Iván López, Jordi Ortega and Mercedes Pardo, Mobility Infrastructures in Cities and Climate Change: An Analysis Through the Superblocks in Barcelona. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 410 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 5,9 MB]. Open Access. "Cities are key actors in the fight against climate change since they are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while at the same time they experience the negative impact of this phenomenon. Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires fundamental changes in urbanism and city automobile traffic. Superblocks, a grid of blocks and basic roads forming a polygon, approximately 400 by 400 m, are one of the instruments for such changes. These type of city Superblocks represent a new model of mobility that restructures the typical urban road network, thereby substantially reducing automobile traffic, and accordingly GHG emissions, while increasing green space in the city and improving the health and quality of life of its inhabitants. Furthermore, the Superblocks do not require investment in hard infrastructures, nor do they involve demolishing buildings or undertaking massive development; they are in fact very low-tech urbanism. The city of Barcelona has been implementing Superblocks as one of the measures to combat climate change with very positive results. The paper analyzes the concept of the Superblock and its relation with climate change in cities. Along these lines, it analyzes the pioneer experience of Barcelona in the development and implementation of the Superblocks, as a radical plan aimed at taking back the streets from cars. The role of political power and institutional leadership has been key in societal acceptance and the achievement of tangible results. But there are also obstacles and drawbacks in the development of these types of Superblocks, such as the necessity to redesign the collective transport network so that car traffic can truly be reduced in cities, the possible negative influence on traffic going in and out of the city, the lack of visible advantages if they are not implemented in the entire city, the risk of gentrification in the areas with Superblocks, public opposition, and opposition from certain sectors of the business community."

    Fergus Browne, David Jordan, Measuring the Pedestrian Experience in Dublin: The Role of Urban Design Theory in Understanding and Redesigning Public Space in Cities. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 9-20 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "This paper examines the pedestrian experience as a frequently overlooked factor in city planning and design and demonstrates how urban theories can be utilised to measure, understand and promote better quality and more responsive public spaces. Too often urban design theories remain in the realm of academic discourse and although contributing implicitly to the formulation of policy, are rarely explicitly invoked. By distilling and applying these theories, it has been illustrated that such an approach enables the complexities of the city to be represented and understood from the perspective of the pedestrian. This paper is divided into two distinctive areas: theory and practice. In discussing theory, the bifurcation of urban design discourse into two distinct strands of the psychological and physical cities, provided an enhanced awareness and appreciation of the plethora of urbanism fields to which human perception and experience relates. By reflecting on a number of urban design-based studies, as previously conducted by the authors in Dublin, a case is made that such an alternative approach lends a greater understanding of cognitive perceptions to urban environments. Individually, they were designed to give specific information required as part of evaluating an urban space, but collectively the studies provided a series of vital buildable layers offering an insight into how a person experiences and interacts with a city on a daily basis and providing an indicator of the physical catalysts which impact on this relationship. The research argues that a greater link between pedestrian experience and the design of the public realm needs to occur and will demonstrate how this connection is frequently missing, leading to the production of non-responsive public space which fails to engage the pedestrian user. This paper aims to deliver a universal lesson that successful urban spaces are the ones which are the most responsive to the needs of the pedestrian. Indeed the authors believe that only through the adoption of a pedestrian-centred approach to designing and managing the public realm will sustainable mobility be fully realised in European cities."

    Urban design, transport, and health. Online/Series. The Lancet 2016 (42 p.) [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30068-X [free registration needed]. Part 1: City planning and population health: a global challenge; Part 2: Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities; Part 3: Use of science to guide city planning policy and practice: how to achieve healthy and sustainable future cities. "Worldwide, the majority of people already live in cities and by 2050, it is estimated that 75% of 10 billion people have cities as an important social determinant of health. Air pollution, physical inactivity, noise, social isolation, unhealthy diets, and exposure to crime play a very important part in the non-communicable disease burden. This 3-part Series explores how integrated multisector city planning, including urban design and transport planning, can be used as an important and currently underused force for health and wellbeing within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals in both high-income countries and low-income and middle-income countries."

    European Environment Agency, Urban sprawl in Europe. Joint EEA-FOEN report. [EEA Report No 11/2016]. European Environment Agency and Federal Office for the Environment, Copenhagen, Bern, 2016, 135 p. [formato PDF, 15,7 MB]. "This report provides a comparable measurement of urban sprawl for 32 European countries at three levels (the country level, the NUTS-2 region level and the 1-km2 cell level) and for two years (2006 and 2009). The analysis is based on the Copernicus system which monitors the Earth and collects data by different sources. This data provides information about a number of thematic areas, including land. Under land a pan-European component delivers information about various areas, including the level of sealed soil (imperviousness), through high resolution layers taken from satellite imagery. The analysis uses new urban sprawl metrics taking into account the way built-up areas are laid out and how they are used. It also looks at the factors which contribute to an increase or decrease in urban sprawl. The results confirm the conclusions of earlier EEA reports namely that in many parts of Europe current levels of urban sprawl have contributed to detrimental ecological, economic and social effects. This gives cause for concern and such effects may increase alongside planned urban development."

    Benjamin Weil (Univ. of Massachusetts), Solar city, bike city, growth city: governance and energy in Davis, California. Journal of Political Ecology 20 (2013): 70-179 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 432 kB] "This article examines the Davis case with a focus on two types of renewable energy; human powered transport and solar heat. They were chosen as useful examples because the technologies in both cases are simple, well developed, applied at the individual or household level, and can have very high immediate impacts on the consumption of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. This essay describes the development of these two technological systems in the City of Davis. In doing so, it discusses the initial rise, and subsequent decline in usage of both technologies. It also engages questions such as: (1) What is the role of local policy capacity, civic engagement, and social capital, in determining energy and land-use choices? (2) What does it take to make an environmentally sustainable city? (3) What conditions favor the widespread adoption of small-scale renewable energy technologies? (4) What conditions threaten the ability of communities to maintain and expand their use of these technologies? (5) What is the role of less-tangible assets, such as values, identity, and sense of community?".

    Petter Næss, Arvid Strand, Teresa Næss and Morten Nicolaisen, On their road to sustainability? The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development in two Scandinavian capital regions. Town Planning Review, 82 (3) 2011, 285-315 (32 p.) [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "The metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Oslo (Norway) both aim to facilitate economic development, opportunities for choice and growth in the building stock while limiting negative environmental consequences. Since the 1990s, the rate of consumption of land for urban development has been lower than the economic growth rate in both city regions. Land use policies in Oslo and to some extent in Copenhagen have been explicitly geared towards limiting traffic growth. In both cities, public transport improvements have been combined with road capacity increases. Traffic growth has therefore only been weakly decoupled from economic growth. In both city regions, lack of coordination between sectors, levels and administrative territories is conceived a barrier to sustainability."

    Klaus J. Beckmann, Jürgen Gies, Jörg Thiemann-Linden, Thomas Preuß, Deutsches Institut für Urbanistik gGmbH, Leitkonzept - Stadt und Region der kurzen Wege. Gutachten im Kontext der Biodiversitätsstrategie [Città e regione dei percorsi brevi]. (Texte Nr. 48/2011). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, August 2011, 118 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. "Kurze Wege" sind eine Richtschnur für ein räumliches Strukturprinzip, das über das Ziel der Erhaltung der Biodiversität hinaus auch für andere Politikfelder relevant ist. Es stellt sich daher die Frage, wie die Bundesregierung die für die Umsetzung „kurzer Wege“ notwendigen Anstöße geben kann. Die Empfehlungen werden nach den Handlungsfeldern „Schutz der natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen und Ressourcen“, „Steuerung der Siedlungsentwicklung“ sowie „Steuerung der Verkehrsentwicklung“ gegliedert. In den Handlungsfeldern werden vor dem Hintergrund des Oberziels einer deutlich verminderten Flächenneuinanspruchnahme zum Erhalt der Biodiversität Maßnahmen vorgeschlagen. Dabei liegen nicht alle Maßnahmen im unmittelbaren Einflussbe-reich des Bundes. Der Bund kann vielfach jedoch einen Rahmen setzen oder über Forschungs-projekte und Modellvorhaben („Best Practices“) sowie über die Initiierung von Erfahrungsaus-tauschen Entwicklungen anstoßen."

    Ron Golem and Janet Smith-Heimer, Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment. A Synthesis of Transit Practice. (TCRP Synthesis 86). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2010, 64 p. [formato PDF, 4,35 MB]. "This synthesis summarizes the limited literature and documentation regarding the impacts of modern streetcar systems on the built environment, underscoring the need for further empirical analysis. Streetcars represent a growing transportation alternative, with more than 45 systems built or in various stages of planning or construction. Their popularity has resulted from a range of factors, including relatively lower cost of construction than other forms of rail transit and their relative ease of integration into the existing urban fabric. Little in-depth work has evaluated this streetcar resurgence, leading to an interest by policymakers and planners to have a better understanding of how this mode of transportation interacts with the built environment, particularly since changes in land use and development patterns are often cited as a justification for investment in streetcar systems. Great diversity exists among operating and planned systems, and this synthesis begins to identify several stages of streetcar system development. These stages are potentially but not necessarily sequential and include the following: - Demonstration: a volunteer or local agency establishes the feasibility of a modest streetcar line; - Targeted trips: expanded service is focused on certain groups, typically tourists and residents but not necessarily commuters; - Full service: frequent daily service, including during commute hours with service to downtown or business centers; - Urban connector: multiple routes between various districts and full integration into the regional transportation system. These stages have distinctly different implications for the potential impact of streetcars on the built environment, and the types and amount of economic development and changes in the built environment that might occur. Because federal transportation policies, along with most local governments’ land use and transportation planning are increasingly emphasizing “green” development, smart growth, reduction in carbon emissions, and increased links between land use and transportation, the need to systematize the study of streetcar impacts is dramatic. This synthesis presents an overview of published literature on the relationship between streetcars and the built environment, a survey of 13 streetcar systems that have been recently built or expanded, and in-depth case studies of five systems to describe the current state of knowledge and elaborate on the relationship of streetcars to the built environment. A challenge in considering these questions is the lack of a common and consistent definition of what constitutes a streetcar as opposed to a light rail system. Furthermore, some systems blend characteristics of these two modes. For example, the LINK system in Tacoma, Washington, is termed “light rail” by SoundTransit, its operator, even though its vehicles are the same as those used in the Portland and Seattle streetcar systems. For this synthesis, a broad definition of streetcar systems was used that builds on rail advocacy organization Reconnecting America's typology of streetcars. Streetcar systems typically run in the street at grade on embedded rails, stop every several blocks, operate at average speeds of less than 12 mph, and have lower construction cost per mile than light or commuter rail. For this synthesis, “impact on the built environment” was defined as broadly as possible. The definition includes indicators that describe economically vibrant neighborhoods as well as indicators that measure the actual changes in the quantities and types of physical and economic development adjacent to streetcar systems. A literature review for this synthesis considered the substantial literature on the “value premium” or increase in property values or related economic activity that can be created by fixed guideway transit. This is a key consideration because of policymaker interest in “capturing” some of this value to help finance streetcar construction and operating costs. Because of the broad range in methodologies used and findings from various studies, however, it is difficult to distill conclusions that can be applied broadly. Premiums vary by land use and range from minimal (1% to 2%) to substantial (100% plus). A key challenge in evaluating value premiums is controlling for changes in zoning or other policies permitting greater density in conjunction with new fixed guideway transit, because these alone can increase the value of land and existing properties, separate from any direct transit impacts. Other literature measuring actual changes in economic activity, such as retail sales, visitors, or job growth is nearly nonexistent. General findings from the streetcar systems surveys and case studies highlight a variety of differences between systems, including that smaller-scale systems typically evolved from community or business initiatives, while larger systems generally were created through more extensive planning efforts, and some have evolved to become an integrated component of overall regional transit systems. A broad range of funding sources and management arrangements are available, encompassing such efforts as repurposing highway funding (Memphis), completing substantial property assessments (Portland and Seattle), and using local nonprofits for development and management of systems. Almost all representatives interviewed believed that streetcars positively affected the built environment, particularly in attracting new development or enhancing revitalization, although the degree of impact varies. Few systems, however, reported the types of ancillary changes in the built environment, such as reduced parking garage construction, increased pedestrian or bike lane investments, or explicit parking reductions that often are associated with light rail systems. Few, if any, streetcar system operators seek information on their impact on economic activity, although most interviewed consider economic-related questions to be vital and desire further research on this topic. Based on the literature review, case studies, and surveys, a series of suggestions have been developed for future empirical research to augment the limited literature and documentation of impacts of streetcars on the built environment. These are outlined in the Conclusions."

    Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, Andrew Little, The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. ICF International, February 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 150 kB]. "This study began with the hypothesis that public transportation interacts with land use patterns, changing travel patterns in neighborhoods served by transit. Importantly, this effect would apply not just to transit riders, who make an exchange of automobile use for transit, but also for people who do not use transit. These people, who live in places shaped by transit, would tend to drive less, reducing their overall petroleum use and their carbon footprint. In order to test this hypothesis, we began with a survey of the literature on the interaction of land use and travel patterns. The literature focuses on three major categories of influences on travel: land use/urban environment, socio-demographic factors, and cost of travel. For the purposes of this study, land use/urban environment variables were further broken down to include a separate category for transportation infrastructure. Many past studies have found a significant correlation between land use variables and travel behavior, though results vary depending on how the problem and the variables are defined. Boarnet and Crane (2001) emphasized that without accounting for social characteristics, like age and education, land use-transportation models are incomplete. They also discussed the importance of economic measures, such as household or personal income, as a measure of the cost of travel time. Other studies evaluated the relative importance of these and other variables, informing this model. After evaluating possible variables for this model, we formed a statistical model that would allow us to tease apart the relationship between land use, transit availability, and travel behavior."

    Lisa Rayle (MIT), Tracing the effects of transportation and land use policies: a review of the evidence. (TSI-SOTUR-08-01). Working Paper. MIT Portugal, May 2008, 44 p. [formato PDF, 490 kB]. "This paper reviews the current literature on the effects of land use-transport strategies. In particular, the paper will attempt to answer the following questions: 1. What does the literature say about the relationship between the built environment and transportation? 2. What planning interventions exist that intend to leverage the land use-transport interaction? 3. How does current research assess the effectiveness of these policies? 4. What research questions remain unanswered?"

    Jean-Charles Castel (Groupe Observation Urbaine, CERTU), Les liens entre l'organisation urbaine et les déplacements dans la perspective de maîtrise du trafic automobile. CERTU, Juillet 2006, 64 p. [formato Word, 1,24 MB]. "Ce document est une synthèse de nombreuses études et recherches qui ont été conduites pouvant apporter des éléments de réponse à ces questions. Il s'organise en cinq parties: dans un premier temps nous allons voir quelles sont les explications qui sous-tendent l'idée de liens entre l'organisation urbaine et les déplacements. dans une seconde partie, nous allons voir ce qu'il est possible de mesurer et quelles sont les limites méthodologiques de telles mesures; dans la troisième partie, nous discernerons les comportements des agents et examinerons les arbitrages sous contrainte des différents acteurs; dans la quatrième partie, nous verrons ce qu'il est possible de dire des politiques publiques et outils réglementaires; pour finir, nous proposerons des éléments de cadrage pour des politiques de réduction des véhicules-kilomètre."

    Anke Heilemann, Herbert Kemming, Rail-oriented development on urban and regional levels - potentials and impacts, policy measures and processes. ERSA 2002 Dortmund, 19 p. [formato PDF, 371 kB]. "The present trend of spatially diffused and functionally segregated settlement structures is to cause significant long-term growth in traffic volumes. One measure to attain more sustainability is to develop land use along the existing passenger rail infrastructure. The federal state of North Rhine- Westphalia (NRW) has adopted this as a clear strategy, providing grants to cities to develop housing close to rail stations. Both the potential and the effects of a rail-oriented development have been analysed by ILS for the NRW Ministry of Urban Development. A survey done in over one hundred cities in three regions has revealed a considerable amount of land available for new housing around rail stations, but also a substantial variation between regions and among cities. As far as the effects are concerned, another survey was performed among 2100 persons from six comparable suburban areas with high motorization rates. It showed up a significant difference in their modal choice, depending on the rail accessibility, although the difference is lower than might be expected. Furthermore, this paper presents successful experiences of rail oriented development on different levels. At the regional level, the Haller Willem project in NRW demonstrates the successful revitalisation of a railway line and settlement development close to rail stations. Strategies aiming at the integration of land use and public transport at the urban level are illustrated here by the cities of Orléans and Vienna."

    European Commission, COST 332 - Transport and land-use policies: resistance and hopes for coordination. Proceedings of the launching seminar of the action COST 332, 24-25 October 1996, Barcelona, Spain. Luxembourg, 1998, 201 p. [formato Word, 1,24 MB - zippato]. (The proceedings discuss the coordination between transport projects and regional planning, contain an inventory of national approaches to mechanisms for coordination between transport and planning and the presentation of some of the case studies).

    Julio Pozueta Echavarri, Movilidad y planeamiento sostenible: hacia una consideración inteligente del transporte y la movilidad en el planeamiento y en el diseño urbano. Madrid, Quadernos de Investigación Urbanística n° 30, Julio de 2000, 111 p. [formato PDF, 4,15 MB].

    Jean-Pierre Orfeuil (Université Paris XII), Déplacements, énergie consommée et formes urbaines, Paris, CRETEIL (Centre de Recherche Espace, Transports, Environnement et Institutions Locales), Octobre 2005, 11 p. [formato PDF, 651 KB].

    Michael Wegener (Universität Dortmund), Die Stadt der kurzen Wege. Müssen wir unsere Städte umbauen? (La città delle vie brevi. Dobbiamo ristrutturare le nostre città?) (City of short distances. Do we need to rebuild our cities?). Dortmund, Institut für Raumplanung, 1999, 52 p. [formato PDF, 1,01 MB].

    Alfredo Drufuca, Strumenti per interpretare e governare la città diffusa: accessibilità e mobilità, Milano, Polinomia, 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,22 MB]. (comunicazione basata su scritti ed elaborati prodotti da Andrea Debernardi)

    European Environment Agency, Urban sprawl in Europe : the ignored challenge, EEA Report n.10/2006, Copenhagen, 2006, 60 p. [formato PDF, 7,10 MB].

    Giorgio Preto, La politica ambientale del traffico urbano. L'insegnamento di Colin Buchanan. Testi Osservatorio Città Sostenibili, DIT Dipartimento Interateneo Territorio Politecnico e Università di Torino, 2000, 25 p. [file zip 825 KB: contiene file PDF, 906 KB]. Con illustrazioni. "Il Rapporto Buchanan costituisce un caposaldo dell'urbanistica moderna e rappresenta una anticipazione dei temi della sostenibilità del traffico urbano. La sua ripresa critica ha il valore di un riconoscimento del rilievo che esso riveste nella cultura urbanistica."

    Carlo Socco, La progettazione dello spazio della mobilità urbana. Osservatorio Città Sostenibili, Dipartimento Interateneo Territorio Politecnico e Università di Torino, 2001, 32 p. [file zip 172 KB: contiene file PDF, 198 KB]. Il testo è corredato da brevi appendici tematiche e da abachi di carattere manualistico. "Una guida tecnica per la progettazione dei vari tipi di strade urbane, secondo i criteri della moderazione del traffico e della messa in sicurezza dello spazio pubblico."

    PLUME (Planning and Urban Mobility in Europe), Deliverable 11: Final Report. September 2005, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. Risultati del network tematico PLUME sulla pianificazione urbana e la mobilità urbana sostenibile in Europa.


    G.B. Arrington, Robert Cervero, Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel. (TCRP Report 128). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 67 p. [formato PDF, 3,70 MB]. "This research helps confirm what had been intuitively obvious: in the four metropolitan areas studied, transit-oriented development (TOD) housing produced considerably less traffic than what is generated by conventional development. Yet the way parking is designed for most TODs is based on the assumption that there is little difference between TOD and conventional development with respect to the traffic they generate and the parking spaces they are built with. One likely result of this fallacious assumption is that fewer TOD projects get built. TOD developments that do get built are less affordable and less sustainable than they might be, because they are subject to incorrect assumptions about the traffic impact they generate. Many of the hoped for benefits (i.e., less time stuck in traffic and lower housing costs), from the nearly $75 billion in public dollars invested in rail transit over the past 11 years, are not being realized. The policy value of TOD projects (e.g., less automobile travel) is well understood. Those potential benefits are muted since most U.S. TODs are parked oblivious to the fact that a rail stop is nearby. This study looks at the most recent literature on the subject and the actual transportation performance of 17 TOD projects."

    GB Arrington, Transit-Oriented Development. Parsons Brinckerhoff, 2003, 14 slides [formato PDF, 4,21 MB]. "A short visual presentation (PowerPoint) of the definition, benefits, and impacts of TOD. Contrasts transit adjacent design and automobile oriented transit design to true TOD."

    Robert Cervero [et al.], Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. (TCRP Report 102). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2004, 534 p. [formato PDF, 11,3 MB]. "This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development (TOD) and joint develoment throughout the United States. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. Benefits attributable to TOD initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities."


    Sina Selzer, Martin Lanzendorf (Goethe University Frankfurt/Main), Car independence in an automobile society? The everyday mobility practices of residents in a car-reduced housing development. Travel Behaviour and Society 28 (2022) 90-105 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Lately, transport researchers and practitioners are showing renewed interest in car-reduced neighborhoods and their residents' mobility to investigate possible factors influencing sustainable transport. With a biographically inspired practice-theoretical approach, this study considers the 'context of travel behavior' and, thus, focuses on mobility as a 'practice' in order to improve the understanding of everyday mobility as well as the potential and limitations of implementing car-reduced housing. Based on qualitative interviews with residents of two German car-reduced neighborhoods, we first identify different compositions of materials, competences, and meanings (including the feelings and emotions) of car-(in)dependent mobility practices. Second, we discover the personal, social, temporal, and socio-structural circumstances of the residents' travel behavior alongside 'practice bundles' that interact with car-(in)dependent mobility. Finally, our findings indicate, on the one hand, that the car-centric material context outside car-reduced neighborhoods, the incorporation of private car driving with the practice of everyday life, and the affective satisfaction with car use and ownership negatively influence car independence. On the other hand, our results highlight that residential location and its materiality in the case of car-reduced housing developments, as well as the personal-temporal and socio-cultural contexts of their residents' mobility practices stabilize and support car independence and low-carbon mobility."

    Giesserei - das Mehrgenerationenhaus (Winterthur, CH). Complesso edilizio (160 appartamenti) ecosostenibile in costruzione, completamente accessibile ai disabili, "autofrei" (senz'auto), destinato a persone di tutte le età, con ampi spazi comuni (ristorante, biblioteca, salette, spazio giochi per bambini, spazi per artigianato e servizi, officina di riparazione biciclette) e spazi verdi davanti all'edificio per bambini e anziani.

    Steven Melia, Potential for Carfree Development in the UK. UTSG, Plymouth, January 2010, 12 p. [formato PDF, 51 kB]. "This paper aims: to propose a definition and typology of carfree development, to assess the benefits and problems associated with it, to assess the potential demand for ‘European style’ carfree housing in the UK and the circumstances under which it might be feasible in the UK. Through a review of the literature and study visits to European carfree areas, 3 types of carfree development were identified: the Vauban model, Limited Access model and pedestrianised city centres with substantial residential populations. The study visits supported the claims that carfree developments help to reduce problems created by concentrations of traffic in urban areas. They facilitate active travel and independent play amongst children. Their main problems relate to parking management, although increasing controls in surrounding areas were helping to address this. To assess potential demand in the UK, two surveys were conducted: an online national survey aimed at members of environmental and cycling groups and a postal survey in Camden, London, followed by qualitative telephone interviews with a subset from both surveys. The findings revealed that potential demand for carfree housing is concentrated amongst ‘Carfree Choosers’ – people who currently live without cars by choice. These are mainly found in the inner areas of larger cities, where the greatest potential for carfree development exists. Some potential may also exist in suburban or exurban centres, where these are well served by multiple public transport connections, including rail." This paper summarises the PhD thesis.

    Draft Planning Policy Statement: Eco-towns – Consultation. Communities and Local Government, London, November 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 234 kB]. "The draft Planning Policy Statement (PPS) on eco-towns precisely defines: * what constitutes an eco-town; * what environmental, social, and economic standards these developments should achieve and * how eco-towns relate to the planning system. Eco-towns will be developments of a minimum of 5,000 homes - well linked to, but distinct from, existing settlements - that achieve the highest standards of environmental sustainability, including: * employing renewable energy technologies * exceptionally high quality of environmental building design and * excellent public transport. Eco-towns will be significant considerations on a regional scale and one of a range of options local planning authorities should consider when determining how to meet their housing targets." Documento del governo inglese sottoposto a consultazione pubblica nella prospettiva di creare una decina di eco citta' con l'obiettivo di azzerare le emissioni di gas climalteranti. Per la mobilita' si punta a favorire i percorsi sicuri casa-scuola, la mobilita' non motorizzata e l'accesso al trasporto pubblico.

    Maria Ernst, Autofrei Wohnen. Wir können‘s nur empfehlen! Ergebnisse der Bewohnerbefragung 2007. (Abitare senz'auto. Lo raccomandiamo! Risultati di un sondaggio degli abitanti [di un quartiere senz'auto]). Wohnen ohne Auto, München, September 2008, 16 p. [formato PDF, 795 kB]. L'opuscolo sintetizza le risposte date dagli abitanti di un complesso abitativo senz'auto alla periferia di Monaco di Baviera (Messestadt Riem) a un'indagine su motivazioni, aspettative, soddisfazione e comportamenti nella vita quotidiana senz'auto. In lingua tedesca.

    Design to Delivery. Eco-towns Transport Worksheet. Advice to Promoters and Planners. Town and Country Planning Association, London, March 2008, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,08 MB]. "Creating a new community provides a unique opportunity to plan and implement transport systems in a radically different way. Conventional approaches will need to be turned on their head in order to create lifetime places that prioritise people over vehicles."

    GWL Terrein à Amsterdam, les potentialités d'un quartier sans voitures. Agence de développement et d'urbanisme de Lille métropole ,Lille, 6 p. [formato PDF, 844 KB]. Scheda informativa sulla più nota esperienza di quartiere senz'auto nei Paesi Bassi.

    Marcel Robert, Pour en finir avec la société de l'automobile CarFree France, 2005, 53 p. [formato PDF, 915 kB]. Ottima monografia in francese sulla dipendenza e i danni creati dall'automobile e la possibilità di farne a meno, intervenendo soprattutto sull'urbanistica e cambiando stile di vita.

    Büro für Mobilität AG, Polyquest AG, Masciadri Communication & Design AG, Markstudie für nachhaltiges Wohnen im Raum Bern. Energiesparend, ökologisch, autofrei - das neue Wohnerlebnis in der Schweiz. Bericht (Studio di mercato sull'abitare sostenibile nell'area di Berna). Bern/Burgdorf, 11. Juni 2007, 39 p. [formato PDF, 434 KB]. Studio commmissionato dalla città di Berna sulla domanda potenziale di abitazioni senz'auto nell'area svizzera, con riferimenti ad esperienze analoghe in Germania ed altri paesi.

    HSR Hochschule für Technik Rapperswil, Fussverkehr Schweiz, Wohnen und Mobilität (Abitare e mobilità). Tagung vom 23. Mai 2007. Rapperswil, 2007, 44 p. [formato PDF, 2,02 MB]. (atti del convegno sulla mobilità senz'auto e l'edilizia residenziale).

    Henrik Freudenau, Marktuntersuchungen zum autofreien Wohnen in Nordrhein-Westphalen. Querauswertung und Übertragbarkeit der Ergebnisse auf die Grosstadt Dortmund. (Indagini di mercato sulle abitazioni senza auto nel Nordrhein-Westphalen. Valutazione e trasferibilità dei risultati alla città di Dortmund). Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westphalen, Dortmund, Oktober 2001, 30 p. [formato PDF, 608 KB].


    8-80 Cities is a Canadian non-profit organization dedicated to transforming cities into places where people can walk, bike, access public transit and visit vibrant parks, streets and other public places (based in Toronto, Canada). We are dedicated to contributing to the transformation of cities into places where people can walk, bike, access public transit and visit vibrant parks and public places. Our approach is to engage communities at all levels and across multiple sectors to inspire the creation of cities that are easily accessible, safe and enjoyable for all.

    Autofreies Wohnen e. V. ist ein Umweltschutzverein (gemeinnützig), der autofreies Wohnen fördert. Wir beraten entstehende Initiativen und bilden ein Forum, in dem sich Interessierte informieren können. (Hamburg, D).

    Autofrei Wohnen Berlin. autofrei wohnen und leben in Berlin - Wohnprojekte für Kreuzberg.

    autofrei wohnen. Informationen über autofreie oder autoreduzierte Wohnprojekte in Berlin, in Deutschland, in der ganzen Welt.

    CarFree France fédère l’ensemble de la lutte contre l’oppression automobile et propose de nombreuses alternatives en termes de mobilité et d’urbanisme. Le site est organisé en trois grands domaines: Les alternatives à l’automobile en termes de modes de déplacement (piétons, vélo, transports en commun, etc.); La fin de l’automobile: toute l’actualité relative à l’échec du système automobile; La vie sans voiture au travers des expériences menées en France ou à l’étranger.

    CarFree City, Usa is a non-proft, 501 (c)(3) organization. Our mission is to promote carfree development that enhances local and global environmental quality, improves personal health, and fosters a sense of community -- simply by minimizing the use of cars. Our specific goal is to create the first carfree city, town or large neighborhood in the United States.

    Car Free Development in London (UK)

    Carfree UK was formed by a group of researchers, transport planners and environmentalists with the aim of promoting carfree development and its environmental, social, financial and health benefits. We also work to promote carfree living and to build a network for people who live without cars.

    CAS Club der Autofreien der Schweiz / Club des Suisses sans Automobile. En Suisse, un million d'habitants vivent sans voiture. Imaginons le beau scénario que ces gens se regroupent, forment une association et se mettent à exercer un influence sur la politique nationale et locale de la circulation. C'est bien notre objectif! La chance de contribuer efficacement au développement d'une mobilité vraiment durable est énorme.

    Congress for the New Urbanism is the leading organization promoting walkable, mixed-use neighborhood development, sustainable communities and healthier living conditions. (Chicago, IL, USA).

    Eddyburg è un sito web non legato ad alcuna struttura o gruppo o istituzione o fedeltà. Si occupa di urbanistica, società, politica (urbs, civitas, polis) e di argomenti che rendono bella, interessante e piacevole la vita. (vedi: Città e territorio > Temi e problemi > Muoversi, accedere, spostare).

    Observatoire universitaire de la ville et du développement durable, Institut de géographie de l'Université de Lausanne (IGUL) (CH)

    Osservatorio Città Sostenibili Dipartimento Interateneo Territorio - Politecnico e Università di Torino

    TCPA Town and Country Planning Association, London (UK)

    The WALC Institute (Walkable and Livable Communities Institute) is an educational, non-profit organization working to create healthy, connected communities that support active living and that advance opportunities for all people through walkable streets, livable cities and better built environments. The Institute inspires, teaches, connects and supports communities in their efforts to improve health and well-being through better built environments. (USA)

    WebStrade e-magazine di cultura del progetto, urbanistica, trasporti, ambiente. Il portale italiano su: progetto di strade, città, mobilità sostenibile, ambiente, trasporti, moderazione del traffico, sicurezza stradale, piani urbani del traffico.

    Wohnen ohne Auto in München (D)

    ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung), Wohnen und Mobilität (bis Ende 2009 Informationsplattform "Wohnen plus Mobilität").

    Wohnen + Mobilität c/o «Fussverkehr Schweiz» (Zürich, CH).

    World Carfree Network, the hub of the global carfree movement. Worldcarfree.net is a clearinghouse of information from around the world on how to revitalise our towns and cities and create a sustainable future. In addition to serving the carfree movement, Worldcarfree.net offers resources for architects, planners, teachers/professors, students, decision-makers and engaged citizens.