffic and essentially infrastructural approach, with not enough attention to urban aspects, other functions of public space beyond circulation or the social aspects related to the demand for mobility. Otherwise, the research revealed some good practices that should be shared and widespread between those (technicians, students, politicians and activists) interested in sustainable mobility with walking and cycling promotion and improvement of urban space quality."

    Hector G. Lopez-Ruiz, Panayotis Christidis, Hande Demirel & Mert Kompil, Quantifying the Effects of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. (JRC Technical Reports). European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, 2013, 85 p. [formato PDF, 1,93 MB]. "The European Commission is considering a European support framework for the implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in EU Member States. This consideration is consistent with the 2011 White Paper proposal to increase coordination between transport authorities and transport policy deciders. Consequently, an interest on how different urban measures can be used in order to render transport activities more sustainable has given way to research concerning the impacts and effects that policy measures might have on socio-ecological systems. These studies rely, mainly, on experts' opinions and past experiences in order to develop a common scorecard on how a transport system might react to different measures. This technical note uses the expert scoring information available in current scientific literature in order to explore the impacts and effects that different urban measures may have in planning for sustainability on a European wide level."


    PROGETTI EUROPEI

    CIVITAS (City-VITAlity-Sustainability), cleaner and better transport in cities: progetto europeo per aiutare le città ad ottenere un sistema di trasporto urbano più sostenibile, più pulito e più efficiente sotto l’aspetto energetico


    PUBBLICAZIONI E STUDI

    Liu Shaokun, Can Chinese Cities Leave the Car Behind? Gridlock, Pollution and the Future of Public Transportation. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, Volume 16, Issue 14, Number 2, Jul 15, 2018, pp. 1-9 [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "For years, China's city planners have prioritised cars, but they're now taking a different route. Investing in public transport, supplemented by the electric bike and shared bike, are among the ways Chinese cities are trying to minimise car use."

    Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti (a cura di), MobilitAria 2018. Qualità dell'aria e Politiche di mobilità nelle 14 grandi città italiane tra il 2006 e il 2016. Rapporto del Kyoto Club e dal CNR-IIA. Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), Kyoto Club, Roma, febbraio 2018, 128 p. [formato PDF, 67,7 MB]. "Il rapporto MobilitAria 2018 ha l'ambizione di realizzare un quadro complessivo dell'andamento della qualità dell'aria e della mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città italiane nel decennio 2006- 2016. Lo studio è stato realizzato da un gruppo di esperti del CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) e di Kyoto Club, Gruppo Mobilità Sostenibile, prendendo come riferimento l'area comunale di ogni Città Metropolitana. Le città sono Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Roma, Torino, Venezia."

    Lew Fulton, Jacob Mason, Dominique Meroux, Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation. How to achieve the full potential of vehicle electrification, automation and shared mobility in urban transportation systems around the world by 2050. Report. UC Davis, ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, 2017, 41 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "The new report was produced by the University of California, Davis, and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. It compares the environmental and fiscal impacts of three scenarios involving new transportation technology: 1) Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario-Through 2050, we continue to use vehicles with internal combustion engines at an increased rate, and use transit and shared vehicles at the current rate, as population and income grow over time. 2) Revolutions (2R) scenario-We embrace more technology. Electric vehicles become common by 2030, and automated electric vehicles become dominant by 2040. However, we continue our current embrace of single-occupancy vehicles, with even more car travel than in the BAU. 3) Revolutions (3R) scenario-We take the embrace of technology in the 2R scenario and then maximize the use of shared vehicle trips. By 2050, cities have ubiquitous private car sharing, increased transit performance-with on-demand availability-and strengthened infrastructure for walking and cycling, allowing maximum shared trip efficiency."

    Thorsten Koska, Frederic Rudolph (Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie gGmbH), The role of walking and cycling in reducing congestion : a portfolio of measures. FLOW Project, July 2016, 71 p. [formato PDF, 8,8 MB]. "The Portfolio of Measures describes the actual effects of different types of measures on congestion by presenting case studies and drawing conclusions out of them. The portfolio presents information on the potential of walking and cycling measures to relieve urban congestion. Cities are actively seeking information and implementation experience from other cities. However, information available on websites, portals and good-practice guides is of mixed quality. In providing more information on the impact of walking and cycling measures, this portfolio aims at contributing to political agenda setting and measure selection. The first part of the portfolio provides some general findings about the role of walking and cycling measures in relieving congestion, based on literature review and an expert survey carried out within the FLOW project. It is then followed by 20 cases in which walking measures, cycling measures or combinations of measures have been successfully implemented in Europe and abroad. The case studies have been clustered in five big groups according to their topics: Cycling infrastructure (moving traffic); Walking and Cycling Infrastructure (moving traffic); Cycling infrastructure (parking and bike sharing); Traffic management strategies; Mobility management and Measures for more than one mode. The final chapter summarises the effects of the 20 cases and elaborates some general lessons learned. On general finding is - the measures described have helped reduce congestion or at least have increased walking and/or cycling levels without increasing congestion."

    David Gray, Richard Laing, Iain Docherty, Delivering lower carbon urban transport choices: European ambition meets the reality of institutional (mis)alignment. Environment and Planning A, Vol 49, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 226-242 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector has become a critical imperative for public policy as our understanding of the impacts of the mobility system on the environment has developed. This paper contrasts policy development in three cities (Aberdeen, Bremen and Malmö) that collaborated as part of a European Union knowledge exchange programme designed to share innovative approaches to carbon reduction in the transport sector. We identify a number of critical aspects of governance, including the approach to policy formulation and implementation, and the status of consensus and cohesion, as key determinants of transport outcomes. We conclude that the degree of institutional alignment evident in each city's governance network is crucial in explaining their appetite for the pursuit of low carbon policies, and in turn the real potential for policy transfer to occur as envisaged by European Union collaboration frameworks."

    Xiao Zhao, Anjali Mahendra, Nick Godfrey, Holger Dalkmann, Philipp Rode, Graham Floater, Unlocking the power of urban tranport systems for better growth and a better climate. Technical note. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2016, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,27 MB]. "Sustainable transport systems are crucial for underpinning the economic performance and prosperity of nations. They are also critical for tackling global climate change, improving road safety and reducing local air pollution. This is particularly the case in the world’s urban areas, as the majority of transport trips take place in and between cities. Each week, 1.4 million people are being added to urban areas, and urban travel constitutes more than 60% of all the kilometres travelled globally, the largest single source of global transport-related carbon emissions. The business-as-usual pattern of urbanisation and transport mobility in many regions remains characterised by unplanned sprawl and inter-city and intra-city transport networks dominated by conventional motorisation. The complex interaction between urban development and transport connectivity has led to declining urban densities, a reduction in the share of non-motorised transport and public transport, and enormous growth in private vehicles. An area the size of Manhattan is being added to urban areas each and every day. A continuation of this pattern could lead to the global urban land area tripling and the number of motorised vehicles in the world doubling by 2030. These trends have already created a wide range of economic, social and environmental costs, which can significantly constrain improvements in quality of life. The total social cost of Beijing’s dependence on motorised transport, including congestion and air pollution, is estimated at 7.5–15.0% of GDP. China added 17 million new cars in 2014 alone. In the United States, work by the New Climate Economy (NCE) demonstrates that urban sprawl costs over US$1 trillion per annum, including US$400 billion in costs to the public purse and more than US$600 billion in costs related to private vehicle use."

    Raffaella Niglio, Pier Paolo Comitale (University of Naples Federico II), Sustainable urban mobility towards smart mobility: the case study of Bari area, Italy. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 2015, 8(2), 219-243 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,18 MB]. Open Access. "In the last decades, sustainable mobility policies have seen a growing interest. Furthermore, in the international debate, this concept has increasingly been linked to the most innovative one of smart mobility, which is part of the more general paradigm of Smart City. This paper discusses primary findings of a Research Project conducted at University of Naples, DICEA, funded by EU (PON REC 04A2_00120 Asse II), “Smart Energy Master – Toward Energy-based approaches for Regional Planning”. The primary goal of the work is to make a review of policies, programs, projects for sustainable urban mobility and of smart mobility solutions in Bari area. The second goal is to make an assessment on trends of urban mobility in order to evaluate its sustainability and smartness. A comforting picture, focused on matching the local strategies to European programs, is shown. Finally, a consideration on how the framework “smart” may improve urban mobility planning is proposed."

    Audimob - Osservatorio sui comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani, Concrete alternative all'auto? Incoraggiare mezzi pubblici e bici!. (Fermata Audimob n.22). Isfort, Roma, maggio 2015, 7 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB]. "Una fermata Audimob, di approfondimento su incentivi e investimenti pubblici per politiche di sostegno finalizzate a trovare soluzioni alternative all’automobile."

    Julia Schmale, Erika von Schneidemesser and Axel Dörrie, An Integrated Assessment Method for Sustainable Transport System Planning in a Middle Sized German City. Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 1329-1354 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 1,36 MB]. Open Access. "Despite climate change mitigation and sustainability agendas, road transport systems in Germany and the resulting environmental burden are growing. Road transport is a significant source of emissions in urban areas and the infrastructure has a significant impact on the urban form. Nevertheless, mobility is a fundamental requirement for the satisfaction of the human desire to socially and economically engage in society. Considering these realities and the desire for sustainable development in a growing city (Potsdam, Germany), an integrated assessment methodology was co-developed among scientists and practitioners to prioritize a suite of transport-related measures. The methodology reflects the city’s qualitative and quantitative goals to improve public transport and promote sustainability, capturing synergies in categories that include environmental considerations as well as road safety, eco-mobility, and quality of life. This approach applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to derive a practically relevant solution for the local traffic and mobility problems that fosters ownership and accountability of all involved. This paper reflects on the process of developing the MCA, and the different aspects that were found important and required consideration during the process. Recommendations on specific traffic-related measures and the assessment of their effectiveness are not given. The aim is that such process information could foster greater collaboration within city departments and similar transdisciplinary efforts."

    Lorenzo Bertuccio, Osservatorio sulla Mobilità Sostenibile in Italia: indagine sulle principali 50 città. Edizione 2014. Roma, 18 dicembre 2014, 38 slides [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Presentazione dell'ottavo rapporto sulla mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane redatto da Euromobility.

    Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Muoversi meglio in città per muovere l'Italia. Analisi e proposte per un progetto di mobilità urbana. Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Roma, ottobre 2013, 328 p. [formato PDF, 6,34 MB]. "Il crescente volume di spostamenti urbani (solo parzialmente fermato dalla crisi economica), oltre ai bisogni che quotidianamente soddisfa, determina una serie di effetti negativi che incidono su molteplici aspetti della vita cittadina: consumi energetici, reddito delle famiglie, lavoro, salute, turismo, tutela delle persone anziane, salvaguardia del patrimonio artistico, sicurezza (non solo stradale). Questi effetti non sono inevitabili. Ce lo dimostrano i risultati di questa ricerca e il confronto fra i dati delle nostre città e quelli delle altre realtà europee. Per evitare questo paradosso è necessario adottare una serie di interventi coordinati, funzionali a migliorare la vivibilità delle città. Anche in questo caso prendendo spunto dagli esempi che hanno funzionato, dalle best practices italiane ed europee. Muovendo da queste premesse, lo studio definisce le più efficaci terapie per migliorare la mobilità, partendo dall’anamnesi delle nostre città in "movimento" e dalla diagnosi delle patologie della nostra "immobilità". Tenendo in debita considerazione gli strumenti finanziari e di governo locali, necessari per dare forma alle diverse idee. Le terapie proposte mirano a riequilibrare la ripartizione modale, favorire lo sviluppo di nuove reti per la mobilità sostenibile (tram, metropolitane, piste ciclabili), rilanciare il trasporto pubblico, in sintesi colmare lo spread, il differenziale che i trasporti urbani italiani scontano nel confronto con l’estero."

    Jeff Kenworthy, Total Daily Mobility Patterns and Their Policy Implications for Forty-Three Global Cities in 1995 and 2005. World Transport Policy and Practice, Volume 20.1, January 2014, 41-55 (15 p.) [vol. 20.1: formato PDF, 5,48 MB] "It is common to see mobility patterns in cities expressed in terms of the percentage of daily trips by different modes, most usually, private transport, public transport and non-motorised modes (e.g. Buehler, 2010; Pucher and Buehler, 2012). Often these figures represent all types of trips for all purposes, or sometimes only work trips, depending on the source of data and the aims of the survey or analysis. However, it is rare to see a complete analysis of daily mobility expressed as person-kilometres of travel per day by cars, motorcycles, public transport, walking and cycling. Such an analysis is important in order to see on a comparative basis just how different cities are around the world in terms of total daily mobility or movement of people. This paper presents such an analysis on forty-one cities in the more developed parts of the world (USA, Canada, Australia, Europe as well as selected more wealthy Asian cities), presenting panel data for the years 1995/6 and 2005/6. Importantly, by doing the same analysis for two years, it enables us to see some important trends in this factor. In a supplementary analysis, it also considers two further cities (Taipei, the capital of Taiwan and Sao Paulo, the largest metropolitan area in Brazil). Both these cities are much less wealthy than the cities in the core analysis, but have been included here in order to also gain an insight into what may be happening in at least some examples of lower income, rapidly motorising cities around the world."

    Sara Di Lonardo, Daniela Nuvolone, Francesco Forastiere, Ennio Cadum, Alessandro Barchielli; Gruppo collaborativo EpiAir2, Le politiche per la promozione della mobilità sostenibile e la riduzione dell’inquinamento atmosferico causato dal traffico veicolare nelle città partecipanti allo studio EpiAir2. (Policies for the promotion of sustainable mobility and the reduction of traffic-related air pollution in the cities participating in the EpiAir2 project). Epidemiol Prev 2013; 37 (4-5): 242-251 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 305 kB] "OBIETTIVO: fornire un quadro sintetico delle politiche di mobilità adottate negli ultimi anni (2006-2010) dalle amministrazioni di alcuni Comuni italiani attraverso la rilevazione degli interventi sulla mobilità urbana e relativa efficacia. DISEGNO E SETTING: i dati presentati si riferiscono alle quindici città inizialmente partecipanti al progetto EpiAir2: Torino, Milano, Venezia, Bologna, Firenze, Pisa, Roma, Taranto, Palermo, Cagliari, Trieste, Genova, Ancona, Napoli, Bari. RISULTATI: da questa indagine emergono debolezze e punti di forza delle città italiane nell’affrontare il tema della mobilità sostenibile. Le modifiche della consistenza del parco circolante sono state accompagnate da un suo rinnovamento con conseguente riduzione dei veicoli rispondenti agli standard emissivi più vecchi, seppur con differenze marcate tra le varie città. Tra le debolezze più rilevanti nella gestione locale della mobilità urbana è da segnalare in primo luogo lo sviluppo ridotto di metropolitane e di sistemi tranviari e il ritardo nell’ammodernamento delle reti ferroviarie suburbane, che pongono le città italiane in una posizione evidentemente svantaggiata rispetto ad altre realtà urbane europee analoghe. Per quanto riguarda gli altri aspetti della mobilità urbana (offerta/domanda di trasporto pubblico, ZTL, zone pedonali, km di piste ciclabili, servizi di car sharing e bike sharing), si segnala una situazione estremamente disomogenea tra le varie città italiane. CONCLUSIONI: le disomogeneità tra le diverse realtà sono in parte spiegabili con le peculiarità strutturali e culturali locali, oltre che da una diversa attenzione “storica” alle problematiche ambientali e a un’estemporaneità delle scelte effettuate dalle rispettive amministrazioni. Pur in presenza di molte iniziative settoriali, pare sia mancata una strategia nazionale che, pur rispettosa del livello di autonomia locale, abbia fornito linee di indirizzo per affrontare in maniera adeguata e coordinata il tema della mobilità sostenibile e dell’inquinamento atmosferico da traffico veicolare."

    Jian Wang (Southern Cross University), Commuter costs and potential savings: Public transport versus car commuting in Australia. November 2013, 25 p. [formato PDF, 797 kB] "This report identifies the potential annual savings that commuters working in the Central Business Districts (CBDs) of major Australian cities can achieve by commuting to work via public transport rather than by car. Focusing on commuters travelling to the CBDs in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Canberra and Hobart, commuter costs are first identified for the following three scenarios. Scenario 1: Own and commute to work by car five days a week. Scenario 2: Own a car but choose (or are able) to commute to work five days a week by public transport. Scenario 3: Do not own a car or choose not to buy a second car and commute to work five days a week by public transport."

    Comité technique B.3 Améliorer la mobilité en milieu urbain / Technical Committee B.3 Improved mobility in urban areas, Strategies for balancing urban transport to improve mobility and reduce road congestion. World Road Association (PIARC), La Défense, 2013, 125 p. [formato PDF, 3,64 MB]. "This report reviews the factors having a main impact on the supply and demand for road capacity, before it considers the strategies which allow to address congestion and improve mobility of persons in urban areas. From different case studies, the report reviews nine strategies: promoting public transportation; promoting bicycle transportation; promoting pedestrian transportation; promoting intermodal transportation; influencing car demand; strategy to improve the utilisation and allocation of capacity of roads; increasing capacity utilization of vehicles; improving the temporal spread of traffic volume; reducing the impacts of incidents; more compliant handling of road works and maintenance; and makes recommendations to road authorities."

    Comité technique B.3 Améliorer la mobilité en milieu urbain / Technical Committee B.3 Improved mobility in urban areas, Stratégies visant à équilibrer la part modale des transports urbains afin d'améliorer la mobilité et de réduire la congestion routière. World Road Association (PIARC), La Défense, 2013, 135 p. [formato PDF, 3,57 MB].

    ISFORT, ANAV, ASSTRA, "Una leva per la ripresa". 10° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Rapporto finale. [Presentato a] Bologna, 14 maggio 2013. ISFORT, Roma, 2013, 137 p. [formato PDF, 2,89 MB]. "In un conteso di generale contrazione della mobilità sia pubblica che privata si assiste a due scenari completamente opposti: in ambito urbano l'automobile privata crolla ed il trasporto pubblico locale guadagna quote di mercato, in ambito extraurbano, invece l'uso dell'auto aumenta a scapito proprio del trasporto pubblico."

    Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), Una leva per la ripresa. 10° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Presentazione, 10° convegno nazionale ASSTRA, Bologna, 14 maggio 2013. ISFORT, Roma, 2013, 28 slides [formato PDF, 1,61 MB].

    Active Transportation in Canada: a resource and planning guide. Transport Canada, Ottawa, 2011, 100 p. [formato PDF, 6,60 MB] "This guide is intended primarily for municipal and regional transportation planners in communities with limited active transportation planning and implementation experience, but can also be used by other individuals, including allied professionals (e.g., community planners, engineers, public health officers, etc.). While the guide is intended primarily for town and transportation planners, it recognizes that all types of planners (e.g., recreation, environmental, economic development, etc.) at all levels (e.g., local, regional , provincial, etc.) have a role to play in promoting and supporting active transportation in their communities. Another group that can use this guide is elected representatives, who are a community’s major decision-makers and are critical players in helping support and promote active transportation. Finally, representatives from local advocacy organizations (e.g., environmental groups, healthy living associations, etc.) and community groups with an interest in active transportation (e.g., Chambers of Commerce) can also use this guide to support communitybased active transportation projects initiated outside of City Hall, or as a resource guide to help better support and engage with active transportation projects initiated by the local government." Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre "Guide de planification et de ressources sur les transports actifs au Canada".

    ISFORT, ASSTRA, "All'ombra della crisi". 9° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Rapporto finale. [Presentato a] Desenzano del Garda, 24 maggio 2012. ISFORT, Roma, 2012, 170 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB]. "Tra i temi affrontati: il crollo della domanda di mobilità che consolida il recupero del trasporto pubblico; un tasso di motorizzazione in crescita turbato dall’aumento del prezzo della benzina che rafforza il trasporto su rotaia e l’intermodalità."

    Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), "All'ombra della crisi". Nono Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Presentazione a Desenzano del Garda, 24 maggio 2012, ISFORT e ASSTRA, 38 slides [formato PDF, 1,05 MB].

    Lorenzo Bertuccio, La mobilità sostenibile in Italia: indagine sulle principali 50 città. Edizione 2011. Roma, 23 dicembre 2011, 53 slides [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. Presentazione del Quinto rapporto sulla mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane redatto da Euromobility. "Si arricchisce in questa quinta edizione l'insieme degli indicatori di cui si è tenuto conto per stilare la classifica: oltre alle innovazioni introdotte per la gestione della mobilità (car sharing, bike sharing, mobility manager, ecc) e alla loro efficacia, allo stato di salute delle città in relazione alla presenza di auto di nuova generazione o alimentate a combustibili alternativi (gpl, metano), all'offerta di trasporto pubblico, alle piste ciclabili, all'adozione di strumenti di gestione e di pianificazione del traffico, si è tenuto anche conto del numero di parcheggi di scambio e di quelli a pagamento, del numero di incidenti e dell'indice di mortalità, del numero di autovetture per kmq, della qualità dell'aria e delle iniziative di promozione e comunicazione a favore della mobilità sostenibile. Per le innovazioni (car sharing, bike sharing ed eventi di comunicazione) si è anche tenuto conto dei miglioramenti registrati nel 2011. Le 50 città monitorate sono tutti i capoluoghi di Regione, i due capoluoghi delle Province autonome e le città con una popolazione superiore ai 100.000 abitanti.“

    ACI, CENSIS, XIX rapporto ACI-CENSIS 2011, Il triennio che sta cambiando il modo di muoversi. "Auto sempre più cara: la usi meno, la paghi di più". Roma, 13 dicembre 2011, 63 p. [formato PDF, 801 kB]. "La crisi economica frena l’automobile: 1 italiano su 5 ha ridotto l’uso del proprio veicolo, che si conferma comunque il mezzo preferito per l’83,9% degli spostamenti. Sono soprattutto i giovani ad abbandonare le quattro ruote, ricorrendo più di prima a bus e due ruote; gli over45 ripiegano sulla bicicletta o una passeggiata. Riscuote un maggiore gradimento il trasporto pubblico, soprattutto in città, ma i passeggeri chiedono corse più frequenti, orari in linea con le esigenze della domanda e contributi economici per biglietti ed abbonamenti. Anche se si usa sempre meno, l’auto costa sempre di più: 3.278 euro nel 2011 contro i 3.191 del 2010 (+2,7%). Le maggiori voci di spesa sono il carburante (1.530 euro, +2,3%), l’assicurazione (715€, +2,9%) e il parcheggio (218€, +5,3%). In forte aumento le multe (+18%), frutto di maggiori controlli su strada. La crisi porta a ridurre notevolmente i costi di manutenzione ordinaria (-15,2%), ma questo fa crescere sensibilmente quelli di manutenzione straordinaria (+8,5%). Tra le spese considerate “superiori al giusto” spiccano la benzina (84% delle risposte), considerata ormai un bene di lusso, e l’assicurazione (67,6% del campione); il 40% degli italiani imputa all’alto costo della rc-auto l’aumento delle truffe assicurative. Il caro-auto favorisce l’interesse verso il car-sharing (il servizio che permette di utilizzare un veicolo su prenotazione, prelevandolo e riconsegnandolo in un parcheggio dedicato): gli utenti sono arrivati a 30.000/mese nel 2011 (+66% in tre anni). E’ un fenomeno ancora di nicchia che però rappresenta un’evoluzione della mobilità urbana. I suoi punti di forza sono l’attenzione all’ambiente e la comodità di parcheggio; da migliorare la promozione verso i cittadini, le modalità di riconsegna dell’auto e l’incentivazione all’utilizzo per periodi prolungati. Aumentano le trasgressioni “confessate” dagli automobilisti, sia quelle a basso rischio di incidentalità (divieto di sosta +9%, occupazione corsia mezzi pubblici +5%, violazione ZTL +3%), sia quelle più pericolose (sorpasso a destra +5%, superamento limiti di velocità +15%, cellulare senza vivavoce +25%). Cresce anche la percentuale dei sanzionati, soprattutto per passaggio col rosso (+8%), superamento dei limiti di velocità e mancato rispetto della precedenza (+3%). Diminuiscono invece del 4% le multe per una infrazione molto comune: l’uso del cellulare senza viva voce. Autovelox e tutor non spaventano particolarmente i conducenti: il 56% si dichiara indifferente, mentre il 29% si affida a “contromisure” come navigatori satellitari o app per smartphone. L’indagine pone in evidenza un deficit culturale: 1 automobilista su 10 non rispetta i parcheggi riservati ai disabili. A tutela della sicurezza stradale, il 44% degli italiani si dichiara favorevole all’inasprimento delle pene per i pirati della strada. Maggiore severità anche verso i conducenti ubriachi, chi passa con il rosso e guida contromano."

    ACI, CENSIS, XIX rapporto ACI-CENSIS 2011, Il triennio che sta cambiando il modo di muoversi. "Auto sempre più cara: la usi meno, la paghi di più". Roma, 13 dicembre 2011, 34 slides [formato PDF, 694 kB].

    ACI, Legambiente, La mobilità per tutti nella città di domani. 13 proposte di ACI e Legambiente per la mobilità sostenibile. Roma, 22 settembre 2011, 16 p. [formato PDF, 191 kB]. "ACI e Legambiente sollecitano l’emanazione di una legge quadro che permetta di attuare un piano della mobilità di medio e lungo periodo che consenta finalmente un’efficace governance della mobilità urbana, superando la modalità dell’intervento d’emergenza. A questo scopo la norma quadro pensata da ACI e Legambiente dovrebbe prevedere una Valutazione di Impatto sulla Mobilità, una sorta di procedura preliminare a qualsiasi intervento urbanistico-territoriale che valuti l’opportunità della realizzazione sulla base dell’accesso ai servizi di mobilità. La norma quadro dovrebbe altresì stabilire criteri uniformi che guidino gli amministratori nella scelta dei provvedimenti da adottare per limitare il traffico. Non solo individuando le tipologie di veicoli in base alle dotazioni tecnologiche, ma anche alternative di trasporto, una segnaletica ad hoc per le limitazioni, e una metodologia di valutazione ex-post dei provvedimenti che misuri i risultati e permetta di comunicarli ai cittadini. La priorità negli investimenti per la mobilità, secondo ACI e Legambiente, dovrebbe essere data alla flotta del trasporto pubblico locale, perché diventi meno inquinante e più adeguata all’estensione del centro urbano e al numero di abitanti. In questo modo verrebbe prima potenziata l’accessibilità ai centri urbani e poi si potrebbe eventualmente valutare l’introduzione nelle grandi aree del road pricing, definendo criteri uniformi per le politiche tariffarie. Nella ricetta di ACI e Legambiente per la mobilità sostenibile ci sono lo sviluppo di parcheggi di scambio e residenziali non su strada, l’ampliamento del numero e dell’estensione delle isole pedonali e delle “zone 30”, nonché la diffusione di sistemi razionali di sosta a pagamento, con tariffe differenziate per zona e orario. Particolare attenzione è riservata agli utenti deboli della strada (pedoni, ciclisti, disabili) per i quali si dovrebbero stanziare molte più risorse per la realizzazione di isole pedonali e reti di piste ciclabili. Per fluidificare la circolazione lungo le grandi arterie, invece, si dovrebbero realizzare vie verdi con sosta vietata."

    Enrique Peñalosa, Mobility, Sustainability and Quality of Life. Seminar at the Institute of Transport and Logistic Studies, Sydney, 11 March 2011, presentation, 239 slides [formato PDF, 4,91 MB]. (Enrique Penalosa is currently President of the Board of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy based in New York. He has lectured all over the world in governmental, academic and citizens' forums. Mr Penalosa is an urban strategist whose vision and proposals have significantly influenced policies in numerous cities throughout the world. As former Mayor of Bogota, the 7 million inhabitants' capital of Colombia, Mr Penalosa profoundly transformed the city, turning it into an international example for improvements in quality of life, mobility and equity to developing world cities. During his tenure as Mayor, Mr Penalosa created TransMilenio, a bus rapid transit (BRT) system that is regarded as the world's best for its capacity, speed and cost efficiency. A similar system in Curitiba, Brazil, was its inspiration. An accomplished public official, economist and administrator, Mr Penalosa served as mayor from 1998 to 2001. Mr Penalosa helped develop a model for urban improvement based on all people having equal access to quality transportation, education and public spaces. During his tenure, Mr Penalosa was responsible for numerous initiatives to make the city more pedestrian-friendly, including building hundreds of kilometers of protected bicycle paths, pedestrian-and-bicycle-only promenades, greenways and parks.)

    Carme Miralles-Guasch, Dones, mobilitat, temps i ciutats. (Quaderns de l’Institut ; 14). Institut Català de les Dones, Barcelona, 2010, 95 p. [formato PDF, 559 kB]. "Les ciutats han evolucionat en diferents èpoques a partir d’ uns models únics que no han tingut prou en compte les necessitats i les aportacions de la meitat de la població: les dones. En aquesta publicació l’autora, Carme Miralles-Guasch, analitza l’evolució de la mobilitat a les ciutats al llarg de l’últim segle des de la perspectiva de gènere."

    Osservatorio "Audimob" sui comportamenti di mobilità degli Italiani, La domanda di mobilità degli Italiani. Rapporto congiunturale di metà anno. 1 semestre 2011. ISFORT, Roma, 2 agosto 2011, 22 p. [formato PDF, 557 kB]. "Il Rapporto sulla mobilità presenta l’analisi di alcuni indicatori fondamentali della mobilità osservati nel primo semestre del 2011".

    La mobilité des Français, panorama issu de l’enquête nationale transports et déplacements 2008. (La Revue du CGDD). Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, Paris, Décembre 2010, 238 p. [formato PDF, 5,04 MB]. "Ce numéro spécial de la revue du CGDD présente les résultats de l'enquête nationale transports et déplacements réalisée auprès des ménages. Ils nous permettent à la fois de disposer d’une description complète des comportements de mobilité des Français, et de retracer et comprendre les grandes tendances à l’oeuvre au cours des dernières décennies. Alors que le nombre de déplacements individuels effectués chaque jour est à peu près le même partout (entre 3,0 à Paris et 3,4 dans les grandes villes de province), l’utilisation de la voiture est d’autant plus faible que la zone est dense (1 déplacement sur 8 à Paris, près de 9 sur 10 dans la périphérie des petites villes). Aussi, plus l’habitat est dense, plus les personnes ont recours aux transports en commun, au vélo et à la marche à pied. L’usage de la voiture reste prédominant mais il se stabilise entre 1994 et 2008 dans les grandes villes de province et recule même à Paris. Or 37 millions d’habitants vivent aujourd’hui dans les pôles urbains, ce qui représente 60 % de la population de la France métropolitaine. Dès lors, l’importance des enjeux liés à la mobilité urbaine s’en trouve renforcée."

    Lorenzo Bertuccio, La mobilità sostenibile in Italia: indagine sulle principali 50 città. Edizione 2010. Roma, 28 dicembre 2010, 24 slides [formato PDF, 860 KB]. Presentazione del Quarto rapporto sulla mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane redatto da Euromobility.

    Legambiente, ACI, La città ai nostri piedi 1980/2010. 30 anni di isole pedonali. Analisi statistica e proposte di ACI e LEGAMBIENTE. Dossier. Roma, Dicembre 2010, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,68 MB]. "In occasione del trentennale dell’istituzione della prima isola pedonale, Automobile Club d’Italia e Legambiente presentano “La città ai nostri piedi”, storia e numeri delle aree chiuse al traffico, condividendo l’esigenza di affrontare in modo incisivo i problemi legati alla mobilità e al trasporto urbano, aumentando al contempo la sicurezza e la qualità ambientale delle città."

    ISFORT, ASSTRA, "Nessun dorma". Un futuro da costruire. 7° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. ISFORT, Roma, 27 maggio 2010, 250 p. [formato PDF, 2,80 MB]. "Il settimo Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia, realizzato anche grazie al contributo finanziario dell’Associazione Hermes, è frutto del lavoro congiunto delle èquipe di ricercatori di Isfort e di ASSTRA. Il Rapporto si articola in cinque sezioni. Le prime due sezioni rappresentano l’ossatura tradizionale del Rapporto: - la prima, focalizzata sul monitoraggio della domanda di mobilità urbana, secondo lo schema di analisi consolidato nelle passate edizioni del Rapporto che fa perno sull’elaborazione in profondità dell’ampia base dati dell’Osservatorio “Audimob” di Isfort su stili e comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani (indagine telefonica annuale su un campione rappresentativo della popolazione italiana di circa15.000 cittadini); - la seconda, centrata sulla valutazione delle performance economico-produttive e di qualità dei servizi delle aziende di trasporto pubblico che operano nelle medie e grandi città italiane, sulla base di un cospicuo campione di aziende associate ad ASSTRA (le aziende associate ad ASSTRA coprono oltre il 90% del mercato urbano dei servizi nelle città di media e grande dimensione). Le altre tre sezioni del Rapporto sono invece dedicate a specifici focus di approfondimento. Il primo focus (terza sezione) raccoglie in forma sintetica i frutti di un primo stadio dell’indagine avviata negli ultimi mesi del 2009 da Isfort, avente per oggetto casi di politiche locali di successo in tema di mobilità e rilancio qualitativo dei trasporti urbani. L’analisi considera alcune tra le realtà - individuate tra i capoluoghi italiani di media dimensione (Bergamo, Trento, Parma e Cagliari) - che negli ultimi tempi hanno fatto di più per recuperare slancio e alimentare in modo credibile le proprie strategie, conseguendo risultati significativi sia nello sviluppo del trasporto pubblico di linea (lato offerta e lato domanda), sia nel qualificare e potenziare in senso più generale le alternative all’auto. Il secondo focus (quarta sezione) propone un aggiornamento sulla situazione dei servizi e delle infrastrutture urbani di tipo ferroviario (reti metropolitane e tranviarie, ferrovie suburbane), dopo il check condotto nel 2005. Si propone un nuovo confronto sulle dotazioni ferroviarie dei Paesi europei e delle città, al fine di precisare meglio i bisogni del settore, il posizionamento strategico e l’impatto che la presenza di network di qualità implica sui modelli di mobilità e vivibilità urbana in Europa. Quindi si analizzano le tendenze recenti del settore italiano e i “passi in avanti” fatti per sviluppare le reti in uso e potenziare i servizi di accessibilità su ferro delle città. Infine, si entra nel dettaglio dei programmi sul “ferro” urbano elaborati dalle 4 grandi aree metropolitane d’Italia (Roma, Milano, Torino e Napoli). Il terzo focus (quinta sezione) è dedicato all’approfondimento di un tema-chiave per lo sviluppo del trasporto pubblico urbano, ovvero la sicurezza esplorata nella specifica dimensione della security (disposizioni messe in atto per proteggere mezzi, infrastrutture e persone da atti criminosi di qualsiasi genere). L’analisi si avvale dei risultati di un’indagine diretta presso un campione di aziende del trasporto pubblico urbano e dell’elaborazione dei dati “Audimob” sul tema (percezione dei cittadini)."

    Juliane Krause, Edzard Hildebrandt, Modellvorhaben "Fußgänger- und fahrradfreundliche Stadt". Chancen des Fuß- und Radverkehrs als Beitrag zur Umweltentlastung (Progetto modello "Città amica dei pedoni e delle bici". Potenzialità della mobilità pedonale e ciclabile come contributo al risanamento ambientale). (Texte 28/2005). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, Januar 2006, 289 p. (177 p. + allegati) [formato PDF, 7,17 MB]. "From June 2001 until October 2003 the model project "Walking and cycling friendly city" was accomplished. Model cities were the three cities Lingen (Ems), Plauen (Vogtland) and the Luthertown Wittenberg. The aim of the project was the creation of a positive climate towards walking and cycling through a long term promotion of these traffic forms, by forming equal rights in planing decisions and to strength its position in the planning institutions. For each model city it was built up a main concept with the administrationen (specific workinggroup) and local participants (advisors), or an existing concept was been updated. Caused by the short running time of the project and due to the fact, that no capital intensive programms has been promoted the highlights were: simple actions with little constructional or other effort; mainly ideas of public relations and communication; establishing a quality management with long lasting effects. The occured effects, realisation restaints and the benefits in the domains infrastructure, involvement and public relations have been appraised. This showes that: the proportion of walking and cycling at all ways can be increased with help of innovative, cost efficient and unconventional solutions; that the problems of the implementation of concepts for walking and cycling primarily lay in the financial safeguarding of projects and single measures and in the missing knowledge about moving for financial funding and the own capital. The conclusions show recommendations for the strategic promotion of walking and cycling programms for the local administration."

    Steven Melia, Potential for Carfree Development in the UK. UTSG, Plymouth, January 2010, 12 p. [formato PDF, 51 kB]. "This paper aims: to propose a definition and typology of carfree development, to assess the benefits and problems associated with it, to assess the potential demand for ‘European style’ carfree housing in the UK and the circumstances under which it might be feasible in the UK. Through a review of the literature and study visits to European carfree areas, 3 types of carfree development were identified: the Vauban model, Limited Access model and pedestrianised city centres with substantial residential populations. The study visits supported the claims that carfree developments help to reduce problems created by concentrations of traffic in urban areas. They facilitate active travel and independent play amongst children. Their main problems relate to parking management, although increasing controls in surrounding areas were helping to address this. To assess potential demand in the UK, two surveys were conducted: an online national survey aimed at members of environmental and cycling groups and a postal survey in Camden, London, followed by qualitative telephone interviews with a subset from both surveys. The findings revealed that potential demand for carfree housing is concentrated amongst ‘Carfree Choosers’ – people who currently live without cars by choice. These are mainly found in the inner areas of larger cities, where the greatest potential for carfree development exists. Some potential may also exist in suburban or exurban centres, where these are well served by multiple public transport connections, including rail." This paper summarises the PhD thesis.

    Stanislav Kutáček (Masarykova Univerzita), Možnosti alternativ k individuální automobilové doprave [Possibili alternative al trasporto individuale su automobile] . Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 2003, 75 p. [formato PDF, 994 kB].

    Tom Edwards and Stewart Smith, Transport Problems Facing Large Cities. (Briefing Paper No 6/08). NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service, Sydney, June 2008, 46 p. [formato PDF, 475 kB]. "This paper begins with a discussion of transport problems facing large cities and their applicability to Sydney. Part 2 of the paper provides a comparative analysis of transport policies in Paris; Tokyo; London; New York; Vancouver and Sydney."

    Atr, Sintesi dello studio "Mobilità sostenibile per le città medio-piccole. Scelte logiche e non ideologiche" redatto in occasione dell’omonimo convegno organizzato dall'ATR (Agenzia per la Mobilità nella provincia di Forlì-Cesena) a Forlimpopoli, 7 novembre 2008, 52 slides [file PDF, 8,72 MB]. Nello studio sono state analizzate 9 diverse tematiche per un totale di 13 casi selezionati in 7 diversi paesi europei: Tramvie: Mulhouse (Francia); Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Rouen (Francia) e Prato (Italia); Servizi flessibili: Irlanda del Nord (Regno Unito) e Cremona (Italia); Road pricing: Trondheim (Norvegia); Car free cities: Friburgo (Germania); Partnership for quality: Sheffield (Regno Unito); Mobilità ciclabile: Aalborg e Odense (Danimarca) e Ferrara (Italia); Parcheggi di scambio: Cambridge (Regno Unito); Citylogistics: Thun (Svizzera) e Vicenza (Italia).

    Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), Le sei Italie della mobilità. I cittadini che si spostano: una cluster analysis su stili e comportamenti della domanda. Roma, ISFORT, giugno 2008, 48 p. [formato PDF, 574 kB].

    Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), "Così è, se vi pare". Quinto Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Presentazione, Genova, 7 maggio 2008, 48 slides [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. "L’analisi condotta sulla lunghezza di un quinquennio mostra che gli sforzi prodotti a più livelli per migliorare le condizioni della mobilità urbana non riescono ad incidere sui nodi strutturali del settore."

    ISFORT, ASSTRA, "Così è, se vi pare". 5° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. [Presentato a] Genova, 7 maggio 2008. ISFORT, Roma, 2008, 180 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB].

    Ministero dei Trasporti, CENSIS, Pendolari d'Italia: scenari e strategie. Sintesi della ricerca. CENSIS, Roma, 14 marzo 2008, 20 p. [formato PDF, 153 KB]. "Negli ultimi anni la mobilità pendolare ha avuto un forte ciclo espansivo, legato soprattutto ai processi di diffusione abitativa che hanno cambiato profondamente le concentrazioni urbane in molte aree del Paese. Si tratta di un fenomeno complesso, in cui interagiscono fattori sociali, economici, ma anche aspetti urbanistici, infrastrutturali e relativi alla regolamentazione del trasporto pubblico e privato. L’analisi ha consentito di approfondire le motivazioni individuali, i modelli di mobilità, le opinioni e le propensioni, i disagi e le aspettative dei viaggiatori pendolari, combinando gli aspetti quantitativi del fenomeno con i profili qualitativi e comportamentali. Attraverso l’ascolto dei pendolari e con un quadro conoscitivo più puntuale e accurato si possono ricavare informazioni preziose per orientare le decisioni politiche." (necessaria registrazione gratuita sul sito del CENSIS)

    Giuseppe Roma (CENSIS), Pendolari d'Italia: scenari e strategie. Intervento alla presentazione della ricerca. CENSIS, Roma, 14 marzo 2008, 23 slides [formato PDF, 218 KB]. (necessaria registrazione gratuita sul sito del CENSIS)

    Lorenzo Bertuccio, Federica Pascalizi, La mobilità sostenibile in Italia. Indagine sulle principali 50 città. Roma, 20 dicembre 2007, 27 slides [formato PDF, 390 KB]. Presentazione della ricerca sviluppata dal Kyoto Club in collaborazione con Euromobility. "Gli indicatori di cui si è tenuto conto per stilare la classifica sono stati in particolare le innovazioni introdotte per la gestione della mobilità (car sharing, bike sharing, taxi collettivi, le piattaforme logistiche per le merci, i mobility manager, car pooling ecc); lo stato di salute delle città in relazione alla presenza di auto di nuova generazione o alimentate a combustibili alternativi (Gpl, metano); l'offerta di trasporto pubblico, le piste ciclabili, le ZTL, le corsie preferenziali; l'adozione di strumenti di gestione e di pianificazione del traffico. Le 50 città monitorate sono i 20 capoluoghi di Regione, i due capoluoghi delle Province autonome e le città con una popolazione superiore ai 100.000 abitanti."

    Marco Percoco, Urban Transport Policies and the Environment: Evidence from Italy. (Nota di Lavoro 59.2007). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milano, May 2007, 34 p. [formato PDF, 248 KB]. "The paper reviews urban transport policies in Italian cities and their impact on the concentration of NO2 and PM10. Using parametric and non-parametric techniques, it finds no significant effect of the policy actions currently implemented. Further, it finds evidence of a weak positive impact of plans adoption. These results are interpreted as evidence of positive externalities among actions. Finally, by also discussing case studies, the paper points out the absence of economic instruments and argues that significant welfare gains would derive from their adoption." Dallo studio risulta lo scarso successo ottenuto dalle politiche della mobilità nel ridurre l'inquinamento da traffico nelle città italiane.

    OPMUS, Osservatorio sulle Politiche per la Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile, Le iniziative promosse in 10 città italiane. Un aggiornamento dell'analisi al 2007, a cura di Luca Trepiedi, Roma, ISFORT, luglio 2007, 51 p. [formato Word, 1,23 MB]. Aggiornamento dello studio pubblicato dall'OPMUS nel 2005 sulle politiche del traffico di dieci città italiane, grandi e medie.

    ISFORT, La domanda di mobilità degli individui. Rapporto congiunturale di fine anno 2006. Roma, 2007, 56 p. [formato PDF, 454 KB]. "Il Rapporto sulla mobilità presenta l’analisi di alcuni indicatori fondamentali della mobilità osservati nell'anno 2006. L’obiettivo è un laboratorio di monitoraggio costante delle tendenze della mobilità degli individui in Italia che accompagni la ricerca analitica e la riflessione di approfondimento, e renda possibile la ricostruzione di quadri strutturali e tendenziali, nonché l’elaborazione di ipotesi sugli scenari previsivi."

    ISFORT, ASSTRA, "Aggiungi un posto in autobus". 4° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana. Firenze, 12 aprile 2007, 131 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB]; presentazione del rapporto di Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), 12 aprile 2007, 45 slides [formato PDF, 1,35 MB].

    APAT, Qualità dell'ambiente urbano. III rapporto APAT. Edizione 2006. Roma, 2006, 781 p. + CD allegato [formato PDF, 8,29 MB]. "Per il terzo anno consecutivo è stato predisposto il Rapporto annuale sulla qualità dell'ambiente urbano, principale prodotto del Progetto “Qualità ambientale nelle aree metropolitane italiane”. Per il terzo anno di attività l'analisi è stata estesa a tutti i capoluoghi di provincia con popolazione superiore ai 150.000 abitanti. Nel Rapporto sono affrontate le seguenti tematiche: Aree metropolitane, Energia, emissioni e qualità dell'aria, Trasporti, Acque, Rifiuti, Sostenibilità locale, Natura e reti ecologiche, Esposizione all’inquinamento elettromagnetico, bioedilizia e indoor, Comunicazione ed informazione, Suolo, Pianificazione locale, Impatti e risposte." Contiene contributi sulle emissioni in atmosfera degli inquinanti e dei veicoli, sul mobility management, il parco veicolare nelle aree urbane, il trasporto pubblico locale, la mobilità ciclistica.

    XV rapporto ACI-CENSIS, L'Italia invecchia al volante. Gli over 65 sono i nuovi padroni della strada: cambiano gli stili di vita, i vizi e le virtù degli automobilisti. Roma, 16 gennaio 2007, 60 p. [formato PDF, 1,08 MB]. "Usiamo meno l’auto, percorriamo meno chilometri e si consolida la domanda di auto più comode, maneggevoli e con il cambio automatico, e di una segnaletica più grande e più luminosa. Ma il dato che emerge nettamente è uno: gli over 65 che usano l’auto sono e saranno sempre di più."

    Osservatorio sulle Politiche per la Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile, Le politiche promosse in 10 città italiane, Roma, ISFORT, Quaderno OPMUS n.3, giugno 2005, 57 p. [formato PDF, 1,71 MB]. Vengono esaminati i casi di Roma, Milano, Torino, Napoli, Genova, Palermo, Padova, Parma, Cesena (Forlì), Bolzano.

    ACI, EURISPES, Rapporto sulla qualità della mobilità nelle province italiane. Sintesi per la stampa. Roma, 13 settembre 2006, 62 p. [formato PDF, 526 kB]. Indagine campionaria sugli spostamenti urbani ed extraurbani e sulla soddisfazione nei confronti del servizio di trasporto pubblico. Contiene schede sul traffico nelle città, sul car sharing, sulla sicurezza stradale e sulla qualità dell’ambiente urbano.

    PLUME (Planning and Urban Mobility in Europe) Deliverable 11: Final Report. September 2005, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. Risultati del network tematico PLUME sulla pianificazione e la mobilità urbana sostenibile in Europa.

    Christoph Erdmenger, Vivien Führ, Hidden Subsidies for Urban Car Transportation : Public Funds for Private Transport, ICLEI, Freiburg (D), 2005, 6 p. [formato PDF, 232 kB]. Questo opuscolo riporta esempi di città della Germania, Austria, Svizzera e Italia in cui le entrate dei Comuni dal traffico automobilistico sono largamente superiori alle uscite, per cui il trasporto privato di fatto gode di sussidi pari a 150 Euro all’anno per abitante (in media), con punte di 250 Euro (Düsseldorf) e 440 Euro (Ferrara). Esiste anche una versione in lingua tedesca : Versteckte Kosten des Städtischen Autoverkehrs : Öffentliche Gelder für den privatenVerkehr.

    ISFORT e ASSTRA, "Avanti c’è posto?" : report annuale ASSTRA-ISFORT sulla mobilità urbana: i bisogni dei cittadini, le risposte delle città. Roma, (13 aprile) 2005, 70 p. [formato PDF, 681 kB]. (Secondo rapporto sulla mobilità in Italia, realizzato da ISFORT); Presentazione del rapporto del 13 aprile (26 slides) [formato PDF, 525 kB].

    Piet Rietveld, Urban transport policies: the Dutch struggle with market failures and policy failures Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper n. 126, August 2004, 24 p. [formato PDF, 281 kB ] (interessante e sintetica valutazione dei pregi e difetti della politica della mobilità urbana in Olanda; esamina in particolare le misure di road pricing promesse e mai introdotte, le politiche urbanistiche “ABC” riguardanti i parcheggi e il ruolo della mobilità ciclabile in Olanda)

    How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health : A Literature Review of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Built Form (effetti della pianificazione urbana e dei trasporti sulla salute, soprattutto sull’attività fisica, la mobilità pedonale e ciclabile. Ampio documento di sintesi dell’Active Community Environments Initiative (ACES) presso i Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) 147 p. [formato Pdf, 845 Kb]

    How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health : An Annotated Bibliography (vedi sopra: bibliografia) 63 p. [formato Pdf, 635 Kb]


    SITI INFORMATIVI E DIVULGATIVI, PORTALI

    Eltis, the urban mobility portal. Eltis facilitates the exchange of information, knowledge and experiences in the field of urban mobility in Europe. It is aimed at individuals working in the field of transport as well as in related disciplines, including urban and regional development, health, energy and environmental sciences. Eltis supports the creation of urban transport systems, which use less energy and produce less emissions, while improving the competitiveness of urban areas and the mobility and quality of life of its citizens. Created more than 10 years ago, Eltis is now Europe's main portal on urban mobility.

    Nuova Mobilità, in cammino verso città sostenibili e stili di vita a misura d'uomo. Il diario italiano del trasporto sostenibile. Blog quotidiano realizzato in collaborazione con World Streets.

    Clickmobility.it il portale italiano della mobilità e del trasporto passeggeri

    citytransport.info, "Information on transports within and between cities, looking at technologies both well established and new, showing options which provide viable alternatives to traffic congestion and air pollution - topical and controversial issues which bedevil every industrialised nation globally."


    TAXI, SERVIZI A DOMANDA (ON-DEMAND RIDE SERVICES)

    Seoin Baek, Heetae Kim and Hyun Joon Chang (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea. Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 964 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 861 kB]. Open Access. "For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle) is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed."

    Lisa Rayle, Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Danielle Dai, Robert Cervero, App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco. (Working Paper). University of California Transportation Center (UCTC), Berkeley, November 2014, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "The rapid growth of on-demand ride services such as uberX and Lyft, or “ridesourcing,” has prompted debate among policy makers and stakeholders. At present, ridesourcing’s usage and impacts are not well understood. Key questions include: how ridesourcing and traditional taxis compare with respect to trip types, customers, and locations served; whether ridesourcing complements or competes with public transit; and potential impacts on vehicle kilometers traveled. We address these questions using an intercept survey. In spring 2014, 380 complete surveys were collected from three ridesourcing “hot spots” in San Francisco. Survey results are compared with matched-pair taxi trip data and results of a previous taxi user survey. We also compared travel times for ridesourcing and taxis with those for public transit. The findings indicate ridesourcing serves a previously unmet demand for convenient, point-to-point urban travel. Although taxis and ridesourcing share similarities, the findings show differences in users and the user experience. Ridesourcing wait times are markedly shorter and more consistent than those of taxis, while ridesourcing users tend to be younger, own fewer vehicles and more frequently travel with companions. Ridesourcing, like taxis, appears to both substitute for and complement public transit; the majority of ridesourcing trips would have taken substantially longer if made by public transit. Impacts on overall vehicle travel are unclear. Future research should build on this exploratory study to further understand impacts of ridesourcing on labor, social equity, the environment, and public policy."

    TaxiPro.nl is het online vakblad voor de taxibranche. Dagelijks informeren wij professionele taxi-ondernemers en taxichauffeurs over de ontwikkelingen binnen hun vakgebied. We maken nieuws, interviews, reportages, onderzoeken en opinie. Blog per l'informazione quotidiana rivolto ai professionisti del settore (in lingua olandese).

    Instituto da Mobilidade e dos Transportes Terrestres (IMTT), Estudo Sobre as Condições de Exploração de Transportes em Táxi na Cidade de Lisboa. IMTT, Lisboa, Março 2006, 20 p. [formato PDF, 221 kB]

    Chiara Bentivogli, Il servizio di taxi e di noleggio con conducente dopo la riforma Bersani: un'indagine sulle principali città italiane. (Questioni di economia e finanza ; 24). Roma, Banca d'Italia, Settembre 2008, 30 p. [formato PDF, 638 kB] "Il lavoro analizza il mercato italiano dei taxi e i suoi recenti cambiamenti sulla base di un'indagine condotta dalla Banca d'Italia. Si rileva una certa omogeneità nella normativa locale, una diffusa sovrarappresentazione dei delegati degli operatori rispetto a quelli degli utenti nelle commissioni consultive locali e uno scarso utilizzo di indicatori di valutazione dell'adeguatezza del servizio. I costi medi del settore risultano piuttosto omogenei a fronte di ampie differenze nella struttura dell'offerta e nella tipologia delle tariffe. Gli strumenti attribuiti ai Comuni dalla legge Bersani sono stati utilizzati soprattutto nelle grandi città: spesso l'aumento dei taxi in circolazione - ottenuto attraverso maggiori turni, più raramente distribuzione (gratuita) di nuove licenze - si è accompagnato ad un aumento delle tariffe, presumibilmente col fine di salvaguardare la redditività degli operatori; pressoché assente è risultato l'uso di misure di riorganizzazione del servizio (su scala sovracomunale, su più operatori ed in termini di regolazione del traffico). La congruità delle decisioni dei Comuni rispetto alle caratteristiche della domanda e dei costi è tuttavia difficile da valutare in assenza di strumenti non occasionali di conoscenza del mercato."

    Richard Darbéra (CNRS), Problématique du taxi. Colloque scientifique et technique "Le taxi, premier transport à la demande. Solution d’avenir pour les mobilités urbaines", Lisbonne, 21-22 septembre 2007, 7 p. [formato PDF, 122 KB].

    Nicolas Cardon (GfK Group), Le taxi au sein des déplacements urbains: pratiques, positionnement et pistes de développement. (Le public des taxis : ses usages, ses nouveaux besoins. Les taxis à Londres, Lisbonne, Paris, Amsterdam, New York, enquête auprès de 2 016 Clients). Colloque scientifique et technique "Le taxi, premier transport à la demande. Solution d’avenir pour les mobilités urbaines", Lisbonne, 21-22 septembre 2007, 48 slides [formato PDF, 12,2 MB].

    Nicolas Cardon (GfK Group), The place of the taxi through urban mobility: its practices, positioning & potential for expansion. (Le public des taxis : ses usages, ses nouveaux besoins. Les taxis à Londres, Lisbonne, Paris, Amsterdam, New York, enquête auprès de 2 016 Clients). Colloque scientifique et technique "Le taxi, premier transport à la demande. Solution d’avenir pour les mobilités urbaines", Lisbonne, 21-22 septembre 2007, 48 slides [formato PDF, 12,2 MB].


    RITORNA ALLA HOMEPAGE