MOBILITA' CICLISTICA

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DOCUMENTI: MOBILITA' NON MOTORIZZATA (PEDONALE E CICLISTICA)

Libby Thomas, Paul Ryus, Conor Semler, Nathan J. Thirsk, Kevin Krizek, Charles Zegeer (University of North Carolina), Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks: A Review of International Practices. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, May 2015, 67 p. [formato PDF, 8,9 MB]. "The purpose of this study was to identify noteworthy and innovative international designs, treatments, and other practices that have potential to improve bicycle and pedestrian safety and access and increase walking and bicycling in the United States. This report covers treatments and practices from a total of 11 countries, covering six thematic areas: (1) network infrastructure, (2) limited auto traffic areas, (3) signalization, traffic control, and intelligent transport systems, (4) policy change, (5) criteria or methods for prioritizing improvements, and (6) goals and network performance measures. A number of treatments and practices appear to have significant potential to help improve bicycle and pedestrian network safety, comfort, and connectivity in the U.S."

Thorsten Koska, Frederic Rudolph (Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie gGmbH), The role of walking and cycling in reducing congestion : a portfolio of measures. FLOW Project, July 2016, 71 p. [formato PDF, 8,8 MB]. "The Portfolio of Measures describes the actual effects of different types of measures on congestion by presenting case studies and drawing conclusions out of them. The portfolio presents information on the potential of walking and cycling measures to relieve urban congestion. Cities are actively seeking information and implementation experience from other cities. However, information available on websites, portals and good-practice guides is of mixed quality. In providing more information on the impact of walking and cycling measures, this portfolio aims at contributing to political agenda setting and measure selection. The first part of the portfolio provides some general findings about the role of walking and cycling measures in relieving congestion, based on literature review and an expert survey carried out within the FLOW project. It is then followed by 20 cases in which walking measures, cycling measures or combinations of measures have been successfully implemented in Europe and abroad. The case studies have been clustered in five big groups according to their topics: Cycling infrastructure (moving traffic); Walking and Cycling Infrastructure (moving traffic); Cycling infrastructure (parking and bike sharing); Traffic management strategies; Mobility management and Measures for more than one mode. The final chapter summarises the effects of the 20 cases and elaborates some general lessons learned. On general finding is - the measures described have helped reduce congestion or at least have increased walking and/or cycling levels without increasing congestion."

Shannon Sahlqvist, Anna Goodman, Tim Jones, Jane Powell, Yena Song, David Ogilvie and on behalf of the iConnect consortium, Mechanisms underpinning use of new walking and cycling infrastructure in different contexts: mixed-method analysis, Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. (2015) 12:24 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. Open Access. "BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effects of infrastructural improvements to promote walking and cycling. Even fewer have explored how the context and mechanisms of such interventions may interact to produce their outcomes. METHODS: This mixed-method analysis forms part of the UK iConnect study, which aims to evaluate new walking and cycling routes at three sites - Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton. Applying a complementary follow-up approach, we first identified differences in awareness and patterns of use of the infrastructure in survey data from a cohort of adult residents at baseline in spring 2010 (n?=?3516) and again one (n?=?1849) and two (n?=?1510) years later following completion of the infrastructural projects (Analysis 1). We subsequently analysed data from 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants to understand how the new schemes might influence walking and cycling (Analysis 2a). In parallel, we analysed cohort survey data on environmental perceptions (Analysis 2b). We integrated these two datasets to interpret differences across the sites consistent with a theoretical framework that hypothesised that the schemes would improve connectivity and the social environment. RESULTS: After two years, 52% of Cardiff respondents reported using the infrastructure compared with 37% in Kenilworth and 22% in Southampton. Patterns of use did not vary substantially between sites. 17% reported using the new infrastructure for transport, compared with 39% for recreation. Environmental perceptions at baseline were generally unfavourable, with the greatest improvements in Cardiff. Qualitative data revealed that all schemes had a recreational focus to varying extents, that the visibility of schemes to local people might be an important mechanism driving use and that the scale and design of the schemes and the contrast they presented with existing infrastructure may have influenced their use. CONCLUSIONS: The dominance of recreational uses may have reflected the specific local goals of some of the projects and the discontinuity of the new infrastructure from a satisfactory network of feeder routes. Greater use in Cardiff may have been driven by the mechanisms of greater visibility and superior design features within the context of an existing environment that was conducive neither to walking or cycling nor to car travel."

Caroline Mullen, Miles Tight, Anthony Whiteing, Ann Jopson, Knowing their place on the roads: what would equality mean for walking and cycling?, Transportation Research Part A 61 (2014) 238-248 [formato PDF, 527 kB]. "Trials and dangers faced by pedestrians and cyclists have not only created an impression of undesirable conditions, but have promoted arguments of injustice and inequality. High rates of death and injury coupled with reporting of poor infrastructure and fear of the behaviour of other road users point to a plausible prima facie concern that pedestrians and cyclists suffer inequalities. Yet this appearance masks uncertainty about what factors are relevant in judging inequality and how these should be treated against potentially competing claims. This article develops a framework assessing conditions for walking and cycling according to a theoretical conception of political and social equality, and so providing a basis on which to make arguments for change in transport policy, planning and law. In developing the framework we examine the relevance to equality of a range of factors, including measurement of road casualties, questions of responsibility to increase walking and cycling as means of contributing to pollution and carbon reduction, matters of fault and responsibility for road safety, and the economic impacts of improving conditions for walking and cycling."

Gunilla Björklund, Värdering av restidsbesparingar vid gång- och cykelresor. Tre sammanfattningar (Valuation of travel time savings in pedestrian and bicycle trips. Three summaries). (VTI notat 11-2014). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 38 p. [formato PDF, 716 kB]. "This report consists of three summaries of studies, conducted at VTI, concerning cyclists’ valuation of travel time savings on different types of bicycle paths and pedestrians’ valuation of travel time savings on footh paths. In the bicycle studies effects of health aspects have also been studied. All studies are questionnaire studies conducted with stated preference techniques. The results show that the valuation of travel time savings are lower when cycling on a bicycle path than when cycling on a road way in either mixed traffic or in a bicycle lane in the roadway. Cycling on a path next to the road was not considering worse than cycling on a path not in connection to the road, indicating that the respondents did not take traffic noise and air pollution into account in their decision to cycle. Respondents who included health aspects in their choice to cycle had lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents that stated that health aspects were of less importance, at least when cycling on a bicycle path. Valuations of travel time savings regarding cycling differed markedly depending on the respondents’ alternative travel mode, where persons with car as alternative travel mode had much higher values than those with public transport as alternative travel mode. The mean values of travel time savings were 241 SEK/h for cycling in mixed traffic, 249 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle lane in the road way, 178 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle path next to the road, and 167 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle path far from the road. The lowest value obtained in these studies was 60 SEK/h and the highest was 344 SEK/h, depending on alternative travel mode, health awareness, and if the questionnaire was distributed to existing cyclists or sent home to a random sample (commuters). To study the shift to bicycle from other types of travel modes when changing the bicycle environment an incremental logit model was used. The results showed that the largest shift to bicycle would happen if all cycling after the change takes place on a bicycle path far from the road. The proportion of cyclists in this study would then increase from 51.0 percent to 61.3 percent, i.e., an increase of 20 percent. For pedestrians, it was shown that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. Another result that is worth to highlight is that the visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing were not nearly as important. The lowest value for a travel time savings for walking that was obtained in these studies, 79 SEK/h, regarded a walk on a separated pedestrian and bicycle path with good visibility, far from a road with motor vehicles and well maintained. The highest value, 239 SEK/h, regarded walking to or from another travel mode along a roadside on a road with speed limit 50 km/h."

Laura Wagner, Using Health Impact Assessments to Evaluate Bicycle and Pedestrian Plans, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, January 2013, 18 p. [formato PDF, 871 kB].

Anna Goodman (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), Walking, Cycling and Driving to Work in the English and Welsh 2011 Census: Trends, Socio-Economic Patterning and Relevance to Travel Behaviour in General, PLoS ONE 8(8): e71790, August 2013, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. "Objectives: Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally. Methods: 23.7 million adult commuters reported their usual main mode of travelling to work in the 2011 census in England and Wales; similar data were available for 1971–2001. Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to characterise socioeconomic patterning. The National Travel Survey (2002–2010) was used to examine correlations between commute modal share and modal share of total travel time. These correlations were calculated across 150 non-overlapping populations defined by region, year band and income. Results: Among commuters in 2011, 67.1% used private motorised transport as their usual main commute mode (21.8 percentage-point change since 2001); 17.8% used public transport (+1.8% change); 10.9% walked (20.1% change); and 3.1% cycled (+0.1% change). Walking and, to a marginal extent, cycling were more common among those from deprived areas, but these gradients had flattened over the previous decade to the point of having essentially disappeared for cycling. In the National Travel Survey, commute modal share and total modal share were reasonably highly correlated for private motorised transport (r = 0.94), public transport (r = 0.96), walking (r = 0.88 excluding London) and cycling (r = 0.77). Conclusions: England and Wales remain car-dependent, but the trends are slightly more encouraging. Unlike many health behaviours, it is more common for socio-economically disadvantaged groups to commute using physically active modes. This association is, however, weakening and may soon reverse for cycling. At a population level, commute modal share provides a reasonable proxy for broader travel patterns, enhancing the value of the census in characterising background trends and evaluating interventions."

David Ogilvie, Fiona Bull, Jane Powell, Ashley R. Cooper, Christian Brand, Nanette Mutrie, John Preston, and Harry Rutter, An Applied Ecological Framework for Evaluating Infrastructure to Promote Walking and Cycling: The iConnect Study, American Journal of Public Health, March 2011, 101, 473–481 [formato PDF, 1,25 MB]. "Improving infrastructure for walking and cycling is increasingly recommended as a means to promote physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce traffic congestion and carbon emissions. However, limited evidence from intervention studies exists to support this approach. Drawing on classic epidemiological methods, psychological and ecological models of behavior change, and the principles of realistic evaluation, we have developed an applied ecological framework by which current theories about the behavioral effects of environmental change may be tested in heterogeneous and complex intervention settings. Our framework guides study design and analysis by specifying the most important data to be collected and relations to be tested to confirm or refute specific hypotheses and thereby refine the underlying theories."

Colin G Pooley [et al.], Understanding walking and cycling: Summary of key findings and recommendations. Lancaster University, September 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 2,39 MB] "It is widely recognized that there is a need to increase levels of active and sustainable travel in British urban areas. The Understanding Walking and Cycling (UWAC) project, funded by the EPSRC, has examined the factors influencing everyday travel decisions and proposes a series of policy measures to increase levels of walking and cycling for short trips in urban areas. A wide range of both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in four English towns (Leeds, Leicester, Worcester, Lancaster), including a questionnaire survey, analysis of the built environment, interviews and ethnographies. Key findings of the research are that whilst attitudes to walking and cycling are mostly positive or neutral, many people who would like to engage in more active travel fail to do so due to a combination of factors. These can be summarised as: Concerns about the physical environment, especially with regard to safety when walking or cycling; The difficulty of fitting walking and cycling into complex household routines (especially with young children); The perception that walking and cycling are in some ways abnormal things to do so. It is suggested that policies to increase levels of walking and cycling should focus not only on improving infrastructure (for instance through fully segregated cycle routes), but also must tackle broader social, economic, cultural and legal factors that currently inhibit walking and cycling. Together, such changes can create an environment in which driving for short trips in urban areas is seen as abnormal and walking or cycling seem the obvious choices."

Active Transportation in Canada: a resource and planning guide. Transport Canada, Ottawa, 2011, 100 p. [formato PDF, 6,60 MB] "This guide is intended primarily for municipal and regional transportation planners in communities with limited active transportation planning and implementation experience, but can also be used by other individuals, including allied professionals (e.g., community planners, engineers, public health officers, etc.). While the guide is intended primarily for town and transportation planners, it recognizes that all types of planners (e.g., recreation, environmental, economic development, etc.) at all levels (e.g., local, regional , provincial, etc.) have a role to play in promoting and supporting active transportation in their communities. Another group that can use this guide is elected representatives, who are a community’s major decision-makers and are critical players in helping support and promote active transportation. Finally, representatives from local advocacy organizations (e.g., environmental groups, healthy living associations, etc.) and community groups with an interest in active transportation (e.g., Chambers of Commerce) can also use this guide to support communitybased active transportation projects initiated outside of City Hall, or as a resource guide to help better support and engage with active transportation projects initiated by the local government." Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre "Guide de planification et de ressources sur les transports actifs au Canada".

Anci, Fiab, Legambiente, #salvaiciclisti, Comune di Reggio Emilia, Libro Rosso della Ciclabilità e della Mobilità nuova. Le soluzioni elaborate dagli Stati Generali della Bicicletta, 5-6 ottobre 2012 - Reggio Emilia. 2012, 25 p. [formato PDF, 291 kB]. "Il lavoro degli Stati Generali ha prodotto il presente documento, un Libro di Impegni per le Amministrazioni di ogni livello, che sintetizza le proposte principali in materia di mobilità nuova. Tra queste vi sono appunto la riduzione al limite dei 30 chilometri orari della velocità urbana, il rafforzamento degli investimenti sul trasporto pubblico e sulle infrastrutture minori e gli spazi a servizio di ciclisti e pedoni, il dimezzamento della mortalità causata da incidenti in ambito urbano, la creazione di una rete di slow cities impegnate a promuovere una nuova filosofia di mobilità nelle città e a continuare il confronto e lo scambio di idee e best practice, l’introduzione di corsi di mobilità ciclistica nelle scuole, il ridisegno delle città mettendo al centro della pianificazione pedoni e ciclisti. La sottoscrizione del Libro verrà considerata un impegno per le Amministrazioni attuali e future di tradurre in azioni concrete l’esigenza di una mobilità nuova, oggi dilagante nella società e che non deve essere sottovalutata. L’obiettivo è quello di rafforzare la lobby a sostegno degli interessi della mobilità collettiva alternativa alla lobby della mobilità individuale motorizzata." Altro titolo: Libro bianco degli Stati Generali della Bicicletta 2012.

International Technology Scanning Program, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility in Europe. FHWA/US DOT (HPIP), Washington, DC, February 2010, 80 p. [formato PDF, 3,30 MB]. "In May 2009, a team of 12 transportation professionals from the United States with expertise in bicycling and walking visited five countries in Europe to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility. The countries visited—Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom—were chosen because of their innovative approaches to nonmotorized transportation, as well as the potential transferability of their policies and practices. The scan team gathered a considerable amount of information on various strategies and approaches that could be used to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility in the United States. This section highlights the most important findings from the scanning study. The “General Findings and Conclusions” section describes the broader issues and themes that emerged on the scan and provides a context for understanding the details provided in the body of the report. The “Key Findings” section provides details on specific topics and is organized around the 5E approach (an expanded version of the 3E approach commonly used in traffic safety improvements)."

Jacques Stambouli (Université d'Artois), Les services de transport du développement urbain durable: innovations autour des métriques de la marche à pied. (Études et Recherches Économiques Interdisciplinaires de l'Artois 2008-07). Arras, 2008, 19 p. [formato PDF, 131 kB].

Juliane Krause, Edzard Hildebrandt, Modellvorhaben "Fußgänger- und fahrradfreundliche Stadt". Chancen des Fuß- und Radverkehrs als Beitrag zur Umweltentlastung (Progetto modello "Città amica dei pedoni e delle bici". Potenzialità della mobilità pedonale e ciclabile come contributo al risanamento ambientale). (Texte 28/2005). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, Januar 2006, 289 p. (177 p. + allegati) [formato PDF, 7,17 MB]. "From June 2001 until October 2003 the model project "Walking and cycling friendly city" was accomplished. Model cities were the three cities Lingen (Ems), Plauen (Vogtland) and the Luthertown Wittenberg. The aim of the project was the creation of a positive climate towards walking and cycling through a long term promotion of these traffic forms, by forming equal rights in planing decisions and to strength its position in the planning institutions. For each model city it was built up a main concept with the administrationen (specific workinggroup) and local participants (advisors), or an existing concept was been updated. Caused by the short running time of the project and due to the fact, that no capital intensive programms has been promoted the highlights were: simple actions with little constructional or other effort; mainly ideas of public relations and communication; establishing a quality management with long lasting effects. The occured effects, realisation restaints and the benefits in the domains infrastructure, involvement and public relations have been appraised. This showes that: the proportion of walking and cycling at all ways can be increased with help of innovative, cost efficient and unconventional solutions; that the problems of the implementation of concepts for walking and cycling primarily lay in the financial safeguarding of projects and single measures and in the missing knowledge about moving for financial funding and the own capital. The conclusions show recommendations for the strategic promotion of walking and cycling programms for the local administration."

World Road Association (PIARC), Human powered transport / Transport à propulsion humaine. La Défense, 2008, 31 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "This report, prepared by PIARC Technical Committee 2.3 «Urban Areas and Integrated Urban Transport» deals with the topic of human powered transport, which is often ignored or lacks appropriate recognition as a viable mode of transport. However, it is a very important mode of transport from the point of view of its significance and sustainability. The report focuses mainly on walking and cycling. A statistical analysis on these unmotorized modes of transport is presented, based on the results of a survey carried out with 21 European and Asian cities. Information is also provided on the infrastructure design for these two modes of transport in the cities considered."

Linda Christensen, Thomas Jensen (Danish Transport Research Institute), Switching from car to walking and biking for short trips. COST 355 presentation, 3 October 2007, 15 slides [formato PDF, 104 kB].

Dawn Royal, Darby Miller-Steiger, National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior. Volume I: Summary Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Washington, DC, August 2008, 32 p. [formato PDF, 730 kB]. "This report provides a top line summary of key data results regarding the behaviors and attitudes on various topics related to walking and bicycling including reported frequency of walking and bicycling during the summer months, trip purpose and characteristics, perceptions of safety, safety practices, facilities available and community design."

Il traffico lento nei progetti d'agglomerato. Linee guida. (Documentazione sul traffico lento n.112). Ufficio federale delle strade (USTRA), Berna, Aprile 2007, 36 p. [formato PDF, 3,47 MB]. "Le presenti linee guida, destinate soprattutto agli agglomerati che non hanno ancora integrato sistematicamente il traffico lento nel loro progetto d’agglomerato, descrivono le esigenze che la Confederazione pone per questo tipo di mobilità e le misure che finanzia. Le linee guida si focalizzano sulla pianificazione del traffico lento, senza tuttavia dimenticare che anche la pianificazione del territorio e la pianificazione globale dei trasporti devono fornire un importante contributo."

P.L. Jacobsen, Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention 9 (2003) 205-209 [formato PDF, 339 KB]. "A motorist is less likely to collide with a person walking and bicycling if more people walk or bicycle. Policies that increase the numbers of people walking and bicycling appear to be an effective route to improving the safety of people walking and bicycling." (Free for registered users - free registration needed)

David Ogilvie, Matt Egan, Val Hamilton and Mark Petticrew, Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: systematic review, BMJ 329 (2004) 763-767 [formato PDF, 259 KB].

John Pucher, Lewis Dijkstra, Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons From The Netherlands and Germany, Am J Public Health 93 (2003) 1509-1516 [formato PDF, 165 KB]. "We examined the public health consequences of unsafe and inconvenient walking and bicycling conditions in American cities to suggest improvements based on successful policies in The Netherlands and Germany."

Walter Hook (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy), Preserving and Expanding the Role of Non-motorised Transport. (Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities, Module 3d). Eschborn, GTZ Transport and Mobility Group, 2003, 42 p. [formato PDF, 3,51 MB]. (per scaricare il documento è necessaria la registrazione gratuita).

Marlène Butz, Christoph Merkli, Thomas Schweizer, Christian Thomas, Surfaces partagées entre piétons et cyclistes. Recommandations relatives à l’opportunité, l’introduction, l'organisation et l'aménagement de surfaces communes (en localité). Zurich, Berne, Mobilité piétonne et PRO VELO Suisse, 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 4,06 MB]. Le associazioni dei pedoni e dei ciclisti svizzeri intervengono sui problemi di interferenza e possibile conflitto tra mobilità pedonale e ciclabile, con delle raccomandazioni sull'introduzione e gestione di superfici in comune destinate alle due categorie di utenti (edizione in francese).

Marlène Butz, Christoph Merkli, Thomas Schweizer, Christian Thomas, Fuss- und Veloverkehr auf gemeinsamen Flächen. Empfehlungen für die Eignungsbeurteilung, Einführung, Organisation und Gestaltung von gemeinsamen Flächen in innerörtlichen Situationen. Zürich, Bern, Fussverkehr Schweiz, Pro Velo Schweiz, 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 4,19 MB]. Le associazioni dei pedoni e dei ciclisti svizzeri intervengono sui problemi di interferenza e possibile conflitto tra mobilità pedonale e ciclabile, con delle raccomandazioni sull'introduzione e gestione di superfici in comune destinate alle due categorie di utenti (edizione in tedesco).

Piet Rietveld (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam), Biking and walking: the position of non-motorised transport modes in transport systems. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper TI 2001-111/3, Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute, January 2001, 20 p. [formato PDF, 71 KB].

Carlo Carminucci, Una mobilità pulita, lenta e sicura a Parma. Indagine sulle caratteristiche e le prospettive della mobilità pedonale e ciclabile, ISFORT, Parma, 8 luglio 2006, 28 slides [formato PDF, 202 kB]. I risultati di un'indagine su motivazioni, giudizi e stili della mobilita' ciclabile e pedonale a Parma.


DOCUMENTI: MOBILITA' CICLISTICA

Luqi Wang, Barriers to Implementing Pro-Cycling Policies: A Case Study of Hamburg. Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4196 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. Open Access. "Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major barriers and removing them is critical. This study took an in-depth look at Hamburg which started a major cycling promotion in 2008. According to expert interviews and literature surveys, the author found that the major barriers are physical, political and institutional, and social and cultural. Specifically, the city lacks enough physical space, political support, and the evaluation of travel behavior and demand. Also, some private stakeholders are reluctant to give up on-street car parking space for cycling lanes, and the negotiation process is difficult and time-consuming. To overcome these barriers, Hamburg requires cycling-oriented urban design, a strategic and integrated cycling action plan, strong political support, and target group-oriented communication."

Beth Savan, Emma Cohlmeyer, Trudy Ledsham, Integrated strategies to accelerate the adoption of cycling for transportation, Transportation Research Part F 46 (2017) 236-249 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 970 kB]. Open Access. "This study synthesizes academic social psychological behaviour change literature with reports on the practical, community-based application of cycling programs. We identify the combination of psychological tools demonstrated to lead to changes in behaviour in the target population. We compare these tools with reports demonstrating evidence for success from monitored programs to encourage cycling adoption. Based on the alignment between these two literatures, we developed an adaptable, evidenced-based strategy for program developers to most effectively accelerate the adoption of cycling for transportation in areas where physical barriers are few. A brief case study affirms the effectiveness of this approach."

Graziano Di Gregorio, Simona Palmieri, Cycling in a Megacity. The Case of London. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 129-150 (24 p.) [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "Today, cities around the world are pushing forward their political agenda for more urban cycling as an active mode of transportation. Cycling has been increasingly promoted as an active mode of transportation and Governments at every level have been implementing policies to increase cycle levels within urban centres, to improve the overall sustainability of the transportation system and the liveability of our cities. This paper adopts a wider focus and a deeper understanding of the role of cycling in megacities along with the opportunities and challenges of promoting cycle mobilities in such large urban areas. London is used as an empirical case study in order to investigate how this megacity has implemented its own 'cycling revolution'. Current and past policies are analysed and supported by examples-of completed and ongoing projects within the city-in order to illustrate how the city is addressing its long-term strategy. The main conclusions drawn from this paper can be delineated in three main factors as key elements in promoting cycling in a megacity."

Ashwani Kumar, Kwong Meng Teo, Amedeo R. Odoni, A Systems Perspective of Cycling and Bike-sharing Systems in Urban Mobility. 30th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. St. Gallen, Switzerland, 22-26 July 2012. 14 p. [formato PDF, 550 kB]. "Urban mobility is a prevalent problem in many cities around the world. Cycling offers a fast and cheap transportation option for short-distance trips, with smaller carbon and physical footprint than driving a car. Cycling can also encourage a modal shift from private car to public transport by providing efficient last mile connections. This has led to a renewed interest to promote cycling in cities, manifesting in a growing number of bike-sharing projects with larger bicycle fleets. However, the economic sustainability of these bike-sharing systems has not been demonstrated. Moreover, city governments may invest resources in bike-sharing projects at the expense of developing policies or infrastructure to improve cycling safety and convenience. We take a systems perspective to study how bike-sharing and other policies can influence cycling as a transport mode in the urban mobility problem. We observe that while bike-sharing projects may increase cycling level and generate public demand for better cycling infrastructure in the short run, loss-making bike-sharing projects can discourage the infrastructure investments over the long-run, thereby hampering cycle adoption. Public funds should not be invested in bike-sharing programs at the cost of cycling infrastructure. Instead, governments should facilitate economically viable bike-sharing systems by the private sector through adoption of appropriate policies. Investments in cycling infrastructure should come first."

Alison Conway, Nathan Tavernier, Victor Leal-Tavares, Niloofar Gharamani, Lisa Chauvet, Medwin Chiu, and Xue Bing Yeap, Freight in a Bicycle-Friendly City: Exploratory Analysis with New York City Open Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2547 (2016) 91-101 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "This project employs a variety of open data sets to examine how New York City's growing bicycle infrastructure has had an impact on travel and parking conditions for commercial vehicles (CVs), and to investigate the interactions that occur between CVs and bicycles on multimodal urban streets. The project was conducted in three stages. First, a spatial analysis of the city's dedicated bicycle and local truck routes was performed to quantify the extent of network overlap and changes that have occurred since 2000. Next, a spatial and statistical analysis of bicycle collisions extracted from the New York Police Department's motor vehicle collision database was conducted to explore infrastructure and demand characteristics indicative of freight-bicycle conflicts. Finally, CV-bicycle lane parking violations were extracted from a New York City Department of Finance's parking violation database to examine parking challenges in bicycle-friendly areas; field data were also collection in three critical locations. The project identified several challenges for CV operations. Potential future research efforts to address emerging questions requiring further investigation are also discussed."

Elliot Martin, Adam Cohen, Jan L. Botha, Susan Shaheen, Bikesharing and Bicycle Safety. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, March 2016, 94 p. [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "The growth of bikesharing in the United States has had a transformative impact on urban transportation. Major cities have established large bikesharing systems, including Boston, Chicago, Denver, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, New York City, Salt Lake City, the San Francisco Bay Area, Seattle, Washington DC, and others. These systems began operating as early as 2010, and no fatalities have occurred within the US as of this writing. However, three have happened in North America-two in Canada and one in Mexico. Bikesharing has some qualities that appear inherently unsafe for bicyclists. Most prominently, helmet usage is documented to be quite low in most regions. Bikesharing is also used by irregular bicyclists who are less familiar with the local terrain. In this study, researchers take a closer look at bikesharing safety from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Through a series of four focus groups, they discussed bikesharing usage and safety with bikesharing members and nonmembers in the Bay Area. They further engaged experts nationwide from a variety of fields to evaluate their opinions and perspectives on bikesharing and safety. Finally, researchers conducted an analysis of bicycle and bikesharing activity data, as well as bicycle and bikesharing collisions to evaluate injury rates associated with bikesharing when compared with benchmarks of personal bicycling. The data analysis found that collision and injury rates for bikesharing are lower than previously computed rates for personal bicycling. Experts and focus group participants independently pointed to bikesharing rider behavior and bikesharing bicycle design as possible factors. In particular, bikesharing bicycles are generally designed in ways that promote stability and limited speeds, which mitigate the conditions that contribute to collisions. Data analysis also explored whether there was evidence of a "safety in numbers benefit" that resulted from bikesharing activity. However, no significant impact from bikesharing activity on broader bicycle collisions could be found within the regions in which they operate. Discussion and recommendations are presented in the conclusion."

F. Gaja i Díaz (Universitat Politècnica de València), The bicycle: mass urban transportation - a paradigm shift. Case study: the City of Valencia. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 11 p. [formato PDF, 751 kB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The bicycle was for decades a mode of transportation with full presence in most Spanish cities. Until the consolidation of the so-called economic miracle, in the 60s, only public transport would dispute the hegemony in the use of public space. But with the advent of economic development, the irruption of the automobile, outstandingly represented by the Fiat 600, manufactured in Franco's Spain as Seat 600, the order of things was reversed. A certain complex of "nouveau riche" was installed in the social consciousness and getting around on a bicycle was reduced to the poorer classes; even the emerging middle class, that could hardly aspire to buy a car, did not keep cycling, and opted for public transportation instead. As economic development, initiated after the Economic Stabilization Plan of 1959, was consolidated, the new middle class made the ownership of a car a symbol of triumph and the bicycle disappeared from the urban landscape. This extinction largely contributed towards the attitude of the Public Administration that, far from protecting and promoting the bicycle, saw it almost as a shameful form of transportation, unworthy of a society that pretended to be developed. Thus the use of bicycles as a mode of transportation virtually disappeared in the city, reduced to limited use as a sport. But in the last decades, the bicycle as a transport mode has come to back to the city, reclaiming a hegemony it should have never lost."

Jacob Mason, Lew Fulton, Zane McDonald, A Global High Shift Cycling Scenario. The Potential for Dramatically Increasing Bicycle and E-bike Use in Cities Around the World, with Estimated Energy, CO2, and Cost Impacts. ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy) and University of California, Davis, 12 November 2015, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,50 MB]. Research commissioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the European Cyclists' Federation (ECF), and the Bicycle Product Suppliers Association (BPSA). "This report presents a new look at the future of cycling for urban transportation (rather than recreation), and the potential contribution it could make to mobility as well as sustainability. The results show that a world with a dramatic increase in cycling could save society US$24 trillion cumulatively between 2015 and 2050, and cut CO2 emissions from urban passenger transport by nearly 11 percent in 2050 compared to a High Shift scenario without a strong cycling emphasis."

Martin Weiss, Peter Dekker, Alberto Moro, Harald Scholz, Martin K. Patel, On the electrification of road transportation. A review of the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, Transportation Research Part D 41 (2015) 348-366 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 758 kB]. Open Access. "Electrification is widely considered as a viable strategy for reducing the oil dependency and environmental impacts of road transportation. In pursuit of this strategy, most attention has been paid to electric cars. However, substantial, yet untapped, potentials could be realized in urban areas through the large-scale introduction of electric two-wheelers. Here, we review the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, demonstrating that these are generally more energy efficient and less polluting than conventionallypowered motor vehicles. Electric two-wheelers tend to decrease exposure to pollution as their environmental impacts largely result from vehicle production and electricity generation outside of urban areas. Our analysis suggests that the price of e-bikes has been decreasing at a learning rate of 8%. Despite price differentials of 5000 ± 1800 EUR2012 kW h-1 in Europe, e-bikes are penetrating themarket because they appear to offer an apparent additional use value relative to bicycles. Mid-size and large electric two-wheelers do not offer such an additional use value compared to their conventional counterparts and constitute niche products at price differentials of 700 ± 360 EUR2012 kW h-1 and 160 ± 90 EUR2012 kW h-1, respectively. The large-scale adoption of electric two-wheelers can reduce traffic noise and road congestion but may necessitate adaptations of urban infrastructure and safety regulations. A case-specific assessment as part of an integrated urban mobility planning that accounts, e.g., for the local electricity mix, infrastructure characteristics, and mode-shift behavior, should be conducted before drawing conclusions about the sustainability impacts of electric two-wheelers."

José I. Castillo-Manzano, Mercedes Castro-Nuño, Lourdes López Valpuesta (University of Seville, Spain) The relationship between public and private bicycle use: the case of Seville, RSAI/ERSA 2015 Barcelona Workshop on Regional and Urban Economics, 26th-27th November 2015, University of Barcelona, 21 p. [formato PDF, 503 kB] "Despite the success achieved by Public Bicycle Sharing Systems (PBSS) across the world, several researchers provide evidence on their limitations and constraints in a medium-long term, and bicycle ownership may be considered as a complementary tool to promote a 'bicycle-culture'. This paper aims to cover the gap about the interaction between both systems (public bicycle / private bicycle) and which are the key aspects to explain the bicycle-buying decision. After a fieldwork based on surveys conducted in Seville (Spain), one of the cities currently acknowledged worldwide for its successful policy of promoting cycling, we apply a Discrete Choice Model. Our findings show that among the socio-demographic factors that favor the move from the PBSS to the private bicycle are: having a higher level of education, being more progressive ideologically-speaking, and being a resident of the city itself; while age and gender do not appear to be conclusive. Experienced users, for whom the bicycle is a part of his /her healthy lifestyle, state a greater willingness to buy a bicycle. And the main obstacles to make the jump from the PBSS to the private bicycle, and that any action plan to support private bicycle usage should take into account, are: the lack of proper parking at the origin/destination, and fear of theft."

Francesca Pirlone, Selena Candia, Cycling as best practice for urban renovation. Study case: The city of Genoa, CSE Journal - City Safety Energy, 1/2015, 79-88 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 2,99 MB]. Open Access. "This paper analysis urban cycling as a fundamental element of sustainable mobility. There are many International examples that clearly show how is possible to evolve modern cities into more livable spaces promoting cycling as a dayli way of trasport. Italy has to learn from other European experiences to ensure a better quality of life to its citizens and to renovate its urban configuration. The authors present different solutions that can be undertaken to boost cycling in Genoa. Several recommendations are reported to do a correct Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan where cycling have to be considered as well as the other mean of transport becoming an essential element for urban development and renovation."

Thomas Götschi, Jan Garrard and Billie Giles-Corti, Cycling as a Part of Daily Life: A Review of Health Perspectives, Transport Reviews, 30 June 2015 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 746 kB]. Open Access. "Health aspects of day-to-day cycling have gained attention from the health sector aiming to increase levels of physical activity, and from the transport and planning sector, to justify investments in cycling. We review and discuss the main pathways between cycling and health under two perspectives — generalizable epidemiological evidence for health effects and specific impact modeling to quantify health impacts in concrete settings. Substantial benefits from physical activity dominate the public health impacts of cycling. Epidemiological evidence is strong and impact modeling is well advanced. Injuries amount to a smaller impact on the population level, but affect crash victims disproportionately and perceived risks deter potential cyclists. Basic data on crash risks are available, but evidence on determinants of risks is limited and impact models are highly dependent on local factors. Risks from air pollution can be assumed to be small, with limited evidence for cycling-specific mechanisms. Based on a large body of evidence, planners, health professionals, and decision-makers can rest assured that benefits from cycling-related physical activity are worth pursuing. Safety improvements should be part of the efforts to promote cycling, both to minimize negative impacts and to lower barriers to cycling for potential riders."

Rachel Aldred, Anna Goodman, James Woodcock, Where cycling is increasing, is it getting more equal?. Presentation, 11th Cycling & Society Annual Symposium, Newcastle (UK), September 14-16, 2014, 21 slides [formato PDF, 832 kB]. "In low-cycling countries, cycling is not evenly distributed across genders and age groups. In the UK, men are around twice as likely as women to cycle to work. Cycling also tends to be comparatively dominated by younger adults, despite the fact the health benefits of cycling are largest at older ages. By contrast, in higher-cycling countries and cities, gender differences are low, absent, or in the opposite direction. Such places also lack the UK's steady decline in cycling among those older than 35. However, over the past ten years some local areas within the UK have seen increases in cycling. This presentation analyses data from the Census 2001 and 2011 to examine whether such increases in cycling are associated with greater diversity among those cycling. We find that more cycling does not necessarily mean more equal cycling: in areas where cycling has increased, there has been no increase in the representation of females among cyclists, and there has in fact been a decrease in the representation of older adults. We discuss potential causes of these findings and implications for policy. This includes the important implication that simply increasing cycling modal share is not necessarily enough to create an inclusive cycling culture. The UK's culturally specific factors limiting female take-up of cycling seem to remain in place, even where cycling has gone up. Creating a genuine mass cycling culture may require deliberately targeting infrastructure and policies towards a broad range of potential cyclists, particularly those in under-represented groups."

Malcolm J. Wardlaw, History, risk, infrastructure: perspectives on bicycling in the Netherlands and the UK, Journal of Transport & Health, 1 (2014) 243-250 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 863 kB]. Open Access. "Cycling has consistently been safer in the Netherlands than the UK. Nevertheless, safety has improved in both countries over time. Between 1980 and 2011, the cyclists’ fatality rate declined by 67% in the Netherlands and 57% in the UK. Per capita bicycle use was sustained in the Netherlands throughout the post-World War Two era, peaking in the early 1960s and only declining for a decade before recovering. In contrast, UK bicycle use peaked in 1952 and declined permanently. The survival of popular bicycling in the Netherlands through the 1950s and 1960s was fundamental to the development of effective bicycling policies after the 1970s. The Dutch network of cycle tracks and routes increased from 9,000 km in the mid 1970s to approximately 29,000 km currently. The annual distance cycled per capita increased by 30% in the ten years to 1988, but has not materially increased since then. In the UK, cycling has a long heritage as a marginalised form of travel. This continues to hinder efforts to achieve a national cycling revival. Nevertheless, cycling on quiet urban and rural roads in the UK incurs much lower risks than the national average fatality rate would suggest. Networks enabling cyclists to avoid main roads, especially rural A-roads, could provide safety levels comparable to the Netherlands and Denmark. There are towns in the UK with segregated cycling networks, but few cyclists. This is because a range of measures must be invoked to achieve large modal shifts to cycling. Local authority support is a critical factor."

Hua Zhang, Susan A. Shaheen, and Xingpeng Chen, Bicycle Evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 8:317–335, 2014 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 2,68 MB]. "This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars. Four lessons have been learned from China's electric bike experience relevant to government policy and management. Public bikesharing represents an important step towards integrating the bicycle with bus, metro, and rail systems. Five early operational lessons have been identified from China's limited public bikesharing experience."

Stuart Reid, Simon Adams, Infrastructure and Cyclist Safety. (TRL Report PPR 580). Transport Research Laboratory, Wokingham, Berkshire, October 2011, 54 p. [formato PDF, 593 kB]. "The Department for Transport commissioned TRL to conduct a literature review to consider the role of infrastructure in relation to the safety of cyclists and their interaction with other road users. It was undertaken as part of the wider research programme, Road User Safety and Cycling, being led by TRL. Overall, it proved problematic to draw firm conclusions from the literature. Taken as a whole, the most significant infrastructure-related risk factors for cyclists in single vehicle incidents on highways appear to be slippery roads (due to weather) and poor or defective road surfaces. For multi-vehicle collisions, the main infrastructure risk factors appear to be posted speed limits and encounters with other road users at junctions."

Karsten Michael Drohsel, Arvid Krenz, Jörg Leben, Vanessa Lösche (Hrsg.), Aspekte des städtischen Radverkehrs (Aspects of urban cycling). (Spektrum des Verkehrswesens; 1). Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, Berlin, 2014, 168 p. [formato PDF, 5,57 MB]. "The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of urban cycling. These papers originate from research and course work at the Technische Universität Berlin, chair Verkehrswesenseminar (Transportation Seminar). Contents: 1. Bausteine der Radverkehrsförderung: Wege zu einer fahrradfreundlichen Stadt; 2. Grüne Welle für Berlin; 3. Berlin: Pendeln mit dem Mietfahrrad als Ergänzung zum ÖPNV. Ein vergleichender Blick nach Luxemburg, Kopenhagen und Paris; 4. Einkaufen mit dem Fahrrad: Nachhaltige Stadtmobilität zwischen Förderung und fehlendem Interesse in Berlin; 5. Copenhagenize Berlin? 6. Anforderungen und Verhalten von Radfahrenden. Eine Bestandsaufnahme; 7. Regelwidriges Verhalten im Fahrradverkehr; 8. Fahrradkultur – ein Modewort oder ein gerechtfertigter Begriff?"

James Woodcock, Marko Tainio, James Cheshire, Oliver O’Brien, Anna Goodman, Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study, BMJ 2014;348:g425, February 2014 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Open Access. "OBJECTIVE: To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. DESIGN: Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. SETTING: Central and inner London, England. DATA SOURCES: Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). PARTICIPANTS: 578,607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change -72 DALYs (95% credible interval -110 to -43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; -15 (-42 to -6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change -49 DALYs (-88 to -17) among men; -1 DALY (-27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age group (15 to 29 years), the medium term benefits and harms were both comparatively small and potentially negative. CONCLUSION: London's bicycle sharing system has positive health impacts overall, but these benefits are clearer for men than for women and for older users than for younger users. The potential benefits of cycling may not currently apply to all groups in all settings."

Mircea Steriu, Raising the bar. Review of Cycling Safety Policies in the European Union, ETSC (European Transport Safety Council), Brussels, 2012, 58 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB].

Benjamin Weil (Univ. of Massachusetts), Solar city, bike city, growth city: governance and energy in Davis, California. Journal of Political Ecology 20 (2013): 70-179 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 432 kB] "This article examines the Davis case with a focus on two types of renewable energy; human powered transport and solar heat. They were chosen as useful examples because the technologies in both cases are simple, well developed, applied at the individual or household level, and can have very high immediate impacts on the consumption of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. This essay describes the development of these two technological systems in the City of Davis. In doing so, it discusses the initial rise, and subsequent decline in usage of both technologies. It also engages questions such as: (1) What is the role of local policy capacity, civic engagement, and social capital, in determining energy and land-use choices? (2) What does it take to make an environmentally sustainable city? (3) What conditions favor the widespread adoption of small-scale renewable energy technologies? (4) What conditions threaten the ability of communities to maintain and expand their use of these technologies? (5) What is the role of less-tangible assets, such as values, identity, and sense of community?".

Carolyn Szczepanski, Women on a roll. Benchmarking women’s bicycling in the United States — and five keys to get more women on wheels. The League of American Bicyclists, Washington DC, August 2013, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,58 MB] "A first-of-its-kind report from the Women Bike program, Women on a Roll compiles more than 100 original and trusted sources of data to showcase the growth and potential of female bicyclists in the United States. It also suggest five key focus areas — the 5 Cs — to increase women's ridership."

Álvaro Fernández Heredia, Andrés Monzón y Sergio Jara-Díaz, Understanding Ciclysts' perceptions, keys for a successful bicycle promotion. (TRANSyT Working Papers Series TWP-2013-02-EN). Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Centro de Investigación del Transporte TRANSyT, 2013, 24 p. [formato PDF, 513 kB] "Increasing bicycle use has positive effects over Public Health, but the factors that command bicycle users’ choice have not been identified properly. Psycho-social factors related to intention, attitudes and perceptions, have not been studied in depth and they can contribute to obtain the keys for a successful bicycle policy. Cyclists perceptions have been studied using a large university survey collected ad-hoc by applying exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. After identifying four latent variables, namely convenience, pro-bike factors, physical determinants and external limitations, a structural equations model was estimated to find structure and relationships among variables and to understand users’ intentions to bike. The main conclusion is that convenience and external restrictions are the most important elements to understand cyclists’ behaviour. Pro-bike factors, like the health component, reinforce the element of convenience."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potenziale des Radverkehrs für den Klimaschutz (Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport). (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 84 p. [formato PDF, 5,24 MB]. "Das Ziel des Vorhabens bestand darin, belastbare Aussagen zu den Potenzialen des Radverkehrs in Bezug auf Umweltentlastungswirkungen zu gewinnen. Die Aufgabe bestand in der Untersuchung von Szenarien einer integrierten Radverkehrsförderung bzw. einer nachhaltigen Verkehrsentwicklung hinsichtlich Verkehrsmittelwahl, Zielwahl, Fahrleistung und Emissionen. Mit Hilfe eines für das Projekt entwickelten Kennwertmodells wurden Stellschrauben analysiert und variiert, um dadurch Veränderungen von Fahrleistungen und Umweltwirkungen abzuschätzen. In die Modellrechnungen konnten über die Variation von Modellparametern strukturelle Veränderungen und hypothetische Annahmen im Sinne von „Wenn-Dann“-Konstellationen integriert werden (Sensitivitätsanalysen). Über die dadurch erworbenen Systemkenntnisse wurden im Anschluss rekursiv Maßnahmenszenarien auf genereller Ebene entworfen und Bandbreiten für Wirkungen abgeschätzt. Im Ergebnis bringt die Verlagerung kurzer Kfz-Wege bis fünf Kilometer Länge nur eine geringe Änderung der CO2-Emissionen von ein bis drei Prozent, da der Anteil dieser Wege an der Fahrleistung niedrig ist. Würde das Fahrrad auch für die von der Bevölkerung als „gut mit dem Fahrrad erreichbar“ wahrgenommenen (weiter entfernten) Ziele genutzt, steigt das Reduktionspotenzial deutlich auf sechs bis elf Prozent der gesamten CO2-Emissionen des werktäglichen Personenverkehrs. Werden neben der reinen Verlagerung auch Strategien der Verkehrsvermeidung in die Modellrechnungen integriert sind Fahrleistungsrückgänge von 19 bis 38 Prozent bzw. eine CO2-Minderung von 13 bis 27 Prozent errechnet worden. Die Ergebnisse lassen damit Schlussfolgerungen über die Potenziale des Radverkehrs zur Emissionsreduzierung zu und geben Hinweise zu deren Einordnung in ganzheitliche nachhaltige Strategien. Dadurch wird deutlich, welchen Beitrag die Verlagerung von Verkehrsmittelanteilen (Modal Shift) vom MIV sowie die Vermeidung von weiten MIV-Wegen leisten kann. Insgesamt konnte festgestellt werden, dass Potenziale des Radverkehrs für die Reduktion von Klimagasemissionen in Deutschland vorhanden sind."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport. Executive Summary. (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 13 p. [formato PDF, 469 kB]. "The aim of the project was to obtain reliable estimates of the potential of cycling transport regarding environmental relief. The task was to study scenarios for integrated promotion of cycling transport and sustainable transport development with respect to mode choice, destination, vehicle kilometres and emissions. With the help of a statistical model developed for the project, different parameters were analysed and varied in order to estimate changes in driven kilometres and environmental impacts. By varying the model parameters structural changes and hypothetical assumptions in the sense of “if-then“ combinations were able to be integrated into the modelled variations (sensitivity analyses). Using the resulting system knowledge scenarios of measures were subsequently recursively conceptualised at a general level and the breadth of impact was estimated. The outcome reveals that shifting short car trips up to five kilometres only effects a small change in CO2 emissions of one to three percent since the share of these trips in driven kilometres is small. If cycling were to be used for destinations (further away) perceived by the public as having good cycling accessibility then the potential for reductions increases considerably to between six and 11 percent of total CO2 emissions in workday passenger transport. If along with mere shifts, strategies for avoiding or reducing traffic are integrated into the model then driven kilometres and CO2 emissions are reduced by 19 to 38 percent and 13 to 27 percent respectively. The results allow conclusions to be drawn as to the potential for cycling transport to reduce emissions and provide guidance on fitting this potential into holistic, sustainable strategies. Thus the contribution of modal shift away from the personal vehicle as well as of avoiding long car trips then becomes clear. On the whole it was determined that there is potential for cycling in Germany to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens (Technische Universität Dresden), Potenziale des Radverkehrs für den Klimaschutz. ADFC – Mittagsgespräche, München, 11. Dezember 2012, 16 slides [formato PDF, 2,30 MB].

Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Sensitivity Analysis to Estimate the Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport. Perugia, 29 November 2012, 8 slides [formato PDF, 560 kB].

Rachel Aldred and Katrina Jungnickel, Why culture matters for transport policy: the case of cycling in the UK. [article submitted to Journal of Transport Geography; the final published version may be different]. May 2013, 21 p. [formato PDF, 592 kB]. "Policy seeks to support cycling as a form of sustainable and active travel, yet, cycling levels in the UK remain low and evidence about interventions mixed. Data from a qualitative sociological study is used here to explore the difference that cultural meanings make to cycling practices in four different English urban areas. Specifically, we discuss differences between places with established cycling cultures and those with newer cycling cultures. Drawing on concepts from practice theory we discuss the role that cultures of cycling play within the four places, and suggest how the meanings of cycling, including its association with other social identities, are connected to the materials and competences seen as necessary for cycling. Our research highlights the embedding of transport in local as well as national cultures, and the associated need for policy-makers to take culture seriously in considering how to shift transport practices."

Radverkehr in Zahlen. Daten, Fakten und Stimmungen, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, 2010, 210 p. [formato PDF, 5,98 MB]. Notevole e dettagliata raccolta di dati statistici sulla diffusione e l'uso della bicicletta in Austria. Comprende dati sulla sicurezza, gli aspetti economici, le motivazioni dell'uso.

Gli italiani e la bicicletta: dalla "riscoperta" alla crescita mancata, ISFORT, Roma, 17 maggio 2012, 5 p. [formato PDF, 299 kB]. "A distanza di circa cinque anni i dati dell’Osservatorio Audimob di Isfort consentono di verificare quello che nel 2007 si ipotizzava poter essere l’avvio del tempo della “riscoperta della bicicletta”. Ebbene, contrariamente alle aspettative, i dati evidenziano negli ultimi anni una significativa battuta di arresto nella diffusione del pedale come ordinario mezzo di trasporto degli italiani."

E.E.M.M. van Kempen, W.Swart, G.C.W. Wendel-Vos, P.E. Steinberger, A.B. Knol, H.L. Stipdonk, M.C.B. Reurings, Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : A first estimation of the health benefits. (RIVM Report 630053001/2010). RIVM, Bilthoven, 2010, 74 p. [formato PDF, 414 kB] "As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, we assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end we used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and evaluated the availability and quality of data, models and tools that were needed. In our assessment not only the classic environmental pollutants noise and air pollution were taken into account, but also the effects on road safety and physical activity. Application shows that the disease burden related to physical activity reduces at a maximum of 1.3% after one year. As expected, the health benefits due to reduction in road traffic noise levels and traffic-related air pollution are relatively small. Furthermore, it appears that an exchange of short-distance car trips by cycling is only beneficial for young male drivers. Since a lot of information was unavailable and/or unknown and because a lot of choices and assumptions were made, the results have to be seen as a first estimate of what can be expected of interventions that cause an exchange between short-distance car trips with cycling. This study is a follow-up on earlier exemplary assessments of transport interventions."

Henk Stipdonk, Martine Reurings, The safety effect of exchanging car mobility for bicycle mobility. Substituting a small number of short car trips with bicycle trips. (SWOV-report R-2010-18). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, 2010, 30 p. [formato PDF, 708 kB] "This report describes the analysis of the effect of exchanging passenger car mobility for bicycle mobility on the number of fatalities and serious road injuries in the Netherlands. A precise calculation of this effect was not possible due to a lack of information, instead the report gives a first and rough approximation of the safety effect. The analysis considers a substitution of 10% of car trips shorter than 7.5 km by bicycle trips."

Lars Leden, Charlotta Johansson (Luleå University of Technology), The safety of elderly bicyclists. 12th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, 17 p. [formato PDF, 334 kB] "Demographic changes show that the absolute number and portion of the population in Europe that can be categorized as older or very old will continue to grow over the next several years. One aim should be to keep them active and healthy for as long a time as possible. Exercise, for example cycling, plays an important role in this context but data shows that the elderly bicyclists are overrepresented in crashes when compared with their exposure to traffic. Senior cyclists. needs and preferences should be a base for developing a safe and joyful cycling environment. This project uses in-depth crash data analysis, questionnaires with senior cyclists, and questionnaires with experts to identify potential for improving elderly bicycling. Elderly bicyclists have a significantly higher risk than younger age groups. The consequences are significantly more severe for elderly bicyclists compared to other age groups and increase with vehicle speeds. Elderly bicyclists are significantly more involved in crashes when intending to turn left compared to other age groups. 22% of elderly in fatal crashes intend to turn left compared to 8% for adults and 14% for children. As expected, elderly bicyclists are significantly more often impaired by bad sight and/or bad hearing as well as being impaired from taking medication in crashes compared to other age groups. Elderly bicyclists are less often in a hurry (5%) in crashes compared to other age groups (11%). Elderly bicyclists obey traffic rules no more and no less than other age groups. In darkness (incl. dawn and dusk), non-elderly adult bicyclists are significantly more often involved in crashes (37%) than elderly (11%). The most stated safety-increasing measure according to the senior cyclists is construction of more cycle tracks. According to the expert questionnaire the most important preconditions were safety and a feeling of security when cycling, the existence of a network of roads for cycling including appropriate bike parking facilities and positive attitudes from users and non-users regarding travelling by bicycle. This is much in accordance with the opinions expressed by the senior cyclists."

European Cyclists' Federation ECF, European Cycling Lexicon. Second edition: more languages, more terms, more information. European Economic and Social Committee, Bruxelles/Brussels, June 2010, 80 p. [formato PDF, 9,23 MB] "An illustrated passport-sized booklet, containing key terms for cycling, different types of bikes for different mobility needs, and good cycling infrastructure in 27 languages, including all 23 official EU languages. It also contains information on EU-funding sources for cycling and cycling infrastructure, and statistics on cycling in Europe and economic, health and environmental aspects of cycling."

Institute of Transport and Tourism (University of Central Lancashire), Centre for Sustainable Transport and Tourism (Breda University), The European Cycle Route Network: EuroVelo. Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism. Study. ISBN 978-92-823-2859-0. European Parliament, Brussels, April 2009, 144 p. [formato PDF, 7,22 MB]. "This study evaluates the challenges and opportunities of developing a cycle tourism network across Europe. It focuses on EuroVelo, a network of 12 long-distance routes managed by the European Cyclists’ Federation, which is being developed in different countries by a wide range of partners. The study reviews the market for cycle tourism in Europe and presents a EuroVelo demand model. It reviews the carriage of cycles on trains. Finally, it evaluates the potential of the Iron Curtain Trail. The aim of the study is to assess the potential benefits of long-distance European cycling routes for tourism purposes, especially in relation to sustainable tourism development. There are three key objectives: (a) to determine the current scale and scope of cycle tourism in Europe; (b) to evaluate the extent to which the EuroVelo can be developed as a sustainable tourism network across Europe; (c) to investigate the potential to develop a themed trail, currently known as The Iron Curtain Trail which gives lasting recognition to the re-unification of Europe from previous decades." Auch in Deutscher Sprache "Das Europäische Fahrradnetzwerk EuroVelo".

Cycling in the Netherlands. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Den Haag, 2009, 39 p. [formato PDF, 4,36 MB]. "This is the 2009 update of the general brochure about bicycle use and bicycle policy in the Netherlands, published by the Ministry of Transport and Fietsberaad. Information about the organisation and substance of Dutch bicycle policy is so often requested that a new actualised brochure was needed. The brochure is now also translated in French, German and Spanish."

Emmanuel Fankhauser, Le vélo dans les villes petites et moyennes. 26e journée Rue de l'Avenir, Sion, 25 septembre 2009, "Mobilités douces: le grand potentiel des villes petites et moyennes", 39 slides [formato PDF, 2,30 MB].

Louise Eriksson, Tema Cykel – faktorer som påverkar cykelanvändning utifrån ett individperspektiv. En litteraturstudie. (A psychological perspective on factors important for bicycle use. A literature review). (VTI Rapport 652). VTI, Linköping , 2009, 36 p. [formato PDF, 209 kB]. "The bicycle is not a dominant travel mode compared to other travel modes, particularly in the USA, neither in many European countries. In Sweden, 10 per cent of the trips are made by bicycle. However, since a higher level of bicycle use can have positive effects on personal health as well as on the environment, it is important to understand determinants of bicycle use. In this literature review, psychological factors important for the use of bicycle and policies that may be used in order to increase bicycle use have been described. In addition, different groups of cyclists (e.g., depending on sociodemografic factors and propensity to cycle) and how the physical context influence cycling are considered briefly. From a psychological perspective, the focus in many studies has been on examining motives and barriers for cycling and how cycling is perceived. Results have shown that many people cycle for personal health reasons or because they find the activity enjoyable, and even though the barriers are likely to be context specific, i.e. bad weather, too long distances, and poor safety for cyclists, they are often referred to as important subjective barriers. Overall, different psychological factors, such as attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and the perception of the social environment, have been found to be important for bicycle use. The results concerning the relation between cycling and sociodemografic factors are rather ambiguous. For example, gender has been shown to be an important factor for bicycle use in the USA but not in several European countries. With regard to the physical context, the majority of studies have shown that factors, such as the weather, hilliness, and the infrastructure for bicyclists are related to bicycle use. Even though psychological, sociodemografic, and contextual factors have been found to be important for the use of bicycle, it is important to acknowledge limitations in previous studies. One problem concerns the difficulties of creating cumulative knowledge based on prior studies, since different definitions of cyclists are used and many studies lack a theoretical basis. Even though the reviewed studies indicate that policy measures, such as improved infrastructure for cyclists, improved cycling facilities at the destination, and shorter travel time may increase bicycle use, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of these policy measures." (English summary).

AIRPARIF, Influence des aménagements de voirie sur l'exposition des cyclistes a' la pollution atmosphérique. Paris, Décembre 2008, 52 p. [formato PDF, 16,1 MB]. "Airparif a mesuré la qualité de l'air respirée par les cyclistes en fonction du type d'aménagement de voirie emprunté, avec le soutien financier de l'Afsset (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l'environnement et du travail). C'est dans le flux de circulation, au plus pre`s des émissions routie`res, que le cycliste est en moyenne le plus exposé a` la pollution. Par comparaison avec les résultats d'une étude précédente effectuée par Airparif sur l'exposition des automobilistes, la qualité de l'air respirée a` vélo est néanmoins moins dégradée qu'en voiture, du fait de la possibilité pour le cycliste de s'éloigner plus ou moins du flux de circulation en empruntant notamment les aménagements qui lui sont dédiés."

AIRPARIF actualité N°32 : A Paris a' vélo.... Paris, Février 2009, 8 p. [formato PDF, 2,02 MB]. Sintesi dello studio "Influence des aménagements de voirie sur l'exposition des cyclistes a' la pollution atmosphérique".

Adrian Bauman, Chris Rissel, Jan Garrard, Ian Ker, Rosemarie Speidel, Elliot Fishman, Cycling: Getting Australia Moving. Barriers, facilitators and interventions to get more Australians physically active through cycling. Cycling Promotion Fund, Melbourne, January 2008, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,21 MB]. "Cycling offers significant potential to increase physical activity levels in adults. It is already the fourth most popular physical activity for adults, it can be undertaken by a wide variety of ages and fitness levels, it is affordable and can be integrated into people’s daily life and used as a form of transport. This report has been developed to assist practitioners, policy makers and planners to increase adult physical activity levels through bicycle riding. It does this by first setting the scene on Australian cycling and then outlines current barriers and facilitators to greater participation. Finally, the report delivers a set of recommendations to overcome these barriers and increase bicycle riding among Australian adults."

Alberto Croce (AMI Ferrara), Una strategia di politica della mobilità. 15 anni di bici a Ferrara. Relazione al convegno "Mobilità sostenibile per le citta' medio-piccole. Scelte logiche e non ideologiche", Forlimpopoli, 7 novembre 2008, 72 slides [file PDF, 3,80 MB]. Uso della bici a Ferrara, programmi, infrastrutture e politiche di incentivazione (bike sharing).

PREDIT/CVC/JCD/RATP/VINCI, Le Vélo en Mode Actif. Rapport final. Média Mundi / Groupe Chronos, Paris, Août 2008, 48 p. [formato PDF, 3,64 MB] + Annexes 1, 2, 3 + Synthèse des enseignements, 48 + 41 + 26 + 18 p. [formato PDF, 3,62 + 1,28 + 1,26 MB + 433 kB]. "Une étude multipartenariale pour favoriser l'usage du vélo en ville. L'étude Vélo en Mode Actif présentée ci-après est le résultat d'une démarche qui a vu se succéder, entre janvier 2008 et juillet 2008, les étapes suivantes: une phase pilote (entretiens avec des usagers et des experts, veille); une étude quantitative (en face à face à domicile); deux tables rondes (débats entre experts au sujet des résultats obtenus)."

Department for Transport, a href="http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/cycling/cyclingfuture.pdf"> A Sustainable Future for Cycling, Department for Transport, London, January 2008, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,06 MB]. "This document sets out the background to the Department's increased funding for Cycling England's programme for the next 3 years."

Krister Spolander, Better cycles. An analysis of the needs and requirements of older cyclists. (VINNOVA Report VR 2007-17). VINNOVA, Stockholm, December 2007, 82 p. [formato PDF, 2,01 MB]. "The purpose of the project has been to analyse the need for more comfortable and safer cycles for elderly people, the possibilities of achieving this, plus how to initiate such a development and the role of research in this context. Background to this is the increased interest in the cycle as a mode of local conveyance in urban areas, a European trend which more recently has reached Sweden. A prerequisite for increased cycle traffic is a better cycle infrastructure but also better cycles. The basic design of the cycle is over 100 years old. Its development has been greatly inhibited by tight international rules (for competition bikes) which have set the frame geometry of all cycles in stone. Three different activities were conducted to highlight the need for better cycles for older people: group discussions with elderly cyclists, test-riding with a new type of cycle with displaced frame geometry and an expert seminar with participants from the cycle industry, design and ergonomics, research and public institutions. From the point of view of elderly people, it is quite clear that today’s cycles are marred by many shortcomings. The group discussions highlighted obvious comfort and manoeuvrability problems. The frequent starting and stopping in urban traffic is awkward, the riding position which stresses hands, arms and buttocks is uncomfortable and the high step-through means that, with age, it is difficult to climb onto the cycle. The safety analysis showed a remarkably strong age effect, involving a considerably greater relative risk of serious injury for elderly cyclists than for elderly people walking and motorists; two to three times greater. Furthermore, the step-through emerged as a major injury problem. Just over one quarter of all medical care days required by injured elderly cyclists relate to mounting and dismounting. Weight was another problem which was criticised. Generally, cycles are too heavy for comfortable handling; they get heavier the older a person gets. Technically and in terms of design, there are great opportunities to develop more comfortable, safer cycles. A long list of ideas in that direction was discussed in the expert seminar and group discussions. There were the issues of seat height, riding position and step-through to deal with, but also many components to improve functionally and ergonomically. The requirements appear consistent regarding design - a design which provides better comfort but also better safety."

Regione Emilia-Romagna, Assessorato Mobilità e Trasporti, Monitoraggio degli indicatori sulla mobilità ciclopedonale. 2 p. [formato PDF, 100 kB]. Dati aggiornati al 2007: estensione della rete regionale di infrastrutture ciclabili, rapporto tra rete ciclopedonale e superficie del territorio comunale, rapporto tra rete ciclopedonale e rete viaria del territorio comunale, rapporto tra rete ciclopedonale e popolazione residente.

Dirk Ligtermoet, Continuous and integral: The cycling policies of Groningen and other European cycling cities. Fietsberaad, Rotterdam, April 2006, 89 p. [formato PDF, 4,81 MB]. "This Fietsberaad-publication contains a number of accounts concerning the traffic policy of several cities characterised by a relatively high degree of bicycle use, extending over a prolonged period. Each account gives a specific picture of the ‘course of development’ of bicycle use in a municipality and the relation between bicycle use and local policy. They concern five cities in the Netherlands known as ‘cycling cities’: Groningen, Amsterdam, Enschede, Zwolle and Veenendaal. This is added by a selection of five cities from other neighbouring countries that also know a respectable level of bicycle use: Münster and Freiburg in Germany, Copenhagen and Odense in Denmark and Ghent in Belgium. The immediate ground for this publication is the study of Boersma & Van Alteren, completed some time ago, seeking an explanation for the high degree of bicycle use in Groningen. The ten city accounts each give a picture of the way in which cycling policy has contributed to the high degree of bicycle use over a prolonged period. Although they are indeed ten unique stories, they do correspond in quite a few places; parallels that could serve as examples of the ways in which a high degree of bicycle use can be attained - in the long run."

City of Copenhagen, Cycle Policy 2002-2012. Copenhagen, July 2002, 40 p. [formato PDF, 2,00 MB]. "The City of Copenhagen published a Cycle Policy in 2002. The purpose was to draw attention to cycling as an environmentally desirable and effective way of transport. The policy also coordinates nine focus areas for the improvement of cycling conditions."

Turismo in bicicletta. Idee e strumenti per una offerta di turismo sostenibile, Montecatini Terme, 16 ottobre 2006. Atti del convegno, Regione Toscana, Firenze, 2007, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,28 MB].

The Czech Republic, Ministry of Transport, National Cycling Development Strategy of the Czech Republic. January 2005, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,97 MB].

Marc Santos Canals, Antoine Pinaud, Thibaut Janneau, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen (supervisor), Copenhagen: how bicycles can become an efficient means of public transportation. Geography department, Roskilde University, December 2006, 90 p. [formato PDF, 3,90 MB]. "Private and public transports are important elements in a city. Transport gives a face to the city. For this project, Copenhagen was a good example. First this city knew how to obtain a powerful transport system. Moreover, the culture, in particular the culture of the bicycle, is acquired by many people. This is why starting from this postulate, we wanted to see how it is possible to combine bicycle and public transport. We know that the old system of city bikes has some problems and is not a success with Copenhageners. We had in the idea to create a new system, which would be in the same time an individual and a public transport. I.e., it would be public because it can be offered to everyone without discrimination. Some of the improvements would include better choice in the movements and in the timetable. We describe the field of the problem with references to qualitative and quantitative research to know general data and the problem with the city bike system. We have conducted two interviews which help us to understand how the existing bike system in Copenhagen functions. We have given an outline of the theories of geography with special emphasis on mobility, urban planning and sociology in relation with the individual choice. Last, we took into comparison other European cities in order to have an overall view and to have more references from which to show the possibility of our system."

Luisa Toeschi e Andrea Airoldi (a cura di), Il libro bianco delle bici a Milano. Spostamenti e sosta delle bici in una grande città. Milano, Associazione Interessi Metropolitani, Politecnico di Milano, 2006, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,63 MB].

Brigitte Le Brethon, Propositions pour encourager le développement de la bicyclette en France . Rapport remis à Monsieur Jean-Pierre Raffarin, Premier Ministre. Paris, 9 mars 2004, 69 p. [formato PDF, 569 KB]. Rapporto commissionato dal governo francese alla deputata Brigitte Le Brethon, sindaco di Caen. Il documento costituisce la base per una strategia nazionale francese di rilancio della bicicletta. "Ayant constaté que l'usage de la bicyclette progresse, tant en ville qu'à la campagne, Brigitte Le Brethon remarque cependant qu'il est nécessaire de donner une impulsion pour que la pratique de la bicyclette se développe de façon significative. Elle insiste sur les bienfaits du vélo (lutte contre la pollution, qualité de la vie, santé, cohésion sociale...), propose une stratégie nationale en faveur du développement de la bicyclette et des mesures concrètes pour relancer la politique du vélo en France (aménagements urbains, sécurité routière, accessibilité, incitations économiques...). En annexe sont proposées des comparaisons sur l'utilisation de la bicyclette dans différents pays d'Europe."

Erster Bericht der Bundesregierung über die Situation des Fahrradsverkehrs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1998. (primo rapporto del Governo federale sulla situazione della mobilità ciclabile nella Repubblica Federale Tedesca 1998). Bundesministerium fur Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen, Bonn, März 1999, 136 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB].

Jeroen Buis and Roelof Wittink (Interface for Cycling Expertise), The economic significance of cycling. A study to illustrate the costs and benefits of cycling policy. The Hague (L'Aia), VNG uitgeverij, 2000, 53 p. [formato PDF, 3,04 MB]. "This publication is an overview of the economic value of cycling policy in urban areas. It uses information from different parts of the world to show the relationship between this economic value and local situations and circumstances. It also includes a literature study and cost-benefit analyses that have been carried out for four cities."

Dankmar Alrutz (Planungsgemeinschaft Verkehr, Hannover), Erreichbarkeit von Innenstädten und Einkaufszentren mit dem Fahrrad - Rahmenbedingungen und Massnahmen aus Sicht der Verkehrsplanung. (Accessibilità dei centri urbani e commerciali con la bicicletta - condizioni necessarie e provvedimenti dal punto di vista della pianificazione del traffico). Presentazione al convegno "Mit dem Fahhrad zum Einkaufen", Göttingen, 30.06.2005. 17 slides [formato PDF, 3,51 MB].

Hans-Joachim Becker, Claudia Hiebel, Bewachtes Fahhradparken in Berlin (parcheggi sorvegliati per biciclette a Berlino). Mit dem Fahhrad flexibel und störungsfrei zum Event. Ergebnisbericht eines Pilotprojektes während der FIFA Fussball-Weltmeisterschaft 2006. IVP-Schriften Nr. 10. Berlin, Fachgebiet Integrierte Verkehrsplanung, Technische Universität Berlin, September 2006, 27 p. [formato PDF, 2,79 MB]. Durante i campionati mondiali di calcio a Berlino, il Comune ha organizzato delle aree di parcheggio sorvegliato gratuito per le bici, per rafforzare la campagna "Berlin steigt um", per fare andare allo stadio in bici e coi mezzi pubblici invece che con l'auto. Il documento riporta i risultati del questionario distribuito agli utenti dei parcheggi sorvegliati.

Einkaufen mit dem Rad. Progetto dell'associazione ambientalista tedesca BUND per promuovere l'uso della bici per gli acquisti. Il sito offre dati, suggerimenti ("Aktionsideen von A bis Z"), proposte e materiali divulgativi.

Enrico Prevedello, Implementing cycling policies for employees and students of the Politecnico di Milano, ECOMM 2004, May 5-7, Lyon, 13 slides [formato PDF, 536 KB]. Il Politecnico di Milano si è impegnato a favorire l’uso della bicicletta da parte di studenti e dipendenti, anche proponendo al Comune nuove piste ciclabili e nuovi itinerari. Grazie a un co-finanziamento del Ministero dell’Ambiente, 500 biciclette sono state consegnate alle Università di Milano per essere messe a disposizione di studenti e personale.

Guida ai fondi per la ciclabilità a cura di Vincenzo Barone, Francesco Silvestri, Roberta Vitali, prodotta dall’AICC (vedi sopra) e dalla FIAB, ottobre 2004, 37 p. [formato PDF, 2,07 MB]


ENTI, ASSOCIAZIONI, PORTALI, WIKIS, BLOGS

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) is a national clearinghouse for information about health and safety, engineering, advocacy, education, enforcement, access, and mobility for pedestrians (including transit users) and bicyclists. The PBIC serves anyone interested in pedestrian and bicycle issues, including planners, engineers, private citizens, advocates, educators, police enforcement, and the health community.

ITALIA

cittainbici.it. Il sito dell'informazione ciclabile, a cura del Coordinamento Nazionale Uffici Biciclette (A21 Italy).

Critical Map è un progetto di "ciclocartografia partecipata": il sito www.criticalmap.org costituisce una piattaforma comune che permette - a chi si muove in bicicletta - di fissare la propria visione dello spazio urbano sulla mappa delle nostre città. Contiene le mappe di 42 città italiane.

FIAB Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta (sito ufficiale)

www.ufficiobiciclette.it, sito del coordinamento degli uffici biciclette in Italia (di 31 Comuni). "Siamo una rete tra gli Enti Locali in Italia che hanno attivato un Ufficio Biciclette o che comunque hanno provveduto ad individuare una figura di riferimento per le politiche a favore della bicicletta nelle proprie realta' territoriali seguendo le indicazioni UE contenute nel “libro arancio” della Commissione Europea. Siamo anche un gruppo di lavoro del Coordinamento Nazionale Agenda 21 Italy, vale a dire una scelta politica-partecipativa partita dal basso, cioe' da quei Comuni che hanno percepito che la bicicletta rappresenta una scelta fondamentale per una mobilita' sostenibile e che anzi rappresenta l’unica vera alternativa al trasporto motorizzato nelle citta', una strada praticabile subito con interventi economici modesti ma con risultati eccellenti in termini di qualita' della vita e di tutela dell’ambiente e della salute."

Coordinamento Roma Ciclabile. Il sito contiene notizie e documenti sulla ciclabilità a Roma, nel Lazio e altro.

MiBici. Sito della Provincia di Milano dedicato al piano di intervento strategico per promuovere e sviluppare la mobilità a due ruote nel territorio della provincia di Milano, ora denominato Piano MiBici o "Piano della Ciclabilità della Provincia di Milano".

BicItalia - La Rete Ciclabile Nazionale. La proposta della Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta - Fiab onlus per una Rete Nazionale di Percorsi Ciclabili (con schede e mappa dei percorsi).

I LIKE BIKE, blog di Bibi Bellini sulla mobilità ciclabile e sostenibile.

PisteCiclabili.com contiene 7600 km di itinerari cicloturistici italiani.

Associazione Italiana Città Ciclabili costituita nel 1990, promuove l’uso della bicicletta come mezzo di trasporto e di fruizione naturale del territorio

Bicincittà, soluzioni per la mobilità sostenibile. "Bicincittà (prodotto della ditta Comunicare S.r.L.) è un sistema di bike sharing, il cui significato è bicicletta condivisa, che offre l’opportunità di distribuire ai cittadini in modo semplice ed intuitivo una certa quantità di biciclette pubbliche e di monitorarne in tempo reale la presa ed il deposito." Il sistema è stato adottato dai comuni di Parma, Novara, Cuneo, Chivasso, Pinerolo, Pistoia, Savigliano, Settimo Torinese. Sistemi simili sono in funzione in molte grandi città europee.

BiciWiki Wiki in lingua italiana, per iniziativa del Bicycle Mobility Forum, dedicato alla mobilita' ciclabile.

Piste ciclabili, moderazione del traffico e mobilita' urbana (sito FIAB)

ALTRI PAESI

WE cycle UK. A working group for women in the cycling community and industry, working collaboratively towards gender equality in cycling by increasing the number of women riding bikes and making riding a bike a normal and safe choice of transport for every woman across the UK by 2020.

the Australian Bicycle Council (ABC) is the national body that manages and coordinates implementation of the Australian National Cycling Strategy 2005 - 2010. The ABC consists of representatives of state, territory and local governments, the cycling industry and bicycle users.

Cycling Resource Centre. The CRC is maintained by the Australian Bicycle Council (ABC) in implementing the Australian National Cycling Strategy 2005-2010. The Centre is a repository for data, information and best practice relating to cycling planning, policy, programs and projects.

One Green City (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Contiene documenti, articoli, video, immagini, cartografia, progetti, ... di interesse locale e internazionale.

The Czech Republic, Ministry of Transport, National Cycling Strategy in the Czech Republic. Portale del Ministero dei Trasporti della Repubblica Ceca dedicato alle linee strategiche nazionali per la mobilità ciclabile.

BiciWiki Wiki in lingua catalana, dedicato alla mobilità ciclabile. "Informació de 1a mà per circular en bicicleta per Barcelona i rodalies" (informazioni per muoversi in bicicletta a Barcellona e dintorni). A site to collect 1st hand info about riding a bike in Barcelona city and surroundings (and cycling advocacy etc).

Bicycle NSW, (New South Wales, Australia). "Working to promote, advocate, and support cycling".

Bicycling Life. A Web-site for Everyday Bicyclists.

Bikeforall.net. Everything you wanted to know about cycling but were afraid to ask. "Bikeforall.net is a joint initiative of the Bicycle Association and the Association of Cycle Traders" (UK).

BACC Bicicleta Club de Catalunya - con il bollettino mensile Ciclo Times (sito in catalano, spagnolo e inglese).

CPF Cycling Promotion Fund (Australia).

ConBici - Coordinadora en Defensa de la Bici. "ConBici es la Coordinadora ibérica para la promoción de la bicicleta y la defensa de los intereses de los y las ciclistas." Riunisce 32 associazioni di ciclisti di Spagna e Portogallo. (sito in spagnolo).

Club des Villes cyclables (Francia). "Le Club des villes cyclables, créé en 1989 par 10 villes pionnières, regroupe aujourd’hui plus de 550 communes représentant 14 millions d’habitants. Il est devenu, au fil des ans, un acteur majeur en matière de politiques et de réalisations cyclables. Il participe à tous les grands débats pour un meilleur partage de la rue, pour l’aménagement des zones 30 et des quartiers tranquilles et pour améliorer la sécurité des cyclistes et des piétons."

cyclescheme.co.uk. Get a tax free bike for work! "Cyclescheme is working with a network of independent bike shops to supply the nation with quality tax free bikes and equipment for work."

Critical Mass. Critical Mass is not an organization, it's an unorganized coincidence. It's a movement ... of bicycles, in the streets. Accordingly, this isn't the official Critical Mass web page, because there is no official Critical Mass web page. There are, however, a bunch of unofficial web pages.

Echos du Vélo. Ricco portale in lingua francese, purtroppo aggiornato al 2005/2006.

The European Cycle Logistics Federation is a professional body which represents and supports the needs of cycle logistics companies across Europe.

Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung, Fahrradportal. Ampio portale del ministero tedesco dei trasporti dedicato alla mobilità ciclabile (in lingua tedesca).

Le guide du cycliste girondin du Sud Ouest. Sito per l'area di Bordeaux: prestito gratuito di bici, la casa della bici, marcatura antifurto, bici sui mezzi pubblici di trasporto (bus, tram, treno), guide, percorsi, ...

The Hub - Cycling Knowledge for Professionals. New home for Cycling England's online resources. These pages are now hosted by The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport - CILT(UK) - as a free service to interested professionals.

I-ce Interface for Cycling Expertise, Utrecht (NL). "Is an international NGO for low cost mobility and integrated cycling planning; it is an interface to the Dutch cycling culture and capabilities." Attivo nella cooperazione in Africa, America Latina e Asia per la promozione e la pianificazione della mobilità ciclabile.

IG Velo Schweiz - CI Vélo Suisse - Swiss Bycicle Advocacy Association Comunità d'interessi dei ciclisti svizzeri, associazione nonprofit per promuovere la mobilità e gli interessi dei ciclisti, riunisce più di 30 associazioni regionali ed ha circa 20.000 iscritti (CH)

International Bicycle Fund A non-governmental, nonprofit, advocacy organization, promoting sustainable transport and international understanding. Major areas of activity are non-motorized urban planning, economic development, bike safety education, responsible travel and bicycle tourism, and cross-cultural, educational programs. (Portale)

MDB Mieux se Déplacer à Bicyclette (Francia). Associazione attiva soprattutto a Parigi e Ile-de France, promuove la mobilità ciclabile (interventi sull'urbanistica, sicurezza, sosta dei cicli, marcatura delle bici ...)

National Center for Bicycling & Walking (NCBW) is the major program of the Bicycle Federation of America, Inc. (BFA), a national, nonprofit [501(c)(3)] corporation established in 1977. Our mission is to create bicycle-friendly and walkable communities.

National Cycling Strategy ricco portale inglese dedicato a far crescere l’uso della bicicletta in ogni sua forma, fino ad ottenere un quadruplicamento degli spostamenti effettuati in bicicletta in Gran Bretagna nel 2012 rispetto al dato del 1996.

North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation (NCDOT). The Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation (DBPT) is a comprehensive operation, touching all aspects of bicycling and walking; whether designing facilities, creating safety programs, mapping cross-state bicycle routes, training teachers, sponsoring workshops and conferences, fostering multi-modal planning or integrating bicycling and walking into the ongoing activities of the Department of Transportation.

SpiCycles. Spicycles is one of the Intelligent Energy Europe STEER projects that aims to demonstrate that the share of cycling can be increased even more. Colleague projects in Europe's STEER are Bypad and Astute; many other projects work in parallel to strengthen the efforts. Front Runner Cities in Spicycles are: Barcelona, Berlin, Bucharest, Göteborg, Ploiesti, Rome. They address issues such as: Introduction of bike-sharing schemes; Implementation of communication and awareness raising campaigns; Integration of cycling planning in the overall spatial and transport planning; Building local partnerships.

VdR Verband der Radfahrlehrer moveo ergo sum e.V., Hamburg (D). (Associazione di istruttori per ciclisti).

Velo.Info. The European Network for Cycling Expertise. Portale multilingue che dà accesso a un database con schede e documenti, ricercabili con un motore di ricerca Collexis.

Vélo Mondial. Fondazione che riunisce imprenditori, enti locali e associazioni per promuovere l'uso della bicicletta e la pianificazione della mobilita' cicliabile. Promuove progetti locali, europei e mondiali e organizza convegni (Velo Mondial 2000, 2006, 2012). "Velo Mondial aims to bring all international stakeholders together to create a higher-level synergy of expert knowledge to support the position of cycling planning on the agenda of local and national governments. Velo Mondial provides opportunities for cities to improve their support for cycling planning in order to achieve the benefits that cycling can offer."

Vélo Québec Association, Éditions, Événements, Voyages (Canada). "Depuis 40 ans, Vélo Québec, un organisme sans but lucratif, fait figure d'incontournable dans le paysage cycliste québécois. Que ce soit à des fins de loisir ou de tourisme, ou comme moyen de transport propre et actif, notre organisme encourage sans relâche l'utilisation de la bicyclette afin d'améliorer l'environnement, la santé et le bien-être des citoyens." (Français/English).

Velostadt Züri sito della città di Zurigo (CH) dedicato alla mobilità in bicicletta (246 Km di percorsi ciclabili !)


BIKE-SHARING, SISTEMI PER L'USO CONDIVISO DI BICICLETTE : dal 2015 vedi la voce SHARED MOBILITY - MOBILITA' CONDIVISA

Urs Bolz, Öffentliche Veloverleihsysteme in der Schweiz. Entwicklungen und Geschäftsmodelle - ein Praxisbericht. Materialien Langsamverkehr Nr. 137. Bundesamt für Strassen, ASTRA, Bereich Langsamverkehr und historische Verkehrswege, Bern, Juni 2018, 43 p., [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "2018 zeichnet sich bei den Veloverleihsystemen in der Schweiz ein Entwicklungsschub ab. Nach längeren Rechtsverfahren starteten die Städte Zürich und Bern ihre Systeme mit je über 2000 Velos, und auch in anderen Städten sind Beschaffungsverfahren im Gange oder in Planung. Parallel dazu drängen verschiedene Anbietende mit stationsungebundenen Veloverleihangeboten (sogenannten Free-Floating-Systeme) auf den Markt, die zum Teil etablierte Systeme konkurrenzieren. Der vorliegende Berichts ist eine Bestandsaufnahme aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen mit der Einführung, Gebrauch und Betrieb von Veloverleihsystemen in Schweizer Städten. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den neuen Erkenntnissen aus diesen Projekten, mit Einschluss der sich stellenden rechtlichen Fragen."

Burkhard Horn, Alexander Jung, Bikesharing im Wandel. Handlungsempfehlungen für deutsche Städte und Gemeinden zum Umgang mit stationslosen Systemen. Agora Verkehrswende, Berlin, Juni 2018, 36 p., [formato PDF, 998 kB]. "Bikesharing stellt einen wichtigen Baustein eines nachhatigen urbanen Mobilitätskonzeptes dar. Es kann in relevantem Umfang zur Reduzierung des innerstädtischen Autoverkehrs beitragen, insbesondere als Teil inter- und multimodaler Wegeketten in Verknüpfung mit dem Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV) für die erste oder letzte Meile sowie beim Zurücklegen kurzer Alltags- und Freizeitwege. Dies gilt grundsätzlich auch für die neuen stationslosen Systeme von Anbietern vor allem aus Ostasien, die seit 2017 verstärkt auf den deutschen Markt drängen. Vor allem für kleine und mittelgroße Städte sowie peripherere Lagen von Großstädten bieten sie neue Chancen für ein breiteres Sharing-Angebot, aber auch in größeren Städten können sie sich als komplementäres Angebot zu bestehenden Systemen eignen. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit den neuen Systemen haben allerdings auch gezeigt, dass ein gewisses Maß an Steuerung durch die Kommunen erforderlich ist: Nur so lassen sich ihre Potenziale gezielt nutzen und die erkennbar gewordenen Herausforderungen (etwa die Übernutzung des öffentlichen Raums oder betriebliche Probleme) bewältigen. Entscheidend für den Erfolg stationsloser Bikeshar­ing-Systeme auch aus kommunaler Sicht ist die enge Kommunikation und Kooperation zwischen der öffentlichen Hand und den Anbietern. Ergebnis dieser Zusammenarbeit sollte möglichst eine Vereinbarung sein, die wesentliche Elemente des Aufbaus und des Betriebs des jeweiligen Systems möglichst verbindlich regelt (soweit möglich auch rechtlich, etwa über Sondernutzungsregelungen) und dessen Einbindung in das gesamtstädtische Mobilitätskonzept sicherstellt. Die Städte und Gemeinden können diesbezüglich auch Anreize setzen. Die vorliegende Handreichung enthält Anforderungen und zahlreiche Hinweise zur Ausgestaltung solcher Vereinbarungen. Jede Kommune kann dabei eine spezifische, auf die lokalen Verhältnisse angepasste Lösung entwickeln. In die Handlungsempfehlungen ist eine Reihe von Erkenntnissen eingeflossen, die sich aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen verschiedener Städte und Gemeinden ergeben haben. Die Handlungsempfehlungen sind mit entsprechenden Praxisbeispielen hinterlegt. Allerdings liegen bislang nur wenige auch längerfristige Erfahrungen und empirisch belastbare Evaluierungen zur Wirkung der stationslosen Bikesharing-Systeme vor. Hier besteht Forschungsbedarf. Dies gilt auch in Hinblick auf den Rechtsrahmen, dessen zielgerichtete Veränderung den Abschluss belastbarer Vereinbarungen und Verfahren deutlich erleichtern könnte."

Mobike, How Cycling Changes Cities. Insights on how bikesharing supports urban development. Mobike's Second White Paper. Mobike, 2018, 32 p., [formato PDF, 7,3 MB]. "Through big data analysis using innovative IoT technology, and a sophisticated artificial intelligence platform - Mobike are able to gain insight into how cycling becoming more accessible in our cities can impact and change our cities for the better; and thereby significantly improves the quality of life of their residents. This most recent white paper focuses on 12 major Mobike cities across 4 continents: London, Shanghai, Singapore, Milan, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen. Washington D.C., Sapporo, Berlin and Sydney."

Kees van Goeverden, Gonçalo Correia (Delft University of Technology), Potential of peer-to-peer bike sharing for relieving bike parking capacity shortage at train stations: an explorative analysis for the Netherlands. EJTIR 2018 (in print), 19 p., [formato PDF, 647 kB]. "In the Netherlands, many (mainly larger) train stations suffer from capacity shortages for bicycle parking as the result of a large increase in the use of the bicycle as a feeder mode. Sharing of parked bicycles with arriving train passengers who are in need of a bicycle for some time would decrease the number of parked bicycles and reduce the capacity shortage. The paper explores to which extent sharing of these bicycles relieves the capacity problem by investigating the maximum potential for reducing the peak of parked bicycles. This is the potential of the case when all considered participants (bicycle owners and those who are in need for a bicycle) are willing to share. The analyses are based on data of the Dutch National Travel Survey. The main result is that the potential is likely to be modest. The estimated maximum is for the large stations between 13% and 50%, the actual potential is likely to be significantly lower. The large range for the maximum can partly be explained by the uncertainty about the number of arriving train passengers that might shift to the bicycle for the last mile if sharing increases bicycle availability. A second result is that sharing can have a significant effect on the distribution of parked bicycles over the day. The current peak halfway the day can turn into a dip between two peaks in the traditional morning and evening peak hours."

Mohamed Salah Mahmoud, Wafic El-Assi, Khandker Nurul Habib (University of Toronto), Effects of Built Environment and Weather on Bike Sharing Demand: Station Level Analysis of Commercial Bike Sharing in Toronto. Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 11-15.01.2015, 15 p. [formato 837 kB] "Bike Share Toronto is Canada’s second largest public bike share system. Bike Share Toronto provides a unique case study as it is one of the few bike share programs in a North American city that experiences severe cold climates and operates throughout the entire year. Using year-round real time trip data, this study analyzes the factors affecting Toronto’s bike share ridership. A comprehensive spatial analysis is performed and three regression models are developed at the station level. Results of the trip attraction and generation models provide meaningful insights on the influence of socio-demographic attributes, land use and built environment, as well as different weather measures on bicycle share ridership. The developed models can be used to assist policy makers and city planners to predict the monthly trip activity at potential station locations. A station pair (origin-destination) regression model is developed based on station to station paths’ level of service attributes along with other zonal level factors. Results show that station-to-station distance and the number of intersections with major roads have negative impacts on bike share ridership. In addition, for a given origin-destination pair, the higher the percentage of bicycle infrastructure with respect to the total route length, the higher the corresponding ridership. This model can be used to predict the trip distribution between station pairs based on the total trip activity at each station. The model can also be used to assess potential bike infrastructure development based on expected bicycle routes from/to potential station locations."

Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington, Narelle Haworth (Queensland University of Technology), Bike share: a synthesis of the literature. Transport Reviews, v.33. n.2, 2013, pp. 148-165 (26 p.), [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "This paper begins by providing an overview of bike share programs, followed by a critical examination of the growing body of literature on these programs. This synthesis of previous works, both peer-reviewed and gray, includes an identification of the current gaps in knowledge related to the impacts of bike sharing programs. This synthesis represents a critically needed evaluation of the current state of global bike share research, in order to better understand, and maximize the effectiveness of current and future programs. Several consistent themes have emerged within the growing body of research on bike share programs. Firstly, the importance bike share members place on convenience and value for money appears paramount in their motivation to sign up and use these programs. Secondly, and somewhat counter intuitively, scheme members are more likely to own and use private bicycles than nonmembers. Thirdly, users demonstrate a greater reluctance to wear helmets than private bicycle riders and helmets have acted as a deterrent in jurisdictions in which helmets are mandatory. Finally, and perhaps most importantly from a sustainable transport perspective, the majority of scheme users are substituting from sustainable modes of transport rather than the car."

Oliver O'Brien (University College London), Bicycle sharing systems - Global Trends in Size. (UCL Working Paper Series 196). Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, London, May 2014, 10 p. [formato 854 kB] "Bicycle sharing systems allow users to hire a bicycle from an automated docking station for short journeys, typically one-way, providing a novel alternative to traditional methods of transport. The adoption of such systems by cities has been accelerating, with over 700 active systems as of early 2014, an increase of around 50% in a year. UCL CASA has been observing a number of the larger systems since 2010, and collecting data on their size in terms of numbers of docking stations and bicycles. This paper shows that, for many larger cities, their existing systems have grown in size organically or on a phased basis, by area expansion and/or intensification, during the period of study, although some systems have decreased in size."

Giorgio Saibene, Giancarlo Manzi, Bike Usage in Public Bike-Sharing: An Analysis of the "BikeMi" System in Milan. (Working Paper n. 2015-01). Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Economia, Management e Metdo Quantitativi, MIlano, gennaio 2015, 21 p. [formato PDF, 660 kB] "The constant increase of public shared bicycle systems (PSBSs) in western cities suggests that nowadays city councils consider public bike sharing systems a serious alternative to traditional public transportation in urban areas. PSBSs can represent a solution in the hands of citizens for short journeys in highly urbanized areas. In this paper we focus on the successful example of Milan’s BikeMi PSBS which is giving very positive results in terms of satisfaction for all the actors involved, i.e. the service management, city council and users. From the available data it can be inferred that the bicycle overcome the car central areas in terms of speed, distance travelled daily, and choice of multiple itineraries, especially during peak periods and in proximity of the main railway stations. The main bicycle tracks and hotspots are also detected revealing an imbalance between the northern and the southern part of the city, with the northern part better covered by the service."

Susan A. Shaheen, Elliot W. Martin, Nelson D. Chan, Adam P. Cohen, Mike Pogodzinski, Public Bikesharing in North America During a Period of Rapid Expansion: Understanding Business Models, Industry Trends & User Impacts. (MTI Report 12-29), Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, October 2014, 234 p. [formato PDF, 3,01 MB] "Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—is an innovative transportation strategy that has recently emerged in major cities around the world, including North America. Information technology (IT)-based bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Trips can be one-way, round-trip, or both, depending on the operator. Bikesharing can serve as a first-and-last mile connector to other modes, as well as for both short and long distance destinations. In 2012, 22 IT-based public bikesharing systems were operating in the United States, with a total of 884,442 users and 7,549 bicycles. Four IT-based programs in Canada had a total of 197,419 users and 6,115 bicycles. Two IT-based programs in Mexico had a total of 71,611 users and 3,680 bicycles. (Membership numbers reflect the total number of short- and long-term users.) This study evaluates public bikesharing in North America, reviewing the change in travel behavior exhibited by members of different programs in the context of their business models and operational environment. This Phase II research builds on data collected during our Phase I research conducted in 2012. During the 2012 research (Phase I), researchers conducted 14 expert interviews with industry experts and public officials in the United States and Canada, as well as 19 interviews with the manager and/or key staff of IT-based bikesharing organizations. For more information on the Phase I research, please see the Shaheen et al., 2012 report Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator and User Understanding. For this Phase II study, an additional 23 interviews were conducted with IT-based bikesharing organizations in the United States, Canada, and Mexico in Spring 2013. Notable developments during this period include the ongoing expansion of public bikesharing in North America, including the recent launches of multiple large bikesharing programs in the United States (i.e., Citi Bike in New York City, Divvy in Chicago, and Bay Area Bike Share in the San Francisco Bay Area). In addition to expert interviews, the authors conducted two kinds of surveys with bikesharing users. One was the online member survey. This survey was sent to all people for whom the operator had an email address. The population of this survey was mainly annual members of the bikesharing system, and the members took the survey via a URL link sent to them from the operator. The second survey was an on-street survey. This survey was designed for anyone, including casual users (i.e., those who are not members of the system and use it on a short-term basis), to take “on-street” via a smartphone. The member survey was deployed in five cities: Montreal, Toronto, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, and Mexico City. The on-street survey was implemented in three cities: Boston, Salt Lake City, and San Antonio."

Sigal Kaplan, Francesco Manca, Thomas A.S. Nielsen, Carlo G. Prato (Technical University of Denmark), Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Artikler fra Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet (Proceedings from the Annual Transport Conference at Aalborg University), 25.-26. August 2014, Aalborg, Denmark, 18 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "This study explored the behavioral factors underlying tourist intentions to use urban bike-sharing for recreational cycling while on holiday. The analytical framework relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior relating tourist intentions to pro-cycling attitudes, interest in bicycle technology, pro-cycling subjective norms and perceived cycling ease. The case-study focused on the new bike-sharing system in Copenhagen (Denmark) and questioned 655 potential tourists about a hypothetical holiday scenario. Structural equation models revealed: (i) the great interest in using bike-sharing, frequently and for multiple purposes; (ii) the relation between holiday cycling and living in a cycling-friendly country, past cycling experience and habitual mode choice; (iii) the appeal of electric bicycles to tourists with high interest in bicycle technology, low perceived cycling ease and weak pro-cycling norms; (iv) the relation between frequent and multi-purpose cycling intentions and stronger pro-cycling attitudes and norms, and greater perceived likelihood that the holiday partners would cycle."

Anna Goodman, Judith Green, James Woodcock, The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists. Journal of Transport & Health, v.1. n.1, March 2014, pp.5-8 (4 p.), [formato PDF, 273 kB], Open Access. "Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible."

James Woodcock, Marko Tainio, James Cheshire, Oliver O’Brien, Anna Goodman, Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study, BMJ 2014;348:g425, February 2014 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Open Access. "OBJECTIVE: To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. DESIGN: Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. SETTING: Central and inner London, England. DATA SOURCES: Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). PARTICIPANTS: 578,607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change -72 DALYs (95% credible interval -110 to -43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; -15 (-42 to -6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change -49 DALYs (-88 to -17) among men; -1 DALY (-27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age group (15 to 29 years), the medium term benefits and harms were both comparatively small and potentially negative. CONCLUSION: London's bicycle sharing system has positive health impacts overall, but these benefits are clearer for men than for women and for older users than for younger users. The potential benefits of cycling may not currently apply to all groups in all settings."

Alexandros Nikitas, Toni-Matti Karjalainen and Ulrike Rahe, Innovative Bike-Sharing Design as a Research and Educational Platform for Promoting More Livable Urban Futures. 5th International Congress of IASDR (International Association of Societies of Design Research), August 26-30, 2013, Tokyo, Japan, 12 p. [formato PDF, 6,41 MB] "Studying the viability of innovative urban access design is the key to achieve optimum results when attempting to transform dogmatism referring to conventional car-orientation into a meaningful driver of modal change that is founded on the actual societal needs for future transportation. An efficient public bicycle scheme could be the very definition of a solution that could encourage and even facilitate, to a certain extent, such a transition. This paper discusses how a post-graduate course embraced, through the means of a service-oriented design exercise, the potential introduction of such a system. More specifically, seven research teams, closely guided by the three authors, were affiliated with designing a new hypothetical bike-sharing scheme in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. The paper reports on: a) the novel educational approach the tutors employed, b) the taught experiences that helped the students utilize their potential as learners but also as inventive designers, c) the research in terms of design results and d) the overall transition from solely serving the needs of automotive mobility in urban environments to creating a knowledge platform that actually illustrates an improved design-innovation process to tackle future urban demands and eventually have a real-life context impact on the city of Gothenburg."

Susan A. Shaheen, Elliot W. Martin and Adam P. Cohen (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Public Bikesharing and Modal Shift Behavior: A Comparative Study of Early Bikesharing Systems in North America. International Journal of Transportation, Vol.1, No.1 (2013), pp.35-54 (20 p.), [formato PDF, 894 kB] "Public bikesharing — the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public — is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. This paper discusses the modal shift that results from individuals participating in four public bikesharing systems in North America. We conducted an online survey (n =10,661 total sample), between November 2011 and January 2012, with members of four major bikesharing organizations (located in Montreal, Toronto, the Twin Cities, and Washington D.C.) and collected information regarding travel-behavior changes, focusing on modal shift, as well as public bikesharing perceptions. The survey probed member perceptions about bikesharing and found that a majority in the surveyed cities felt that bikesharing was an enhancement to public transportation and improved transit connectivity. With respect to modal shift, the results suggest that bikesharing generally draws from all travel modes. Three of the four largest cities in the study exhibited declines in bus and rail usage as a result of bikesharing. For example, 50% of respondents in Montreal reported reducing rail use, while 44% and 48% reported similar shifts in Toronto and Washington D.C., respectively. However, within those same cities, 27% to 40% of respondents reported using public transit in conjunction with bikesharing to make trips previously completed by automobile. In the Twin Cities, the dynamic was different, as 15% of respondents reported increasing rail usage versus only 3% who noted a decrease in rail use. In all cities, bikesharing resulted in a considerable decline in personal driving and taxi use, suggesting that public bikesharing is reducing urban transportation emissions, while at the same time freeing capacity of bus and rail networks within large cities."

Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington & Narelle Haworth, Bike Share: A Synthesis of the Literature. Transport Reviews, 2013, Vol. 33, No. 2, 148–165 (18 p.), [formato PDF, 419 kB] [Free access until 30th June 2014] "This paper begins by providing an overview of bike share programs, followed by a critical examination of the growing body of literature on these programs. This synthesis of previous works, both peer-reviewed and gray, includes an identification of the current gaps in knowledge related to the impacts of bike sharing programs. This synthesis represents a critically needed evaluation of the current state of global bike share research, in order to better understand, and maximize the effectiveness of current and future programs. Several consistent themes have emerged within the growing body of research on bike share programs. Firstly, the importance bike share members place on convenience and value for money appears paramount in their motivation to sign up and use these programs. Secondly, and somewhat counter intuitively, scheme members are more likely to own and use private bicycles than nonmembers. Thirdly, users demonstrate a greater reluctance to wear helmets than private bicycle riders and helmets have acted as a deterrent in jurisdictions in which helmets are mandatory. Finally, and perhaps most importantly from a sustainable transport perspective, the majority of scheme users are substituting from sustainable modes of transport rather than the car."

Marzenna Cichosz (Warsaw School of Economic), IT solutions in logistics of smart bike-sharing systems in urban transport. Management, Vol. 17, 2 (272–283) (12 p.), December 2013 [formato PDF, 476 kB] "IT solutions in logistics of smart bike-sharing systems in urban transport In recent years, the public transport of Krakow, Rzeszow, Wroclaw, Poznan, Opole and Warsaw has expanded into the third generation bike-sharing programs - smart bikes. It’s an innovative solution, deploying IT systems and technology to integrate individual stations of urban bike rental system. The article presents the business model solution, its functionality from the perspective of customers and operator, and shows the role of IT solutions support in managing the logistics of rental network. An illustrative case of „Veturilo” solution implementation is presented."

The Bike-share Planning Guide. ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, November 2013, 152 p. [formato PDF, 7,26 MB] "More than 600 cities around the globe have bike share systems, and new systems are starting every year. The largest and most successful systems, in places such as China, Paris, London, and Washington, D.C., have helped to promote cycling as a viable and valued transport option. This guide evaluates international best practice in bike share, helps to bridge the divide between developing and developed countries’ experiences to provide guidance on planning and implementing a successful bike share system regardless of the location, size, or density of your city".

Innovative öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme. Modellprojekte am Start [Sistemi di bike sharing pubblici innovativi]. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung, Berlin/Bonn, Februar 2012, 20 p. [formato PDF, 2,20 MB] "Im Rahmen des Modellversuchs „Innovative öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme“ erfolgten im Zeitraum 2009-2012 der Aufbau und die Begleitung verschiedener BikeSharing-Systeme in Deutschland. Eine aktuelle Studie des BMVBS untersuchte diese Systeme hinsichtlich ihres Erfolgs und ihrer Übertragbarkeit auf andere Orte. Ein Schwerpunkt der Studie liegt dabei in der kombinierten Mobilität. Durch die Kombination von Leihfahrrädern mit dem öffentlichen Verkehr wird die Verkehrssituation in den Städten entlastet, die Umwelt geschont und die Gesundheit gefördert. Dank der Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Projekte und Lösungsansätze, die im Rahmen der Studie dokumentiert wurden, sollen andere Städte, Gemeinden und Regionen von diesen Erfahrungen profitieren. Generell lässt sich festhalten, dass die Implementierung eines Veloverleihsystems technische und organisatorische Herausforderungen mit sich bringt, die eine gute Koordination aller Akteure sowie eine langfristige Planung erfordern. Weitere detaillierte Evaluationsergebnisse werden nach der Velosaison 2012 erwartet. Zusätzlich sei auf einen europaweiten Test von 40 BikeSharing- Systemen durch die europäischen Automobil- und Verkehrsclubs verwiesen."

Citi Bike is a revolutionary new way for you to get around New York City, scheduled to launch summer 2012. Bike sharing expands your transportation options; it empowers you to go your own way. Citi Bike is a self-service system that provides members with easy access to a network of thousands of bicycles. Pick up a bike close to home or work, ride, then return it to any of the hundreds of stations to be located throughout the city. Citi Bike will consist of 600 stations, 10,000 bikes in Manhattan and Brooklyn. It will be privately sponsored, privately launched and privately operated, with no public funding.

OBIS, Ottimizzare i Sistemi di Bike Sharing nelle città europee. Manuale. Progetto OBIS, 2012, 98 p. [formato PDF, 3,06 MB]. "Sono analizzate le differenze – in termini di servizio offerto, modello economico adottato e politica tariffaria - dei SBS esistenti (Sistemi di bike sharing europei). I risultati, presentati tenendo conto delle dimensioni della città studiata, offrono una panoramica e delle utili indicazioni guida per altre città che possiedono caratteristiche simili. Una lista dei fattori di successo permette poi di aver presente, in maniera sintetica, gli aspetti principali dei vari sistemi. Le linee guida sono tratte dal lavoro, pratico e teorico, svolto nel corso del progetto OBIS. Indicano quali passi debbano essere compiuti - da come sia possibile convincere gli stakeholder a come progettare un bike sharing di successo - tenendo conto delle particolari caratteristiche della propria città o regione."

Peter Midgley, Bicycle-Sharing Schemes: Enhancing Sustainable Mobility in Urban Areas. (Background Paper No. 8; CSD19/2011/BP8). United Nations, Commission on Sustainable Development, New York, 2-13 May 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 907 kB]

Heiner Monheim, Christian Muschwitz, Johannes Reimann, Markus Streng, Statusanalyse Fahrradverleihsysteme. Potenziale und Zukunft kommunaler und regionaler Fahrradverleihsysteme in Deutschland [Analisi dei sistemi di bike sharing. Potenziali e futuro dei sistemi comunali e regionali di bike sharing in Germania]. raumkom Institut für Raumentwicklung und Kommunikation, Trier, Juni 2011, 250 p. [formato PDF, 6,27 MB] "Spätestens seit der Einrichtung von "Vélib" in Paris im Jahr 2007 finden öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme als Trend in der städtischen Mobilität auch international viel Beachtung. Das Konzept des öffentlichen Fahrradverleihs hat in Deutschland eine lange Tradition, dennoch blieben moderne Systeme bisher nur auf wenige ausgewählte Großstädte beschränkt. Das Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS) hat im Jahr 2009 einen Innovationswettbewerb gestartet, um viele weitere Kommunen zur Initiative zu bewegen. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersuchte das raumkom Institut für Raumentwicklung und Kommunikation in den vergangenen Monaten wie Entscheidungsträger über öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme denken, welche Chancen oder Hemmnisse sie in Bezug auf die Einführung von Leihrädern sehen und welche Potenziale sie dem öffentlichen Fahrradverleih derzeit und in Zukunft zumessen. Auf Grundlage einer Analyse der zum Wettbewerb eingereichten Beiträge sowie mittels schriftlicher Befragungen, Interviews und Expertengespräche ist eine umfangreiche Studie entstanden, die Einblicke in die Sicht relevanter Akteure vermittelt, aktuelle Trends wie auch Unsicherheiten identifiziert und wichtige Ansatzpunkte für die Weiterentwicklung öffentlicher Fahrradverleihsysteme benennt. "Institutionenbezogenen Ansätze - also die Frage, wie Verkehrspolitik und Administrationen entscheiden, welche Motive sie leiten, wo und wie sie sich informieren und viele mehr - kommen in der Mobilitätsforschung bisher viel zu kurz", erklärt Professor Monheim, Mitinhaber des raumkom Instituts, "da bot der Modellwettbewerb eine gute Chance, Forschungsinstrumente einmal im laufenden Prozess einzusetzen." Die Studie stellt klar, dass öffentliche Leihradsysteme noch nicht im verkehrsplanerischen Alltag angekommen sind und vielerorts - durchaus auch skeptisch - nach wie vor als Innovation gesehen werden. Eine Euphorie, wie sie beispielsweise in Frankreich zu beobachten war, konnte bisher nicht nach Deutschland überschwappen. Doch Prof. Monheim sieht gelassen in die Zukunft: "Fast alle befragten Experten erkennen positive Perspektiven für den Radverkehr, der durch steigende Rohstoff- und Energiepreise weiter zulegen wird. Öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme können direkt und indirekt zum Aufschwung beitragen."

Haritz Ferrando, Esther Anaya, Diana González, Estudio sobre el impacto de la implantación de sistemas de bicicletas públicas en España. Estudios de construcción y transportes, N. 112, enero - junio 2010, pag. 79-86 [N.112, formato PDF, 69 MB] "El presente estudio demuestra que, con 74 sistemas de bicicletas públicas en 100 municipios, el fenómeno de la implantación de los sistemas de bicicletas en España se está consolidando."

Anke Borcherding, Kristina Hartwig, Astrid Karl, Fahrradfahren für Fortgeschrittene. Evaluation der Barrieren und Hindernisse der Beteiligung von Städten und Kommunen am Wettbewerb Modellversuch "Innovative öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme" - Neue Mobilität in Städten des Bundesministeriums für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS) (Una valutazione sulle barriere ed ostacoli alla partecipazione di città e comuni al bando del Ministero federale dei Trasporti ed edilizia per "Sistemi pubblici innovativi per il noleggio di biciclette - la nuova mobilità urbana"). (WZB Discussion Paper SP III 2010-601). Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin, (April) 2010, 62 p. [formato PDF, 267 kB]. "Judging from their growth in number and size throughout Europe, public bicycle rentals have become increasingly popular in recent years. To support this development – and thereby acknowledging that Germany is somewhat lagging behind – the German Federal Ministry of Transport offered ten million Euros as prize money in a competition for innovative bike rental schemes. The aim was to induce German cities to draw up plans for bicycle rental systems, which would integrate rented bikes into traditional public transport. 44 cities and regions participated in the contest. Nevertheless, in spite of having reached an advanced planning stage, there were also a number of cities, which did not hand in project proposals. The discussion paper investigates the arguments which were made for this withdrawal from the competition. Interviews held in three of these cities revealed a number of significant arguments, from time pressure, over administrative hurdles to practical concerns. To test these reasons we also interviewed members of a control group consisting of winners of the competition in three cities. We found that the cities in this second group had faced similar obstacles – they had merely decided to go ahead with the project in spite of them and without fully solving the problems at that stage. The comparison of winners and non-participants leads us to conclude that the integration of public bicycle rental systems into traditional public transport generally faces obstacles on several levels, not the least of which is the lack of support of public transport companies and associations, German public transport being notoriously change resistant. Our analysis suggests that integrated bicycle rental systems are a very sophisticated instrument of transport policy, and therefore can challenge policy makers and administrators alike." Interessante analisi delle ragioni che hanno portato alcune città tedesche a ottenere i finanziamenti ministeriali e altre invece a rinunciare a partecipare al bando; tra gli ostacoli, la contrarietà di alcune aziende di TPL che temono di perdere utenti (mentre molte altre aziende di TPL hanno partecipato ai progetti).

Paul DeMaio, Bike-sharing: Its History, Models of Provision, and Future. Velo-city 2009 Conference, Bruxelles, 12-15 May 2009, 12 p. [formato PDF, 968 kB] "This paper briefly discusses the history of bike-sharing from the early 1st generation program to present day 3rd generation programs. There is a detailed examination of models of provision and the state of the art outside of the European Union. The paper concludes with looking into the future of bike]sharing, with a discussion about what a 4th generation program could be."

Peter Midgley, The Role of Smart Bike-sharing Systems in Urban Mobility. February 2009, 14 p. [formato PDF, 426 kB] "Following the success of the smart bike-sharing system in Paris, these systems are rapidly being introduced in European cities for daily mobility. The basic premise of the smart bike-sharing concept is sustainable transportation. Such systems often operate as part of the city’s public transport system. They provide fast and easy access, have diverse business models and make use of applied technology (smart cards and/or mobile phones). Bike-sharing systems are currently operating in 78 cities in 16 countries using around 70,000 bikes. This paper reviews the state of the art of bike-sharing systems, drawing on experiences in selected European cities."

Sebastian Bührmann, Bicycles as public-individual transport – European developments. MEETBIKE – European Conference on Bicycle Transport and Networking, 3rd – 4th April 2008, Dresden, 25 slides [formato PDF, 2,26 MB]

Eileen Kadesh, Andrew Curran, Alain Ayotte, George Banyan, Bike Sharing in North America. Pro Walk/Pro Bike 2008 Conference, Seattle, September 3, 2008, 20 slides [formato PDF, 968 kB]

The Bike-sharing Blog. The Blog is provided by MetroBike, LLC, based in Washington, D.C., USA.

BiciinComune, 2 ruote nelle terre dell'ovest. Comuni di Collegno, Grugliasco, Venaria Reale, Rivoli, Gruento (Torino).

Bicike(lj), sistema di bike sharing della città di Ljubljana (Slovenia).

Roma’n’Bike è il nuovo servizio di Bike Sharing nella città di Roma. Ha 19 punti di distribuzione nell'area del Centro Storico, per un totale di 271 posti bici. Gestito dalla ditta Cemusa e da Bicincittà.

Cyclocity, Bruxelles (B). "Cyclocity est un service de location de vélos proposé par la ville de Bruxelles, développé et exploité par la société JCDecaux Belgium. Il comportera à terme près de 250 vélos, disponibles dans des stations automatiques implantées sur la commune de Bruxelles." Sistema di noleggio bici a basso costo.

Bicing. Rete di "trasporto pubblico" a Barcellona (Catalogna), con 6000 biciclette e 420 postazioni in cui gli abbonati al servizio possono prelevare le biciclette e usarle per spostamenti urbani per un massimo di due ore. Sito in lingua spagnola e catalana, con dati in tempo reale sulla disponibilità delle bici nelle postazioni.

Pordenone Bike Sharing. Offerta (gratuita) di biciclette pubbliche che l’Amministrazione Comunale di Pordenone intende proporre come servizio alla collettività.

Parma PuntoBici: Bike Sharing. Noleggio di biciclette pubbliche, prima ora gratuita.

Bikedispenser.com. Sistema automatico per la disponibilità di biciclette (creato dall'azienda Springtime, Amsterdam).

Bicincittà, soluzioni per la mobilità sostenibile. "Bicincittà (prodotto della ditta Comunicare S.r.L.) è un sistema di bike sharing, il cui significato è bicicletta condivisa, che offre l’opportunità di distribuire ai cittadini in modo semplice ed intuitivo una certa quantità di biciclette pubbliche e di monitorarne in tempo reale la presa ed il deposito." Il sistema è stato adottato dai comuni di Bari, Biella, Cuneo, Chivasso, Novara, Parma, Pinerolo, Pistoia, Prato, Roma, Savigliano, Settimo Torinese (19 comuni). Sistemi simili sono in funzione in molte grandi città europee.

[TO]Bike è il nuovo servizio di bike sharing di Torino e di tutti coloro che frequentano la città per lavoro, svago o turismo. Abbonandosi al servizio è possibile prelevare la bicicletta in una delle 116 stazioni presenti in città e depositarla in una qualsiasi, purché con parcheggi liberi. Pensato per gli spostamenti brevi, il bike sharing oggi rappresenta la forma di spostamento urbano più conveniente, sia in termini di tempo sia in termini economici.

UdineBike è un servizio di biciclette pubbliche (bike sharing) offerto a chi deve spostarsi nella città di Udine. La prima mezz'ora è gratuita.

c'entro in bici portale sul bike sharing in Italia (64 comuni).

OV-fiets, Paesi Bassi (NL). Servizio di noleggio di biciclette collegato alla rete dei trasporti pubblici, presente in 200 località dei Paesi Bassi.

SEVici, Sevilla (Spain). 2500 bicicletas estarán a su disposición, repartidas en 250 Áreas de Aparcamiento.

Vélib', Parigi (F). Servizio di noleggio di biciclette (gestito dalla Municipalità di Parigi e dall'azienda JCDecaux SA), nei primi 39 giorni di attività ha realizzato 53.000 abbonamenti annuali e oltre 2 milioni di noleggi. I primi 30 minuti di ogni percorso sono gratuiti.

Vélo ville de Bordeaux, (F). Servizio di prestito gratuito della Municipalità di Bordeaux (3.600 biciclette disponibili).

Oslo Bysykkel, Norvegia. Sistema dotato di 102 postazioni e informazioni in tempo reale sulla disponibilità delle bici.

Koordination bikesharing Schweiz / Coordination bikesharing Suisse, c/o Pro Velo Schweiz / Suisse, Bern.

Veturilo (Warszawski rower publiczny), municipal bike rental in Warsaw (Poland), owned by the operator Nextbike.


AL LAVORO IN BICI (BIKE TO WORK)

bike to work. Azione rivolta alle aziende svizzere promossa da Pro Velo.

cycle2city. It is a unique facility located within the heart of Brisbane City, forming part of the King George Square Station complex. An Australian first, C2C was designed to support people who wanted to ride to work but suffered inadequate workplace facilities. Membership provides daily access to secure bike parking, a fresh towel, air conditioned locker rooms, and plenty of showers and toilets. An optional and convenient laundry service is also available and our full service workshop is an integral part of the centre, while also open to the public. C2C provides: 420 bike parking spaces; Secure, electronic entry for members; 270 secure lockers and 18 showers for men; 150 secure lockers and 15 showers for women; 12 lockers in the people with disability (PWD) area; A fresh towel provided daily; Ironing boards (and irons); hair dryers are included in the womens locker room; Access to a valet laundry and cleaning service; Locker rooms are air-conditioned; a full service on site bicycle workshop with experienced technician on duty; free training available to all new members, covering tyre changing and bike maintenance; small retail area providing basic items from toothpaste to bicycle accessories. Centro servizi (a pagamento) per chi va al lavoro in bici a Brisbane (Australia); offre spazio parcheggio bici, doccia e armadietto per i vestiti, servizio lavanderia e stiratura, servizio riparazioni delle bici.

en bici al trabajo! / amb bici ala feina!. Bicicleta Club de Catalunya (BACC), Barcelona.


BICI ELETTRICHE (E-BIKES)

Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders and Karst Geurs (University of Twente), An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 540 kB]. Open Access. "Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called 'solar-powered e-bike'. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes' and solar-powered e-bikes' users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport."

Holger Haubold (ECF), Electromobility for all: Financial incentives for e-bikes help to realise enormous extra cycling potential. ECF European Cyclists' Federation, Brussels, December 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 508 kB]. "E-bikes offer numerous benefits: They allow for longer distances to be cycled, make it easier to overcome natural obstacles, make it possible to transport heavier goods and open up cycling for groups that have not cycled previously. For all of these reasons, electric bikes offer an enormous potential to replace car trips in Europe. ECF therefore recommends to adopt balanced policies and promotion strategies for electromobility that help to realise the potential of electrifying the transport system as a whole instead of only focusing on one mode. We suggest introducing subsidy schemes for e-bikes based on market conditions: - In markets with low sales figures, a purchase subsidy of 500 Euros (around 10% of the current purchase subsidies of electric cars in many European countries) could help to bridge the price gap to conventional bikes and facilitate market uptake of electric bikes (including low-powered as well as speed pedelecs), which in its turn have a high potential to achieve modal shift from car trips to cycling. - In more mature markets, more targeted subsidy schemes e.g. for speed pedelecs and electric cargobikes due to their higher price or for charging infrastructure in small businesses can be an option. Subsidies for electric bikes could also be given as a reward for cancelling a car's registration. Besides these targeted purchase subsidies, which are at the centre of this report, other, more general, funding schemes for research and development or infrastructure like charging points and secure parking can also contribute to the promotion of electric cycling. In these areas, the EU could play a more active role in the promotion of electric cycling by including it in its e-mobility policies."

Marco Dozza, Giulio Francesco Bianchi Piccinini, Julia Werneke (Chalmers University of Technology), Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior. Transportation Research Part F 41 (2016) 217-226 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "In Europe, the use of electric bicycles is rapidly increasing. This trend raises important safety concerns: Is their use compatible with existing infrastructure and regulations? Do they present novel safety issues? How do they impact other traffic? This study sought to address these concerns, using instrumented electric bicycles to monitor e-cyclists' behavior in a naturalistic fashion. Data was collected from 12 bicyclists, each of whom rode an instrumented bicycle for two weeks. In total, 1500 km worth of data were collected, including 88 critical events (crashes and near-crashes). Analysis of these critical events identified pedestrians, light vehicles and other bicycles as main threats to a safe ride. Other factors also contributed to crash causation, such as being in proximity to a crossing or encountering a vehicle parked in the bicycle lane. A comparison between electric and traditional bicycles was enabled by the availability of data from a previous study a year earlier, which collected naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicycles using the same instrumentation as in this study. Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this study also suggest that countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. Finally, increasing electric bicycle conspicuity appears to be the easiest, most obvious way to increase their safety."

Sofie Erlandsson, Olivia Hägglöf, Electric Bicycles in Bike-Share Systems. An Investigation of the Potential for Electric Bicycles in Gothenburg's Bike-Share System Styr & Ställ. Master's Thesis in the Master's Programme Infrastructure and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2016, 107 p. [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. "Gothenburg is growing geographically as well as population-wise and experiences a densification. Solutions for sustainable transportation are needed, and a way to promote this is by having a bike-share system (BSS). Today Gothenburg has a BSS with conventional bicycles, Styr & Ställ, located in the city centre. Due to the growing city the system might need to develop and expand. This thesis investigates the potential of e-bikes in Styr & Ställ and the possibilities to expand the system due to e-bikes. This both include an extensive literature review on BSS, interviews and case studies with European cities with electric BSS, and analysis of where to develop the system geographically. It is found that there are some topographic limitations in the current system in Gothenburg, which can be approached by e-bikes. It is also possible to go further with an e-bike and therefore include more areas in the system. With e-bikes more and other groups of users can be reached, for instance older people, physically limited people, or people in context that do not want to arrive sweaty. Analyses were done in order to find suitable areas for an expanded BSS. The expansion areas that were found for the system are mainly the sub-districts Majorna, Masthugget, Frölunda Torg, Krokslätt, Lunden Olskroken, Gamlestaden, Lindholmen and Rambergsstaden. This is an overall radial expansion except from a corridor towards Frölunda Torg and Gamlestaden. Furthermore, stations based on destinations of interests such as public transport nodes, parks, squares, universities, and working places were suggested and located. The conclusion is that there is a potential for electric bicycles in Styr & Ställ and that the system should be combined with both conventional and electric bicycles, in order to approach a broader user group. The system is also recommended to expand to the areas mentioned above. People that already use the BSS will be able to continue to use it in the same way, and people that prefer an e-bike in order to cycle, will them too have a socially, economic, and environmentally sustainable transport alternative that also improves the public health."

Prithvi Vijaya Simha, Disruptive Innovation on Two Wheels: Electrification of the Humble Bike. The case of E-Bikes in China. 2015, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,83 MB].

Chris Cherry (University of Tennessee), E-bike Safety Research. TRB Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Analysis, January 14, 2015, 17 slides [formato PDF, 3,37 MB].

Natalie Popovich, Elizabeth Gordon, Zhenying Shao, Yan Xing, Yunshi Wang, Susan Handy (Univ. of California, Davis), Experiences of electric bicycle users in the Sacramento, California area. Travel Behaviour and Society 1, 2 (May 2014) 37-44 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 257 kB]. "In some parts of the world, electric bicycles (e-bikes) represent a significant share of daily travel, though they are still rare in the United States. The small size and maneuverability of e-bikes that are assets in cities in China may not be as important in the U.S., where cities are built to accommodate cars, but their potential as a substitute for cars makes them an important part of the discussion around sustainable transportation. In this study we conducted 27 interviews with e-bike users in the greater Sacramento area in which we asked participants about the reasons why they chose to invest in an e-bike, the ways in which they use their e-bikes, positive and negative aspects of using e-bikes, and reactions from friends and family members. Several important themes emerged from the interviews. The functional characteristics of e-bikes, particularly greater speed and acceleration than conventional bicycles with less exertion, contribute to several positive aspects of their use, including enabling more people to bicycle, more trips to be made by bicycle, and more fun for their users. The result, for these users, was an overall decrease in driving, with some users getting rid of their car altogether. Negative aspects cited by users include security concerns, safety concerns, unwieldiness, and range anxiety. Participants also discussed several misperceptions on the part of non-users that could inhibit their adoption. These results provide insights for the development of e-bike policy and guidance for future research."

Claudia L. Preißner, Herbert Kemming, Dirk Wittowsky, unter Mitarbeit von Simon Bülow u. Alexander Stark, Einstellungsorientierte Akzeptanzanalyse zur Elektromobilität im Fahrradverkehr. (ILS-Forschung 01/2013). ILS – Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung, Dortmund, Februar 2013, 85 p. [formato PDF, 3,54 MB]. "Im Sommer 2012 führte das ILS eine Online-Befragung zu Meinungen und Einstellungen über Elektrofahrräder im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bauen, Wohnen, Stadtentwicklung und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen durch. Über 2.500 Personen aus ganz Deutschland haben an der Studie teilgenommen. Die Daten aus dem Fragebogen wurden zusätzlich um die Meinungen einiger Expertinnen und Experten aus dem Bereich des Radverkehrs ergänzt. Gegenwärtig konzentriert sich die Entwicklung der Elektromobilität auf die Weiterentwicklung von E-Pkw. Die Verkaufszahlen von Pedelecs und E-Bikes lassen aber einen Boom bei elektrisch angetriebenen oder unterstützten Fahrrädern als wahrscheinlich bzw. machbar erscheinen. Ansatzpunkte zur Verbreitung dieser Fahrräder in der Praxis finden sich u.a. im Bereich des Tourismus oder zunehmend auch bei Fahrradverleihsystemen. Bei der Frage der Weiterentwicklung der Fahrräder stehen meist technische Gesichtspunkte wie die Batterietechnik, Ladestationen etc. im Fokus. Die für eine Nutzbarmachung der Vorteile elektrischer Fahrräder relevanten Gesichtspunkte, wie eine Verkehrsverlagerung vom MIV, und die für eine nachhaltige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung bedeutsamen Wechselwirkungen zwischen einer weiteren Verbreitung von elektrischen Fahrrädern und der Raumentwicklung werden bislang kaum wahrgenommen. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurden die Potenziale ermittelt, die sich aus einer zunehmenden Einführung und Verbreitung der Elektromobilität im Fahrradverkehr insbesondere für eine nachhaltige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung ergeben. Wesentliche Grundlagenarbeiten waren dabei die Recherchen und die Aufarbeitung des vorhandenen Wissens in der Forschung wie auch in der Praxis zum Verhalten der tatsächlichen und potenziellen Nutzer von Pedelecs und E-Bikes. Auf dieser Basis wurden Ansatzpunkte für die Praxis wie auch Forschungslücken herausgearbeitet, die zur Nutzbarmachung der absehbaren Potenziale geschlossen werden müssen."

Christopher Cherry, Jonathan Weinert, Yang Xinmiao, Eric Van Gelder, Electric bikes in the People’s Republic of China: impact on the environment and prospects for growth. Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 2009, 94 p. [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]. "Electric bikes (e-bikes) provide cheap, convenient, and relatively energy-efficient transportation to an estimated 40 million to 50 million people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as of 2007. They are quickly becoming one of the dominant travel modes in the PRC. As e-bike use grows, however, concerns are rising about lead pollution from their batteries and emissions from their use of grid electricity, primarily generated by coal power plants. This report examines the environmental performance of e-bikes relative to other competing modes, their market potential, and the viability of alternative battery technologies. The analysis is divided into five sections. Section 1 describes the environmental impact of e-bikes in the PRC. Section 2 analyzes the environmental impact of alternative modes and compares e-bike emissions with those of alternative modes. Section 3 discusses market potential and identifies factors that influence e-bike adoption. Section 4 presents prospects for battery technology improvements in the near and long term. Finally, section 5 frames the role of e-bikes in the PRC’s transportation system and recommends policies for the central government and the cities of the PRC."

Geoff Rose, Peter Cock (Monash University), Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia. (Working Paper ITS-WP-03018). Institute of Transport Studies, Monash University, 22 December 2003, 40 p. [formato PDF, 284 kB]. "This report examines the regulation of power assisted bicycles in Australia and overseas. The current regulations are reviewed and reasons for revising the regulations in Australia are outlined. Recommendations are made on key features for revised regulations."

Chao-Fu Yeh, Francis Papon, Sylvie Abours, Claude Soulas (INRETS), Conditions du développement des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai. les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, N° 58/2010, p. 29-53 [formato PDF, 404 kB]. "Cet article explore les questions liées au développement potentiel des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai dans une perspective de développement urbain durable. Dans un contexte de passage très rapide des modes traditionnels, marche et vélo, aux modes motorisés individuels, les deux-roues électriques pourraient constituer une alternative plus respectueuse de l’environnement. L’examen des caractéristiques techniques des différents deux-roues, de leurs possibilités en termes de vitesse moyenne et de portée, ainsi que du profil de leurs usagers, montre que, pour les déplacements quotidiens d’une grande partie de la population, l’usage des deux-roues électriques est pertinent. Un bilan comparatif portant sur cinq critères -coût, vitesse moyenne, sécurité routière, efficacité énergétique et impact environnemental- met en évidence une supériorité globale des deux-roues électriques, ce qui plaide pour une politique en faveur de ce mode. Compte tenu du bouleversement des répartitions modales en une décennie, il y aurait urgence à infléchir la tendance, mais il semble nécessaire de traduire au préalable dans la réglementation les spécificités de ce mode, à la fois pour mieux profiter de ses avancées techniques et pour limiter l’accidentologie associée. Des recommandations en ce sens sont données en fin d’article." "This paper examines the potential for the development of electric two-wheelers in Shanghai from the standpoint of sustainable urban development. In the situation where the traditional modes of walking and cycling are very rapidly being replaced by personal motorized vehicles, electric two-wheelers could constitute a more environmentally friendly alternative. Our examination of the technical features of various two-wheelers and their possibilities in terms of average trip speed and range, as well as the profile of their users, shows that electric two-wheelers are suitable for most of the population’s daily trips. A comparative review based on five criteria -cost, mean speed, road safety, energy and environmental impact- highlights the comprehensive superiority of electric two-wheeled vehicles, justifying a policy to promote this mode. Urgent measures are required to reverse the radical change in modal split that has occurred in the last decade, but it seems necessary beforehand to modify the regulations in order to take account of the specific features of the mode, both to take advantage of technical breakthroughs and to limit the associated accident rate. Some recommendations in this regard are made at the end of the article."

Frank van der Hoeven (Delft University of Technology), The bike is back with a battery. Joint actions on Climate Change, Presentation n. 2447, Aalborg, June 9, 2009, 11 p. [formato PDF, 15,8 MB]. "The attention the electric car receives as a promising means of sustainable transportation seems at times to overshadow the rise of that other electric vehicle: the pedelec or electric bicycle. For those who don't know yet: a pedelec is a bicycle assisted by an electric motor. That motor is powered by a rechargeable (lithium-ion) battery. The motor is intended to assist pedaling, not to replace it. It is the newest evolution of the bike. Its numbers are growing fast. This paper assumes that the growing use of pedelecs requires a different approach from design research and policy making towards electric two wheelers. It will outline the major differences between regular bike use and pedelec use and addresses issues like city to city cycling, bicycle theft, parking and street charging."

Christopher Cherry (Univ. of Tennessee), Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Promise, Progress and Potential. Access n. 37, Fall 2010, p. 17-24 [formato PDF, 436 kB]. "Electric two-wheelers have transformed the way people move in most Chinese cities. In just ten years, growth in electric two-wheelers—a category that includes vehicles ranging from electric bicycles to electric motorcycles—has substantially increased the total number of vehicles in China. Electric bike sales began modestly in the 1990s and started to take off in 2004, when 40,000 were sold. Since then, over 100 million have been sold and now more than 20 million are sold each year. Electric two wheelers, in short, represent the first mass-produced and mass-adopted alternative-fuel vehicles in the history of motorization."

Sebastiano Bernardoni, Aude Iseli, Sébastien Munafò, Usagers, usages et potentiel des vélos à assistance électrique. Résultats d'une enquête menée dans le canton de Genève. Observatoire Universitaire de la Mobilité (OUM), Genève, 21 octobre 2009, 93 p. [formato PDF, 809 kB]. "L’étude réalisée par l’observatoire universitaire de la mobilité à Genève avait pour but de mieux connaître le profil et les comportements des utilisateurs de vélos à assistance électrique (VAE). Sur la base des résultats de l’enquête, les auteurs de l’étude ont pu tirer des conclusions au sujet du potentiel de ces véhicules : ils estiment qu’à l’horizon 2030, environ 10% des Genevois pourraient être propriétaire d’un VAE, permettant ainsi de baisser les émissions de CO2 de plus de 16'000 tonnes par an. L’étude démontre clairement que les efforts pour soutenir les vélos électriques en valent la peine. Forts de ces constats, il est désormais possible de mieux cibler les actions, allant de la promotion auprès des usagers potentiels à la planification des infrastructures." (langues : français et allemand)

Ueli Haefeli, David Walker, Begleitforschung Newride 2008. Langzeitprofil von E-Bike-Käufern in Basel (Profilo degli acquirenti di bici elettriche a Basilea). INTERFACE, Luzern, Oktober 2008, 25 p. [formato PDF, 211 kB]. "Das Amt für Umwelt und Energie des Kantons Basel-Stadt AUE BS bietet seit einigen Jahren Förderbeiträge für elektrische Zweiräder E-Bikes an, die rege nachgefragt werden. Zusammen mit dem Gesuch um Förderbeiträge muss ein ausgefüllter Fragebogen abgegeben werden. Der Fragebogen setzt sich aus zwölf Fragen zusammen, welche Merkmale zum sozio-ökonomischen Profil und den benutzten Mobilitätswerkzeugen der Antragsteller abdecken sowie nach der Informationsquelle des Fördertatbestandes fragen."


GUIDA DEL CICLISTA, GUIDA ALL'USO DELLA BICI

Grenoble Alpes Metropole, SMTC, FUBicy, Guide du cycliste urbain. Edition 2009. La Métro, Grenoble, 2009, 44 p. [formato PDF, 2,20 / 18,2 MB].

Ezio Sartor, Bicicletta: istruzioni per l'uso. Manuale minimo di uso e manutenzione dedicato alla bicicletta per imparare ad usarla al meglio a mantenerla efficiente e a ripararne i piccoli guasti. 1998, 20 p. [formato Html Zip, 26 kB].

In bici per respirare, rispettare, riscoprire la città. Comune di Udine, 2008, 20 p. [formato PDF, 857 kB].

Città di Torino, Vademecum del ciclista urbano. Per una guida responsabile e sicura. Edizione web aggiornata al 23-09-2010. Comune di Torino, 2010, 16 p. [formato PDF, 2,76 MB].


FORMAZIONE DEI CICLISTI (TRAINING)

Graeme Sherriff, Communicating Cycle Training: Perceptions and Experiences of Adult Cycle Training. University of Salford, Manchester, August 2014, 54 p. [formato PDF, 4,70 MB]. "This research aims to better understand the communication strategies that can most effectively be used to engage with the diverse community of adults who cycle, or would cycle, and help convince them of the benefits of cycle training. The research is based upon empirical work in Greater Manchester comprising a web-based survey and a series of focus groups."


INIZIATIVE, PROMOZIONE DELLA MOBILITA' CICLABILE

Kampagne STADTRADELN. Der Wettbewerb für Klimaschutz und Fahrradförderung in Deutschlands Städten, Gemeinden und Landkreisen/Regionen. Eine Kommune muss sich zunächst beim Klima-Bündnis anmelden, dann können Teams gebildet oder sich Teams angeschlossen werden. Danach einfach losradeln und die klimafreundlichen Fahrradkilometer im Online-Radelkalender eintragen. Vom 1. Mai bis 30. September 2013 an 21 aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen. (Campagna a premi, promossa dal Klima-Bündnis (Alleanza per il Clima) in Germania, aderiscono i Comuni e partecipano gli eletti e gli abitanti, usando la bici in un periodo di 21 giorni consecutivi, scelti dal Comune tra il 1. maggio e il 30 settembre).

Bike Experience (2011), Bruxelles (Belgio). "Comme en 2010, la Bike Experience s’adresse à tous les automobilistes bruxellois qui se déplacent sur de courtes distances. Cette année, le défi est d’atteindre le cap des 250 « bikers »! Ils sont invités à laisser leur voiture au garage durant deux semaines, au début desquelles ils recevront une formation théorique et pratique, puis seront accompagnés durant 3 jours (matin et soir) par un « coach » qui fera avec eux les trajets entre leur travail et leur domicile. Un bon moyen pour se lancer dans l'aventure en toute sécurité et avec les conseils d'un pro! Afin de ne pas pénaliser ceux qui ne seraient pas encore équipés, des vélos (conventionnel, pliable ou à assistance électrique) seront mis à disposition des bikers."

Giornata Nazionale della bicicletta, 9 maggio 2010 (Italia). Un’iniziativa voluta dal Ministero dell’Ambiente per sottolineare come una mobilità alternativa ed ecocompatibile può essere effettivamente realizzabile. In questa sezione del sito internet del Ministero sarà possibile trovare l’elenco di tutte le città che aderiranno alla Giornata Nazionale della Bicicletta, scoprire quali sono le iniziative organizzate a livello locale, scaricare le locandine e i manifesti per aderire con il proprio esercizio commerciale alla Giornata, leggere il concorso Bicity 2010 dedicato ai Comuni, consultare il Protocollo d’Intesa fra Ministero e Comuni per la promozione di politiche di sviluppo e mobilità sostenibile nelle città italiane.

Samedi du vélo, organisé par la Ville de Genève (CH). "Nous vous invitons à découvrir le vélo, tous les premiers samedis du mois de mai à octobre. Ces balades, cours et ateliers sont gratuits et destinés à des adultes, à des adolescents et à des enfants dès 12 ans accompagnés." Il sabato in bicicletta, 11 itinerari culturali, corsi e laboratori gratuiti, da maggio a ottobre. Un'iniziativa del Comune di Ginevra per invitare i cittadini a riscoprire la città e le sue risorse, collegata a Dimanche à pied, Domenica a piedi, iniziativa con analoghe caratteristiche.


INTEGRAZIONE COL TRASPORTO PUBBLICO

Ricardo Marqués, Vicente Hernández-Herrador, Manuel Calvo-Salazar, Javier Herrera-Sánchez, Manuel López-Peña, When Cycle Paths Are Not Enough: Seville's Bicycle-PT Project. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The city of Seville (Spain) has been named the fourth most "bicycle-friendly city" in the world, mainly due to the building of a segregated network of bicycle paths which, in a few years, substantially increased utilitarian cycling in the city. However, recent bicycle counts along the network have shown that the volume of cycling is now levelling off at around 6% of the city's mobility (9% of all mechanised trips); a meaningful level but still far from the figures that are usual in leading cycling cities. This stagnation suggests that new actions are needed in order to further develop urban cycling and overcome bottlenecks that prevent its growth, perhaps by integrating cycling policies into wider sustainable mobility and traffic calming policies. Among these actions, improving links between bicycles and public transport (PT) could play a significant role. This is the subject of the Bicycle-PT research project that is currently being developed by the authors at the University of Seville and founded by the Regional Government. The main aim ofXXI. this project is to diagnose present links and to evaluate the potential market for bicycle-PT intermodality in the entire metropolitan area, as well as to make specific proposals for its development. For this purpose, the authors use a geographic information system (GIS) based methodology, combined with information provided by mobility and opinion surveys."

Ricardo Marqués, Manuel Calvo-Salazar, Vicente Hernández-Herrador, Javier Herrera-Sánchez, Manuel López-Peña, Manual Metodológico para el desarrollo de la intermodalidad bicicleta-transporte público en áreas metropolitanas (Bicicleta-TP). Consejería de Fomento y Vivienda de la Junta de Andalucía, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, 2015, 120 p. [formato PDF, 17,5 MB]. "Este manual tiene como objetivo mostrar las diferentes posibilidades de intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP junto con sus principales características y potencialidades, así como desarrollar una metodología para la elaboración, desarrollo y seguimiento de planes de fomento de la intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP en las áreas metropolitanas de nuestro país, en las que tanto el uso de la bicicleta como modo de transporte como la propia la intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP presentan aún un grado de desarrollo incipiente."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Tanja Aurich, Thomas Böhmer, Jeannette Klotzsch, Anne Pitrone, Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung. Analysen, Strategien und Maßnahmen einer integrierten Förderung in Städten. Endbericht. Technische Universität Dresden, Lehrstuhl Verkehrs- und Infrastrukturplanung, Dresden, 2010, 265 p. [formato PDF, 7,26 MB]. "Die Forschungsergebnisse sollen genutzt werden, um praxisorientiert konkrete Strategie- und Maßnahmenempfehlungen zur gezielten, koordinierten und möglichst synergetischen Förderung von Rad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung zu geben. Hierzu ist auch ein Leitfaden mit Fallbeispielen erarbeitet worden."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Tanja Aurich, Thomas Böhmer, Jeannette Klotzsch, Leitfaden Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung Technische Universität Dresden, Lehrstuhl Verkehrs- und Infrastrukturplanung, Dresden, 2010, 92 p. [formato PDF, 3,72 MB]. "Dieser Leitfaden entstand zum BMVBS-Forschungsvorhaben Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung - Analysen, Strategien und Maßnahmen einer integrierten Förderung in Städten im Rahmen der Umsetzung des Nationalen Radverkehrsplanes."

Marián Gogola (Univ. Žilina), The comparison among transport policies allowing the bicycle on board in urban public transport. Railway Transport and Logistics / Železničná doprava a logistika, 2/2013, 49-53 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 453 kB]. "This paper provides the short overview of transport policies among the particular countries which allow to take the bicycle on board. The bicycle friendly transport varies from means of transport where the better conditions are in train and buses in US cities (exception of the German cities) in comparison with mainly east European countries including Slovakia. The American example can be useful for our condition although there is problem with an approval of used front bicycle racks. It will be interesting to examine also the benefits of integration between cycling public transport in European conditions much more in the future".

Bradley J. Flamm (Temple University), Determinants of Bicycle-On-Bus Boardings: A Case Study of the Greater Cleveland RTA. Journal of Public Transport, vol. 16, No. 2, 2013, 67-84 [formato PDF, 783 kB]. "Transit agencies around the country have made significant investments since the late 1990s to provide improved service to cyclist-transit users (CTUs), that is, transit riders who bring bicycles with them by using bicycle racks installed on buses. Use of these bus bicycle racks appears to vary significantly from transit system to transit system. It is unclear, however, what specific factors contribute most to bicycle-onbus boardings (BoBBs). Using multi-variate regression analysis and a detailed data set of 2008-2011 BoBBs for Northeast Ohio’s Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA), this study compared daily BoBBs to general ridership (measured by unlinked passenger trips) in light of key weather, transit service, and travel cost variables. Rates of BoBBs rose during the study’s time period and were strongly associated with weather conditions, though even in wet and cold weather, dozens of transit users traveled with their bicycles. To a lesser extent, BoBBs are also associated with transit service levels and travel costs."

Fabian Küster and Ed Lancaster, Bike carriage on long-distance trains: 7 basic services that give cyclists a smile. A collection of good practice examples from across Europe. ECF, Brussels, 2013, 11 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "The paper brings together best practices from around Europe and aims to highlight the 7 basic services that all cycle tourists appreciate when trying to travel to and from their holiday destinations."

Robert Cervero, Benjamin Caldwell, and Jesus Cuellar, Bike-and-Ride: Build It and They Will Come. (UCTC-FR-2012-16). University of California Transportation Center, UC Berkeley, December 2012, 19 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "Converting park-and-ride to bike-and-ride trips could yield important environmental, energy conservation, and public-health benefits. While cycling in general is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, it still makes up a miniscule portion of access trips to most rail transit stations. At several rail stations of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, 10 percent or more of access trips are by bicycle, up considerably from a decade earlier. This paper adopts a case-study approach to probe factors that have had a hand in not only cycling grabbing a larger market share of access trips to rail stops but also in the enlargement of bike access-sheds over time. Both on-site factors, like increases the number of secure and protected bicycle parking racks, as well as off-site factors, like increases in the lineal miles of bike-paths and bike boulevards, appear to explain growing use of bicycles for accessing rail stations. The adage "build it and they will come", we argue, holds for bicycle improvements every bit as much as other forms of urban transportation infrastructure. Pro-active partnerships between transit agencies, local municipalities, and bicycle advocacy organizations are critical to ensuring such improvements are made."

La prise en compte des déplacements à vélo dans la mise en place de tramways. Les préconisations de la FUB. FUB (Fédération française des Usagers de la Bicyclette), Strasbourg, juin 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 5,47 MB]. "Une enquête a été menée auprès des associations membres de la FUB présentes dans 21 villes disposant d’un tramway et 5 villes ayant un projet viable et abouti de mise en place d’un tramway. Principal résultat : les collectivités territoriales et les Autorités Organisatrices de Transport Urbain peuvent largement mieux faire. La FUB en tire les enseignements et propose à cette occasion un certain nombre de préconisations au niveau de la gouvernance, de la réglementation, de la planification et de l’expertise de terrain pour une meilleure sécurité et un plus grand confort des cyclistes."

Handbuch Intermodale Schnittstellen im Radverkehr. Empfehlungen zu Planung, Realisierung und Betrieb für Verwaltung, Verkehrsdienstleistungsanbieter und Planer. Schieneninfrastruktur Dienstleistungsgesllschaft mbH, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie – BMVIT, Wien, 2010, 91 p. [formato PDF, 6,80 MB].

Intermodale Schnittstellen im Radverkehr. Empfehlungen zu Planung, Realisierung und Betrieb für Verwaltung, Verkehrsdienstleistungsanbieter und Planer. Endbericht final. LOB iC GmbH, SCHIG GmbH, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie – BMVIT, Wien, 2010, 409 p. [formato PDF, 13,3 MB]. "Österreichische Städte und Gemeinden besitzen derzeit kein geeignetes Instrument um die intermodale Schnittstelle Radverkehr und öffentlicher Verkehr systematisch zu überprüfen. Im Rahmen des Projekts ISR konnte ein innovativer Gesamtansatz für Analysen auf Ebene der intermodalen Schnittstelle Radverkehr und öffentlicher Verkehr entwickelt werden. Die Faktoren- Matrix (siehe Kapitel 6) ist einerseits relativ einfach zu handhaben, und steht damit für eine breite Anwendung zur Verfügung, andererseits erlaubt sie in hohem Maße Rückschlüsse auf die Radverkehrssituation in einer spezifischen Gemeinde. Auf Basis einer umfassenden Auswertung der für den Radverkehr relevanten Rahmenbedingungen kann eine Analyse der im Umfeld eines Bahnhofs bzw. einer Haltestelle spezifisch gegebenen Schwachstellen durchgeführt werden. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt die Ableitung von konkret auf die jeweiligen lokalen Bedingungen zugeschnittenen Maßnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs im Umfeld der intermodalen Schnittstelle. Durch das ISR - Instrumentarium besteht nun eine Methode zum Qualitätsmanagement. Diese Methoden betreffen sowohl die Resultate der Faktorenauswertungen wie in weiterer Folge die Bewertung und Verbesserung der Arbeitsabläufe. Analog zu Qualitätsmanagementprozessen in anderen Bereichen soll den Städten ein Werkzeug zur Verfügung stehen, das es ermöglicht, die Qualität in bestimmten Aufgabenbereichen (Faktorenbereichen) aufzuzeigen und zu verbessern. Durch regelmäßige Fortschreibung der Bewertungen anhand der Faktorenmatrix, kann die Gemeinde somit das Erreichen der selbstgesteckten Ziele überprüfen und verschafft sich die Möglichkeit eines Überblicks über zu treffende Maßnahmen, die die Qualität des Gesamtsystems am wirkungsvollsten verbessern. Das Gesamtschema der Vorgehensweise eignet sich ebenfalls als „erklärendes Tool“ zur Interpretation von vorherrschenden Problemfeldern, was im Vorfeld zur Maßnahmensetzung in Gemeinden oftmals eine bedeutende Rolle darstellt."

John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Integrating Bicycling and Public Transport in North America, Journal of Public Transportation 12 (2009) 79-104 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "This paper provides an overview of bike-transit integration in large American and Canadian cities. It begins with an analysis of national trends in bike-and-ride programs such as the provision of bike racks on buses, accommodation of bikes on rail vehicles, and bike parking at rail stations and bus stops. Most of the paper, however, is devoted to case studies of bike-transit integration in six large American cities (San Francisco, Portland, Minneapolis, Chicago, Washington, and New York) and two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Toronto). Much progress has been made over the past decade in coordinating cycling with public transport, but the demand for bikeand- ride far exceeds the supply of facilities in some cities. More funding, in particular, is needed to provide more secure, sheltered bike parking at rail stations and to increase bike-carrying capacity on rail vehicles."

Tanja Aurich, Thomas Böhmer (TU Dresden), Results from the research project "Interdependencies of Bicycle and Public Transport Use", 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 22 slides [formato PDF, 716 kB].

Jörn Marx, Integrated planning of bicycle and public transport - new approaches in Dresden, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 26 slides [formato PDF, 0,99 MB].

Jürgen Möllers, The Bike-and-Ride concept of the City of Cologne – The success story, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 43 slides [formato PDF, 1,67 MB].

Holger Dehnert, Transportation of bicycles in public transport vehicles in the Oberelbe area - additional benefit and cases of conflict, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 27 slides [formato PDF, 978 kB].

Holger Matthäus, The development of bicycle transportation by public transport in the Hanseatic City of Rostock, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 22 slides [formato PDF, 1,01 MB].

Burkhard Horn, Bicycle and Public Transport – Dream Team or Rivals? The Berlin Experience, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 32 slides [formato PDF, 585 kB].

Bastian Chlond, Tobias Kuhnimhof (Univ. Karlsruhe), Fahrrad und ÖV versus MIV? Analysen zur Konkurrenz und Synergie von Verkehrsmitteln, 12th SRL Public Transport Conference 2009 / 2nd MeetBike Conference, Dresden, 12-13 March 2009, 17 slides [formato PDF, 377 kB].

Cycling Strategy 2007, Northern, York, 2007, 20 p. [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "In May 2007 Northern, the local [railway] operator in Yorkshire and the North of England, launched their Cycle Strategy. It sets out their approach to promoting cycling as a sustainable and healthy means of transport which complements their services across the North of England."

Department for Transport, DfT Bike and Rail Policy, Department for Transport, London, October 2006, 53 p. [formato PDF, 1,06 MB]. "The Strategic Rail Authority (SRA) published their Cycling Policy advice and guidance to Train Operating Companies (TOCs) shortly before being wound up. DfT has since adopted the document as its own Bike and Rail Policy. The document provides advice on a range of activities which can help better integrate bike and rail journeys including carriage of bikes on trains, cycle parking, access to stations, cycle hire and cycle centres at stations and information to cyclists using the rail network for part of their journey."

Marc Santos Canals, Antoine Pinaud, Thibaut Jeanneau (Roskilde University), Copenhagen: How bicycles can become an efficient means of public transportation. Supervisor: Rasmus Ole Rasmussen. Geography department, Roskilde University, December 2006, 90 p. [formato PDF, 3,90 MB].

Marco Danzi, The Bicycle Carriage on Long-Distance Trains in the European Union, European Cyclists' Federation, Brussels, November 2006, 52 p. [formato PDF, 303 KB]. "In order to stimulate a further debate on these issues, the ECF has carried out a market analysis aimed at an in-depth study and evaluation of the EU market for bicycle carriage on long-distance trains. This analysis involves technical and political aspects and provides useful elements for the further discussion of this issue at a European level, with particular reference to solutions allowing the bicycle carriage on high-speed trains. The content is based on ECF internal know-how, analysis of publicly available documents, information obtained from railway undertakings and rolling stock producers, united with the technical support of the German railway consulting company SCI Verkehr GmbH."

Marlies Emmen, Henk Pauwels, Hans Kramer, The Public Transport - Bike Services in the Netherlands, ECOMM 2004, May 5-7, Lyon, 19 slides [formato PDF, 340 KB]. Un'introduzione alla integrazione tra uso della bicicletta e trasporto pubblico nei Paesi Bassi.

Transit Cooperative Research Program, The Integration of Bicycles and Transit. A Synthesis of Transit Practice (TCRP Synthesis 62), Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 2005, 79 p. [formato PDF, 2,52 MB]. Le esperienze USA di integrazione tra uso della bicicletta e trasporto pubblico (bus, light rail, traghetti ed altro). Comprende diversi modelli di questionari per i vari modi di trasporto.


OBBLIGO DEL CASCO PER I CICLISTI

Jörgen Larsson, Cykelhjälmsanvändning i Sverige 1988-2013. Resultat från VTI:s senaste observationsstudie. (Bicycle helmet use in Sweden 1998-2013 - Results from VTI's recent observations. (VTI notat 8-2014). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,78 MB]. "Since 1988 VTI has performed annual observation studies of cyclists' helmet wearing habits in 21 towns in Sweden. Below is a summary of the observations conducted in 2013 on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. The 2013 study, in line with previous studies, focused on four main categories of cyclists: - Children (0-10 years) who cycle in their spare time in residential areas - Children (6-15 years) who cycle to/from their primary or secondary school - Adults (> 16 years) who cycle to/from work - Adults (> 16 years) and children who cycle on cycle routes. The majority of the observations were performed during the first two weeks of September. The 2013 study observed a total of 58,162 cyclists in 21 towns in the four main categories. The results show that children < 10 years cycling in residential areas on average wear a cycle helmet at 79%. Children cycling to/from primary or secondary school (6-15 years old) wear a bicycle helmet on a lesser scale, at about 61%. However the rate differs greatly, almost 34% in secondary school (children 13-15 years old) and almost 85% in primary school (children 6-12 years old). Among adults who cycle to/from work, the usage rate is about 29%. Most cyclists were observed on cycle routes and the results include all ages as well as adults only. The total number of cyclists on cycle routes displayed slightly higher helmet usage (about 32%) than the subset of adults (30.5%). The weighted average rate of helmet use seen over all categories in 2013, soared to the highest ever. The rate increased continuously until the end of the 1990's when stagnation occurred for some years. In 2005 legislation requiring children up to 15 years of age to wear a cycle helmet by law, was brought into effect. Helmet use increased again between 2004/2005 and 2008, followed by a stagnation that was broken 2011. The estimated value of the average helmet use is 36.2% for the year 2013, which is significantly higher than the 33.2% in 2012. The difference is statistically significant at risk level 1%. The increase in helmet use in 2013 compared to 2012 has been most pronounced for children < 10 years cycling in residential areas and adults to/from work."

Colin F. Clarke, Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law, The New Zealand Medical Journal, 10 February 2012, v. 125 No 1349 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 200 kB]. L'articolo analizza gli effetti controproducenti dell'obbligo del casco per i ciclisti introdotto in Nuova Zelanda nel 1994. "The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990–1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006–09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988–91 to 2003–07, cyclists’ overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK’s Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989–1990 to 2006–2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties."

Mandatory bicycle helmet law in Western Australia. Australia was the first country in the world to impose uniform national mandatory bicycle helmet legislation, beginning in 1990. Western Australia commenced police enforcement of the law on July 1, 1992. Analysis of results in Western Australia suggests the helmet legislation has: increased hospital admissions per cyclist on the road; reduced the popularity of cycling; damaged public health; increased all road casualties. This website provides a compendium of reports and studies into cyclist injuries and cycling participation rates in a mandatory rather than voluntary bicycle helmet jurisdiction.

cyclehelmets.org, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation.


NORMATIVA E SEGNALETICA

Signs and signals for cyclists and pedestrians. Comparison of rules and pratices in 13 countries. Cerema, Lyon, April 2014, 44 p. [formato PDF, 11,6 MB]. "The lack of physical activity coupled with the frequent use of private cars in urban areas has led to an increasing sedentary lifestyle and has become a serious public health concern. Increasing the share of walking and cycling does not only contribute to increased health, but would also reduce noise and air pollution and could lead to an increased use of public transport. I order to increase the attractiveness of walking and cycling, the necessary infrastructure must be provided that is safe, accessible and comfortable to all users. Studies have shown that users have a very limited knowledge of the urban space and often see cities as an archipelago made up of islands in a sea of unknown spaces. Therefore, easily recognizable and familiar signs and signals that provide clear directions and information on distances and travel times are an indispensably tool to make walking and cycling more attractive. Today there exist a multitude of different signs and signals, mainly developed at the local level, that do not yet always fulfil these criteria. The present study, prepared by CEREMA in the framework of the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP), provides an inventory of existing or planned rules and regulations as well as best practices on signs and signals for cyclists and pedestrians in 13 countries. The information and the examples could be referred to by local authorities or States wishing to develop such types of signs and signals. The study could also be the starting point for the harmonization of signs and signals for walking and cycling at the international level and could contribute to the current review of the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals (1968) towards promotion of active mobility and the facilitation of pedestrian and bicycle tourism."

Radwegeanlagen. Beschilderung und Markierung. Richtlinie. Aktualisiert: Juni 2009. Land Salzburg, 2009, 16 p. [formato PDF, 567 kB].

Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige / Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol, Regolamento delle piste ciclabili e degli itinerari ciclopedonali / Radwege- und Radroutenordnung. Bollettino Ufficiale n. 47/I-II del 20.11.2007 / Amtsblatt Nr. 47/I-II vom 20.11.2007, 18 p. [formato PDF, 510 kB].

Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige / Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol, Segnaletica per piste ciclabili / Beschilderung von Radwegen. Delibera di Giunta Provinciale n. 4055 del 12/11/2001 / Beschluss der Landesregierung Nr. 4055 vom 12.11.2001, 5 p. [formato PDF, 515 kB].

Regione Piemonte, Assessorato Trasporti e Comunicazioni, Norme Tecniche per la progettazione, realizzazione e segnalazione di piste e percorsi ciclabili in sede urbana ed extraurbana. Bollettino Ufficiale della Regione Piemonte, suppl. speciale al n.45, Torino, 12 novembre 1997, 145 p. [formato PDF, 3,42 MB].

Segnaletica per Itinerari Ciclabili. Documento approvato dal Consiglio Nazionale della FIAB, 14 gennaio 2005, Milano, 12 p. [formato PDF, 2,86 MB]. "Proposta compatibile con il codice della strada".


PIANIFICAZIONE LOCALE E REGIONALE DELLA MOBILITA' CICLABILE, MANUALI (HANDBOOKS)

Till Koglin, Vélomobility and the politics of transport planning, GeoJournal, 8 July 2014 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 516 kB]. (DOI 10.1007/s10708-014-9565-7). "Cycling as a transport mode has gradually become more attractive in cities during the last 10 years. However, not all cities give due consideration to cycling issues in the planning process. In many transport systems, cycling and issues of vélomobility are still neglected. Recent research considers several aspects of cycling, however, few studies have shown why differences in for example modal split and bicycle infrastructure exist between cities. This article deals with the differences in cycling issues between Copenhagen and Stockholm and furthermore why such differences occur in these two Scandinavian capitals. The focus here is on transport planning and the dissimilarities in the structures and aspects that have affected the thinking of planners and politicians and the planning outcomes in these two cities. Questions of marginalisation of cyclists in the public space and different planning politics or politics of vélomobility are touched upon. The results are set in a theoretical frame of power relations, mobility theory and political economies. The results show that these two cities have very different planning approaches and economic, structural and cultural presumptions leading to the fact that Copenhagen prioritises cycling, whereas Stockholm focuses more on facilitating public transport and motorised modes of person transport."

Anna Biton, David Daddio, and James Andrew, Statewide Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning Handbook. (FHWA-HEP-14-051). U.S. Department of Transportation John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, September 2014, 94 p. [formato PDF, 3,35 MB]. "This handbook is designed to help State departments of transportation (DOTs) develop or update State pedestrian and bicycle plans. Based on research including interviews with nine State DOTs and critical evaluations of documents from 15 States, this handbook covers statewide planning from plan inception and scoping to engaging stakeholders and the general public; developing goals, objectives and strategies; collecting and analyzing data; linking to the larger statewide transportation planning process; and implementation. For each stage of the planning process, this handbook uses recent experiences and noteworthy practices from DOTs around the country, helping inform a new generation of statewide nonmotorized planning and implementation."

Sustrans Design Manual. Handbook for cycle-friendly design. Sustrans, Bristol, April 2014, 36 p. [formato PDF, 8,33 MB]. "This document is part of a suite of technical design guidance on active travel being developed by Sustrans. There is much useful material already available from a range of organisations, and this guidance from Sustrans aims to provide detailed technical advice on key issues around on and off highway cycle infrastructure whilst signposting users to this developing library of further resources."

Åsa Aretun and Kerstin Robertson, Ökad cykling: Professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen. (Increasing the share of bicycling: The challenge of professional path dependency in local transport planning). (VTI report 781). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,56 MB]. "The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning."

Masterplan Velo (der Stadt Zürich). Zürich lädt zum Velofahren ein. Stadtrat von Zürich, 2012, 64 p. [formato PDF, 2,00 MB].

Good, better, best. The City of Copenhagen's bicycle strategy 2011-2025. The City of Copenhagen, 2012, 16 p. [formato PDF, 5,65 MB].

Richard Quincerot, Dominick Emmenegger, Stratégie cantonale de promotion du vélo à l’horizon 2020. Etat de Vaud, Lausanne, octobre 2010, 44 p. [formato PDF, 4,28 MB]. Il Cantone di Vaud (Losanna) è quello che ha la minore intensità d'uso della bicicletta per gli spostamenti quotidiani in tutta la Svizzera. Con questa strategia cantonale vorrebbe rilanciare l'uso della bici.

La città in bicicletta. Progettare percorsi ciclabili per migliorare l'ambiente. Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione Ambientale del Veneto (ARPAV), Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta (FIAB), Padova, 2007, 78 p. [formato PDF, 1,65 MB]. "La pubblicazione vuole essere un manuale pratico, rivolto prevalentemente a chi può influire sulla progettazione delle infrastrutture cittadine, per realizzare percorsi ciclabili nelle aree urbane, in modo da ricreare un tessuto urbano favorevole e sicuro per un mezzo di trasporto ecologico come la bicicletta."

Manual para implementar y promocionar la Ciclovía Recreativa. Unidad de nutrición, estilos de vida saludables y enfermedades no transmisibles, Organización Panamericana de la Salud, La Vía RecreActiva de Guadalajara, Facultades de Medicina e Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá Colombia, Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades, 2009, 123 p. [formato PDF, 10,1 MB]. "Este manual consiste en una guía básica sobre los pasos y procesos que se consideran convenientes y esenciales para la planeación e implementación de Ciclovías Recreativas. El documento está dividido en 8 secciones que corresponden a las fases de planeación, desarrollo y ejecución. Cuenta además con 2 secciones en donde se proveen herramientas adicionales para promocionar y evaluar la Ciclovía Recreativa. Estas herramientas utilizan elementos de las áreas de salud pública e ingeniería de transporte."

Cycling-inclusive Policy Development: A Handbook. Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-Ce), Utrecht, April 2009, 256 p. [formato PDF, 19,0 MB]. "This handbook has been written by 12 authors who are experts in different fields of cycling-inclusive development. It provides detailed information on how to develop cycling-friendly policies and facilities. It can help you, as a planner, engineer, community leader or advocate to enrich your own ideas about the future traffic and transport system where you live and work. The publication is also part of Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia (SUMA) initiative, of which GTZ and I-Ce are partners." (necessaria registrazione gratuita sul sito).

Posteggi per cicli. Raccomandazioni per la pianificazione, la realizzazione e l’esercizio. Manuale. Ufficio federale delle strade (USTRA), Bern, 2008, 128 p. [formato PDF, 4,64 MB].

Veloparkierung. Empfehlungen zu Planung, Realisierung und Betrieb. Handbuch. (Manuale per i posteggi per biciclette. Raccomandazioni per la pianificazione, realizzazione e gestione). Bundesamt für Strassen (ASTRA), Bern, 2008, 128 p. [formato PDF, 4,64 MB].

Matteo Dondé e Carlo Molteni, Il Bici Plan. Il piano della rete delle piste ciclabili a Reggio Emilia. Presentazione, Reggio Emilia, 22 settembre 2007, 48 slides [formato PDF, 4,83 MB].

Comune di Reggio Emilia, Biciplan 2008. Il piano ciclistico del Comune di Reggio Emilia. Reggio Emilia, settembre 2009, 92 p. [formato PDF, 15,1 MB].

Polinomia srl, Linee guida per la progettazione delle reti ciclabili. Milano, Aprile 2006, 69 p. [formato PDF, 17,5 MB]. Manuale realizzato nell'ambito del progetto "Verso un piano di settore per una rete ciclabile strategica della Provincia di Milano".

Antoni Bedoya, Manual per al disseny de vies ciclistes de Catalunya. Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament de Política Territorial i Obres Públiques, Barcelona, 2007, 104 p. [formato PDF, 2,28 MB].

Fahrradparken in Berlin. Leitfaden für die Planung (Parcheggi per bici a Berlino. Linee guida per la pianificazione). Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung, Berlin, März 2008, 44 p. [formato PDF, 7,64 MB]. "This brochure contains an overview of the technical and space requirements of different types of bicycle parking facilities and compares their respective advantages and disadvantages. It summarizes the legal requirements relating to the provision of bicycle stands (building regulations, road legislation) and discusses the chances and the deficits concerning bicycle parking in different types of origin and destination areas (e.g. housing, shopping, public transport)." L'opuscolo è in lingua tedesca.

Regione Toscana, Piste ciclabili in ambito fluviale. Manuale tecnico. Marzo 2008, 57 p. [formato PDF, 3,94 MB]. "La presente pubblicazione vuole essere un supporto snello ed immediato per illustrare i criteri guida nella realizzazione delle piste ciclabili, fermo restando che la progettazione, in riferimento alle singole peculiarità del tracciato che si intende realizzare, dovrà tenere conto delle normative vigenti."

Alfredo Drufuca (Polinomia Srl), I costi ed i benefici della rete (analisi quantitativa dell'utenza potenziale per la rete Mibici). Milano, ottobre 2007, 13 p. [formato PDF, 292 kB]. Valutazione della domanda ciclistica attuale e potenziale e del possibile effetto di riduzione del traffico motorizzato applicata alla provincia di Milano, nel quadro della redazione del Piano Provinciale della ciclabilità MiBici.

Stiftung SchweizMobil, Markus Capirone, Daniel Leupi, Lukas Stadtherr, Planung von Velorouten. Handbuch = Conception d'itinéraires cyclables. Manuel = Pianificazione di percorsi ciclabili. Manuale. Bundesamt für Strassen ASTRA, Bern, 2008, 96 p. [formato PDF, 8,37 MB]. (Manuale trilingue: tedesco, francese italiano). "Il manuale definisce nove criteri fondamentali di qualità, descrivendo in particolare la valutazione e l'attuazione di queste esigenze nel processo di pianificazione, partendo dalla pianificazione della rete fino alla progettazione di singoli percorsi. Per facilitare la comprensione si ricorre ad esempi concreti relativi alla mobilità quotidiana e del tempo libero."

London Cycling Design Standards. This document sets out the principals, guidance and standards for designing to reduce barriers to cycling, in order to support road safety targets and increased levels of cycling in London. It is aimed not just at designers of cycle route schemes, but at all designers of infrastructure that cyclists will use or that will affect cyclists. 12 files [formato PDF].

Sylke Streich, Seevetal Radverkehrskonzept. (ECTL Working Paper 29). Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, European Centre for Transportation and Logistics, 2004, 125 p. [formato PDF, 6,36 MB]. Diplomarbeit im Fach Stadtplanung, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 2. September 2004.

Provincia di Bergamo, Piano provinciale della rete ciclabile. Piano di rete dei percorsi ciclabili della Provincia di Bergamo, relazione tecnico-descrittiva, 2003, 142 p. [6 files in formato PDF, totale 2 MB]

Sergio Signanini, Progetto regionale per il coordinamento degli interventi a favore della mobilità ciclistica. Sintesi della relazione. Regione Toscana, Direzione Generale delle Politiche Territoriali e Ambientali, 2008, 47 p. [formato PDF, 286 kB].

Comune di Milano, Piano della Mobilità Ciclistica. Relazione di sintesi + Tavole, 2007, 18+22 p. [2 files in formato PDF, 150 kB + 12,6 MB]


PERCORSI CICLABILI, PISTE CICLABILI, INFRASTRUTTURE (BIKE INFRASTRUCTURES)

Daniele Codato, Diego Malacarne, Guglielmo Pristeri, Salvatore Pappalardo, Massimo De Marchi (University of Padova), Towards a more Liveable and Accessible Cycle Path Network in Padova: a Participatory Mapping Process. REAL CORP 2018 Proceedings, Vienna, 4-6 April 2018, 471-477 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 927 kB] "With the advent of climate-related issues and low-carbon economy, networks of cycle paths and tracks are becoming a more and more relevant mobility infrastructure for cities. However, mapping their critical points in order to fix them to improve liveability and accessibility can be difficult. One solution may be to combine digital technologies and users' knowledge, using the methods of participatory mapping. The first experiences in participatory GIS, in which geo-information technologies are used in support of collection, creation and sharing of spatial information by non-skilled social actors, date back to the nineteen- eighties. This bottom-up approach saw a strong evolution in recent years, even in the European urban context, thanks to the constant development of digital technologies and to the increasing opportunities for citizens to access the web. Free and open geographic data, by means of Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), facilitate the citizens' involvement and participation in urban planning and management. This is the framework behind PISTE riCICLABILI, an innovative project by the University of Padova started in autumn 2016 and aiming at the following goals: a participatory mapping of critical issues of the urban cycle path network and the implementation of an open source geo-portal for collecting and sharing geo-referenced reports. Within the workflow developed for this project, spatial information has been collected in two different ways: on the one hand, using printed city maps during public events, where involved citizens marked the cycle paths issues with pins; on the other hand, through a mobile geo-app. In the second case, Open Data Kit (ODK) was used. It is a combination of free and open source tools enabling everyone to create a form to be filled in with a smartphone in the field, and to send geo-referenced reports to a server. Mobile data were collected using the GeoODK Collect Android app, then aggregated and periodically exported, reprocessed and released through the open source webGIS platform Lizmap. First results of the process, which experienced a growing participation by citizens, consist of over 300 collected critical points. Through the analysis of these data it is possible to have a first overview on the main problems of bicycle mobility in Padova, their spatial implications and citizens' suggestions to improve human-oriented places. This contribution presents the mapping and data spreading workflow, together with results achieved and possible future development, with the aim to share a promising tool to improve urban sustainable mobility."

Victor Andrade Carneiro Da Silva, Henrik Harder, Ole Bent Jensen, Jens Overgaard Madsen, Bike Infrastructures. (Departmental Working Paper Series, Vol. 37). Aalborg University, Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg, 2010, 205 p. [formato PDF, 61,8 MB] "Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Vestergade Vest and Mageløs in Odense (shareduse space in the core of the city); Hans Broges Gade in Aarhus (an extension of a bicycle route linking the suburb to Aarhus Central station) and Bryggebro in Copenhagen (a bridge for bicyclists and pedestrians crossing the harbor). Bridging research and policy, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy."

Federico Tomassi, Indagine sulle piste ciclabili a Roma. Agenzia per il controllo e la qualità dei servizi pubblici locali del Comune di Roma, Roma, dicembre 2010, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,57 MB] "Realizzata dall'Agenzia con la collaborazione dei "Ciclomobilisti", l'indagine ha riguardato le condizioni di realizzazione, manutenzione e contesto urbano di tutte le piste ciclabili su strada del comune di Roma, suddivise in 68 tratti omogenei. Sono stati indagati 15 ambiti di interesse: tipologia di pista, accessibilità, fondo stradale, protezione dei ciclisti, attraversamenti stradali, pedonali e carrabili, visibilità, segnaletica, intralci, sicurezza, servizi, utilità, lavori in corso, percorribilità durante l'intero anno, percezione complessiva. Il monitoraggio e il confronto con altre grandi città hanno permesso di proporre 10 interventi utili a incentivare l'uso della bici a Roma."

Jean-François Bruneau, Denis Morin, Marcel Pouliot, Problématique d'aménagement des passages de pistes cyclables en milieu rural. (Études et recherches en transport). Ministère des Transports du Québec, 2000, 212 p. [formato PDF, 9,44 MB].


SUPERSTRADE CICLABILI, PISTE CICLABILI VELOCI (CYCLE SUPER HIGHWAYS, RADSCHNELLWEGE, VELOBAHNEN, VELOSTRASSEN, VOIES EXPRESS VELO)

Machbarkeitsstudie Radschnellweg Ruhr RS1. Kurzfassung. Regionalverband Ruhr, Essen, 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "Der Radschnellweg Ruhr "RS1" ist machbar. Das ist das Ergebnis der Machbarkeitsstudie, die eine gut 100 km lange, realisierbare Trasse definiert. Im Einzugsgebiet des RS1 leben 1,65 Millionen Menschen. Die Trasse verläuft von Duisburg über die Innenstadt in Mülheim an der Ruhr, das Essener Stadtzentrum und die Universität, entlang der südlichen Stadtgrenze Gelsenkirchens mit Anbindung der Innenstadt, dann über das Bochumer Stadtzentrum, die Dortmunder Universität und das Kreuzviertel nach Unna, von dort über Kamen und Bergkamen nach Hamm. Die Trasse führt an entscheidenden Stellen mittendurch die Städte. Sie nutzt zu über 90% vorhandene Straßen, Wege und Verkehrstrassen, wie ehemalige Bahnstrecken oder Kanaluferwege. Es wird deutlich, dass eine regionale Trasse neben dem geringen Flächenverbrauch auch eine Chance zur Aufwertung vorhandener Stadträume bietet. Der RS1 wird innovativer Bestandteil einer umfassenden Mobilitätsstrategie und wichtiger Baustein für den Radtourismus in der Metropole Ruhr. Dabei wird der gesamtwirtschaftliche Nutzen des RS1 deutlich höher als seine Kosten (Nutzen-Kosten-Faktor der Zielvariante: 4,80) sein. Unter anderem wird das hochbelastete qualifizierte und kommunale Straßennetz in der Metropole Ruhr täglich um rd. 52.000 PKW-Fahrten entlastet und demzufolge der Straßenverkehr täglich um bis zu 400.000 Pkw-Kilometer reduziert. Dadurch werden jährlich 16.600 Tonnen CO 2 eingespart werden, was in etwa den CO2-Emissionen von 900 Haushalten entspricht."

Fast Cycling Routes: towards barrier-free commuting. Factsheet. European Cyclists' Federation, December 2014, 2 p. [formato PDF, 9,5 MB].

Velokonferenz Schweiz, Velobahnen. Grundlagendokument [Testo di riferimento per la realizzazione di ciclovie veloci]. (Materialien zum Langsamverkehr Nr. 132). Bundesamt für Strassen (ASTRA), Bern; Velokonferenz Schweiz, Biel/Bienne, 2015, 20 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "Velofahrerinnen und -fahrer wollen zügig und sicher ihre Ziele erreichen. Mit der zunehmenden Verwendung von E-Bikes werden vermehrt längere Distanzen mit dem Velo zurückgelegt. Diesen Bedürfnissen kann mit sogenannten Velobahnen entgegengekommen werden. Im Ausland gibt es bereits gute Beispiele von Velobahnen. Zudem existieren Grundlagen und Planungsgrundsätze für die Planung solcher Verbindungen und Netze u. a. in Deutschland, Dänemark und den Niederlanden. Das vorliegende Grundlagendokument ordnet diese Grundlagen in den schweizerischen Kontext ein und gibt erste Hinweise zu der Ausgestaltung der Velobahnen in der Schweiz. Das Dokument stützt sich unter anderem auf Studien und Konzepte von Kantonen und Regionen sowie Erfahrungen aus anderen Ländern. Es zeigt den heutigen Wissensstand und enthält Hinweise auf offene Fragen und Forschungsbedarf."

Conférence Vélo Suisse, Voies Express Vélo. Document de base [Testo di riferimento per la realizzazione di ciclovie veloci]. (Documentation sur la mobilité douce n° 132). Office fédéral des routes (OFROU), Bern; Conférence Vélo Suisse, Biel/Bienne, 2015, 20 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Les cyclistes veulent tous arriver à bon port aussi rapidement que possible. Ils sont toujours plus nombreux à utiliser les vélos électriques pour parcourir des distances souvent plus longues. Les Voies Express Vélo sont à même de satisfaire leurs besoins. Elles existent déjà dans plusieurs pays, entre autres en Allemagne, au Danemark et aux Pays-Bas où les fondements et les principes de planification applicables à ces voies et à leurs réseaux ont été définis. Le présent document de base intègre ces éléments dans le contexte suisse et fournit les premières indications requises pour leur aménagement en Suisse. Il se fonde notamment sur des études et projets cantonaux et régionaux, ainsi que sur des expériences menées à l'étranger. Il présente l'état actuel des connaissances, les questions en suspens et les travaux de recherche qui restent à mener. La traduction française de ce document sera disponible courant 2016."

Ciclostrade (strade ciclabili). Informazioni relative ai progetti sperimentali nelle città svizzere. Ufficio federale delle strade USTRA, Bern, 2016, 2 p. [formato PDF, 36 kB].


PIANI NAZIONALI DELLA MOBILITA' CICLABILE, MASTER PLAN

Nationaler Radverkehrsplan 2020. Den Radverkehr gemeinsam weiterentwickeln. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung, Berlin, Oktober 2012, 84 p. [formato PDF, 5,86 MB].

Claudio Pedroni (a cura di), Bicitalia: Rete Ciclabile Nazionale. Linee guida per la realizzazione. (Quaderno del Centro Studi FIAB Riccardo Gallimbeni), Milano, FIAB, ottobre 2007, 32 p. [formato PDF, 8,49 MB]

Masterplan Radfahren. Strategie zur Förderung des Radverkehrs in Österreich. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Wien, September 2006, 75 p. [formato PDF, 7,18 MB]. "Durch den Masterplan für den Radverkehr sollen alle Ebenen der Radverkehrsförderung angesprochen werden. Die „7 Handlungsfelder“ der Radverkehrsförderung sind • verstärkte Zusammenarbeit / Abstimmung der für den Radverkehr zuständigen AkteurInnen, • attraktive und sichere Radverkehrsinfrastruktur, • radfahrfreundliche und sichere Verkehrsorganisation, • Mobilitätsmanagement, • Optimierung der intermodalen Vernetzung, • Bewusstseinsbildung und Verkehrsausbildung, • sowie allgemein radfahrfreundliche Rahmenbedingungen. Der Entwurf zum Masterplan sieht in diesen Handlungsfeldern 17 konkrete Maßnahmen vor. Diese reichen von der Einrichtung einer bundesweiten Radverkehrskoordination, einer Informationsplattform, einer Investitionsoffensive, einer radfahrfreundlichen Verkehrsorganisation, Beratungs- und Förderprogrammen für Mobilitätsmanagement, über eine Verbesserung der Kombination von Fahrrad und öffentlichem Verkehr und dem Ausbau von Radverleihsystemen bis zu Bewusstseinsbildung für den Radverkehr, sowie radfahrfreundlicheren rechtlichen und fiskalischen Rahmenbedingungen."

National Cycling Plan 2002-2012. Ride your bike! Measures to Promote Cycling in Germany. Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, Berlin, April 2002, 98 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB].

Directorate General for Passenger Transport, The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan. Description and evaluation in an historical context. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague, March 1999, 129 p. [formato PDF, 10,2 MB]. "The Bicycle Master Plan (BMP) established by the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management was rounded off after seven years in late 1997 with a comprehensive evaluation. This evaluation was then published in a final report, together with a description of all projects that had been carried out. An abridged version has been included in this publication in response to international interest in the activities of the Bicycle Master Plan project group. Moreover, another study that has been carried out in the framework of the Bicycle Master Plan merits an English summarization. The Stichting Historie der Techniek (SHT) has carried out a study into the history of bicycle use and bicycle policy in nine Western European cities, focussing on an historical explanation for the similarities and differences in the development of bicycle use. This study, augmented by several other sources, fits into the framework of the specific history of Dutch bicycle use and bicycle policy which, in turn, forms the context for the development and final results of the Bicycle Master Plan. This historical background makes it easier for the reader to understand why the Bicycle Master Plan was established. This is particularly true of Chapter 2, which covers the interesting period 1950-1990 and in which all kinds of signals can be found that point towards the 1990s. Chapter 1 covers the period 1890-1950 and is of a more anecdotal nature. Chapter 3 describes the evaluation of the Bicycle Master Plan, subdivided into results, carryover and effects. Recent developments in bicycle use and cyclist safety are quantitatively analyzed in Chapter 4. Finally, the question of how Dutch bicycle policy should continue is brought up for discussion in Chapter 5. After all, the completion of the Bicycle Master Plan does not necessarily bring an end to the Dutch central government's bicycle policy. This policy will naturally continue, often less explicitly and integrated more strongly into other policy. Increasingly, it will be carried out by other parties within the broad scope of transport and traffic. A brief description of a selection of the 112 research, pilot and model projects carried out in the framework of the Bicycle Master Plan has been included, as well as an overview of international publications relevant to the Bicycle Master Plan." Summary in English of the Final Report on the Masterplan FIets (Bicycle Master Plan) and of the historical study bicycle usage/bicycle policy of the Stichting Historie der Techniek (History of Technics Foundation).


SICUREZZA (PREVENZIONE DEI FURTI / ANTIVOL / THEFT PREVENTION / FAHRRADDIEBSTAHL)

D. van Lierop, M. Grimsrud, and A. El-Geneidy (McGill University), Breaking into Bicycle Theft: Insights from Montreal, Canada. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (accepted), 24 p. [formato PDF, 828 kB]. "Currently, bicycle theft often goes unnoticed and is largely unchallenged, negatively impacting the use of this sustainable transportation mode. The present research brings attention to this issue by analyzing the multifaceted problem of bicycle theft in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A bilingual online bicycle theft survey was designed for this purpose and answered by 2,039 Greater Montreal residents, yielding 1,922 usable responses. This paper tries to understand bicycle theft through answering the questions of ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘how’, and ‘when.’ Findings from this study are useful to better understand and ultimately decrease bicycle theft in Montreal, but can also be beneficial for cyclists, police, and policy makers in other cities aiming to decrease bicycle theft."

2. Grosse Fahrraddiebstahlstudie. Fahrradklau in Deutschland, Österreich und Schweiz. geld.de, Leipzig, Berlin, 17.11.2011, 16 p. [formato PDF, 12,2 MB]. Dati sui furti di biciclette in Germania, Austria e Svizzera.

Contre le vol des vélos: le marquage Bicycode. "A partir d'expériences de plusieurs pays européens, la FUBicy a mis en place le système Bicycode : un marquage ineffaçable et facilement identifiable; une base de données nationale gérée par la FUBicy; un fichier des vélos volés consultable par les forces de l'ordre pour faciliter la restitution. Le marquage Bicycode est conforme aux recommandations du Comité de suivi interministériel Vélo composé de représentants de l'Etat, de professionnels du cycle, et d'associations d'usagers."

Antivols, conseils + test. Consigli e test 2009-2010 sugli antifurto per bici, a cura della FUBicy (in francese) 4 p. [formato PDF, 191 kB].

Präventionsstrategien zum Fahrraddiebstahl. Fakten & Tipps zum Schutz Ihres Fahrrads. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, November 2009, 15 p. [formato PDF, 2,92 MB]. "Immer mehr Menschen in Österreich fahren mit dem Rad. Mehr Fahrräder ziehen aber leider auch zunehmend Diebe an. Auch Fahrradvandalismus ist ein nicht zu unterschätzendes Problem. Die Broschüre "Präventionsstrategien zum Fahrraddiebstahl - Fakten & Tipps zum Schutz" soll Ihnen helfen, sich vor dem Verlust Ihres Fahrrades zu schützen, denn die wichtigsten Maßnahmen können von Ihnen selbst getroffen werden."

Präventionsstrategien zum Fahrraddiebstahl. Fakten, Hintergründe & Maßnahmen. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, November 2009, 34 p. [formato PDF, 3,05 MB]. "Die Publikation "Präventionsstrategien zum Fahrraddiebstahl - Fakten, Hintergründe & Maßnahmen" soll Behörden, Radverkehrsbeauftragten, Verkehrs- und Stadtplanerinnen und -planer, Gemeinden sowie Architektinnen und Architekten eine ausführliche Einsicht in die Hintergründe des Problems Fahrraddiebstahl geben."

Monique Giroud [et al.], Bicycle theft prevention : impact, solutions, and side-effects. Velo-city 2007 München, presentation/abstract, 4 p. [formato PDF, 328 kB].


VALUTAZIONE DELLE POLITICHE E DEGLI INVESTIMENTI IN INFRASTRUTTURE E COSTI-BENEFICI DELLA MOBILITA' CICLABILE, BIKENOMICS

Konstantin Klemmer, Tobias Brandt, Stephen Jarvis, Isolating the effect of cycling on local business environments in London. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0209090 (2018) (31 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "We investigate whether increasing cycling activity affects the emergence of new local businesses. Historical amenity data from OpenStreetMap is used to quantify change in shop and sustenance amenity counts. We apply an instrumental variable framework to investigate a causal relationship and to account for endogeneity in the model. Measures of cycling infrastructure serve as instruments. The impact is evaluated on the level of 4835 Lower Super Output Areas in Greater London. Our results indicate that an increase in cycling trips significantly contributes to the emergence of new local shops and businesses. Limitations regarding data quality, zero-inflation and residual spatial autocorrelation are discussed. While our findings correspond to previous investigations stating positive economic effects of cycling, we advance research in the field by providing a new dataset of unprecedented high granularity and size. Furthermore, this is the first study in cycling research looking at business amenities as a measure of economic activity. The insights from our analysis can enhance understandings of how cycling affects the development of local urban economies and may thus be used to assess and evaluate transport policies and investments. Beyond this, our study highlights the value of open data in city research."

L'A Bi Ci. 1° Rapporto sull'economia della bici in Italia e sulla ciclabilità nelle città. Legambiente, Roma, maggio 2017, 28 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. Realizzato in collaborazione con VeloLove e GRAB+. "Benefit sanitari, riduzione di smog e rumore, abbattimento dei costi ambientali e sociali delle emissioni gas serra: pedalare è un buon affare. In Italia gli spostamenti in bici generano un fatturato di 6,2 miliardi l'anno. Pur se le città italiane bike friendly sono ancora una minoranza, il valore economico della ciclabilità in Italia si rivela particolarmente interessante. Lo studio di Legambiente sottolinea la necessità di realizzare percorsi ciclabili sicuri e di qualità, con una forte coerenza fisica e visiva. I tracciati per le bici devono essere fatti con criterio (i punti di origine e di destinazione non devono essere casuali ma coincidenti con forti attrattori di mobilità come università, quartieri ad alta densità abitativa, stazioni ferroviarie e della metropolitane), il fondo stradale delle piste deve essere privo di difetti e irregolarità con caratteristiche tecniche che lo rendano scorrevole, gradevole e percorribile tutto l'anno (anche in caso di forti piogge). Nel disegnare nuovi itinerari si deve dare priorità a quelli che favoriscono l'intermodalità con i servizi di trasporto su ferro e altri mezzi del Tpl che consentono di salire a bordo con la bici."

Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Evaluating active transport benefits and costs. Guide to valuing walking and cycling improvements and encouragement programs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 27 February 2015, 79 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB] "This report describes methods for evaluating the benefits and costs of active transport (walking, cycling, and their variants, also called non-motorized and human-powered travel). It describes various types of benefits, costs and methods for measuring them. These include direct benefits to users from improved active transport conditions, various benefits to society from increased walking and cycling activity, reduced motor vehicle travel, and more compact and multi-modal community development. It discusses active transport demands and ways to increase walking and cycling activity. This analysis indicates that many active transport benefits tend to be overlooked or undervalued in conventional transport economic evaluation".

Cristina Taddei, Roberto Gnesotto, Silvia Forni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Andrea Vannucci, Giorgio Garofalo, Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence, PLoS ONE 10(4): e0125491 (22 p.) April 30, 2015 [formato PDF, 717 kB]. Open Access. "Objective. To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design. Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a tenyear period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting. Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population. All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results. Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions. Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST."

Harry Rutter, Nick Cavill, Francesca Racioppi, Hywell Dinsdale, Pekka Oja, Sonja Kahlmeier, Economic Impact of Reduced Mortality Due to Increased Cycling, Am J Prev Med 2013; 44(1) 89–92 (4 p.) [formato PDF, 70 kB]. "Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the “value of a statistical life.” The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling."

Bruno Van Zeebroeck, Julie Charles, Impact et potentiel de l’usage du vélo sur l’économie et l’emploi en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Les effets directs et indirects de l’usage du vélo en 2002, 2012 et 2020. Rapport pour le Ministère de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Pro Velo, Transport & Mobility Leuven, 30.5.2014, 98 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "Pro Velo R&D et Transport & Mobility Leuven ont été désignés par la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale pour réaliser une étude relative à l'impact économique et au potentiel de l'usage du vélo sur l'économie et l'emploi en Région bruxelloise. Il s'agit tout d'abord de quantifier les impacts directs et indirects de l'usage du vélo: les "impacts directs" regroupent les effets liés au marché économique: l'achat de vélos et d'accessoires, la construction d'infrastructures, les subventions au secteur associatif... Tous ces aspects seront mesurés à la fois en termes d'emplois et de chiffre d'affaires; pour les "effets indirects", il s'agit d'évaluer les bénéfices sociétaux, tirés de la pratique du vélo, pour lesquels les cyclistes ne sont pas rétribués: meilleure santé, meilleure qualité de l'environnement, décongestion..."

Ian Skinner, Dawei Wu, Christian Schweizer, Francesca Racioppi, Rie Tsutsumi, Unlocking new opportunities: jobs in green and healthy transport. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2014, 29 p. [formato PDF, 10,0 MB]. "The Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP) partnership on jobs in green and healthy transport is exploring potential job creation in greener, healthier, more efficient transport. This publication focuses on potential job creation in public transport, cycling and walking. An analysis of the available evidence suggests that these modes could be significant employers and contributors to the green economy. A simple method was used to estimate the job creation potential of cycling, as this was the mode for which most information was available. It was estimated that about 76 600 jobs could be created if selected cities achieved the same modal share of cycling as the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Additionally, about 10 000 deaths could be avoided each year thanks to the health benefits of cycling. These figures are likely to be underestimates, as they correspond to only one city per country and to only a small proportion of the jobs that could contribute to making transport greener, safer and more efficient."

Fabian Küster, Benoit Blondel, Calculating the economic benefits of cycling in EU-27. ECF, Brusssels, June 2013, 8 p. [formato PDF, 270 kB].

Kyle Rowe, Bikenomics. Measuring the Economic Impact of Bicycle Facilities on Neighborhood Business Districts. University of Washington, College of Built Environments, July 2013, 29 p. [formato PDF, 3,04 MB].

Kees van Goeverden, Tom Godefrooij, The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability. Delft: Delft University of Technology, October 2011, 99 p. [formato PDF, 4,11 MB]. "The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transport and to contribute to more efficient and qualified urban planning and management. This report discusses a number of Dutch case studies on the effects of investments in bicycle infrastructure. The reviewed studies include the three ‘classical’ cases in the 20th century: rather large investments in the cities of Tilburg, The Hague and Delft that were evaluated extensively by before and after studies. Other, smaller and more recent cases include the evaluation of shared space, a bicycle street, and interurban highways for cyclists. A general conclusion is that policies can be effective in sustaining high levels of cycling and strengthening cycling culture."

Alexander Grous, The British Cycling Economy. ‘Gross Cycling Product’ Report. London School of Economics, 2011, 17 p. [formato PDF, 1,40 MB]. "The GCP report was conceived by Sky and British Cycling and has been made a reality through the London School of Economics." "Cycling in the UK has undergone a renaissance over the past five years, with an increasing number of people taking to the streets of the UK by bike. Over the years there has also been an array of research into different areas of cycling and its associated benefits but no single overview of the cycling sector and its associated benefits. This report sets out to define the ‘cycling economy’ lying behind this growth in numbers. Structural, economic, social and health factors have caused a ‘shift in the sand’ in the UK, spurring an expansion in the cycling market with indications that this will be a longer-term trend. This growth in cycling participation has had the knock-on effect of bringing economic and social benefits to the UK. In 2010 the result was a gross cycling contribution to the UK economy of £2.9b. In addition, this report sets out to quantify the economic benefits generated by each individual cyclist, taking into account factors including bicycle manufacturing, cycle and accessory retail, and employment. In 2010, we determine that the gross cycling product (GCP) reached £230 per cyclist, per annum. If this trend of growth in cycling participation continues, 1m additional Regular Cyclists could contribute £141m to the UK economy by 2013 whilst concurrently reducing absenteeism and improving the individual’s health, providing an incremental economic benefit."

Julie Barbey Horvath, Indices caractéristiques d'une cité-vélo. Méthode d'évaluation des politiques cyclables en 8 indices pour les petites et moyennes communes / Die charakteristischen Indikatoren einer Velostadt. Evaluationsmethode der Velopolitiken anhand von 8 Indikatorgruppen für kleine und mittlere Gemeinden. SVI-Fachtagung, Olten, 15 septembre 2011, présentation, 10 slides [formato PDF, 348 kB].

Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie – BMVIT, Kosteneffiziente Maßnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs in Gemeinden. Leitfaden [Misure efficienti dal punto di vista economico per la promozione della mobilità ciclabile nei Comuni. Guida]. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, Mai 2011, 35 p. [formato PDF, 5,85 MB]. "Langfristig betrachtet hat der Radverkehr ein enormes Potenzial gesamtwirtschaftliche Kosten einzusparen. Die Radfahrerenden ersparen sich die Kosten für den Betrieb teurerer Verkehrsmittel, Krankenversicherungen sparen Kosten für die Behandlung von durch Bewegungsmangel hervorgerufenen Erkrankungen und die Allgemeinheit erspart sich Kosten für den Ersatz von Umweltschäden, die durch den motorisierten Individualverkehr hervorgerufen werden. Andererseits ist die Umsetzung von Maßnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs kurzfristig mit gewissen Kosten verbunden. Die vorliegende Publikation stellt die unterschiedlichen Maßnahmen vor und gibt der interessierten Öffentlichkeit damit ein Gefühl für den erforderlichen finanziellen Aufwand und den Vergleich zu erzielbaren Nutzen. Dieser Leitfaden soll als mit seiner Vielzahl an Tipps und Hinweisen eine Ideenbörse für den Radverkehr darstellen, als Argumentationshilfe für Proponenten des Radverkehrs dienen, die Diskussion auf lokaler Ebene bereichern und das Verständnis für kostengünstige Maßnahmen verbessern."

Gregor Trunk, Gesamtwirtschaftlicher Vergleich von Pkw- und Radverkehr. Ein Beitrag zur Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion (Overall Economical Effects of Car and Bicycle Traffic - An Input to the Debate about Sustainability). (Diplomarbeit Nr. 3/2010). Diplomarbeit für das Fachgebiet Verkehrswesen, Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, 2011, 77 p. [formato PDF, 778 kB]. "The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the overall economical effects (costs/benefits) of two means of transport – bicycle and car. To do this, several indicators of the three dimensions of sustainability are analysed: health benefit, costs for operation, travel time, infrastructure, noise, accidents, air pollution and CO2 (for global warming potential). To be able to compare the different indicators involved, the effects of both means of transport are put into a framework using €-cent as the unit of indicators per cycled or driven kilometre. Observing the aggregated indicators, the external benefit per cycled kilometre is 81,47 ct/km and the overall costs per cycled kilometre are 1,55 ct/km. Concerning the car, external costs per driven kilometre of 4,35 ct/km are generated and overall costs per driven kilometre are 98,38 ct/km. In a next step, these indicators are applied and calculated on traffic scenarios in Vienna, taking into account the number of car trips which actually could be substituted by bicycle. Based on the actual modal split of Vienna (4 % of all trips by bicycle, 25 % by car drivers), two scenarios are calculated. Starting from status quo, the external benefit of the bicycle outbalances external costs of the car by 35 mio. €/year. Regarding scenario 1 (6 % bicycle, 23 % car drivers), an additional benefit of 111 mio. €/year can be achieved compared to the status quo. Scenario 2 (7 % bicycle, 22 % car drivers) shows an additional benefit of 167 mio. €/year compared to the status quo."

Michael Meschik, Gregor Trunk (Institute for Transport Studies, BOKU Vienna), Costs of Bicycle Traffic for the Overall Economy. Comparing economic effects of bicycle and car traffic in Vienna. Presentation, Velo-city 2011 conference, Sevilla, March 23-25, 2011, 29 slides [formato PDF, 16,7 MB].

Markus Hofstetter, Christian Farner (Kontextplan), Costi di costruzione delle infrastrutture di traffico lento più diffuse. Verifica per la valutazione dei programmi d’agglomerato, parte trasporti e insediamento. (Documentazione sul traffico lento, n. 120). Ufficio federale delle strade (USTRA), Berna, marzo 2010, 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB]. "Qual è l'investimento da prevedere per realizzare un attraversamento pedonale con isola? Quali costi di costruzione bisogna ipotizzare se si intende creare, tramite demarcazione, una corsia ciclabile su una carreggiata esistente? Qual è il prezzo di dieci nuovi posteggi non coperti per biciclette? E se si opta per le varianti con copertura o con chiusura? Originariamente impiegata quale strumento ausiliario interno per la valutazione dei programmi d'agglomerato, parte trasporti e insediamento, questa breve opera di riferimento viene ora messa a disposizione del grande pubblico. D'ora in poi, anche i non addetti ai lavori avranno la possibilità di stimare in modo sommario i costi di costruzione di infrastrutture per pedoni e ciclisti. Le cifre che figurano nel documento si rifanno al livello dei prezzi del 2007, non includono i finanziamenti per gli eventuali acquisti di terreno e sono sempre corredate dalla rispettiva indicazione del fattore di correzione regionale." (Deutsch, Français, Italiano).

Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse: Bewertung der Effizienz von Radverkehrsmaßnahmen. Schlussbericht. TCI Röhling Transport Consulting International, PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Denzlingen/Karlsruhe, März 2008, 63 p. [formato PDF, 1,58 MB]. "The objective and result of the research project can be summarized in "evaluation of cycling”. Due to the fact that normally traffic planning for bicycle is dominated by the supply side, commonly examinations concerning the efficiency of measures for bicycles will not be conducted. Within the project first developments for an evaluation concept have been made that considered the impact of measures for cycling in the context of overall traffic. For this typical components of benefits have been determined that arises by the shift from car to cycling: CO2 emission (contribution to protection of the climate); Pollutant emissions (decrease of air pollutants); Accidental damages – damages to persons and property (Increasing safety in traffic); Operational costs (operational cost abatement); Traffic abatement costs (abatement in infrastructure costs for cars); Change of health costs (health cost abatement); Maintenance costs as negative benefit. Additionally components of benefits that cannot be quantified monetarily are included by means of descriptive indicators. Therefore the following indicators are considered: Abatement of land consumption; Improvement of the quality of life and amenity values; Improvement of the equal participation in the community for non-motorized people; Benefits for other parties. Hence measures for cycling can be evaluated on the basis of general rules and therefore economic comparisons among cycling measures can be made. In a manual guideline especially designed for the potential users the range of application, methodical background information and practical handling of the system has been summarized. The assessment approach has been applied in two urban pilot applications with reliable results. It has been proved that the developed approach is appropriate for the assessment of cycling measures. However further pilot applications with different types of measures and different cost levels are needed, in particular with regard to possible cost-intensive consequences."

Bruce Macdonald, Valuing the benefits of cycling. A report to Cycling England. SQW Limited, Cambridge, May 2007, 86 p. [formato PDF, 532 kB]. "1.15 One of the most important findings is the extent to which benefits will vary depending on the profile of new cyclists as well as the amount of cycling. Cycling contributes to improvements in levels of physical activity offering protection against chronic disease and premature death. The methods adopted produce much higher values for older people who are encouraged to become active, than younger people. The scale of these benefits can vary substantially. While they are appropriate for adults a new approach is needed to value the health benefits for children. 1.16 This does not mean that the focus of cycling investment should be only on older age groups. It is just as important to encourage younger people to cycle in order to develop healthy habits and encourage continuing physical activity. Influencing children’s development and attitudes towards cycling at an early age will have significant benefit in future years for the child and later, for the economy. 1.17 The contribution to congestion and pollution rests on the extent to which new cycle trips replace car journeys and the values associated with both congestion and pollution are much higher in urban areas than rural ones. 1.18 In total, the values vary to a maximum of just over £300 per additional cyclist per year, but actual values will depend on the distances and frequency of trips and the characteristics of the new cyclists. 1.19 Throughout the report it is assumed that a cyclist travels an average of 3.9 km per trip and makes 160 trips a year (3 trips a week)4. This is equivalent to 624 kms a year. This assumes that new cyclists encouraged to participate will reasonably regularly. The report argues that this is sufficient to meet the requirements of the health model used which assumes a fairly modest “step up” in physical activity to provide health benefits. 1.20 There is considerable debate over the amount of cycling activity that takes place. The National Travel Survey, the DfT’s official source of transport data and which only records onroad cycling, reports a decline in trips over the past ten years. This excludes the rising number of cyclists reported by Sustrans using traffic-free routes. Based on the declining number reported in the NTS data, the cumulative cost of these “lost trips” is estimated to be around £600 million. Looking forward, estimates are constructed which suggest that even achieving a modest target of returning the number of trips to the 1995 level within the next ten years could save around £500 million. 1.21 The analysis covers only the benefits that can be valued. It does not include the potential benefits that cycling could offer in protecting against obesity, although the link between regular exercise and weight control is well tested. 1.22 There is also evidence to suggest that increased cycling would lead to mental health benefits, physical development benefits, social benefits, potential reductions in the number of accidents and even tourism opportunities. The opportunities to realise these will all depend on the type of investments made. For these reasons, the values explored here should be treated as conservative. To avoid biasing projects against cycling, appraisal should ensure that these wider benefits are set out and quantified where possible. 1.23 The report examines four examples of cycling intervention. Each is shown to produce positive returns to investment. The benefit to cost ratio ranges from 7.4 in the case of a cycle training programme to 1.4 for Bike It, an initiative that funds cycling officers who work with selected schools to encourage cycling. The two physical infrastructure projects show returns of between two and four. These values exclude any potential benefits to children’s health or contribution to preventing or reducing obesity. 1.24 Because cycling contributes to a number of policy agendas the benefits are substantial when brought together. This does not mean that all investment in cycling will produce high returns. Each case needs to be assessed on its own merits, but the relatively high values where projects are able to generate new cyclists, suggests that there is a major opportunity to make investments that will, over time, more than repay their costs. 1.25 The remainder of this report is structured as follows: health benefits; environment benefits; congestion benefits; summary and review of benefits; applying the values; cost benefit analyses; conclusions.

Roman Frick, Philipp , Mario Keller (INFRAS), Effizienz von öffentlichen Investitionen in den Langsamverkehr. Efficience des investissements publics dans la locomotion douce. Schlussbericht. Infras, Bern, 2003, 74 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "Die Studie untersucht anhand konkreter Maßnahmen die These, inwieweit die Investitionen in den Langsamverkehr (Fuß und Rad) im Vergleich mit anderen Investitionen in Verkehrsinfrastrukturmaßnahmen volkswirtschaftlich effizienter sind. Die elf betrachteten Referenzbeispiele aus der Schweiz und Frankreich wurden auf ihre groben Kosten-Nutzen-Verhältnisse hin analysiert. Dabei wurden vergleichend deren quantitative Kosteneffizienz betrachtet, gemessen am Indikationsfaktor „öffentliche Kosten pro betroffener Verkehrseinheit“ sowie deren qualitativer Nutzen. Ergebnis der Studie ist, dass Maßnahmen im Langsamverkehr kostengünstiger sind, als solche des MIV/ÖV. Begründet wird dies damit, dass bauliche LV-Maßnahmen meist nur Ergänzungen zum bereits bestehenden Straßennetz sind; auch die Kosten flankierender Maßnahmen, wie Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Marketing, werden häufig durch die öffentliche Hand übernommen. Auch der weitere volkswirtschaftliche Nutzen des LV ist bedeutend: es können die Optimierung des Gesamtverkehrssystems, die Verbesserung der Umweltsituation, die Förderung der Gesundheit sowie neue Impulse für Freizeit und Tourismus erreicht werden."

Kjartan Saelensminde (TOI, Oslo), Health effects of physical activities – The main benefit component in CBAs of walking- and cycling track networks. Presentation at a Workshop on Economic Valuation of Health Effects due to Transport in Stockholm, 12-13 June 2003, 23 slides [formato PDF, 912 kB]. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to walking- and cycle track networks.

Comprehensive bibliography of bicycle benefit and cost research. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota [formato html]. "Lists of significant research references on various topics related to bicycling policy".

Kjartan Saelensminde, Walking- and cycling track networks in Norwegian cities. Cost- benefit analyses including health effects and external costs of road traffic. Summary. TOI (Institute of Transport Economics), Oslo, 2002, 7 p. [formato PDF, 197 kB]. Riassunto in inglese del rapporto in norvegese n.567/2002 del TOI (50 p.). Lo stesso autore ha pubblicato i risultati dello studio col titolo Cost- benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks taking into account insecurity, health effects and external costs of motorized traffic sulla rivista Transportation Research A 38 (2004) 593-606 [a pagamento]. "The study presents cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks in three Norwegian cities. The cost-benefit analyses take into account the benefit of reduced insecurity and the health benefits of the improved fitness the use of non-motorized transport provides. In addition to reductions in health costs, the analyses also take into account that a change from travel by car to cycling or walking means reduced external costs (e.g. air pollution and noise) from motorized traffic and reduced parking costs. The benefits of investments in cycle networks are estimated to be at least 4-5 times the costs. Such investments are thus more beneficial to society than other transport investments. The results of such complete cost-benefit analyses make it possible to calculate the benefits to society that are not realized because motorized traffic prevents people from bicycling or walking as much as they otherwise would prefer. These "barrier costs" attributable to motorized traffic are estimated to be of at least the same magnitude as air pollution costs and more than double the noise costs. Barrier costs should therefore be taken into account in the same way as other external costs, when the issue is to determine the proper level of car taxes or to evaluate different kinds of restrictions on car use."

National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Guidelines for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities. A Synthesis of Transit Practice (NCHRP Report 552), Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 2006, 119 p. [formato PDF, 4,39 MB]. "The report includes methodologies and tools to estimate the cost of various bicycle facilities and for evaluating their potential value and benefits. The report is designed to help transportation planners integrate bicycle facilities into their overall transportation plans and on a project-by-project basis. The research described in the report has been used to develop a set of web-based guidelines that provide a step-by-step worksheet for estimating costs, demands, and benefits associated with specific facilities under consideration."

Gavin Poindexter, Kevin J. Krizek, Gary Barnes, Kristen Thompson, Optimization of Transportation Investment: Guidelines for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Bicycle Facilities: Refining methods for estimating the effect of bicycle infrastructure on use and property values. Midwest Regional University Transportation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, June 2007, 67 p. [formato PDF, 1,41 MB]. "Following the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act (ISTEA) in 1991, many communities began building and/or expanding their bicycle networks. With the increase in investment in bicycle facilities comes a need to measure the impact of the investments. This report expands on how these measurements can be done through case studies based in the Twin Cities. It is a compilation of studies related to estimating the effects of bicycle infrastructure on the community around the infrastructure and is a continuation of previous work that was included in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 552 Guidelines for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities. The work is divided into four main parts: (1) the relationship between bicycle facilities and rates of bicycling, (2) the impact of establishing bicycle facilities on residential property values, (3) the effect of building a bicycle facility on the number of bicycle crashes in the area, and (4) the impact of the Midtown Greenway on the surrounding community. In addition, the report also describes the use and refinement of a online tool for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Bicycle Facilities. . The tool was created as part of the NCHRP project, and was recently used as part of graduate planning and civil engineering course. Included in this report is the findings of the research, and feedback from the students regarding the on-line tool. The on-line tool can be found at http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikecost/".


CONTEGGIO DELLA MOBILITA' CICLABILE E PEDONALE

Amy Smith, Crowdsourcing Pedestrian and Cyclist Activity Data. (White Paper Series). Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, January 2015, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,71 MB]. "Collecting cyclist and pedestrian activity data can be challenging due to data gaps and unique characteristics of active transportation that set it apart from other modes. Technological advances continue to improve data collection for demographic, infrastructure, and motorized travel data, much of which is made available online. However, active transportation data resources that can be used to better understand detailed spatio-temporal (location and time-based) travel patterns and personal experience may be absent or difficult to find. Crowdsourcing, or the process of obtaining information, insight, and knowledge from user-generated data provided through web and mobile applications, can help address these data gaps efficiently. In addition to increased data availability, crowdsourcing offers many additional benefits to active transportation planning, such as broad and diverse perspectives, local knowledge, data timeliness, and direct dialogue between planners and those affected by planning decisions. Existing crowdsourced datasets can serve as resources for many types of active transportation planning projects. New crowdsourcing applications developed for a specific use or planning implementation can produce high-quality, project-specific data about cyclists and pedestrians while at the same time opening lines of communication between planners and those contributing data. Data providers including public agencies, open source projects, and commercial developers are making data easier to find, and in some cases these resources are freely available. When used carefully and creatively, user-generated cyclist and pedestrian data has great potential to inform and add value to active transportation planning projects. This paper considers how crowdsourcing applications and crowdsourced data are currently being applied, as well as potential new uses for active transportation research and planning efforts of various types. The objectives of this white paper are to review existing crowdsourced bicycle and pedestrian data resources and crowdsourcing tools; discuss potential planning implementations of crowdsourced data for a sample of bicycle and pedestrian project types; and provide examples of how crowdsourcing is currently being used to inform decision-making. Potential issues related to crowdsourced data are also considered (e.g., quality, privacy concerns, participation rates, bias). The research presented here highlights a decreasing skepticism over the quality of volunteered, user-generated data provided by amateurs (as opposed to professionals) in light of a desire to open the lines of communication between the planning world and those affected by planning decisions, directly addressing (rather than being discouraged by) data limitations. The initiatives surrounding progressive data collection, management, and analysis are further reflected in the numerous conferences, meetups, and other events fostering collaboration between planners, developers, data scientists and others interested in applying critical thought and innovation in planning (1). While this paper reviews existing crowdsourcing techniques and their current applications in planning, the pace of technological change and rate of adoption in planning indicates that planners will continue to develop and apply innovative approaches like crowdsourcing in response to continually changing community needs. This paper focuses on examples of current uses of crowdsourced data, crowdsourcing data suggestions, and data considerations."

Frank Proulx (UC Berkeley), Methods and Technologies for Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection, NCHRP 7-19. SafeTREC seminar, Berkeley, CA, December 5, 2014, 88 slides [formato PDF, 3,36 MB].

Anna Niska, Annika Nilsson, Maria Varedian, Jenny Eriksson and Liselott Söderström, Uppföljning av gång- och cykeltrafik. Utveckling av en harmoniserad metod för kommunal uppföljning av gång- respektive cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelflödesmätningar. (Evaluating pedestrian and cycle traffic. Development of a harmonised method for monitoring the municipal proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic through travel surveys and cycle counts). (VTI report 743). VTI, Linköping, 2012, 112 p. [formato PDF, 5,90 MB]. "This is the second and last report in a project financed by the Swedish Traffic Administration, with the objective to propose a harmonised method for monitoring the proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic. The method should be used for local monitoring in Swedish municipalities to be able to make comparisons over years and between towns, regions or the country as a whole. The project began with a survey and analysis of the present method of estimating travel by walking and cycling, both in and outside Sweden. This work was described in the first report on the project, VTI Report No 686 (Niska et al., 2010). In this report, method and results of analysis of some municipal travel surveys, cycle counts and other considerations resulting in the harmonised method are presented. In the harmonised method, the basic unit “the proportion, represented by cycle traffic, of all trips which have their origin and destinations in the municipality on weekdays”, is used. In order to collect data for the basic unit, the recommendation is that a municipal travel survey should be performed in the autumn every five years with the help of a written questionnaire consisting of 1–2 pages with background questions, and a simple and self-explanatory travel diary. All movements with an errand at the destination, on the day of survey, should be registered in the travel diary. The sample should consist of at least 1 500 inhabitants of the municipality aged between 16–75 years. Cycle counts can be used for identifying long term trends and for the planning and monitoring of specific measures on individual routes, but usually not for estimating the change in cycling from one year to another. In the report, a number of practical hints are given as to how measuring sites should be selected, when and for how long the measurements should be made, and the requirements that may be specified for the equipment in use. In addition, a summary is given of what should be documented and what should be borne in mind in drawing up the report.."

Mia Birk (Alta Planning + Design), Counts that Count: Bicycle and Pedestrian Data Collection. 2008, 44 slides [formato PDF, 1,61 MB].

Daniel Sauter (Urban Mobility Research, Zürich), Measuring Walking. Aktivitäten zur Verbesserung der Fussverkehrs-Statistik auf internationaler Ebene, Fachtagung „Fuss- und Veloverkehr: Nur was gezählt wird, zählt. Bessere Datengrundlagen für den Langsamverkehr“, Rapperswil (CH), 8. Juni 2010. 11 slides [formato PDF, 1,74 MB].

Andreas Stäheli (Pestalozzi & Stäheli Basel), Erhebungen des Fuss- und Veloverkehrs. Resultate eines Forschungsprojektes, Fachtagung „Fuss- und Veloverkehr: Nur was gezählt wird, zählt. Bessere Datengrundlagen für den Langsamverkehr“, Rapperswil (CH), 8. Juni 2010. 25 slides [formato PDF, 592 kB].


PARCHEGGI PER BICI / BICYCLE PARKING

Harry Barber, Tony Arnold, Alex Blackett & Dick van den Dool, Bicycle Parking Facilities: Guidelines for Design and Installation. Research Report AP-R527-16. Austroads, Sydney, October 2016, 143 p. [formato PDF, 6,8 MB]. [Free download, free registration needed]. "This report provides information to assists in the design and installation of bicycle parking and end-of-trip facilities that are fit for purpose. The report provides recommendations, principles and examples of best-practice facility design. It also highlights common mistakes and suggests ways to improve flawed designs. The report expands on and complements information that is provided in the Australian Bicycle Parking Standard AS2980.3 and in the Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 11: Parking."

Parcheggiare la bici è facile. Guida alla realizzazione di strutture per il parcheggio delle biciclette. BICY – Cities and Regions for cycling, 2012, 11 p. [formato PDF, 4,93 MB]. [BICY Bicycle Parking Brochure, available in: English, German, Slovenian, Slovakian, Czech, Hungarian]

Cambridge Cycle Parking Guide. How to provide Cycle Parking: a step-by-step guide for planners and providers. Cambridge Cycling Campaign, Cambridge (UK), September 2008, 12 p. [formato PDF, 1,52 MB].

City of Cambridge, Bicycle Parking Guide. Cambridge, MA (USA), Spring 2008, 12 p. [formato PDF, 720 kB].

Christian Banker, Christine Keches, Megan Murphy, Bicycle Parking in Copenhagen. Analysis and Recommendations for Improved Bicycle Parking in Copenhagen, Denmark. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2006, 140 p. [formato PDF, 2,81 MB]. "This project, sponsored by the Danish Cyclist Federation, deals with enhancing the bicycle infrastructure in Copenhagen and specifically focuses on improving bicycle parking facilities at Nørreport Railway and Metro Station. The current parking situation, the opinions and behaviors of cyclists, and potential parking solutions are analyzed through field studies at Nørreport Station, interviews and a survey. Recommendations for the best improvements are made so that the city of Copenhagen can continue to promote cycling as an alternative mode of transportation."

Hans-Joachim Becker, Claudia Hiebel, Bewachtes Fahhradparken in Berlin (parcheggi sorvegliati per biciclette a Berlino). Mit dem Fahhrad flexibel und störungsfrei zum Event. Ergebnisbericht eines Pilotprojektes während der FIFA Fussball-Weltmeisterschaft 2006. IVP-Schriften Nr. 10. Berlin, Fachgebiet Integrierte Verkehrsplanung, Technische Universität Berlin, September 2006, 27 p. [formato PDF, 2,79 MB]. Durante i campionati mondiali di calcio a Berlino, il Comune ha organizzato delle aree di parcheggio sorvegliato gratuito per le bici, per rafforzare la campagna "Berlin steigt um", per fare andare allo stadio in bici e coi mezzi pubblici invece che con l'auto. Il documento riporta i risultati del questionario distribuito agli utenti dei parcheggi sorvegliati.


TRASPORTO MERCI E PERSONE: CORRIERI, TRASPORTO PACCHI, (VELO)TAXI, CARGO BIKES

Alison Conway, Camille Kamga, Jialei Cheng, Penny Eickemeyer, Quanquan Chen, Abhishek Singhal (City College of New York), Freight Tricycle Operations in New York City. Final Report. University Transportation Research Center, New York, NY, October 2014, 196 p. [formato PDF, 7,49 MB] "As cities become more congested and increasingly focused on sustainability, cargo cycles offer a potential alternative to motorized vehicles for local and last-mile goods delivery. However, few studies have examined this mode in the North American context. This project seeks to address this existing gap in research on cargo cycles/freight tricycles in North America and in New York City (NYC). The goals of this project are: (1) to understand the potential commodities moved and sectors served by cargo cycles; (2) to identify the expected benefits, challenges, and barriers to operation for cargo cycles operating in NYC; (3) to understand freight tricycle traffic performance in NYC conditions; and (4) to understand the capability of cargo cycles for use in cold chains – such as food and pharmaceutical delivery – that require temperature control."

William Riggs, Jana Schwartz, The Impact of Cargo Bikes on Travel Patterns: Survey Report. Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA, 2015, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,30 MB] "Cargo bikes are becoming increasingly available in the United States with vendors such as Yuba, Trek, XtraCycle, and Marin all offering platforms. While a large body of research has continued to investigate traditional bike transportation, cargo bikes offer the potential to capture trips for those that might otherwise be made by car. To investigate this, a survey was conducted querying how use and travel characteristics changed upon cargo bike ownership (N = 299; 95% Confidence Interval +/-6%). This report documents that research effort. In sum, prior to owning a cargo bike, 60% of the survey respondents traveled via car. Most of these trips (68%) were work related, and 53% of those surveyed dropped off kids on these trips. After purchasing a cargo bike, 19% reported their car / auto as their primary mode, a 41% reduction in auto trips. (69% respondents used their cargo bike as their primary mode of travel after purchase.) The number of auto trips appeared to decline by 1-2 trips for these individuals, and many of these were for trips that total 3-10 miles per day (anecdotally more than average). 62% had considered giving up a vehicle as a result of their cargo bike ownership. Connection between having kids and cargo bike trips to work suggests that focusing on families with small children (unable to ride a bike) are a key correlation and growth area for bicycle transportation. More research is needed in this area."

Cargo Bike, Crema (Italia). Azienda che assembla e distribuisce biciclette da carico e tricicli. Versione elettrica a pedalata assistita, adattamenti e personalizzazioni per il trasporto di persone disabili.

Karl Reiter, Cyclelogistics. Moving Europe forward. Potential to shift goods transport from cars to bicycles in European cities. [Baseline study]. D7.1 A set of updated IEE Common performance indicators including their baseline and assumptions for extrapolation. 14.10.2013, 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. This document describes the potential of cyclelogistics with regard to fuel savings and emissions reduction.

Transport for London, Cycle freight in London: A scoping study. Transport for London, May 2009, 93 p. [formato PDF, 1,38 MB] "This study has found a variety of potentially viable opportunities to trial the use of load-carrying cycles to move freight. The advantages and disadvantages of each opportunity are outlined in detail in the earlier sections of this report, along with an indication of the likely cost, timescale and wider applicability of any lessons learned."

Servizi di corrieri in bici:

Bicycle Messengers Europe (servizi di corrieri in bici di 24 paesi).

bdf - Bundesverband der Fahrradkurierdienste (Federazione dei servizi di corriere in bici), Germania.

AMB Agrupación de Mensajerías en Bicicleta (Raggruppamento dei servizi di corriere in bici), Spagna.

UBM Urban Bike Messengers, Milano.

eAdessoPedala, corrieri in bici, Roma. (anche eAdessoPedala.it)

Urban Trail Pordenone, corrieri ecologici per i comuni di Pordenone, Cordenons, Fontanafredda, Porcia, Roveredo e Sacile. urbantrail.pn@gmail.com

Velócittá, Roma.

Bari Bici Express, corrieri in bici, Bari.

Svizzera: Saetta Verde (Lugano); La Vélopostale Geneve (Ginevra);

Francia: Urban Cycle, Parigi ; VéloCité Paris, La Compagnie des Coursiers à Vélo, Parigi

La Petite Reine. Azienda francese di trasporto conto terzi, utilizza esclusivamente bici-furgoni ("cargocycles") e furgoni elettrici. Ha quattro sedi (Parigi, Bordeaux, Dijon, Rouen) e 50 dipendenti.

Velotaxi. Rete internazionale di ciclotaxi (17 paesi, 40 località), utilizza il CityCruiser. L'azienda madre è nata nel 1997 a Berlino.

Cyclopolitain. Il ciclotaxi francese, utilizzato a Lyon, Nice, Grenoble, Nantes.

Cycloville. CityCruiser utilizzato in Francia (Lille, Sables d'Olonne).


CARTOGRAFIA, ITINERARI CICLABILI

Critical Map è un progetto di "ciclocartografia partecipata": il sito www.criticalmap.org costituisce una piattaforma comune che permette - a chi si muove in bicicletta - di fissare la propria visione dello spazio urbano sulla mappa delle nostre città. Contiene le mappe di 42 città italiane.

Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Rete delle Ciclovie di Interesse Regionale (ReCIR), piano triennale 2006-2008. Ottobre 2006, Scala 1:250.000 [formato PDF, 4,35 MB].

Provincia di Pordenone, Itinerario pedemontano pordenonese. Con cartografia, informazioni pratiche, informazioni su territorio e gastronomia.


CICLOTURISMO, VIAGGI IN BICICLETTA, ECOTURISMO

Marianna Rotilio, Annalisa Taballione, Pierluigi De Berardinis (Università degli Studi di L'Aquila), La Ciclovia dell'alta valle dell'Aterno: tra eco turismo e mobilità sostenibile [The Cycle route of the upper Aterno valley: between ecotourism and sustainable mobility]. Techne (Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment) 11 (2016), 188-193 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 300 kB]. Open Access. "Nell'ottica della promozione della mobilità sostenibile e del rilancio e valorizzazione di territori ed alla luce del crescente interesse verso la specifica tematica, la Regione Abruzzo ha avviato uno studio di fattibilità per la realizzazione di una pista polifunzionale nell'Alta Valle dell'Aterno. Il contributo che si intende proporre ha come obiettivo quello di illustrare il percorso decisionale e i risultati che sono stati raggiunti già in tale studio che ha previsto la realizzazione di una dorsale principale e di un sistema di reti, a scopo sia turistico che amatoriale, oltre che come servizio alla mobilità locale. La finalità della ricerca è stata quella di individuare una strategia progettuale facilmente replicabile e di dotare le amministrazioni di uno strumento di programmazione."

Tobias Heldt and Viktoria Liss, Cykelturism och effekter på lokal, regional och nationell nivå – En litteraturgenomgång samt fallstudie på cykelturister i Varberg och på Gotland. (Biking tourism and effects on local, regional and national levels – A literature review and case study on biking tourists in Varberg and Gotland, Sweden). (VTI notat 35-2013). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,93 MB]. "Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development efforts. The starting point for this study is the preconditions for development of bicycle tourism by public spending on bicycle trails in Sweden. This study discusses the methods of estimating a bicycle tourism effect within the socio-economic analysis framework. Secondly, the method of estimating the economic contribution of bicycle tourism is exemplified by data gathered in two specific destinations in Sweden, Varberg and Gotland. Finally a stated choice scenario is used to estimate the willingness to pay for changes in key variables of importance for the tourist’s choice of bicycle destination. Questions asked in this study are: how large are the benefits from bicycle tourism and who gains from a developed bicycle trail network? One finding from the study is that inbound bicycle tourism gives rise to mostly regional effects. A bicycle tourism effect on national level only occurs in cases where a tourist chooses a destination within Sweden instead of going abroad thanks to a new or developed bicycle trail. New incoming bicycle tourism is always a net contribution to the national bicycle tourism effect. The findings from the study of bicycle tourism in Varberg and Gotland are that there is a vast difference in the economic contribution of bicycle tourists. The range for the guest night spending is 466 SEK – 1,233 SEK depending on region and type of visitor. The conclusion is that it is important to not only having knowledge about total number of tourists but also about tourist type. Hence, the size of the bicycle tourism effect varies depending on type of bicycle visitor to the destination. Finally, the findings from the stated choice experiment are that longer bicycle trails are preferred above shorter and that there seems to be a willingness to pay of about 0.5 SEK per kilometer to increase the length of the bicycle trail. The conclusion is that it is not only factors attached to the specific bicycle trail, like length and signage, that makes a trail attractive, but also factors like the tourism industry’s size and structure, like quality of lodging and restaurants, that is of importance for a bicycle tourist’s destination choice."

The European Cycle Route Network EuroVelo. Study. European Parliament, 2012, 196 p. [formato PDF, 4,92 MB]. Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism, update of the 2009 study. "This update of the 2009 study evaluates the challenges and opportunities of developing a cycle tourism network across Europe. It focuses on EuroVelo, a network of 14 long distance routes managed by the European Cyclists’ Federation which is being developed in different countries by a wide range of partners. The study reviews the market for cycle tourism and presents a model of demand for EuroVelo. It also evaluates the recent developments on the Iron Curtain Trail."

The Economic Impact of Cycle Tourism in North East England. Executive Summary. Sustrans, Bristol, April 2007, 4 p. [formato PDF, 323 kB]. "The research uses a unique approach, applying established, contemporary econometric theories in combination with user-oriented data collection to produce a ‘bottom-up’ measure of economic impact. This differs from most analyses of tourism activity (and economic activity in other sectors) by virtue of the fact that other research has tended to rely on aggregation methods from a ‘top down’ perspective that are inherently flawed by the nature of their design. This research therefore represents an internationally significant contribution to researcher and practitioner knowledge, as well as providing an unusually accurate measure of the extent of the impact of cycling activity in the North East region. Whilst creating the most accurate reflection of cycling in the North East, it is worth reiterating that other tourism activity, unless analysed in a similar way, will be overvalued, perhaps to the disadvantage of cycling. The current economic policy in the North East of England, recognises the importance of the tourism sector to the regional economy. Within this context and in relation to rural regeneration, tourism strategies highlight cycling as an appropriate tourism offering to develop. The study findings show clearly the extent of demand that exists for leisure cycling in the North East region. They also illustrate the extent to which leisure cycling can play a part in the regeneration of the North East region through attracting out-of-region tourism, stimulating tourism business development, and improving the quality of life for North East residents."

Provincia di Pordenone, Guida cicloturistica : itinerario pedemontano pordenonese. 51 p. [formato PDF, 13,6 MB]

Ciclomundi, II. festival nazionale del viaggio in bicicletta, 12-14 settembre 2008, Portogruaro (VE). Organizzato da Ediciclo editore.

Cyclo-Camping International est une association sans but lucratif fondée en 1982. Elle regroupe et informe ceux qui voyagent à vélo sans aide motorisée.

VeloHospitality, a network of cycling friendly services in Canada. "VeloHospitality.com is a Network of business operators who welcome cyclists. Members of the Velo Hospitality Network include overnight accomodations, bike shops and other operations. These operations offer a variety of services aimed at cyclists or will welcome them and help make their journey a little more enjoyable."


MOUNTAIN BIKE - USO RICREATIVO

IMBA Australia.


RECUPERO DI FERROVIE DISMESSE (VIE VERDI, GREENWAYS, RAILS-TO-TRAILS)

Albano Marcarini, Ex ferrovie: il falso pericolo delle piste ciclabili. 3 p. [formato PDF, 51 kB] L'autore ribadisce che la possibile trasformazione di un sedime ferroviario dismesso in pista ciclo-pedonale non pregiudica, in nessun modo, un successivo, potenziale ripristino del servizio ferroviario.

Co.Mo.Do., Confederazione Mobilità Dolce. Obiettivi di Co.Mo.Do sono la promozione, attraverso forme e modi da definire, di una rete nazionale di mobilità dolce che abbia come requisiti fondamentali: il recupero delle infrastrutture territoriali dismesse (ferrovie, strade arginali, percorsi storici ecc.); la compatibilità e l’integrazione fra diversi utenti; la separazione dalla rete stradale ordinaria, o in certi casi la protezione della mobilità dolce sulle strade promiscue con i mezzi motorizzati a bassa intensità di traffico; l’integrazione con il sistema dei trasporti pubblici locali e con la rete dell’ospitalità diffusa

Associazione Italiana Greenways.

greenwaysItalia. Il progetto greenwaysItalia nasce da un'iniziativa dell'Associazione Italiana Greenways per promuovere la conoscenza dei percorsi verdi realizzati in Italia. Dopo molti anni di studi, ricerche e convegni sulla tematica, finalmente abbiamo assistito alle prime realizzazioni concrete, che fanno aumentare di giorno in giorno i chilometri di percorsi dedicati alla mobilità non motorizzata ricavati dal recupero di infrastrutture esistenti (in primo luogo ferrovie dismesse e alzaie dei canali).

Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC). Rails-to-Trails Conservancy is a nonprofit organization working with communities to preserve unused rail corridors by transforming them into trails, enhancing the health of America's environment, economy, neighborhoods and people (Washington, D.C.).


RITORNA ALLA HOMEPAGE