SafetyLit. The mission of SafetyLit is to provide a free comprehensive, easy-to-use, searchable, Internet-based bibliographic database of scholarly journal articles, technical reports, and theses concerning all issues of safety arising from many professional disciplines and nations. The items will be indexed in a way that access to information by policymakers, practitioners, researchers, and the general public will not be hindered by obscure professional jargon or arcane search terms.

the Australasian College of Road Safety (ACRS).

Osservatorio Nazionale delle Autononomie Locali sulla Sicurezza Stradale nelle Aree Urbane ANCI-UPI è stato istituito da Anci e Upi per favorire il coordinamento dei Comuni e delle Province sul tema della sicurezza stradale. Esso rappresenta il luogo in cui gli enti territoriali elaborano strategie comuni al fine di perseguire gli obiettivi di contenimento dell’incidentalità stradale fissati nell’ambito dell’Unione Europea.

Educazione Stradale, sito del Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (Italia)

European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO). "ERSO (the European Road Safety Observatory) has been first developed as a pilot stage during the period 2004 - 2008 within the RTD project SafetyNet. Since then, the content of ERSO has been integrated into the "Europa" Commission Road Safety website."

IRTAD International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group. In 1988, the OECD Road Transport Research Programme established the International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD) as a mechanism for providing an aggregated database, in which international accident and victim as well as exposure data are collected on a continuous basis. IRTAD includes both a database and a working group. The IRTAD database includes accident and traffic data and other safety indicators for 29 countries. The International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (known as the IRTAD Group) is an on-going working group of the Joint Transport Research of the OECD and the International Transport Forum. It is composed of road safety experts and statisticians from renowned safety research institutes, national road and transport administrations, international organisations, universities, automobilists associations, motorcar industry, etc. Its main objectives are to contribute to international co-operation on road accident data and its analysis.

Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes(FERSI). FERSI was established in 1991 with the objective of encouraging collaboration between European road safety research institutes.

the International Traffic Medicine Association (ITMA). Former "International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine" (IAATM).

FETEVI, Federación Estatal de Técnicos de Educación Vial. Associazione costituita in Catalogna nel 1999 e attiva in tutta la Spagna.

Fondazione ANIA per la Sicurezza Stradale (Roma)

Portale della Sicurezza Stradale del Piemonte, attivato dalla Regione Piemonte (sito in italiano e inglese).

Istituto Superiore di Sanità: Sicurezza Stradale: sito realizzato nell'ambito dell'Accordo Quadro sulla sicurezza stradale sottoscritto tra l'Istituto Superiore di Sanità e il Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti per l'attuazione congiunta di programmi ed iniziative tese alla riduzione della mortalità e della morbosità conseguenti agli incidenti stradali. Contiene dati, documenti, ricerche e pubblicazioni dell’ISS sul tema della sicurezza stradale.

Osservatorio per l'Educazione Stradale e la Sicurezza, organismo della Regione Emilia-Romagna

Centro studi 3M per la sicurezza stradale contiene segnaletica, norme, documenti, formazione

[[Sicurezza stradale sito del Ministero Infrastrutture e Trasporti]] eliminato dal sito del Ministero

Rete di Sicurezza portale sulla sicurezza stradale nella Provincia di Modena [sito molto ricco di informazioni e aggiornato]

FEVR, Fédération Européenne des Victimes de la Route / European Federation of Road Traffic Victims / Federazione Europea delle Vittime della Strada. Portale.

Associazione Italiana Familiari e Vittime della strada onlus (AIFVS). Portale.

Associazione Italiana Professionisti per la Sicurezza Stradale (AIPSS). AIPSS è una organizzazione nazionale senza scopo di lucro con il mandato esclusivo di migliorare la sicurezza di tutti gli utenti della strada in Italia; la partecipazione all'Associazione è aperta a tutti coloro che intendono contribuire a tale mandato.

Associazione Sabrina Onlus portale sulla sicurezza stradale dell'associazione Sabrina Onlus (vittime della strada)

bfu - Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung) / bpa-Bureau de prévention des accidents / upi - Ufficio prevenzione infortuni, centro svizzero di competenza per la prevenzione degli infortuni al servizio della popolazione.

Gruppo Modena Strada Amica. Campagne per la sicurezza stradale, adesivi, poster.

European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) : is a Brussels-based independent non-profitmaking organisation dedicated to the reduction of the number and severity of transport crash injuries in Europe (organizza convegni e seminari, pubblica studi e documenti sulla sicurezza dei trasporti stradali, aerei e ferroviari).

Fundación MAPFRE. FUNDACIÓN MAPFRE is an institution sponsored by the Spanish insurance group MAPFRE. The foundation’s aim is to contribute to achieving objectives of general interest to society. FUNDACIÓN MAPFRE’s objectives are: to promote the Safety of people and their assets, focussing particularly on Road Safety, Medicine and Health [etc.]. Active mainly in Spain and Latin America.

Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat e.V. (DVR) (German Road Safety Council). The objective of this organisation is to support the measures that aim at improving traffic safety of all road users. The organisation is composed of about 220 members , such as the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs and the transport-related Ministries of the Federal States, as well as the Road Safety Clubs, the German Statutory Accident Insurance, the automobile clubs, the insurance sector, the vehicle manufacturers, the industrial sector, the employers’ associations, the trade unions and the churches.

Die Deutsche Verkehrswacht (DVW) gehört zu den ältesten und größten Bürgerinitiativen Deutschlands. Seit ihrer Gründung 1924 arbeitet sie für mehr Sicherheit und weniger Unfälle auf unseren Straßen – heute mit mehr als 70.000 ehrenamtlich Engagierten. Mit ihren Zielgruppenprogrammen, Aktionen und Veranstaltungen erreicht die DVW rund 2,5 Millionen Menschen pro Jahr.

Global Alliance of NGOs for Road Safety. With over 140 member NGOs active in more than 90 countries, the Global Alliance of NGOs for Road Safety was founded in response to demand from NGOs worldwide for a forum where NGOs can share best practices and collectively advocate for road safety and the rights of victims of road traffic injury.

Die Unfallforschung der Versicherer (UDV) im Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft (GDV) forscht und berät seit über 50 Jahren zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit auf Deutschlands Straßen und zur Unfallvermeidung. Für dieses Ziel arbeiten die drei Fachbereiche Verkehrsinfrastruktur, Fahrzeugsicherheit und Verkehrsverhalten/ -psychologie interdisziplinär zusammen. Die UDV ist ein wichtiger Know-how-Träger und einer der größten Auftraggeber für universitäre und außeruniversitäre Verkehrssicherheitsforschung. The UDV (German Insurers Accident Research) is part of the German Insurance Association (GDV).

Observatoire National Interministériel de Sécurité Routière ente governativo francese

OISEVI, Observatorio Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial. Su objetivo central está basado en la coordinación de estrategias e iniciativas en Seguridad Vial a nivel regional a partir de la generación de información oportuna, objetiva y confiable que contribuya, efectivamente, a lograr una reducción en la siniestralidad vial en el territorio Iberoamericano.

Prévention routière associazione (F)

IBSR Institut Belge pour la Sécurité Routière

ICTCT - International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety, an association developed out of an international working group of safety experts with the aim to identify and analyse dangerous situations in road traffic on the basis of criteria other than past accidents, analogous to the methods of air and industrial safety.

Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit (A)

The Road Safety Observatory aims to provide easy access to independent road safety research and information for anyone working in road safety and for members of the public. It provides summaries and reviews of research on a wide range of road safety issues, along with links to original road safety research reports (UK)

Sicurstrada (Fondazione Unipolis). La Fondazione Unipolis ha messo al centro della propria iniziativa e del progetto Sicurstrada il tema della difesa degli utenti più vulnerabili della strada – pedoni e ciclisti, insieme agli anziani e ai giovani – e della mobilità sostenibile. La fondazione fa capo al gruppo assicurativo Unipol.

Steunpunt Verkeersveiligheid / Policy Research Centre for Traffic Safety, Diepenbeek (B). Centre of expertise in Traffic Safety. The Research Centres for Policy Relevant Research support the Flemish government by carrying out scientific policy research on top priority policy themes. The Centres are established as interuniversity collaboration of research groups and institutions. The specific goals of the Policy Research Centre for Traffic Safety are: data collection; short-term research on various policy matters; more fundamental scientific research on the subject of traffic safety.

SWOV - Dutch national road safety research institute (NL) (Istituto nazionale olandese per la ricerca sulla sicurezza stradale). Sito (anche in lingua inglese) con documenti sulle ricerche effettuate.

Ufficio Prevenzione Infortuni (CH). "L'upi e' il centro svizzero di competenza per la prevenzione degli infortuni al servizio della popolazione". Si occupa anche di sicurezza stradale.

United Nations Road Safety Collaboration

the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Sécurité Routière sito non governativo creato dal prof. Claude Got, contiene schede, documenti, informazioni.

MADD Canada, Mothers Against Drunk Driving / Les mères contre l'alcool au volant. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD Canada) is a charitable, grassroots organization that is committed to stopping impaired driving and supporting the victims of this violent crime. At the heart of MADD Canada is our volunteers who include not only mothers, but fathers, friends, business professionals, experts in the anti-impaired driving field and concerned citizens who want to make a difference in the fight against impaired driving.

NFPA, National Fire Protection Association (USA)

Agencia Nacional de Seguridad Vial, Argentina.

ISEV, Instituto de Seguridad y Educación Vial, Buenos Aires (Argentina). El ISEV es un centro privado, dedicado al estudio e investigación en las materias de tránsito, transporte, educación y seguridad vial, cuyo objetivo es llevar a cabo acciones de asesoramiento, asistencia técnica y capacitación, del sector público y privado.

The Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) is Australia’s largest injury prevention specialist. Our research, consultancy and training include safety in all modes of transport, in the workplace, in the community and in the home. (Monash University, Victoria, Australia).

Vlaamse Stichting Verkeerskunde / the Flemish Foundation for Traffic Knowledge is committed to increase awareness about traffic and mobility in the region of Flanders, Belgium. On the one hand, it achieves this goal by organising permanent courses for professionals in the traffic sector – representatives, mobility officials, police, etc. On the other hand, the FFT develops projects and organises awareness campaigns for traffic participants of all ages, both during and after their schooling.

The Worldwide Ferry Safety Association is a not-for-profit dedicated to bringing innovation in training methods, as well as use of technology to provide notification for sudden hazardous weather, curb overloading, and enhance marine rescue technology.

ARCSS Agenzia Regionale Campana per la Sicurezza Stradale (Napoli).

Regione Veneto, Programma Regionale di Prevenzione dei Traumi da Traffico (Venezia).


Dovilé Adminaité-Fodor, Graziella Jost, How safe is walking and cycling in Europe?. PIN Flash Report 38. European Transport Safety Council, Brussels, January 2020, 74 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "The European Union (EU) is facing a multitude of interconnected demographic, public health and environmental challenges: the climate is changing; road deaths are stagnating; urbanisation is increasing, air pollution is worsening, obesity is rising and the population is ageing. But there is an increasing recognition at local, but also national and EU level, that boosting the levels of active mobility, particularly walking and cycling, can play an important role in overcoming many of these challenges. Such a policy will also have economic benefits. Based on conservative estimates, even current levels of cycling in the EU produce benefits valued at around 150 billion euros per year. In contrast, the negative external costs of motorised road transport such as congestion, pollution and climate change are estimated at 800 billion euros per year in a recent study for the European Commission. This report examines the most recent available data on the current safety levels of cycling and walking across the EU and other countries that provide data to ETSC as part of its Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) programme".

Thomas Schweizer, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgängerunfälle in der Schweiz 2008 - 2017. Faktenblatt 03 / 2018. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, 2018, 11 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Während die Zahl der schweren Strassenverkehrsunfälle in den letzten 10 Jahren insgesamt gesunken ist, konnte bei den Fussgängerinnen und Fussgängern bis 2013 leider keine entsprechende Abnahme verzeichnet werden. Der Anteil der Fussgängerunfälle am Gesamttotal aller Unfälle nahm somit zu. Bei den Getöteten ist der Anteil der Fussgänger in den letzten 10 Jahren starken Schwankungen unterworfen. Seit 2014 bleibt aber der Anteil der Fussgänger an der Gesamtzahl der Verunfallten Personen konstant, desgleichen bei den Schwerverletzten."

Marco Dozza, Giulio Francesco Bianchi Piccinini, Julia Werneke (Chalmers University of Technology), Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior. Transportation Research Part F 41 (2016) 217-226 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "In Europe, the use of electric bicycles is rapidly increasing. This trend raises important safety concerns: Is their use compatible with existing infrastructure and regulations? Do they present novel safety issues? How do they impact other traffic? This study sought to address these concerns, using instrumented electric bicycles to monitor e-cyclists' behavior in a naturalistic fashion. Data was collected from 12 bicyclists, each of whom rode an instrumented bicycle for two weeks. In total, 1500 km worth of data were collected, including 88 critical events (crashes and near-crashes). Analysis of these critical events identified pedestrians, light vehicles and other bicycles as main threats to a safe ride. Other factors also contributed to crash causation, such as being in proximity to a crossing or encountering a vehicle parked in the bicycle lane. A comparison between electric and traditional bicycles was enabled by the availability of data from a previous study a year earlier, which collected naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicycles using the same instrumentation as in this study. Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this study also suggest that countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. Finally, increasing electric bicycle conspicuity appears to be the easiest, most obvious way to increase their safety."

Elliot Martin, Adam Cohen, Jan L. Botha, Susan Shaheen, Bikesharing and Bicycle Safety. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, March 2016, 94 p. [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "The growth of bikesharing in the United States has had a transformative impact on urban transportation. Major cities have established large bikesharing systems, including Boston, Chicago, Denver, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, New York City, Salt Lake City, the San Francisco Bay Area, Seattle, Washington DC, and others. These systems began operating as early as 2010, and no fatalities have occurred within the US as of this writing. However, three have happened in North America-two in Canada and one in Mexico. Bikesharing has some qualities that appear inherently unsafe for bicyclists. Most prominently, helmet usage is documented to be quite low in most regions. Bikesharing is also used by irregular bicyclists who are less familiar with the local terrain. In this study, researchers take a closer look at bikesharing safety from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Through a series of four focus groups, they discussed bikesharing usage and safety with bikesharing members and nonmembers in the Bay Area. They further engaged experts nationwide from a variety of fields to evaluate their opinions and perspectives on bikesharing and safety. Finally, researchers conducted an analysis of bicycle and bikesharing activity data, as well as bicycle and bikesharing collisions to evaluate injury rates associated with bikesharing when compared with benchmarks of personal bicycling. The data analysis found that collision and injury rates for bikesharing are lower than previously computed rates for personal bicycling. Experts and focus group participants independently pointed to bikesharing rider behavior and bikesharing bicycle design as possible factors. In particular, bikesharing bicycles are generally designed in ways that promote stability and limited speeds, which mitigate the conditions that contribute to collisions. Data analysis also explored whether there was evidence of a "safety in numbers benefit" that resulted from bikesharing activity. However, no significant impact from bikesharing activity on broader bicycle collisions could be found within the regions in which they operate. Discussion and recommendations are presented in the conclusion."

Chris Cherry (University of Tennessee), E-bike Safety Research. TRB Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Analysis, January 14, 2015, 17 slides [formato PDF, 3,37 MB].

Harry Rutter, Nick Cavill, Francesca Racioppi, Hywell Dinsdale, Pekka Oja, Sonja Kahlmeier, Economic Impact of Reduced Mortality Due to Increased Cycling, Am J Prev Med 2013; 44(1) 89–92 (4 p.) [formato PDF, 70 kB]. "Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the “value of a statistical life.” The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling."

Stuart Reid, Simon Adams, Infrastructure and Cyclist Safety. (TRL Report PPR 580). Transport Research Laboratory, Wokingham, Berkshire, October 2011, 54 p. [formato PDF, 593 kB]. "The Department for Transport commissioned TRL to conduct a literature review to consider the role of infrastructure in relation to the safety of cyclists and their interaction with other road users. It was undertaken as part of the wider research programme, Road User Safety and Cycling, being led by TRL. Overall, it proved problematic to draw firm conclusions from the literature. Taken as a whole, the most significant infrastructure-related risk factors for cyclists in single vehicle incidents on highways appear to be slippery roads (due to weather) and poor or defective road surfaces. For multi-vehicle collisions, the main infrastructure risk factors appear to be posted speed limits and encounters with other road users at junctions."

Mircea Steriu, Raising the bar. Review of Cycling Safety Policies in the European Union, ETSC (European Transport Safety Council), Brussels, 2012, 58 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB].

Esther Walter, Yvonne Achermann Stürmer, Gianantonio Scaramuzza, Steffen Niemann, Mario Cavegn, Fußverkehr. (bfu-Sicherheitsdossier Nr. 11). bfu – Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, Bern, 2013, 210 p. [formato PDF, 2,62 MB]. "Im Sicherheitsdossier «Fussverkehr» werden wissensbasierte Präventionsempfehlungen zur Steigerung der Sicherheit von Fussgängern auf Schweizer Strassen erarbeitet." "Nel dossier sicurezza "traffico pedonale" sono state rielaborate su base scientifica raccomandazioni di prevenzione per aumentare la sicurezza dei pedoni sulle strade svizzere."

Colin F. Clarke, Evaluation of New Zealand’s bicycle helmet law, The New Zealand Medical Journal, 10 February 2012, v. 125 No 1349 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 200 kB]. L'articolo analizza gli effetti controproducenti dell'obbligo del casco per i ciclisti introdotto in Nuova Zelanda nel 1994. "The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990–1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006–09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988–91 to 2003–07, cyclists’ overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK’s Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989–1990 to 2006–2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties."

Working Group on Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health (PUSH), Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health. Summary Document. (Research Report). OECD, International Transport Forum, Paris, 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 843 kB]. "This is a summary of the report Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health. The report was developed by a group of international experts representing 19 countries, under the aegis of the Research Centre of the International Transport Forum at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Recognising its wide benefits, the purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of walking as an integral part of the transport system and the vital need for policies to promote walking at all levels of planning. This summary document comprises the conclusions and recommendations, as well as the table of contents of the full report, together with details of the experts who contributed to the work."

Henk Stipdonk, Martine Reurings, The safety effect of exchanging car mobility for bicycle mobility. Substituting a small number of short car trips with bicycle trips. (SWOV-report R-2010-18). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, 2010, 30 p. [formato PDF, 708 kB] "This report describes the analysis of the effect of exchanging passenger car mobility for bicycle mobility on the number of fatalities and serious road injuries in the Netherlands. A precise calculation of this effect was not possible due to a lack of information, instead the report gives a first and rough approximation of the safety effect. The analysis considers a substitution of 10% of car trips shorter than 7.5 km by bicycle trips."

International Technology Scanning Program, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility in Europe. FHWA/US DOT (HPIP), Washington, DC, February 2010, 80 p. [formato PDF, 3,30 MB]. "In May 2009, a team of 12 transportation professionals from the United States with expertise in bicycling and walking visited five countries in Europe to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility. The countries visited— Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom—were chosen because of their innovative approaches to nonmotorized transportation, as well as the potential transferability of their policies and practices. The scan team gathered a considerable amount of information on various strategies and approaches that could be used to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility in the United States. This section highlights the most important findings from the scanning study. The “General Findings and Conclusions” section describes the broader issues and themes that emerged on the scan and provides a context for understanding the details provided in the body of the report. The “Key Findings” section provides details on specific topics and is organized around the 5E approach (an expanded version of the 3E approach commonly used in traffic safety improvements)."

Lars Leden, Charlotta Johansson (Luleå University of Technology), The safety of elderly bicyclists. 12th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, 17 p. [formato PDF, 334 kB] "Demographic changes show that the absolute number and portion of the population in Europe that can be categorized as older or very old will continue to grow over the next several years. One aim should be to keep them active and healthy for as long a time as possible. Exercise, for example cycling, plays an important role in this context but data shows that the elderly bicyclists are overrepresented in crashes when compared with their exposure to traffic. Senior cyclists. needs and preferences should be a base for developing a safe and joyful cycling environment. This project uses in-depth crash data analysis, questionnaires with senior cyclists, and questionnaires with experts to identify potential for improving elderly bicycling. Elderly bicyclists have a significantly higher risk than younger age groups. The consequences are significantly more severe for elderly bicyclists compared to other age groups and increase with vehicle speeds. Elderly bicyclists are significantly more involved in crashes when intending to turn left compared to other age groups. 22% of elderly in fatal crashes intend to turn left compared to 8% for adults and 14% for children. As expected, elderly bicyclists are significantly more often impaired by bad sight and/or bad hearing as well as being impaired from taking medication in crashes compared to other age groups. Elderly bicyclists are less often in a hurry (5%) in crashes compared to other age groups (11%). Elderly bicyclists obey traffic rules no more and no less than other age groups. In darkness (incl. dawn and dusk), non-elderly adult bicyclists are significantly more often involved in crashes (37%) than elderly (11%). The most stated safety-increasing measure according to the senior cyclists is construction of more cycle tracks. According to the expert questionnaire the most important preconditions were safety and a feeling of security when cycling, the existence of a network of roads for cycling including appropriate bike parking facilities and positive attitudes from users and non-users regarding travelling by bicycle. This is much in accordance with the opinions expressed by the senior cyclists."

Conor C.O. Reynolds, M. Anne Harris, Kay Teschke, Peter A. Cripton and Meghan Winters, The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature. Environmental Health 2009, 8:47 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 344 KB]. "Background. Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods. We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights) or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths). To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls). Results. The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways) suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths) was associated with the lowest risk. Conclusion. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that purpose-built bicycle-specific facilities reduce crashes and injuries among cyclists, providing the basis for initial transportation engineering guidelines for cyclist safety. Street lighting, paved surfaces, and low-angled grades are additional factors that appear to improve cyclist safety. Future research examining a greater variety of infrastructure would allow development of more detailed guidelines."

W.A. Leaf and D.F. Preusser, Literature Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries. (DOT HS 809 021 Final Report). U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., 1999, 71 p. [formato PDF, 230 KB]. "The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian crash occurrence and more serious resulting pedestrian injury. It was estimated that only 5 percent of pedestrians would die when struck by a vehicle traveling at 20 miles per hour or less. This compares with fatality rates of 40, 80, and nearly 100 percent for striking speeds of 30, 40, and 50 miles per hour or more respectively. Reductions in vehicle travel speeds can be achieved through lowered speed limits, police enforcement of speed limits, and associated public information. More long-lasting speed reductions in neighborhoods where vehicles and pedestrians commonly share the roadway can be achieved through engineering approaches generally known as traffic calming. Countermeasures include road humps, roundabouts, other horizontal traffic deflections (e.g., chicanes), and increased use of stop signs. Comprehensive community-based speed reduction programs, combining public information and education, enforcement, and roadway engineering, are recommended."

N. Christie (University of Surrey), S. Cairns and H. Ward (University College London), E. Towner (University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Children’s Traffic Safety: International Lessons for the UK. (Road Safety Research Report No. 50). Department for Transport, London, July 2004, 44 p. [formato PDF, 236 kB]. "Children’s Traffic Safety: International Lessons for the UK attempts to identify good practice and innovation from other countries that could improve the traffic safety of children in the UK. The key findings suggest that the UK has adopted good practice in a number of areas but that current practice needs strengthening. A more widespread approach to modifying the environment is required in the UK to improve the safety of children as pedestrians or bicyclists, and barriers to implementation need to be overcome. Clearer guidelines are needed for implementing low speed limits near schools and in identifying these areas as enforcement zones. In the UK there is a steep social gradient in child pedestrian fatalities and at present there is no routine monitoring of the socio-economic status of all road traffic casualties."

L.T.B. van Kampen, Gewonde fietsers in het ziekenhuis. Een analyse van ongevallen- en letselgegevens (Cyclist hospital admissions; An analysis of crashes and injuries). (R-2007-9). SWOV, Leidschendam, 2008, 57 p. [formato PDF, 676 KB]. "Early 2007 a report was published about the developments in the number of traffic injured who are admitted to hospital (Van Kampen, 2007). It mentions two alarming developments for cyclists who are admitted to hospital after a crash: 1) their number is increasing steadily, and 2) their injury severity is hardly decreasing, contrary to that of injured car occupants. This study has attempted to find an explanation for these developments among cyclists admitted to hospital. Data about cyclist injuries from the National Medical Registration (LMR) has been used for detailed analysis. A distinction was made between injured cyclists in crashes with a motorized vehicle as a crash opponent, the motor vehicle crashes, and those in crashes in which no motor vehicle was involved, the non-motor vehicle crashes. An estimated 70% of the crashes in the latter category are single vehicle crashes, crashes without a crash opponent, but this category also contains the bicycle-bicycle and the bicycle-pedestrian crashes."

P.L. Jacobsen, Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention 9 (2003) 205-209 [formato PDF, 339 KB]. "A motorist is less likely to collide with a person walking and bicycling if more people walk or bicycle. Policies that increase the numbers of people walking and bicycling appear to be an effective route to improving the safety of people walking and bicycling." (Free for registered users - free registration needed)

John Pucher, Lewis Dijkstra, Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons From The Netherlands and Germany, Am J Public Health 93 (2003) 1509-1516 [formato PDF, 165 KB]. "We examined the public health consequences of unsafe and inconvenient walking and bicycling conditions in American cities to suggest improvements based on successful policies in The Netherlands and Germany."

Roelof Wittink, Promotion of mobility and safety of vulnerable road users. Final report of the European research project PROMISING, (D-2001-3), SWOV, Leidschendam, 2001, 100 p. [formato PDF, 4,42 MB]. "The European research project PROMISING aimed at developing measures to improve both safety and mobility of vulnerable road users. The potential for problem reduction was specified for four target groups of vulnerable road users: pedestrians, cyclists, motorised two-wheelers (i.e. motorcyclists and riders of mopeds) and young car drivers."

Rob Methorst, Vulnerable road users. Report on the knowledge base for an effective policy to promote the safe mobility of vulnerable road users, AVV Transport Research Centre, Rotterdam, 2003, 196 p. [formato PDF, 1,07 MB]. Studio commissionato dal governo olandese per contribuire a una politica di riduzione degli incidenti stradali a danno degli utenti deboli.

Alena Erke, Rune Elvik, Making Vision Zero real: Preventing pedestrian accidents and making them less severe , (TØI Report 889/2007), Institute of Transport Economics TØI, Oslo, June 2007, 80 p. [formato PDF, 918 KB]. This report describes the risk of accidents and injuries for pedestrian and cyclists, fsctors affecting the risk of these accidents, and measures to reduce the probability and severity of these accidents.

Nicole Muhlrad, A short history of pedestrian safety policies in Western Europe, Extra ICTCT Workshop, Beijing, 2007, 13 p. [formato PDF, 66 KB].

Observatoire National Interministériel de Sécurité Routière, La sécurité des byciclettes de 1992 à 2001, étude sectorielle, La Documentation Française, 2003, 66 p. [formato PDF, 775 KB].

A. Martin (TRL Limited), Factors influencing pedestrian safety: a literature review (Published Project Report PPR 241), TRL, 2007, 94 p. [formato PDF, 534 KB]. "A study has been undertaken by TRL on behalf of Transport for London (TfL) to review the literature on the factors affecting pedestrian behaviour. In particular the review investigates ways in which pedestrian behaviour might be influenced (in ways most acceptable to pedestrians and other road users) to reduce the numbers of casualties on London’s roads."


Jean-Paul Coindet, Denis Verrier, La sécurité dans les tunnels routiers en Île-de-France. Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme Île-de-France, Paris, Décembre 2009, 63 p. [formato PDF, 2,32 MB] "La sécurité dans les tunnels routiers est devenue aujourd’hui un enjeu national. La prise de conscience de cet enjeu de la part des pouvoirs publics et de l’opinion publique remonte au dramatique incendie dans le tunnel du Mont-Blanc qui en 1999 a coûté la vie à 39 personnes. Les enquêtes et études qui ont suivi cet incendie ont montré l’extrême danger que représentait un incendie de poids-lourds dans un tunnel. L’intégrité même de l’ouvrage pouvait être atteinte, avec toutes les conséquences désastreuses pour les usagers se trouvant dans celui-ci. Depuis 1999, la législation et la réglementation concernant la construction et l’exploitation des tunnels routiers ont donc été revues dans l’optique d’un renforcement de la sécurité, tant au niveau national qu’au niveau européen. Elles s’appliquent aux ouvrages existants, en construction ou en projet. Les principaux textes réglementaires régissant les nouvelles normes en vigueur sont la loi 2002-3 du 3 janvier 2002 relative à la sécurité des infrastructures et systèmes de transport et ses décrets d’application. Ce renforcement de la sécurité se traduit aujourd’hui par la mise en oeuvre d’un important programme de travaux de mise aux nouvelles normes des ouvrages existants. Cette mise aux normes concerne tous les maîtres d’ouvrage (Etat, collectivités locales et sociétés concessionnaires), mais uniquement les ouvrages de plus de 300 m. L’Île-de-France est particulièrement concernée par cette mise aux nouvelles normes. Les tunnels routiers y sont non seulement nombreux, mais surtout ils doivent écouler un trafic extrêmement important pouvant aller au-delà de 200 000 véhicules par jour avec un taux de poids-lourds pouvant dépasser les 10%. l’Etat a donc engagé un programme de 5 ans pour un montant global de 600 M€. 22 tunnels sont ainsi concernés pour une longueur totale de 45 km. La Ville de Paris développe également son propre programme pour les tunnels dont elle a la maîtrise d’ouvrage, et ceci à terme pour un linéaire de près de 15 km. Jusqu’à présent les travaux n’ont occasionné que des fermetures nocturnes des ouvrages et les mesures d’accompagnement mises en place (information des usagers, itinéraires de déviation, … ) ont permis de limiter l’impact des travaux sur la circulation automobile. La mise en place de ces dispositifs nécessitent une parfaite coordination entre les principaux gestionnaires de voirie, à savoir l’Etat et les départements."

Kathleen Almand, Safety and Security in Roadway Tunnels. Final Report. TRB, Washington DC, March 2008, 102 p. [formato PDF, 5,84 MB]. Slides of the NCHRP workshop held on November 29 and 30, 2007.

Claus K. Larsen (Statens vegvesen/Norvegian Public Roads Administration), Fire protection of tunnels - options and solutions, presentation. Via Nordica 2008, Session "Safe tunnels for environment and transport", Helsingfors, 10 June 2008. 25 slides [formato PDF, 1,57 MB].

Alan Beard (Heriot-Watt University), Issues in Tunnel Risk Assessment, Presentation. STOA Workshop "Assessment of the safety of tunnels" - 16 May 2007. European Parliament, Science and Technology Options Assessment, 2007, 61 slides [formato PDF, 0,98 MB].

Alan Beard (Heriot-Watt University), David Cope (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, London), Assessment of the Safety of Tunnels. Study. (IPOL/A/STOA/2006-26). European Parliament, Science and Technology Options Assessment STOA, 2008, 62 p. [formato PDF, 566 kB]. "This paper is the final report for the STOA project ‘Assessment of the Safety of Tunnels’".

CETU Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels. "Service technique central, organisme du réseau technique et scientifique du ministère". Centro studi del governo francese.

PIARC Technical Committee C3.3 Road tunnel operation / Comité technique AIPCR C3.3 Exploitation des tunnels routiers, Integrated approach to road tunnel safety = Approche intégrée de la sécurité des tunnels routiers. (Bilingual English-French). PIARC, Paris, 2007, 170 p. [formato PDF, 3,93 MB]. "This report proposes an integrated approach to road tunnel safety, which has been developed in co-operation with the European research projects SafeT and UPTUN. General principles and current perspectives on road tunnel safety are summarised, including practical tunnel project experience. An international survey through PIARC C3.3 members was carried out. An overview is given of current best practice in various countries."

Office fédéral des transports, Sécurité dans les tunnels. Rapport final sur le plan de réalisation (phase 2, étape A). Bern, 24 janvier 2005, 53 p. [formato PDF, 652 KB].

EuroTAP : European Tunnel Assessment Programme: programma europeo per verificare la sicurezza dei tunnel stradali. Contiene i risultati del test 2005. Per anni l’Italia è stato l’unico paese europeo a opporsi alle ispezioni; nel 2005 il Ministero dei Trasporti ha permesso agli esperti internazionali di esaminare alcuni tunnel a gestione pubblica, ma non è stato dato l’accesso a quelli gestiti in concessione a causa dell’opposizione dell’AISCAT (con l’eccezione della società Autobrennero, che ha permesso la verifica sul tunnel di Franzensfeste già nel 2003). Vedi Italy's tunnels: The door has opened slightly...

Direttiva 2004/54/CE del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio del 29 aprile 2004 relativa ai requisiti minimi di sicurezza per le gallerie della Rete stradale transeuropea (Gazzetta Ufficiale dell’Unione Europea, 30.4.2004, L 167/39 , 53 p. [file pdf, 282 kB]

Rettifica della direttiva 2004/54/CE del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio, del 29 aprile 2004, relativa ai requisiti minimi di sicurezza per le gallerie della rete stradale transeuropea (Gazzetta Ufficiale dell’Unione Europea, 7.06.2004, L 201/56 , 21 p. [file PDF, 402 KB]


SicuraMENTE, per una cultura della sicurezza stradale. Progetto e sito promosso dalla Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italia) Comprende corsi online, video, quiz.

Educazione alla sicurezza stradale, [numero monografico di] Annali della Pubblica Istruzione, n.3/2011, 169 p. [formato PDF, 15 MB]. "I contributi qui raccolti presentano i risultati delle attività svolte nell’ambito dell’Ufficio IV – Direzione Generale per lo Studente, l’Integrazione, la Partecipazione e la Comunicazione, con l’obiettivo di modellare uno Studio approfondito sulle tematiche dell’educazione stradale, da destinarsi agli Uffici Scolastici Regionali, Provinciali, al Corpo docente e più in generale a tutti coloro che si occupano della promozione e diffusione della sicurezza stradale nelle scuole, ai sensi delle nuove norme del Codice della Strada di cui alla legge n. 120 del 29/7/2010. Lo Studio di cui sopra intende fornire delle indicazioni finalizzate a rendere sistematici, su tutto il territorio nazionale, gli interventi per la promozione e la diffusione della sicurezza ed ha previsto l’approfondimento e lo sviluppo di una serie di ambiti tematici (come dimostrato nello schema riportato più avanti) che hanno riguardato: l’analisi degli aspetti significativi attinenti alla tematica dell’educazione stradale. Questa parte del lavoro, svolta a partire da un’indagine conoscitiva su progetti e iniziative in essere e sulla consultazione di referenti scolastici e di altri enti e istituzioni competenti in materia, ha fornito le basi per l’approfondimento della tematica dell’educazione stradale; la stesura di indicazioni operative per agevolare, anche sotto il profilo comunicazionale, le azioni da parte degli Uffici Scolastici Regionali e delle Province Autonome al fine di promuovere e sviluppare la progettualità scolastica nel campo della sicurezza stradale, nonché favorire la partecipazione e il coinvolgimento di tutte le categorie di utenza coinvolte, tra le quali, genitori e famiglie, dirigenti scolastici, insegnanti, studenti, ecc.; la predisposizione di «schemi-tipo» utilizzabili per i corsi e per altre iniziative nel campo dell’educazione stradale sia per la Scuola Primaria che per quella secondaria; l’esame di criteri e aspetti metodologici per la valutazione dei risultati delle attività di educazione stradale in termini di appropriatezza, efficienza, efficacia e nel rispetto dei principi di trasparenza ed economicità."

Educazione Stradale, sito del Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (Italia)

Carpeta "La Educación Vial en Educación Infantil". La finalidad de este material es desarrollar un instrumento útil y una programación que permita al alumno ir descubriendo la diversidad de los elementos viales que configuran su entorno, desarrollando las claves necesarias para su interpretación, y permitiendo que cada vez sea menos dependiente del adulto cuando circula por las vías públicas, creando a la vez actitudes en su manera de actuar como peatón y/o usuario de los diferentes transportes. (Per scaricare il materiale è necessaria la registrazione gratuita).

Trânsito Com Vida (Traffico con Vita). Portale. "A inserção da Educação para o Trânsito no currículo regular das escolas de Ensino Fundamental é determinada pela Legislação Federal (Código de Trânsito Brasileiro) e recomendado pelo Ministério da Educação (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). A fim de colaborar com as escolas na prática pedagógica em sala de aula e/ou laboratório de informática, nosso portal oferece material para o professor e material para os alunos com a interface gráfica e educacional diferenciadas, jogos e uma discussão que envolve três contextos de aprendizagem (Riscos no trânsito; Transporte e qualidade de vida; Ética e cidadania), além de ferramentas de um fórum para discussão entre os alunos e o professor." Portale dedicato alla educazione alla mobilità, con sezioni dedicate agli alunni, agli insegnanti e ai genitori (in lingua portoghese, Brasile).

GITAS – Giovani Informati su Traffico, Ambiente e Salute sito della Provincia di Modena dedicato alla sicurezza stradale e alla mobilità sostenibile


SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the European traffic safety research project (2009-2012). The aim of this project, funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Research Program, is to make the school roads in Europe safer for children, from home to school and back.

Ruth Kaufmann-Hayoz, Heidi Hofmann, Oliver Tschopp, Martina Blaser (IKAÖ, Bern) und Rolf Steiner, Katja Schori, Rolf Albisser, Rolf (verkehrsteiner, Bern), Der Verkehr aus Sicht der Kinder: Schulwege von Primarschulkindern in der Schweiz (La circulation du point de vue des enfants: Les trajets scolaires des élèves du primaire en Suisse / Traffic and children: Primary school children’s routes to school in Switzerland), Bundesamt für Strassen, Bern, Juli 2010, 181 p. [formato PDF, 6,76 MB]. "For several years now, the topics of children’s appropriation of public spaces and children’s mobility behavior have been increasingly investigated in planning and transportation sciences and in the fields of developmental psychology and education (e.g., Haefeli & Kaufmann-Hayoz, 2009). The goal of the present research study was to contribute towards improved consideration of children’s interests in traffic planning practice. The study aimed to (a) produce a practice-oriented summary of the diverse research findings in the different disciplines, (b) collect representative and up-to-date data, and (c) provide illustrative, specific descriptions of typical conditions regarding primary school children’s routes to school in Switzerland. The research questions focused on traffic hazards on the way to school and how they are perceived by children and parents, how children travel the route to school (especially means of transport chosen and reasons for the choice), type and amount of children’s everyday physical activity, and possible measures to improve the relationship between children and traffic, especially on routes to school."

Guide pour la sécurité des transports scolaires. A l’usage des décideurs locaux et de leurs partenaires, Conseil National des Transports, La Défense Cedex, Mars 2010, 123 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "Ce guide a été élaboré dans le cadre du Conseil National des Transports, en relation avec les services de chaque administration concernée. Il a été mis à jour en mars 2010."

Hervé Ruffieux, Christian Ary Huber, Walter Bill, Heinz Leu, Percorso casa-scuola. Misure per una maggiore sicurezza sul percorso casa-scuola, upi - Ufficio prevenzione infortuni, Berna, 2008, 44 p. [formato PDF, 1,86 MB]. "La presente documentazione intende mostrare le misure tecniche, organizzative e di pianificazione per incrementare la sicurezza sul percorso casa-scuola. La pubblicazione e' destinata a chiunque si vede in un qualche modo confrontato con la sicurezza del percorso casa-scuola (autorita', polizia, commissioni scolastiche, genitori, pianificatori ecc.) e vuole essere un manuale per la pianificazione e l'arredo di tragitti casa-scuola sicuri. Il bambino «a misura di traffico» non esiste, pertanto gli impianti stradali dei percorsi casa-scuola devono essere pianificati e arredati a misura di bambino."

School Transportation Group, An Analysis of North Carolina Guidelines and Criteria for Establishing School Walk Zones, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, November 2001, 141 p. [formato PDF, 2,19 MB]. "The North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT), Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation initiated a project to research the potential for development of standardized school walk zone policies for the state. The School Transportation Group of the Institute for Transportation Research and Education at North Carolina State University (ITRE), and the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC) were selected to undertake the study. The resulting effort included the following activities: 1. The compilation of the existing policies of North Carolina public schools for walk zones, descriptions of the school commute pattern through surveys of all North Carolina Local Education Agencies (LEA.s); analysis of North Carolina pedestrian/motor vehicle crash data; and focus group meetings with parents and school officials who have local transportation policy and operations responsibilities; 2. The review of school walk zone guidelines, policies, and practices developed by other states and municipalities, and; 3. The definition of focus areas and development of specific recommendations."

Safe Routes to School Program, Montana Department of Transportation (US)

SafeRoutes, National Center for Safe Routes to School (US)

[Complete] Safe Routes to School guide, developed by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) with support from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). This guide is maintained by the National Center for Safe Routes to School at February 2007, 199 p. [formato PDF, 38 MB].

Safe Routes to School Guidebook, Montana Department of Transportation, June 2007, 154 p. [formato PDF, 10,4 MB].

Marla R. Orenstein [et al.] (UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center), Safe Routes to School: Safety and Mobility Analysis. Report to the California Legislature. California Department of Transportation and Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley , January 2007, 75 p. [formato PDF, 2,64 MB]. "This report evaluates the SR2S program for a number of mandated issues: (i) The effectiveness of the program in reducing crashes, injuries and fatalities involving children in the vicinity of the projects; (ii) The impact of the program on levels of walking and bicycling to school; and (iii) The safety benefits of the program in comparison with other highway safety programs."

Sally Cairns (University College London), Achieving safer school travel in the UK. Paper for an international symposium about ‘School Zone Safety’, convened by the Korean Association for Safe Community, 24 August 2005, Seoul. 13 p. [formato PDF, 79 kB]. "This paper summarises the current UK approach to improving child road safety, focusing particularly on measures to enhance the safety of the school journey."


Matthew RJ Baldock, James P Thompson, Jeffrey Dutschke, Craig N Kloeden, VL Lindsay, JE Woolley, Older Road Users: Emerging Trends. Research Report AP-R530-16. Austroads, Sydney, October 2016, 142 p. [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. [Free download, free registration needed]. "This report identifies trends in crash involvement amongst older road users (aged 75+). The project incorporated a literature review; analysis of 10 years of crash data from every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand; analysis of three years of detailed hospital injury data for older road users in South Australia; analysis of the contributing factors in older road user crashes examined using the Centre for Automotive Safety Research in-depth investigation method; consultations with representatives of all jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand; and a summary of relevant sections of road safety strategies in a sample of international jurisdictions. The report provides policy recommendations and describes crash countermeasures relevant to older road users."

Eric Dumbaugh, Yi Zhang, Wenhao Li (Texas A&M University), Community Design and the Incidence of Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Motorists Aged 75 and Older. Final Report. (Report No. UTCM 11-03-67). University Transportation Center for Mobility, the Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, April 2012, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,65 MB]. "Contemporary community design practice has focused on strategies intended to make communities safe for families with children. Comparatively little attention has been given to its effects on older adults. This study employs a series of negative binomial regression models to understand how urban form may affect the incidence of total and killed-or-severely-injured (KSI) crashes involving older drivers and pedestrians. Intersections, strip commercial uses, big-box stores, and arterial thoroughfares pose crash hazards for older motorists, while big-box stores and arterials are problematic for older pedestrians. A network of lower-speed streets was found to be associated with reductions in crashes involving older motorists and pedestrians."

Emelie Eriksson Thörnell, Relation between hazard perception and visual behaviour. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, (VTI notat 11A-2010), Linköping, 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "The hazard perception test developed by Sagberg and Bjornskau (2006) measuring reaction times in relation to different hazardous situations in traffic, has been used inthe present study to analyze older drivers’ visual behaviour when passing/responding to the test. The overall objective of this study has been to investigate the relation between hazard perception in traffic and visual behaviour among older drivers in comparison with ayounger age group. The purpose of the study was to provide knowledge on what traffic situations that are more difficult for older drivers to interpret or perceive as hazardous. The elderly were expected to have more problems in situations that included objects classified as context hazards. Context hazards consist of objects that are slowly moving on the side of the road, which poses a situation where the driver should be prepared for the potential behaviour of that object. The study was composed of two groups of drivers, one group of middle-aged drivers, 35-55 years old, and one group of older drivers, 65 years old and above, who performed the hazard perception test wearing an eye tracker. Hazard interpretation level within age group and situation was investigated, and eye movement data analyzed in terms of fixation duration time. Overall results showed that the older participants had more problems in interpreting situations classified as context hazards as risky, especially context hazards consistingof pedestrians or cyclists. The differences were nevertheless significant. In addition, when investigating total fixation time on the hazard objects, the differences between age groups were shown to be significant for one of the situations consisting of pedestrians, classified as context/hidden hazard. No significant differences betweenage groups were found in either of the other situations. The conclusions are that the elderly tentatively should be exposed to context hazards composed by pedestrians or cyclist in future training schemes. Since there were no significant differences between age groups, more research is, however, needed in the area. Also, since the class of context/hidden hazards, which showed significant differences in fixation time between age groups, was composed by only one situation, resembling situations should be investigated in order to verify these differences."

Lena Levin, Tania Dukic, Per Henriksson, Selina Mårdh, Fridulv Sagberg, Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden. Studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception. Stockholm, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI Rapport 656A, 2009, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,35 MB]. "By investigations on risky situations in older people’s everyday travelling it is possible to minimize their suffering and death rates from road accidents. Older people will in the future, to a larger proportion than today have a driving license and access to a car, especially older women will be car drivers to a larger proportion than today and they will probably use their car as long as possible. At the same time, recent years’ accident figures have shown an increased risk in road traffic for older people. The patterns of accidents vary between different groups of older people and also between older drivers and drivers from other age groups. The present project identifies hazardous situations for older drivers and analyses older drivers’ accident involvement and visual behaviour in complex traffic situations. Typical and atypical older driver accidents are identified. Three main methods have been used: 1) a thorough accident analysis of police reported accidents in Norway, 2) a literature study on existing research on older drivers’ behaviour (i.e. cognitive aspects on car driving) and accident involvement, and 3) experimental studies comprising visual and perception tests accomplished in Norway and Sweden and a field study on the road, accomplished in Sweden. In the experimental study and in the field study it was found significantly more individual differences among the older than among the younger drivers in the samples from Norway and Sweden. From in depth analyses of fatal crashes in Norway during the years 2005-2007 it was found that tiredness was the most often suspected cause of the accident among the group aged 35-55 years (28 %) and the second most often suspected cause in the group aged 75+ (19 %). Illness could be the cause of the accident twice as often among the older drivers (28 %) as in the younger control group (14 %). The definition of older people as a problem (e.g. risky car drivers), and as a homogeneous group based on chronological age, may obscure the differences between groups and individuals based on variations in health, gender, ethnicity, living or economy. There is nothing in the results that supports age based limitations for renewal of driving license for otherwise healthy older people. Instead the study strengthens arguments for further research and refining of methods for identifying hazardous behaviour in complex situations, i.e. testing of drivers in complex situations; behaviour due to temporary illness or tiredness; and in depth studies of drivers’ perspectives, experiences and strategies to avoid road accidents. Furthermore research on intelligent technical systems (e.g. information access, and recommended route and speed) plus other adaptive systems in the vehicles that support older car drivers, are suggested. Also, how the ageing drivers give priority to and afford new technological solutions."

Petros Evgenikos (National Technical University of Athens), Road safety and the elderly in Europe. 4th IRTAD Conference, Seoul, 16-17 September 2009, 8 p. [formato PDF, 272 kB]. "The objective of this research is the analysis of basic road safety parameters related to elderly people (> 64 years old) by the use of the EU CARE database with disaggregate data on road accidents, as well as of other international data files (Eurostat, IRTAD, etc.). Data for ten years and 19 EU countries on road accidents involving elderly people are correlated with basic safety parameters like the road user type, the road network type, the casualty age and gender as well as the day of the week, the time of the day and the season. This comparative analysis revealed a decrease of more than 30% in elderly fatalities in traffic accidents within the decade 1997 - 2006 and it was also shown that in most European countries the elderly - specifically those between 75 and 84 years old - are at greater risk of being killed in a road accident than the average person. Additionally, more than one third of elderly fatalities were pedestrians and also elderly people are proportionately more likely than middle-aged people to be killed in an accident in an urban road. Contrary to middle-aged people, elderly are mostly killed during the morning, with three-fourths of those during the week days. Specific countries with higher elderly accident fatalities for particular accident types were also identified. The analysis results allow for an overall picture of the safety level of elderly people in Europe, providing thus useful support to all decision makers working for the improvement of safety in the European road network."

Ragnhild Davidse, Assisting the older driver. Intersection design and in-car devices to improve the safety of the older driver. SWOV, Leidschendam, 2007, 261 p. [formato PDF, 3,85 MB]. (tesi di dottorato, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen). "In this thesis, the main focus was on assistive devices that may improve and prolong the safe mobility of older drivers".

Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist, Anu Sirén, Ragnhild Davidse, Old drivers – a review, Stockholm, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI Rapport 497A, 2004, 100 p. [formatoPDF, 956 KB]. Studio sui rischi dei guidatori anziani, di fronte all’invecchiamento crescente della popolazione nei paesi europei.


E. Dupont, H. Martensen & P. Silverans, Abaissement du taux d’alcool autorisé pour les conducteurs novices et les conducteurs de grands véhicules : 0,2‰. IBSR, Observatoire pour la sécurité routière, Bruxelles, 2010, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,25 MB].

La guida in stato di ebbrezza nel contesto internazionale. Paesi Europei a confronto. Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Roma, maggio 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 3,95 MB]. "Lo studio si articola in tre parti. La prima è stata elaborata con lo scopo di confrontare rapidamente alcuni indicatori statistici in grado di tratteggiare il fenomeno della guida in stato di ebbrezza nei diversi Paesi europei. La seconda ha cercato di illustrare le diverse discipline normative presenti nei Paesi europei, attraverso un ragionamento che ha preso in considerazione non soltanto gli aspetti teorici, ma anche le problematiche di più spiccato profilo pratico, come l’effettività della risposta punitiva e le diverse modalità di irrogazione della pena.. Infine, la terza parte dell’indagine ci ha permesso di conoscere le azioni poste in essere dagli Stati europei per contrastare il fenomeno della guida in stato di ebbrezza, che si affiancano alla previsione di pene e sanzioni amministrative per coloro i quali violano le disposizioni in materia di alcol e guida di veicoli. Le informazioni fornite sono state raccolte e vengono esposte nel quarto ed ultimo capitolo dello studio."

Drinking and Driving in Europe. An International Comparison. Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Roma, May 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 4,30 MB].

Jan Ifver and Hans Rydgren, Drink-driving and the 2007 target. The Road Traffic Inspectorate, Borlänge, Sweden, June 2008, 20 p. [formato PDF, 672 kB]. "One area that is of considerable importance for road safety is drink-driving, i.e. driving under the influence of alcohol. In this area the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) has not taken effective measures to an extent enabling any significant positive effect to be seen in the statistics of deaths due to alcohol-related road accidents. In the period 1997–2006 active road users (i.e. drivers of vehicles and pedestrians) under the influence of alcohol were involved on average in about 20 per cent of all fatal accidents. This proportion increased between 1997 and 2001 from 18 to 24 per cent. It then fell slightly and in 2006 was 20 per cent. Based on data from the SRA’s in-depth studies, we conclude in this study that both the number and the proportion of fatalities among passenger car drivers under the influence of alcohol rose between 1997 and 2003, falling thereafter. The number of fatalities among passenger car drivers under the influence rose from 43 in 1997 to 66 in 2003 and then fell to 46 in 2006. The proportion of such fatalities also rose, from 21 per cent in 1997 to 27 per cent in 2003, after which it fell to 23 per cent in 2006. According to the SRA’s 2006 annual report, on the other hand, the proportion of car drivers killed while under the influence of alcohol almost doubled between 1997 and 2005. However, the data in the annual report is not comparable over time, which makes this statement misleading. In this report a number of measures against drink-driving are described which, according to the SRA’s annual sector reports, have been taken during the period. Based on the SRA’s reports, the Road Traffic Inspectorate draws the following conclusions: The activities aimed at reducing the number of road users under the influence of alcohol were insignificant in the initial years after the adoption of the short-term target; As a result of OLA activities and the Don´t drink and drive project, the problem of alcohol received greater priority; The use of alcolocks is still insignificant; The activities aimed at increasing the use of alcolocks have been targeted mainly at groups that have the smallest proportion of drivers under the influence of alcohol (with the exception of the trials involving conditional withdrawal of the driving licence); The extent of reporting of the results of the measures taken has been small; The fact that results are not reported may be due to the fact that measurements of the extent of and changes in drink-driving are inadequate. The Inspectorate considers that systematic surveys of these factors need to be undertaken as soon as possible. The general public are of the opinion that the penalties for drink-driving should be more severe and a majority of them think that the limit for drink-driving should be set at 0 per mil. The public thus have a very disapproving attitude towards drink-driving offences. This should be a good starting point for adopting effective measures."

René Mathijssen (SWOV), Alcolocks: factors influencing implementation, participation and compliance. Literature review contributed to the EU project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union. (R-2006-7). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, 2006, 25 p. [formato PDF, 294 kB]. "In 2004-2005, a series of alcolock field trials were conducted in four European countries, in the framework of the EU research project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union. This project was granted by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG-TREN). As part of the project, SWOV conducted a literature review of alcolock programmes, aimed at identifying the most important factors influencing acceptance, implementation, participation and compliance. The results of the literature review can be considered as complementary to the results of the field trials. Regarding the acceptance and implementation of alcolocks for drink driving offenders, the following factors play an important role and should be addressed accordingly: The cost of alcolock programmes to participants; Increased recidivism rates after alcolock removal from the vehicle; Opposition by the criminal justice system. With respect to participation and compliance, the 'ideal' alcolock programme for drink driving offenders based on findings in the literature would be: Mandatory, successful completion of the programme being a condition of full licence reinstatement; Tailored to distinctive target groups (varying from first to alcohol-dependent offenders); Flexible in duration; Not preceded by a (lengthy) period of hard suspension; Administered by licensing authorities; Recorded on the driver's licence; Regularly monitored, including medical assessments for alcohol-dependent drivers; Combined with some kind of rehabilitation. Commercial alcolock programmes seem to be easier to implement than offender programmes. In Sweden, after the introduction of a small-scale demonstration project subsidized by the government, implementation was successfully left to market parties. Alcolocks were promoted as a tool for quality assurance. Discomfort to the drivers and the risk of economic loss to the fleet owners were minimized by programming the alcolocks' software accordingly. At an early stage, discussions were arranged between public and private parties and interest groups (like trade unions), and actual alcolock users and their social environment were informed."

M.P.M. Mathijssen (SWOV), Three Decades of Drink Driving Policy in The Netherlands. An Evaluation. Paper at the ICADTS T2004, Glasgow, 8-13 August 2004. 6 p. [formato PDF, 115 kB].

René Mathijssen (SWOV), Three Decades of Drink Driving Policy in The Netherlands. An Evaluation. Presentation at the ICADTS T2004, Glasgow, 8-13 August 2004. 7 slides [formato PDF, 2,05 MB].

Charlotte Bax (SWOV, ed.), Otto Kärki (VTT), Claudia Evers (BASt), Inger Marie Bernhoft (DTF) & René Mathijssen (SWOV), Alcohol Interlock Implementation in the European Union: Feasibility study. Final report of the European research project. (D-2001-20). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, 2001, 165 p. [formato PDF, 3,52 MB]. "A Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device (BAIID) is a breath testing device connected to the ignition system of a motor vehicle. It prevents an operator from starting the vehicle if the breath alcohol concentration exceeds a predetermined threshold or fail level. From November 2000 until September 2001, a consortium of European road safety research institutes conducted a feasibility study regarding the implementation of BAIIDs in EU drink-driving policies. This is the final report of the feasibility study."

Drinking and Driving: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva, Global Road Safety Partnership, 2007, 173 p. [formato PDF, 1,48 MB]. "The purpose of this manual is to inform readers of practical ways to develop coordinated and integrated programmes to reduce drinking and driving (including riding motorcycles) within a country. The manual is aimed at addressing drinking and driving among drivers. Commercial drivers are an especially important group to address in terms of drinking and driving because of the large number of passengers they can carry and/or the number of kilometres they are likely to travel."

T. Assum, M.P.M. Mathijssen and S. Houwing , S.C. Buttress, B. Sexton, R.J. Tunbridge, J. Oliver, The prevalence of drug driving and relative risk estimations. A study conducted in The Netherlands, Norway and United Kingdom. Deliverable D-R4.2, 2005, 105 p. [formato PDF, 1,45 MB, zippato]. "The present study's intention was to examine, in three European countries, Netherlands, Norway and UK (Scotland), whether drivers using one or more of eight defined drug groups have a higher accident risk than drivers not using these drugs; and to as far as possible quantify this risk."

Inger Marie Bernhoft, Drugs, alcohol and traffic safety. A synthesis of results. Deliverable D-R4.6, 2005, 60 p. [formato PDF, 628 KB, zippato].

Alcohol. European Road Safety Observatory, 2006, 28 p. [formato PDF, 284 kB]. "European Road Safety Observatory (2006) Alcohol, retrieved January 25, 2007 from". Dati sulla relazione tra consumo di alcool ed incidenti stradali.

EKOS Research Associates, Impaired Driving Survey for Transport Canada/MADD Canada. Final report. EKOS Research Associates Inc., Ottawa, June 2007, 69 p. [formato PDF, 424 kB]. "Transport Canada/MADD Canada commissioned EKOS Research Associates to conduct a study of public attitudes toward impaired driving. The main objective of this research was to measure the concerns, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians on impaired driving issues. The study collected relevant information to determine where awareness needs to be heightened and knowledge needs to be increased. The study also provided detailed information about public views on the key impaired driving issues of alcohol ignition interlock systems, driving while impaired by illicit drugs and prescription drugs, and the lowering of the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level from 80mg% to 50mg%. The methodology for this study involved an initial baseline telephone survey of 1,500 Canadian drivers, ten deliberative focus group sessions held in five cities across the country, and a pen and paper survey given to focus group participants post-discussion. Prior to the deliberative focus group sessions, participants were sent background material containing information on alcohol ignition interlock systems, use of illicit and prescription drugs and driving, and lowering the legal BAC from 80mg% to 50mg%."

Ernesto U. Savona e Stefano Caneppele (a cura di), Prevenire gli incidenti stradali alcolcorrelati. Guida alla progettazione locale e alla valutazione degli interventi di prevenzione e controllo dell'incidentalità stradale alcolcorrelata in Provincia di Trento. Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Trento, 2004, 72 p. [formato PDF, 952 KB].


Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlström, Carina Fors, Sonja Forward, Nils Petter Gregersen, Magnus Hjälmdahl, Jonas Jansson, Gunnar Lindberg, Lena Nilsson and Christopher Patten, Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving. (VTI report 770A). VTI, Linköping, 2012, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving, while at the same time preserve the positive effects. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas and are intended to function as alternatives to banning device usage. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. The authors want to point out that the usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects."


Alexandre Santacreu (International Transport Forum), Safe Micromobility. Corporate Partnership Board Report. International Transport Forum, OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2020, 98 p. [formato PDF, 4,5 MB]. "This report examines the safety aspects associated with the increasing use of e-scooters and other forms of micromobility in cities. The rise of micromobility challenges existing regulations for urban traffic and forces policy makers to rethink them. The report considers a range of actions to make urban traffic with micromobility safe, including in street layout, vehicle design and vehicle operation, user education and enforcement of rules. It also asks whether a shift towards micromobility can have potential safety benefits."

Heather Ward, Progress in reducing deaths and seriously injured on Europe's roads. 10th Road Safety Performance Index Report. Presentation, 10th ETSC Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) Conference, Brussels, 20 June 2016. 15 slides [formato PDF, 698 kB].

Michael Sivak, Brandon Schoettle, Road Safety with Self-Driving Vehicles: General Limitations and Road Sharing with Conventional Vehicles. (Report No. UMTRI-2015-2). The University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan, January 2015, 13 p. [formato PDF, 223 kB]. "Self-driving vehicles are expected to improve road safety, improve the mobility of those who currently cannot use conventional vehicles, and reduce emissions. In this white paper we discuss issues related to road safety with self-driving vehicles. Safety is addressed from the following four perspectives: (1) Can self-driving vehicles compensate for contributions to crash causation by other traffic participants, as well as vehicular, roadway, and environmental factors? (2) Can all relevant inputs for computational decisions be supplied to a self-driving vehicle? (3) Can computational speed, constant vigilance, and lack of distractibility of selfdriving vehicles make predictive knowledge of an experienced driver irrelevant? (4) How would road safety be influenced during the expected long transition period during which conventional and self-driving vehicles would need to interact on the road? The presented arguments support the following conclusions: (1) The expectation of zero fatalities with self-driving vehicles is not realistic. (2) It is not a foregone conclusion that a self-driving vehicle would ever perform more safely than an experienced, middle-aged driver. (3) During the transition period when conventional and self-driving vehicles would share the road, safety might actually worsen, at least for the conventional vehicles."

Cristina Di Lucente, Distrazioni fatali. Gli incidenti mortali risultano in vertiginoso aumento nel mese di luglio. Lo rivelano i dati della Stradale: calo dell’attenzione a causa della tecnologia e mancato uso delle cinture sono i motivi più frequenti. Polizia moderna, agosto/settembre 2015, 10-18 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 2,53 MB]. Articolo pubblicato con altri 4 contributi sull'ultimo numero di Poliziamoderna, la rivista ufficiale della Polizia di Stato.

DEKRA Road Safety Report 2014 Urban Mobility. Strategies to prevent accidents on Europe's roads. DEKRA Automobil GmbH, Stuttgart, 2014, 60 p. [formato PDF, 4,43 MB]. German version: Verkehrssicherheitsreport 2014. French version: Rapport sur la sécurité routière 2014.

Do Duy Dinh, Hisashi Kubota (Saitama Univ.), Drivers' perceptions regarding speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit. IATSS Research 37 (2013) 30–38 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 328 kB]. "Previous studies have shown very little information regarding drivers' opinions, attitudes and behaviours with respect to speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit. The present research aims to address this issue by conducting a questionnaire study with a sample of 367 Japanese drivers. The results showed that drivers tended to have positive beliefs about complying with the 30 km/h speed limit and understand the negative consequences of speeding; however, a majority of the drivers considered breaking the speed limit as a way to reduce their travel time. While the extent of speeding was found to be very serious, a number of drivers still supported the use of a 30 km/h speed limit on residential streets and favoured protecting the right of vulnerable street users. The logistic regression models developed in this study identified that the drivers who did not support the 30 km/h speed limit were associated with those who had committed traffic-law violations, who had negative beliefs about complying with the speed limit, who did not consider residents' opinions, who believed it is acceptable for them to drive at a high speed, and who felt it difficult to refrain from speeding. With regard to anti-speeding countermeasures, under drivers' point of view, streets should be designed to make the 30 km/h speed limit more credible, although this study also showed evidence supporting the application of public awareness programmes and social campaigns as speeding interventions. In addition, this research investigated drivers' speed choices in various specific driving circumstances, and six underlying factors affecting drivers' speed choices were determined. On the basic of the findings, the implications and suggestions for speeding interventions were also discussed."

W.P. Vlakveld, M.J. Boele, L.T. Aarts & G. Schermers, Natuurlijk Sturen in Limburg. Een kijkgedrag- en snelheidsonderzoek en een verkeerskundige analyse van twee aangepaste wegen (Natural traffic calming in the Dutch Province of Limburg; Pilot study of two adapted roads). (R-2013-2). Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid SWOV, Leidschendam, 2013, 87 p. [formato PDF, 5,98 MB] "The continuous search for infrastructural measures to further improve road safety motivated and stimulated a number of regions to use more ‘natural’ measures and territorial characteristics. These natural measures are expected to have a positive influence on the perception and behaviour of the road user, and, consequently, also on road safety: ‘natural traffic calming’. This actually involves ‘environmental and territorial traffic engineering design’. The Regional Road Traffic Safety Authority Limburg (ROVL) as well as the Province of Limburg is interested in the possibilities of Natural traffic calming. To gain experience with this relatively new approach, natural traffic calming measures have been implemented at two locations in the Province of Limburg."

Christian Howard and Astrid Linder, Review of Swedish experiences concerning analysis of people injured in traffic accidents. (VTI notat 7A-2014). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 34 p. [formato PDF, 947 kB]. "This report commissioned by the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) provides a review of Swedish experiences concerning the national road traffic accident information system STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA contains information on accidents occurring in the Swedish road transport system as reported by the police, and medical data on persons injured as reported by the hospitals. By combining data from two sources, the STRADA system can provide more comprehensive information on both the circumstances and the consequences of road traffic accidents. The aim is to provide a review of accident and injury data in STRADA, including methods for collecting, sharing and analyzing the data. The primary focus is on the injury data provided by the hospitals and how these can be used in conjunction with police data. Furthermore, the aim is to describe the organizations involved in maintaining and developing the STRADA system. Information about STRADA was compiled mainly from material provided by the responsible authority – The Swedish Transport Agency. In addition, a literature review was performed in order to identify examples of how hospital data has been used in different projects. The main results provided in this report are descriptions of how the STRADA database is structured and what data are available, how the police and hospitals collect data, and how the data are made available to various stakeholders. A number of examples of how hospital data has been used in various projects are also provided."

Jennifer S. Mindell, Deborah Leslie, Malcolm Wardlaw, Exposure-Based, ‘Like-for-Like’ Assessment of Road Safety by Travel Mode Using Routine Health Data. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50606, 2012, 10 p. [formato PDF, 737 kB]. "Background: Official reports on modal risk have not chosen appropriate numerators and denominators to enable like-forlike comparisons. We report age- and sex-specific deaths and injury rates from equivalent incidents in England by travel mode, distance travelled and time spent travelling. Methods: Hospital admissions and deaths in England 2007–2009 were obtained for relevant ICD-10 external codes for pedestrians, cyclists, and car/van drivers, by age-group and sex. Distance travelled by age-group, sex and mode in England (National Travel Survey 2007–2009 data) was converted to time spent travelling using mean trip speeds. Fatality rates were compared with age-specific Netherlands data. Results: All-age fatalities per million hours’ use (f/mhu) varied over the same factor-of-three range for both sexes (0.15– 0.45 f/mhu by mode for men, 0.09–0.31 f/mhu for women). Risks were similar for men aged 21–49 y for all three modes and for female pedestrians and drivers aged 21–69 y. Most at risk were: males 17–20 y (1.3 f/mhu (95% CI 1.2–1.4)) for driving; males 70+ (2.2 f/mhu(1.6–3.0)) for cycling; and females 70+ (0.95 f/mhu (0.86–1.1)) for pedestrians. In general, fatality rates were substantially higher among males than females. Risks per hour for male drivers ,30 y were similar or higher than for male cyclists; for males aged 17–20 y, the risk was higher for drivers (33/Bn km (30–36), 1.3 f/mhu (1.2–1.4)) than cyclists (20/ Bn km (10–37), 0.24 f/mhu (0.12–0.45)) whether using distance or time. Similar age patterns occurred for cyclists and drivers in the Netherlands. Age-sex patterns for injuries resulting in hospital admission were similar for cyclists and pedestrians but lower for drivers. Conclusions: When all relevant ICD-10 codes are used, fatalities by time spent travelling vary within similar ranges for walking, cycling and driving. Risks for drivers were highest in youth and fell with age, while for pedestrians and cyclists, risks increased with age. For the young, especially males, cycling is safer than driving."

Comité technique AIPCR C.2 Exploitation routière plus sûre / PIARC Technical Committee C.2 Safer Road Operations, Comparison of national road safety policies and plans. World Road Association (PIARC), La Défense, 2012, 304 p. [formato PDF, 3,16 MB]. "This Report examines the road safety performance of several nations, reviews reported policies and strategies in jurisdictions and attempts to establish linkages between adopted and implemented road safety policies, overarching multi - year strategies and performance outcomes. The findings are built upon survey returns from 16 countries and 8 selected state/provincial jurisdictions which set out the road safety visions, strategies, policies and practices they have adopted to improve road safety. The surveys sought information which included: road safety vision, ambition and approach, road safety management arrangements, policies adopted to address drink driving, drug driving, speeding, and improve seat belt and helmet use, penalties to deter non-compliance with these policies, improvement of the inherent road safety through policies for infrastructure safety programs and speed limit setting guidelines, policies to achieve improved standards of vehicle safety, policies linking injury insurance premiums and crash risk by vehicle or user, etc."

Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlström, Carina Fors, Sonja Forward, Nils Petter Gregersen, Magnus Hjälmdahl, Jonas Jansson, Gunnar Lindberg, Lena Nilsson, Christopher Patten, Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving - a toolbox. (VTI Rapport 770A). VTI, Linköping , 2012, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving. An important aspect of this commission was to demonstrate alternatives to legislation. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. The usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects. It is our opinion that a combination of different countermeasures – which educate and inform the driver while at the same time support him or her in a safe usage of communication devices – is preferable to a law against communication device usage while driving. Continuous follow-ups are necessary to ensure the outcome of implemented countermeasures."

Uwe Ewert, Gianantonio Scaramuzza, Steffen Niemann, Esther Walter, Der Faktor Geschwindigkeit im motorisierten Strassenverkehr. (bfu-Sicherheitsdossier Nr. 06). bfu – Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, Bern, 2010, 117 p. [formato PDF, 6,21 MB]. "In questo dossier sicurezza, l'upi – Ufficio prevenzione infortuni – presenta delle misure basate sull'evidenza per smorzare la problematica relativa alla velocità sulle strade svizzere. Oltre al rispetto dei limiti massimi di velocità è altrettanto importante adeguare la velocità di marcia alle condizioni meteo e stradali." Riassunto in italiano; version abrégée en français.

Olga Basile, Francesco Filippi, Luca Persia, Davide Shingo Usami, Manuale di Sicurezza Stradale per l’Utenza Vulnerabile. Supporto alla Gestione della Sicurezza della Rete Stradale. Centro di Ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica, Università La Sapienza, Roma, marzo 2009, 123 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB] "Il manuale è rivolto a tecnici, ricercatori e professionisti del settore dell’ingegneria del traffico e della sicurezza stradale e, più in generale, a tutti coloro che si occupano di sicurezza delle strade."

José Ignacio Nazif, Guía práctica para el diseño e implementación de políticas de seguridad vial integrales, considerando el rol de la infraestructura. Documento de proyecto. (LC/W.380-P/E). CEPAL, Santiago de Chile, Abril de 2011, 58 p. [formato PDF, 597 kB]. "América Latina y el Caribe tiene una de las más altas tasas de víctimas mortales asociadas al tránsito con 15,01 fallecidos por cada 100.000 habitantes (OMS, 2009). En este contexto CEPAL junto a OPS han liderado un trabajo que busca cooperar en el diseño de políticas públicas de seguridad vial de la región, con una mirada multisectorial y de largo plazo. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo proponer a los países de la región un proceso de formulación de políticas de seguridad vial en el cual se distingan medidas relativas a la infraestructura. El trabajo, en primer lugar, discute el sistema social sobre el cual la seguridad vial se despliega. Segundo, establece una clasificación de prácticas o medidas, las cuales se adaptan a una metodología desarrollada por la Comisión Europea. La adaptación de esta metodología fue necesaria porque se agregan propuestas llevadas a cabo en Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, México, Perú, Paraguay, Saint Lucia, Surinam, Trinidad y Tobago y Uruguay. En tercer término, se aplica un ejercicio para determinar los porcentajes de reducción en la fatalidad de siniestros de tránsito que un país de esta región podría obtener en ocho años. Para ello se utiliza sólo medidas que presentan resultados comprobados en la reducción de fatalidades. Con ello se puede apreciar la proyección de la disminución de fatalidades para medidas ambiciosas y realistas. Para eso se trabaja con los datos correspondientes a la base de datos de siniestros de tránsito de Chile. El trabajo termina con una propuesta que considera un circuito sobre cómo se pueden implementar las medidas de seguridad vial de forma grupal o individual, proponiendo un set de criterios para evaluar la implementación de las medidas discutidas."

Guangqing Chi, Jeremy R. Porter, Arthur G. Cosby, David Levinson, A Time Geography Approach to Understanding the Impact of Gasoline Price Changes on Traffic Safety. (Working Paper). University of Minnesota, 2011, 14 p. [formato PDF, 129 kB]. "The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety has received increasing attention in empirical studies. However, this important relationship has not been explained within a conceptual or theoretical framework. In this study, we examine this relationship within a time geography framework in an attempt to understand the effect of time-varying fluctuations in gasoline prices and their relationship to traffic safety in a case study of Mississippi from April 2004 to December 2008. We further extend this work by examining the degree to which this relationship is differential in impact by age, gender, and race. The results suggest that changes in gasoline prices have immediate effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of younger drivers, women, and whites. However, changes in gasoline prices do not affect total crashes of older drivers, men, or blacks. Within the theoretical framework of time geography, we understand gasoline prices as one type of capability constraint of the space-time path and space-time prism. As gasoline prices increase (that is, as the capability constraint becomes stronger), traffic crash rates will decrease. However, the effects vary by age, gender, and race because the capability constraint of gasoline prices differs across demographic groups."

Jeffery Archer, Nicola Fotheringham, Mark Symmons and Bruce Corben, The impact of lowered speed limits in urban and metropolitan areas. (Monash University Accident Research Centre - Report No. 276 - 2008). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, January 2008, 71 p. [formato PDF, 489 kB]. "The majority of all traffic accidents occur in the urban environment, where there is a more complex traffic environment and a higher predominance of road users that are more susceptible to injury and fatality in the event of an accident. A relatively straightforward and cost-effective speed management measure, involves reducing speed limits. The relationship between vehicle speed, accident risk and accident outcome severity is well established in traffic safety literature. Research shows that reduced speed is likely to bring about a reduction in average travel speed and have a positive impact on both the number of accidents and accident outcome severity. Other secondary benefits are also derived including: reduced fuel and vehicle operating costs, and significant reductions in vehicle emissions and noise. A key issue surrounding the effects of lowering speed limits in urban and metropolitan areas concerns the impact on mobility and the environment. A hypothesis that is investigated in this literature review is that a reduction in average travel speed brought about by reducing urban speed limits, is only likely to have a marginal impact on travel time. Research tends to support this notion given that average speeds are influenced by many other factors including driver attitudes and preferences; roadway design; forms of traffic regulation at intersections; and prevailing traffic conditions (levels of congestion; weather; etc). Research studies in Australia in relation to the then proposed reduction of the default urban speed limit from 60 to 50 km/h, indicated only minimal impact on individual travel times and large benefits to society as a result of the reduction in crash trauma. Findings following the introduction of the default urban speed limit indicate the overall success of this measure and high level of community support. Recent research suggests that there are still large benefits to be gained by introducing an “across the board” reduction of speed limits to 50 km/h on all types of urban and metropolitan roads that presently have a 60 km/h speed limit. National traffic safety philosophies such as the Swedish 'Vision Zero' recognise the importance of restricting speed to appropriate levels to ensure that there are no serious or fatal injuries. Safety and energy efficiency must be prioritised in order to achieve sustainability in the transport system. As a first step in this direction, the default urban speed limit on residential streets in Stockholm, Sweden has been reduced to 30 km/h. Other European towns are now following this example, and a growing interest can be noticed in Australia for similar speed limits to be introduced in order to meet the designated targets of the national Safe System approach and State and Territorial road safety strategies and action plans."

Jennifer Oxley, Bruce Corben, Brian Fildes, Mary O'Hare, Talib Rothengatter, Older vulnerable road users - measures to reduce crash and injury risk. (Monash University Accident Research Centre - Report No. 218 - 2004). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, April 2004, 182 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "Older pedestrians and cyclists are vulnerable road users, comprising a substantial proportion of all road fatalities world-wide. Pedestrian fatalities constitute between 20 and 30 percent of road fatalities, while cyclist deaths range from 2 percent in Australia to 10 percent in Denmark, Belgium, Germany and Sweden to 23 percent in the Netherlands. Older pedestrians and cyclists are over-represented in these figures, accounting for up to 45 percent of pedestrian fatalities and up to 70 percent of cyclist fatalities. The nature of injuries to older pedestrian and cyclists are severe once involved in a crash because they are largely unprotected and more frail than younger pedestrians and cyclists. Even in moderate crashes, the elderly are in greater danger of being seriously injured or killed than younger pedestrians and cyclists. The first section of this review provides an outline of the problem, discussing the contributing factors to increased crash and injury risk including age-related changes in functional performance, vehicle design factors and the road infrastructure, design and operation. There are consequences of ageing on sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical abilities that can result in problems coping with traffic. Safe walking and cycling requires the adequate functioning of all these systems and loss of efficiency in any one can reduce performance and increase risk on the road. Many older pedestrians and cyclists, therefore, experience some difficulty participating safely in complex traffic. Selecting a safe gap in which to cross in front of oncoming traffic seems to be a major problem for older pedestrians and cyclists as well as adjusting walking and cycling pace and maintaining balance on a bicycle in the event of an emergency. In addition, the frontal structures of vehicles can greatly affect injury outcome. Current bumper, bonnet and windscreen design is not conducive to pedestrian and cyclist safety. Moreover, the trend of increasing numbers of large and aggressive sports-utility vehicles, four-wheel-drives and vans (often fitted with rigid bull-bars) in the vehicle fleet adversely affects the injurious consequences to pedestrians and cyclists. Last, the growing complexity of the road environment places increasing demands on an older person's adaptability. The current road system, for the most part, seems to be unforgiving for older vulnerable road users and few facilities are designed specifically for the special needs and capabilities of older adults. The second section of this report provides a comprehensive review of the international 'best-practice' solutions aimed to reduce the crash and injury risk to older pedestrians and cyclists including behavioural/educational programs, enforcement, vehicle design improvements and improvements to infrastructure, road design and operation of the road-transport system. Given that the behaviour of older road users is thought to contribute, in part, to their increased risk of collision, it is suggested that education, awareness and training programs as well as encouragement and enforcement of safe walking and cycling practices are considered. In terms of improvements to vehicle design, improvements to frontal structures, prohibition of rigid bull-bars and use of in-vehicle ITS applications are recommended. Consideration of changes to the road transport system to create a safer more 'crashworthy' environment for older pedestrians and cyclists, whilst maintaining their mobility, is also recommended. It is recommended that: i) more attention be given to reducing numbers of vehicles travelling at excessive or high speeds in areas of high pedestrian activity, ii) more attention be given to reducing pedestrian-vehicle and cyclist-vehicle interactions along roads, within curves and at intersections, iii) more attention be given to reducing the complexity of traffic environments, and iv) consideration of other road design improvements such as provision of improved facilities at public transport stops and provision of good street lighting in high risk areas."

Matthijs Otten, Huib van Essen, Why slower is better. Pilot study on the climate gains of motorway speed reduction. Report. Delft, CE Delft, February 2010, 35 p. [formato PDF, 418 kB]. "Driving at lower speeds is better for the climate. In a pilot study CE Delft has estimated the potential CO2 savings arising in various scenarios with tighter motorway speed limits. Lowering the speed limit for cars to 80 km/h can reduce transport CO2 emissions on highways by 30% in the longer term. The maximum long-term CO2 reduction was estimated to be 2.8 Mt for passenger cars and a further 0.2 Mt for vans. In the case of cars, this means a 30% reduction in motorway emissions. This maximum reduction is achieved with a uniform speed limit of 80 km/h, with strict enforcement thereof. Less drastic tightening of speed limits means more modest emission cuts, but depending on the scenario still leads to a 8 to 21% reduction in motorway car emissions. It is common knowledge that, on average, vehicles burn less fuel per kilometre at lower speeds. Less widely realised is the fact that, because of the longer travel times resulting, lowering motorway speed limits will also lead to less car-kilometres being driven and a certain shift from private car to public transport. In the long term the CO2 savings resulting from the reduction in car-kilometres will become increasingly pronounced, as structural behavioural change sets in (people moving closer to their workplace, shops relocating closer to consumers, etc.). Reduced CO2 emissions are just one of the benefits of lowering speed limits. There will also be improvements in terms of air pollution, noise nuisance and possibly congestion and traffic safety, too. Lowering motorway speed limits also has its downside, though. On average, people will be on the road for longer for a given journey and their annual mileage will be lower. From the perspective of economic welfare, both the lower speed and the reduced volume of traffic count as costs. A follow-up study on the social costs and benefits would enable calculation of ‘optimal’ speed limits."

Wim van Beek, Harry Derriks, Peter Wilbers, Peter Morsink, Luc Wismans, Paul van Beek, The effects of speed measures on air pollution and traffic safety. European Transport Conference 2007, October 17–19, 2007, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, 17 p. [formato PDF, 308 kB]. "This paper focuses on the relation between travel speed on the one hand and external factors on the other hand. External factors included are traffic safety, climate effects and air quality. The paper shows how these relations are known in theory and what type of speed related measures recently are undertaken in the Netherlands. Aslo the paper show a number of models for assessing these measures. The paper includes the following measures: - Speed reduction freeway 80 km/h. Main reason for this measure were air quality problems at several places around the Dutch highway system. Research at four of five locations where the measure was implemented showed a positive effect on air quality. Also the average travel speed reduces on all locations. However also the level of congestion increased at three of five locations. This last effect was often mentioned by several newspapers. Implementation of this measure is reconsidered by the Dutch government. - Improved speed enforcement. This measure consist of additional means for mobile speed cameras, unnoticed surveillance and a strict enforcement measure using section speed control on some parts of the Dutch highways. Research showed a significance effect on the travel speed distribution on highways: with the introduction of the improved speed enforcement less people drive at a speed of more then 130 km/h (maximum 120 km/h is allowed). This results in less energy consumption and thus less CO2 emission. Traffic safety also benefits and it could be expected that also air quality improves. - Speed alert. This measure includes intelligent speed adaptation measures and speed alert systems. Both are implemented in the Netherlands. The effect on average speed are significant and positive effects on safety and air quality are assumed. - Ecodriving. A large programme (Het Nieuwe Rijden) is carried out the last ten years to increase the number of people using an ecodriving style. The programme is successful and results in a large CO2 effect. - Drive slow go fast is aiming at redesigning the space for car driving. A unique combination is the result: the link speed decreases (drive slow) and the journey time is lower (go fast). Effects are all positive, typically a no regret measure. This recent experience in the Netherlands with travel speed related measures has led to the following conclusions and discussion points: - The overview shows that most measures have positive effects on most external indicators as air quality, climate effects and traffic safety. For some measures however also negative effects are found such as travel time increases or growing congestion. On the societal level it is not always clear which combination of effects is approved by politicians. The speed reduction measure for example resulted in some areas in a combination of improved air quality and more congestion; - In the last case also the attitude of the public is important. Negative articles in newspapers could affect the measures. Communication about the effects is crucial; - To get a clear picture of the total effect of the measures all effects should be considered. With this knowledge a better choice can be made by politicians and other decision makers; - The only measure with only positive effects on all factors is Drive Slow Go Fast. The reason for this is that speed decreases but travel times are improved.

Franco Taggi (a cura di), Sicurezza stradale: verso il 2010 (Rapporto del progetto DATIS). Roma, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, dicembre 2005, 352 p. [6 file formato PDF, tot. 3,08 MB]. "Questo libro riporta parte di quanto realizzato nel progetto DATIS2 (Dati Incidenti Stradali), ralizzato in collaborazione con il Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti e finalizzato al miglioramento e alla diffusione dei dati fondamentali sugli aspetti sanitari della sicurezza stradale. Il volume completa la nostra "trilogia" sulla sicurezza stradale, integrando le due precedenti pubblicazioni, "I dati socio-sanitari della sicurezza stradale" (2001) e "Aspetti sanitari della sicurezza stradale" (2003), in vista degli obiettivi di riduzione delle conseguenze dell'incidentalità stradale individuati per il 2010. Nel volume sono trattati problemi relativi ai dati infortunistici e ai traumi, unitamente ad aspetti modellistici, non trascurando le questioni relative ai fattori di rischio e di protezione, come pure alla valutazione delle azioni intraprese. Un discorso a parte viene riservato alla prevenzione e alla comunicazione. Parte di quanto proposto presenta a nostro avviso carattere innovativo: lasciamo il giudizio alla valutazione dei lettori. Al fine di fornire materiale facilmente utilizzabile, soprattutto nei confronti dei giovani, abbiamo inoltre inserito nel volume alcuni lavori specifici e una serie di interviste ricche di spunti, rilasciate nell'ambito delle attività previste dal Progetto DATIS2, che compendiano peraltro in modo diretto il nostro punto di vista su diverse questioni."

Franco Taggi (a cura di), Aspetti sanitari della sicurezza stradale (Progetto DATIS - II rapporto). Dati, fattori di rischio, prevenzione, valutazione, costi. Roma, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 2003, 463 p. [10 file formato PDF, tot. 3,80 MB]. "Il presente rapporto contiene una serie di relazioni relative alle ricerche svolte dall'Istituto Superiore di Sanità nell'ambito del Progetto DATIS (Dati Incidenti Stradali), finalizzato alla rilevazione, al miglioramento e alla diffusione dei dati fondamentali sugli aspetti sanitari della sicurezza stradale. Il progetto - finanziato dal Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti - è stato realizzato all'interno di uno specifico Accordo Quadro sulla sicurezza stradale sottoscritto tra detto Ministero e l'Istituto stesso. Molte attività sono state talora approfondite in parallelo in un progetto generale sull'epidemiologia e la prevenzione degli incidenti e della violenza (Progetto EPIV), finanziato in proprio dall'Istituto. Considerato il tipo di approccio assai diversificato messo in atto per affrontare la complessa problematica della sicurezza stradale, sono stati inseriti in questo rapporto anche una serie di relazioni di contesto, utili per cogliere al meglio la valenza dei risultati conseguiti e per inquadrare correttamente i temi più strettamente sanitari in un quadro più generale: dalle indicazioni dell'OMS (Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità) al Piano Nazionale della Sicurezza Stradale, dai compiti e funzioni di istituzioni diverse fino ad esperienze di territorio, che mettono in luce l'importanza decisiva di molti aspetti organizzativi necessari per le azioni di contrasto dell'incidentalità stradale."

Franco Taggi, Gioia Di Cristofaro Longo, I dati socio-sanitari della sicurezza stradale (Progetto DATIS). Dai fattori di rischio degli incidenti stradali alla cultura della sicurezza stradale. Roma, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 2001, 382 p. [4 file formato PDF, tot. 1,78 MB]. "Il presente volume è parte integrante del Progetto DATIS. Questo progetto, realizzato nell'ambito dell'Accordo Quadro esistente tra l'Istituto Superiore di Sanità e l'Ispettorato Generale Circolazione e Sicurezza Stradale del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, costituisce una delle inziative volte alla rilevazione, al miglioramento e alla diffusione dei dati fondamentali sugli aspetti sanitari della sicurezza stradale. Gli articoli e i saggi pubblicati - frutto delle ricerche epidemiologiche svolte dall'Istituto Superiore di Sanità su questi temi - seguono, nel loro ordine di esposizione, la stessa logica dei modelli elaborati dall'Istituto per lo sviluppo di tali ricerche, tra cui in particolare il modello DFPV (Dati, Fattori di rischio, Prevenzione, Valutazione). Nella prima parte, partendo dall'analisi dei dati di base (statistiche correnti, casistiche, sorveglianza), il volume esamina e quantifica i principali fattori di rischio e di protezione esistenti, valutandone le possibilità di rimozione o di controllo. Sono presi in considerazione alcol, sostanze d'abuso, casco, cinture di sicurezza, seggiolini. Altri contributi riguardano gli utenti più deboli della strada, tra cui i pedoni e i ciclisti. La seconda parte è dedicata alle azioni di prevenzione da mettere in atto (soprattutto per evitare che l'incidente si verifichi o per minimizzare le conseguenze, anche in termini di riabilitazione) e alla valutazione dell'efficienza e dell'efficacia dei sistemi adottati. Nella terza parte, con l'intento di aprire un'ulteriore frontiera di ricerca, ancora largamente inesplorata, l'obiettivo si concentra sugli aspetti più propriamente "comportamentali" degli utenti della strada, in particolare dei giovani, nella convinzione dell'esistenza di un legame inscindibile che unisce stili i vita e comportamenti di guida, su cui agire contemporaneamente per costruire una nuova cultura della sicurezza stradale."

AEPSAL, Manel Fernández Jiménez, Cristina Baeza Adell, Seguridad vial para los trabajadors motoristas (sicurezza stradale per i lavoratori motociclisti). (Collecion cuadernos de seguridad vial). Madrid, Editorial MAPFRE, 2006, 215 p. [formato PDF, 802 kB]. "El riesgo de muerte en accidente de tráfico es 13 veces superior para el motorista que para el usuario de cualquier vehiculo. Este libro analiza las características del gremio de motoristas profesionales, sus índices de mortalidad y siniestralidad por accidente de tráfico, las características de las motos y los riesgos más comunes a los que están expuestos. También, trata de divulgar algunos procedimientos de trabajo más seguros en este entorno laboral."

Sabina Cedri, Cinzia Cedri, Sicurezza stradale: gli effetti della comunicazione intimidatoria sulla prevenzione degli incidenti. (Rapporti ISTISAN 08/33). Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, 2008, 27 p. [formato PDF, 189 kB]. "Le comunicazioni tramite fear appeal sono tuttora ampiamente utilizzate, anche se la ricerca in questo campo non ha portato a conclusioni chiare e definitive sulla loro efficacia. Molti degli studi condotti hanno preso in considerazione le più diverse tematiche di prevenzione, mentre il presente lavoro si focalizza sugli effetti dei messaggi intimidatori per la prevenzione degli incidenti stradali. Oltre alla paura, tali messaggi suscitano ansia, disgusto, depressione, senso di colpa. E potrebbero essere proprio questi stati d’animo a causare il cosiddetto “effetto boomerang”. La maggior parte dei lavori considerati dimostrano poi un effetto positivo in relazione agli atteggiamenti, per cui ad un maggior livello di paura corrisponde un cambiamento di atteggiamento nei confronti degli incidenti stradali. Esistono invece pochi studi che hanno analizzato l’efficacia di tali messaggi sui comportamenti, e tali studi presentano risultati discordanti. Il presente lavoro dimostra quindi una certa efficacia dei fear appeal sulla prevenzione degli incidenti stradali, quantomeno nel cambiamento di atteggiamento, anche se ci sono da considerare alcuni fattori limitanti che fanno riflettere sulla necessità di condurre studi focalizzati, ad esempio, sulle diverse componenti del messaggio intimidatorio."

Centro di Monitoraggio Regionale della Sicurezza Stradale, La situazione dell'incidentalità stradale in Piemonte al 2007. Rapporto 2009. Istituto di Ricerche Economiche e Sociali del Piemonte, Torino, 2009, 102 p. [formato PDF, 1,17 MB].

Sylvie Occelli, Riccardo Boero, Attila Grieco, Chiara Montaldo, Silvia Tarditi (Centro di Monitoraggio Regionale della Sicurezza Stradale), L'incidentalità stradale in Piemonte e le azioni della Regione. Presentazione del Rapporto annuale del Centro di Monitoraggio Regionale della Sicurezza Stradale, Convegno del CMRSS del Piemonte "L'incidentalità stradale in Piemonte e le azioni della Regione", Torino, 28 ottobre 2009, 27 slides [formato PDF, 1,09 MB].

Sonja Forward, Susanne Gustafsson, Peter Loukopoulos, Jonna Nyberg, Gunilla Sörensen, Utlandsföddas trafiksäkerhet (Traffic safety among immigrants in Sweden). (VTI Rapport 640). VTI, Linköping , 2009, 174 p. [formato PDF, 1,92 kB]. "Accident statistics have previously shown that involvement in Sweden in traffic accidents in some aspects differs for people born in Sweden and people born abroad. But what are these differences? How can they be described in more detail? And what actions are needed to increase traffic safety? The main aim of this report is to answer these questions through the use of four different studies. At the end of 2007 more than 13 percent of the Swedish population was not born in Sweden, proving that Sweden is a multicultural society. A previous Swedish study showed that the proportion of people involved in traffic accidents was slightly larger for people born abroad (4.6 %) than for people born in Sweden (3.4 %). In 2006 the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) presented a study dealing with the mobility and modal choice of Swedish immigrants. The study focussed on one of the sub-aims of the traffic policy, namely to have an accessible transport system. The results showed that a lower proportion of people born abroad had a driving licence compared to people born in Sweden. There was also a lower proportion that owned a vehicle. The Swedish Road Administration has now commissioned a follow-up to this study; the new study is divided into four parts and focuses on traffic safety of the immigrants living in Sweden. This new study is based on the vision of a safe road transport system and that it isn’t acceptable that people are killed or seriously injured in traffic (i.e. the Vision Zero)." [English summary].

Esther Walter, Mario Cavegn, Gianantonio Scaramuzza, Steffen Niemann, Jacqueline Bächli-Biétry, Motorradverkehr [dossier sicurezza Traffico motociclistico]. (bfu-Sicherheitsdossier Nr. 05). Bern, bfu – Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, 2009, 166 p. [formato PDF, 3,58 MB]. "Con il dossier sicurezza «Traffico motociclistico», l'upi – Ufficio prevenzione infortuni – ha realizzato un prontuario relativo alla sicurezza dei conducenti dei veicoli motorizzati a due ruote (ciclomotoristi esclusi). Nella pubblicazione si espone l'incidentalità dei motociclisti. Inoltre, in base a un'analisi del rischio sistematica relativa ai fattori a) motociclisti stessi, b) motociclette, c) conducenti di veicoli coinvolti nella collisione, d) veicoli coinvolti nella collisione, e) infrastruttura e f) equipaggiamento di protezione si formulano misure di prevenzione scientifiche." Con riassunto in italiano. Version abrégée en français.

Jacopo Pasquini (Agenzia Regionale di Sanita della Toscana), Infortuni stradali e stili di vita negli adolescenti. Relazione al 30. convegno annuale Associazione Italiana di Epidemiologia, Palermo, 4-6 ottobre 2006, 18 slides [formato PDF, 1,02 MB].

Sixten Nolén and Håkan Östlin, Penalty points systems – A pre-study. Road Traffic Inspectorate, Borlänge, Sweden, May 2008, 48 p. [formato PDF, 396 kB]. "The Road Traffic Inspectorate has initiated this explorative study, whose purpose is to carry out an analysis of potential problems and possibilities with a Swedish penalty points system. The study is divided into three parts: 1. An overview of the current state of knowledge based on previous Governmental official reports and scientific studies of the effects of penalty points systems. 2. An examination of existing penalty points systems through visits to six selected countries in Europe. 3. A separate R&D project in the form of an analysis of the introduction of a penalty points system from a behavioural science perspective. The Road Traffic Inspectorate notes that no previous Governmental official reports in Sweden have seen any legal obstacles to the introduction of a penalty points system in Sweden. A number of evaluations of existing penalty points systems indicate positive effects for road safety. However, most often the effects seem to weakening after six months to one year, although there are examples where the effects have been more persisted, particularly if the penalty points system has been coordinated with increased enforcement and media efforts. This explorative study shows that there is a potential to achieve increased and enduring traffic safety effects with a penalty points system if it is simple and clear and also combined with enforcement to reach a high perceived risk of detection. There are also good opportunities of cherry picking from other countries’ systems and optimising them to achieve an effective Swedish system. International experience also support that a holistic view on a penalty points system, with several interacting measures, can lead to long-lasting effects. From this perspective, traffic enforcement is a very important factor of success in combination with other regular activities that influence drivers, e.g. through information and education as well as technical solutions. The Road Traffic Inspectorate considers that the question of a Swedish penalty points system is worth analysing more deeply and without preconceptions in a new Governmental official enquiry. We also think that there are good opportunities of developing a Swedish penalty points system, and in this explorative study an embryo to a Swedish model is described."

Philippe Da Costa, Sécurité routière et circulation: la responsabilité des différents acteurs. Rapport du Conseil économique et social. Paris, 2007, 248 p. [formato PDF, 2,66 MB]. "Treize personnes tuées chaque jour sur les routes en France, un coût économique des accidents de la route estimé à 24,9 milliards d'euros en 2005, la sécurité routière constitue un enjeu de société majeur. Si des améliorations importantes ont été enregistrées ces dernières années, en particulier en France, où le nombre des tués et des blessés a diminué de façon sensible depuis 2002, le CES estime que de nombreuses améliorations sont encore à développer pour maintenir et améliorer les résultats obtenus. Le rapport aborde donc des thèmes liés à la sécurité des véhicules et des infrastructures, au comportement des usagers et à l'émergence d'une «culture» de la sécurité routière. Il préconise en outre de renforcer la cohérence des diverses politiques menées tant au niveau national que local et européen."

Best practice for cost-effective road safety infrastructure investments. Full report. CEDR, Paris, April 2008, 130 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "The objective of this Synthesis is the identification of best practice on cost-effective infrastructure related road safety investments, based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review and additionally on information/data collected through a questionnaire based survey, launched by the Task O7 Group. For the achievement of the above objectives an appropriate methodology was adopted: Initially, a review of selected reference documents dealing with cost-effectiveness studies of implemented road safety investments both in EU and worldwide takes place and the road safety strategies in the European countries are examined on the basis of the Questionnaire 1 of the CEDR O7 Group. At a second stage, several infrastructure related road safety investments identified through the literature review, but also through the analysis of the Questionnaire 2 of the CEDR O7 Group and the previous CEDR report, are further investigated and a preliminary ranking is attempted. In this Synthesis, a complete list of 55 examined road safety investments is presented in an exhaustive literature review. These are classified according to the type of infrastructure they can be implemented (general, motorways, rural roads, junctions, urban areas). Out of these 55 investments, more than half can be applied on simple road sections, even more of them on bend sections and others can be applied on junctions. Additionally, more than half of the investments can be applied in more than one infrastructure element."

International Transport Forum, Joint OECD/ITF Transport Research Committee, Workshop on Motorcycling Safety held in Lillehammer (Norway) on 10-11 June 2008. Final Report. (ITF/OECD/JTRC/TS6(2008)1). OECD and the International Transport Forum, 2008, 52 p. + Annexes to the Final Report 55 p. [formato PDF, 514 kB + 6,38 MB].

Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Volume 18: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Bicycles. (NCHRP Report 500), Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 177 p. [formato PDF, 4,20 MB]. "The report provides strategies that can be employed to reduce collisions involving bicycles."

Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-and-Pedestrian Collisions. (TCRP Report 125), Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 76 p. [formato PDF, 3,18 MB]. "The research involved obtaining information, data, and relevant input from a sample of small, medium, and large transit systems that are geographically diverse, as well as from a large array of stakeholders—including 22 pedestrians, 26 bus operators, and 60 agencies and organizations concerned with transit and pedestrian safety. The Guidebook is divided into four parts: Part I of the Guidebook discusses how to mitigate the four most common collision types and circumstances. Part II presents a variety of strategies, including operator training and outreach, safety checks, defensive driving techniques and policies, public outreach and education, traffic engineering and roadway design, bus mirror configuration and placement, bus design/ modification, bus stop location planning and bus stop design, and bus stop lighting and illumination. Detailed information for over 80 applications of the strategies is presented, as well as information on many more suggested applications of the strategies. Part III contains 14 case studies, which provide in-depth examples for the best documented applications. The case studies include detailed information about what is known about the bus-and-pedestrian collision problem, the implementation of one or more mitigating strategies, the goals and costs of implementation, and the successful and problematic elements of strategy implementation. Finally, Part IV presents a discussion of important considerations for improving pedestrian safety around transit buses. This section includes a description of contributing factors that are not necessarily directly linked to one of the four primary types of busand- pedestrian collisions described in the Guidebook, but that were identified by transit agencies and other stakeholders as playing an important role in the occurrence of these collisions. This section also discusses how to approach strategy implementation and specifically how to combine two or more strategies to add to the potential for success in reducing bus-and-pedestrian collisions and improving overall safety. The Guidebook provides transit agencies and stakeholders with an array of strategies from which to choose for mitigating the frequency and severity of bus-and-pedestrian collisions, as well as approaches for doing so."

L.J. Mountain, W.M. Hirst and M.J. Maher, Costing lives or saving lives: a detailed evaluation of the impact of speed cameras. Traffic, Engineering and Control, 45 (2004) 280-287 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "The real problem with speeding is that it is socially acceptable. Most drivers speed but are rarely involved in crashes. Police tolerance to marginal speed limit infringements is assumed, the likelihood of detection is perceived as low and fixed penalties are not considered particularly severe. High performance vehicles with speed capabilities well in excess of maximum national speed limits are not illegal but rather are considered a symbol of personal success. The result is that speeding is not perceived as dangerous, criminal or immoral but rather is considered the norm. Attempts to enforce speed limits tend to be unpopular, being viewed more as an infringement of personal liberty than as a curb on anti-social and potentially lethal behaviour. The evidence for the safety benefits of reduced speed is, however, strong. Certainly the basic laws of physics suggest that lower speeds will reduce both accident frequency and severity: lower speeds reduce both stopping distances and the energy dissipated in a crash. Available evidence does indeed confirm that both accident frequency and severity fall with reduced speeds (see, for example, McCarthy (2001), Stuster et al. (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000)). What is less clear is how best to ensure that drivers maintain safe speeds. While a wide range of approaches has been tried, speed enforcement cameras have undoubtedly attracted most public attention, frequently making headline news as, for example, happened recently following the publication of an evaluation of the UK national safety camera programme (Gains et al. 2004) Certainly for those responsible for road safety, speed enforcement cameras are seen as a way of increasing the perceived risk of prosecution for speeding and hence raising drivers awareness of the dangers, and the unacceptability, of excessive speed. However, although the rapid proliferation of cameras in recent years has undoubtedly increased the perceived risk of prosecution it has not fundamentally changed attitudes to the consequences of excessive speed. Critics have suggested that the primary objective of cameras is to raise money rather than to improve road safety and there have been claims that they may actually cost lives. While most of the criticisms of speed cameras are spurious (PACTS 2003, Mylius 2004), arising from a social climate that continues to consider the speed and the personal liberty afforded by cars desirable, the use of speed cameras continues to be controversial."

L.J. Mountain, W.M. Hirst and M.J. Maher, Are speed enforcement cameras more effective than other speed management measures? The impact of speed management schemes on 30mph roads. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 37 (2005) 742-754 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the impact of various types of speed management schemes on both traffic speeds and accidents. The study controls for general trends in accidents, regression-to-mean effects and migration, separately estimating the accident changes attributable to the impact of the schemes on traffic speed and on traffic volume. It was found that, when judged in absolute terms, all types of speed management scheme have remarkably similar effects on accidents, with an average fall in personal injury accidents of about 1 accident/km/year. In terms of the percentage accident reduction, however, engineering schemes incorporating vertical deflections (such as speed humps or cushions) offer the largest benefits: at 44%, the average reduction in personal injury accidents attributable to such schemes, is twice that at sites where safety cameras were used to control speeds (22%) and they were the only type of scheme to have a significant impact on fatal and serious accidents. Other types of engineering scheme (with a fall of 29% in personal injury accidents) were on average less effective in reducing accidents than schemes with vertical features but more effective than cameras. All types of scheme were generally effective in reducing speeds, with the largest reductions tending to be obtained with vertical deflections and the smallest with other types of engineering schemes."

Atti del 2° Workshop Nazionale "Osservatori per gli incidenti stradali; dai dati alle azioni. Strumenti per le politiche di sicurezza", Arezzo, 12-13 ottobre 2006. Atti del convegno, Agenzia Regionale di Sanità della Toscana, Firenze, gennaio 2007, 165 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB].

Giulio De Leo (Univ. di Parma), Un'Analisi Costi/Benefici socio-ambientali dell'obbligo di accensione dei fari anabbaglianti secondo il nuovo codice della strada. in: Ecologia. Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Ecologia, Torino, 12-14 settembre 2005, a cura di Claudio Comoglio, Elena Comino, e Francesca Bona [online], 2005, 5 p. [formato PDF, 170 kB]. "In questo lavoro, sulla base di dati ISTAT, ISS e del progetto europeo Externe rispettivamente sul parco veicoli circolante, l'incidentalità, i decessi ed i ricoveri ospedalieri ad essa associata, le emissioni di gas inquinanti e la loro monetizzazione, abbiamo sviluppato un'Analisi Costi/Benefici socio-ambientali per valutare quale dovrebbe essere l'efficacia di questa norma in termini di 'incidenti evitati' affinché i benefici monetari (per la riduzione dei costi ospedalieri) siano superiori alla somma dei costi diretti che le famiglie debbono sostenere a causa del maggior consumo di carburante e di quelli indiretti dovuti all'aumento delle emissioni inquinanti."

C.C. Schoon, G. Schermers, Risicoverhogende factoren voor langere en zwaardere vrachtautocombinaties op het onderliggend wegennet (Factors increasing the risk for longer heavier goods vehicles using the secondary road network). (R-2008-2). SWOV, Leidschendam, 2008, 37 p. [formato PDF, 533 KB]. "An LHV, a longer heavier goods vehicle - longer and heavier than the regular ones -, can only use the secondary road network when the local road authority has granted permission to do so. To support the road authorities, CROW Information and Technology Platform for Infrastructure, Traffic, Transport and Public space is preparing a publication containing the criteria which road sections and intersections must meet before permission can be granted. During the preparation several road safety questions came up. CROW turned to SWOV for the answers, and they are given in this report. The questions are about the following subjects: 1. risks of overtaking; 2. interaction with vulnerable road users at intersections; 3. suction effect on two-wheelers; 4. risks for moped riders using the roadway; 5. risks at dusk or dark. These questions aim to get answers about whether LHVs have an increased risk of a crash compared with regular vehicle combinations. Considering the short time limit for the answers, no new knowledge was gathered, but only available knowledge has been used."

Alberto Ceriani (project leader), Studio sull’incidentalità stradale in Lombardia. Rapporto finale. Milano, Istituto Regionale di Ricerca della Lombardia (IReR), maggio 2007, 266 p. [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. "La presente ricerca costituisce una prima elaborazione del concetto di sicurezza stradale sviluppata attraverso un approccio multidimensionale in grado, quindi, di tenere conto di tutti gli aspetti che interessano il fenomeno nella sua complessità. In particolare sono state identificate le dimensioni tecnologica e infrastrutturale, normativa e sociale che a loro volta sono state scomposte in ulteriori ambiti d’indagine. Per meglio rispondere alle finalità della ricerca sono state utilizzate diverse metodologie: sul versante quantitativo sono state prodotte delle elaborazioni a partire dai dati Istat forniti dall’Ufficio statistico della Regione e riguardanti gli incidenti stradali avvenuti in Lombardia fra il 1999 e il 2004 che hanno permesso un analisi complessiva della dimensione statistica del problema; sul versante qualitativo, invece, sono state condotte delle interviste semi-strutturate ad alcuni addetti ai lavori coinvolti, a vari livelli, nella questione della sicurezza stradale (dai Mobility Manager, agli assicuratori, ai concessionari) e alcuni focus group con un gruppo di studenti neo-patentati dell’Università Milano-Bicocca con un gruppo di guidatori. Inoltre, sono stati prodotti tre approfondimenti riguardanti rispettivamente il contributo della psicologia viaria nello studio e nella prevenzione dell’incidentalità stradale, il ruolo dei mezzi di comunicazione nella mitigazione del rischio (attraverso l’analisi di alcune campagne di sensibilizzazione) e il tipo di rappresentazione della sicurezza stradale che emerge dagli articoli pubblicati sul Corriere della Sera tra il 2000 ed il 2005."

Margie Peden [et al.] (edited by) World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004, 217 p. [11 files formato PDF].

Марджи Педен, Всемирный доклад о предупреждении дорожно-транспортного травматизма. Пер. с англ. Geneva, World Health Organization / Издательство "Весь Мир", 2004, 280 с. [formato PDF].

Nicole Muhlrad (INRETS), A short history of physical speed reduction measures in European urban areas, Extra ICTCT Workshop, New Delhi, 2000, 7 p. [formato PDF, 105 KB].

Nina Dragutinovic & Divera Twisk, Use of mobile phones while driving – effects on road safety. A literature review (R-2005-12), SWOV, Leidschendam, 2005, 57 p. [formato PDF, 638 KB]. "This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road."

Pieter van Vliet and Govert Schermers, Sustainable Safety: a new approach for road safety in the Netherlands, Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer, 2000, 26 p. [formato PDF, 150 KB].

Fred Wegman, Charles Goldenbeld, Speed management: enforcement and new technologies, (R-2006-5), Leidschendam, SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, 2006, 31 p. [formato PDF, 450 KB]. I risultati della ricerca scientifica sulla efficacia dei controlli sui limiti di velocità (telecamere e fotocamere, polizia stradale) e sulle applicazioni di nuove tecnologie. "Due to the massive character of speeding and inappropriate travel speeds, speed management continues to be an important and challenging policy area. This paper reviews the scientific evidence about the effects of modern speed enforcement methods and discusses some new technologies for speed management and their potential impact on crashes."

Fred Wegman, Atze Dijkstra, Govert Schermers, Pieter van Vliet, Sustainable Safety in the Netherlands: the vision, the implementation and the safety effects, (R-2005-5), Leidschendam, SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, 2005, 33 p. [formato PDF, 498 KB]. "The Sustainable Safety vision is based on two leading ideas: how to prevent human errors as far as possible, and how to ensure that the crash conditions are such that the human tolerance is not exceeded and severe injury is practically excluded. The starting point of 'Sustainable Safety' was to drastically reduce the probability of crashes in advance through safety conscious planning and design. Where traffic crashes still occur, the process that determines the severity of these crashes should be influenced, so that serious injury is virtually excluded. Within Sustainable Safety, man is the reference standard (human error and human tolerance). A sustainably safe traffic system has an infrastructure that is adapted to the capabilities and limitations of humans through proper planning and road design, has vehicles that are equipped to simplify the driving task and offer protection to the vulnerable human being (crash protection), and finally, has road users that are properly educated and informed, and which driving behaviour is regularly controlled. The key-issue of 'Sustainable Safety' is that it has a preventative rather than a curative (reactive) nature."

Chris Schoon, Traffic legislation and safety in Europe concerning the moped and the A1 category (125 cc) motorcycle. (R-2004-10), Leidschendam, SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, 2004, 63 p. [formato PDF, 892 KB]. Studio che mette a confronto la normativa dei paesi europei relativa alla sicurezza dei motocicli (motorini). "Questionnaire study, commissioned by the Swedish National Road Administration, into the safety aspects of mopeds and the light motorcycle A1 category in European counties. A comparison was made of national moped regulations, such as minimum ages for riding a moped, theoretical test, practical tests, speed limits for urban and rural roads, compulsory helmet use and the existence of registration plates and documents."

Rodolfo Lewanski, L’automobile: il rischio quotidiano. Bologna, dicembre 2005, 35 p. [formato PDF, 333 kB] - Seminar paper, Dipartimento di Organizzazione e Sistema Politico, Università di Bologna. (Ampio esame a livello europeo ed italiano, fa riferimento ai costi sociali, umani ed economici degli incidenti, agli utenti deboli della strada, ai comportamenti a rischio ed alle misure per ridurre l’incidentalità. Contiene dati e tabelle).

Peden M. .. [et al.] (ed. by), World report on road traffic injury prevention, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 2004, 217 p. [11 files, formato PDF].

Rune Elvik, Peter Christensen, Astrid Amundsen, Speed and road accidents: an evaluation of the Power Model, Oslo, Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), TOI Report 740/2004, December 2004, 148 p. [formato PDF, 532 KB]. Studio sulle applicazioni del modello “Power Model” sul rapporto tra velocità e incidenti stradali. “This report investigates the effects of changes in speed on the number of road accidents or road accident victims. It is found that the relationship between speed and accidents or accident victims can be represented by a set of power functions, as postulated in the so called “Power Model” of the relationship between speed and road safety.”

Francesca Racioppi [et al.], Preventing road traffic injury: a public health perspective for Europe. Copenhagen, World Health Organization (WHO Regional Office for Europe), 2004, 97 p. [formato PDF, 660 kB] (sintesi abbastanza approfondita sugli incidenti stradali in Europa, con particolare attenzione alle misure di sicurezza e prevenzione; con bibliografia).

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Prevenzione degli incidenti stradali: promozione di interventi formativi nelle autoscuole. Documento di indirizzo /a cura di Anna De Santi, Pietro Casella, Luana Penna. Rapporti ISTISAN 04/22 Parte 1, Roma, 2004, 31 p. [formato PDF, 525 KB] (documento utile agli insegnanti e istruttori di autoscuola e a tutti gli educatori impegnati a migliorare la sicurezza stradale, si accompagna ad un manuale metodologico (Rapporti ISTISAN 04/22 Parte 2)

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Prevenzione degli incidenti stradali: promozione di interventi formativi nelle autoscuole. Manuale operativo per insegnanti e istruttori /a cura di Anna De Santi, Pietro Casella, Luana Penna. Rapporti ISTISAN 04/22 Parte 2, Roma, 2004, vii, 90 p. [formato PDF, 745 kB] (il manuale, che si accompagna al documento di indirizzo (Rapporti ISTISAN 04/22 Parte 1), destinato agli insegnanti e istruttori di autoscuola, fornisce indicazioni sulle tecniche di comunicazione e sulle metodologie didattiche da adottare nelle lezioni teoriche e pratiche (Sezione A), e approfondimenti e metodi per l’insegnamento relativi a comportamenti alla guida, fattori individuali, requisiti psicofisici, uso di alcol e altre droghe e primo soccorso (Sezione B).

Michele Faberi, Marco Martuzzi, Franco Pirrami, Assessing the health impact and social costs of mopeds: feasibility study in Rome. World Health Organization, Rome, 2004, xvii, 193 p. [formato PDF, 8,07 MB](studio molto completo, accurato e dettagliato sull’impatto sociale (incidenti, mortalità, morbilità) e ambientale (emissioni) causati dai motorini nella città di Roma, con una valutazione dei costi esterni (monetarizzati). Contiene diversi riferimenti a dati italiani e generali (fattori di emissione, parco motorini per provincia, ecc.) e costituisce un modello per un possibile studio a livello nazionale (italiano).

Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Patente a punti e sicurezza stradale: effetti e comparazioni. Roma, novembre 2003, 77 p. [formato PDF, 1 MB]

Atti del Convegno nazionale sulla sicurezza stradale: Psicologia del conducente ed incidentalità sulla strada: analisi dei fattori di rischio (Politecnico di Torino, 11 aprile 2002)


Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piano Regionale della Sicurezza Stradale, art. 2, L.R. 25 ottobre 2004, n. 25 e s.m.i. Testo e tavole. Trieste, 25 settembre 2006, 268 p. [formato PDF, 22,8 MB]. "Il P.R.S.S. si articola in cinque parti che riguardano le seguenti aree tematiche: 1.aspetti generali; 2.stato di fatto ed evoluzione storica e prevedibile della sicurezza stradale nel F.V.G.; 3.obiettivi e loro dimensionamento; 4.azioni previste; 5.gestione e monitoraggio del Piano."

RST Ricerche e Servizi per il Territorio, Consulta Nazionale sulla Sicurezza Stradale, Libro bianco Stato della sicurezza stradale, attuazione del piano nazionale, prime valutazioni di efficacia. Bilancio generale. Aprile 2007, 272 p. [formato PDF, 2,09 MB]. "Questo documento illustra lo stato di attuazione dei “Progetti Pilota” e dei primi due programmi di attuazione del Piano Nazionale della sicurezza stradale. Per fare questo prende in esame gli strumenti di programmazione regionale in attuazione dei programmi nazionali ed esamina circa 700 progetti di intervento."

RST Ricerche e Servizi per il Territorio, Consulta Nazionale sulla Sicurezza Stradale, Libro bianco Stato della sicurezza stradale, attuazione del piano nazionale, prime valutazioni di efficacia. Sintesi. Aprile 2007, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,19 MB].

Piano Nazionale della Sicurezza Stradale (PNSS). Indirizzi generali e linee guida di attuazione. Roma, febbraio 2000, 176 p. [formato PDF, 1,43 MB]. I documenti, gli allegati e i programmi annuali di attuazione del PNSS sono disponibili sul sito del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti.

Regione Piemonte, Piano Regionale della Sicurezza Stradale (PRSS).

Generalitat de Catalunya, Pla de seguretat viaria 2005-2007. Aprovat per acord de Govern de 28 de desembre de 2004 i tramès al Parlament de Catalunya el 29 de desembre de 2004. 44 p. [formato PDF, 246 KB]. (Versione in catalano, in spagnolo e in inglese).

National Road Safety Strategy of the Czech Republic 2004-2010. April 2004, 26 p. [formato PDF, 334 kB].


Ingrid van Schagen and Klaus Machata, The BestPoint Handbook. Getting the best out of a Demerit Point System. BestPoint, August 2012, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. "Various kinds of Demerit Point Systems (DPS) have been developed and implemented in European countries, aimed at tackling repeat offences in road transport by acting as a deterrent and providing sanctioning. The impact of a DPS on the number of crashes is often reported to be significant but temporary. In this context the objective of the EU project BestPoint was to establish a set of recommended practices that would result in a more effective and sustainable contribution of DPS’s to road safety. The BestPoint Handbook provides a concise overview of these recommended practices and is the final result of the BestPoint project. It is based on evaluation studies, psychological and learning theories, expert experiences and considerations, and information about current practices."


Centro regionale di monitoraggio della sicurezza stradale, Relazione sullo stato dell’incidentalità stradale anno 2010. Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, 2012, 144 p. [formato PDF, 10,9 MB]. "La Relazione sullo stato dell’incidentalità stradale nel 2010 (L.R. 25/2004 art.5) per la prima volta si basa sui dati raccolti dal Centro Regionale Monitoraggio della Sicurezza Stradale (CRMSS) poiché, dall’approvazione della Legge regionale a oggi, il tempo intercorso ha permesso di portare a regime il flusso dei dati verso il CRMSS solo dal 2011. Dal 1° ottobre 2009 le Polizie Locali e i Carabinieri, infatti, inviano i dati degli incidenti con relativa geolocalizzazione al CRMSS e dal 2011 sono stati caricati nel sistema i dati relativi alla Polizia Stradale relativi all’ultimo quinquennio. I dati sono completi per tutto il 2009 e il 2010, mentre per quanto riguarda gli anni precedenti le banche dati sono "a macchia di leopardo". La Relazione esamina i dati degli incidenti del 2010 e quelli correlati della Sanità. Sono esclusi dalle analisi territoriali e sanitarie, il Comune di Trieste che invia il tracciato ISTAT al Servizio Statistica della Regione ma non mette a disposizione i dati al CRMSS per questa tipologia di analisi e il Comune di Monfalcone che per quanto riguarda i dati 2010 ancora non è riuscito ad allinearsi al sistema. Il gruppo tecnico che gestisce il CRMSS è composto da funzionari regionali del Servizio Infrastrutture di trasporto e comunicazione della Direzione centrale Infrastrutture, mobilità, pianificazione territoriale e lavori pubblici, del Servizio Epidemiologico della Direzione centrale Salute, integrazione socio – sanitaria e politiche sociali e del Servizio Statistica e affari generali della Direzione centrale Finanze, patrimonio e programmazione, a sottolineare la caratteristica interdisciplinare del Centro e della materia, nonché quella interistituzionale."

ISTAT, ACI, Incidenti stradali. Anno 2010 Roma, ISTAT, novembre 2011, 21 p. [formato PDF, 262 kB] + tavole stat. + nota metodologica. "Nel 2010 sono stati registrati in Italia 211.404 incidenti stradali con lesioni a persone. Il numero dei morti è stato pari a 4.090, quello dei feriti ammonta a 302.735. Rispetto al 2009, si riscontra una leggera diminuzione del numero degli incidenti (-1,9%) e dei feriti (-1,5%) e un calo più consistente del numero dei morti (-3,5%). Rispetto all'obiettivo fissato dall'UE nel Libro Bianco del 2001, che prevedeva la riduzione della mortalità del 50% entro il 2010, l'Italia ha raggiunto una diminuzione del 42,4% del numero dei morti, valore in linea con la media europea UE27, pari al -42,8%. L'indice di mortalità si mantiene superiore alla media giornaliera (1,9 decessi ogni 100 incidenti) per tutto l'arco di tempo che va dalle 20 alle 7 del mattino, raggiungendo il valore massimo intorno alle 4 di notte (5,7 decessi ogni 100 incidenti). La domenica è il giorno nel quale si registra il livello più elevato dell'indice di mortalità (3,1 morti per 100 incidenti). Nel 69,4% dei casi a morire sono i conducenti di veicoli, nel 15% i passeggeri trasportati e nel 15,6% i pedoni. Tra i conducenti deceduti (2.837 in totale) a seguito di incidente stradale, i più colpiti sono i giovani, in particolare quelli compresi nella fascia di età tra i 20 e i 24 anni (282 morti e 25.885 feriti). La categoria di veicolo più coinvolta in incidente stradale è costituita dalle autovetture (67,8%); seguono i motocicli (13,2%), i ciclomotori (5,6%) e le biciclette (3,9%)."

Carlo Putignano (ISTAT), Trends of road accidents in Italy 1996-2005. IATSS Research 31 (2007) p. 134-137 [formato PDF, 5,30 MB].

Osservatorio Città Sostenibili (del) Politecnico e Università di Torino (a cura di), Statistiche sull’incidentalità in Italia. Utenti deboli e a rischio, (Quaderno di lavoro, 15), Torino, Regione Piemonte, marzo 2006, 28 p. [formato PDF, 948 kB].

ISTAT, ACI, Incidenti stradali. Anno 2005 (Statistiche in breve), Roma, ISTAT, novembre 2006, 15 p. [formato PDF, 250 kB ]. Continua nel 2005 il trend iniziato a partire dall’introduzione della patente a punti, con un leggero calo del numero di incidenti, morti e feriti rispetto al 2004.