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Susan Shaheen, Rachel Finson, Abhinav Bhattacharyya, Mark Jaffee (UC Berkeley), Moving Toward a Sustainable California: Exploring Livability, Accessibility & Prosperity. White Paper. TSRC, University of California, Berkeley, October 2016, 39 p. [formato PDF, 719 KB]. "The Transportation Sustainability Research Center at UC Berkeley conducted a series of tasks to assist the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) with an understanding of prosperity, accessibility, and livability metrics. Research findings were collected through a combination of literature reviews and expert interviews. Researchers found that prosperity, accessibility, and livability metrics all involve a component of cooperation with partner jurisdictions. A flexible approach that accounts for local and corridor considerations and evolves over time is emphasized. The white paper highlights the importance of equity considerations, data availability, and the scale of measurement. Prosperity emphasizes long-term or short-term strategies to improve quality of life, focusing on economic indicators, such as income, business, and property values. Prosperity metrics can be used to prioritize transportation projects based on social, environmental, or equity concerns. Accessibility metrics reflect the ability for transportation systems to provide people with access to opportunities. Metrics are centered on travel time and length, land use, mobility, and the availability of public transit. Livability focuses on quality of life improvements with community outcomes and impacts at the local level. Metrics - such as affordability, public health, quality of accessibility, environment, aesthetics, and public participation - all pertain to livability."

Josef Becker, Elke Schramm, Barrierefreier Schienenpersonennahverkehr. Beschreibung und Bewertung der Anforderungen mobilitätseingeschränkter Menschen (Trasporto pubblico locale su rotaia senza barriere. Descrizione e valutazione delle esigenze di persone a mobilità limitata). (Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Verkehr ; B2). Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, November 2003, 126 p. [formato PDF, 3,26 MB].

Wulf-Holger Arndt (Hrsg.), Barrierfree Mobility in Asia and Europe. Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Land- und Seeverkehr, Berlin, Dezember 2007, 68 p. [formato PDF, 3,45 MB]. Proceedings of the Workshop II: Accessibility for all - Barrierfree Mobility (12.9.07), Meeting „Urban Transport & Mobility“(12.9.-13.9.07), Urban Sustainability Conference, Asia-Pacific Weeks, Berlin 2007.

Peter Bonsall and Charlotte Kelly, Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups. Transport Policy, 12 (2005) 406-418 (27 p.) [formato PDF, 680 kB]. "The importance of social exclusion in the context of congestion charging is discussed, and the groups most particularly at-risk identified. A new technique, based on generation and investigation of a synthetic population is introduced and used to establish the impacts on at-risk groups of six congestion charging schemes in Leeds. The distribution and severity of impacts are seen to depend crucially on the precise definition of the charge area, the basis of the charges and exemptions provided. Using the new technique, it can be seen how the impact on at-risk groups could be minimized without compromising the overall objectives of congestion charging. Further potential applications of the new technique are outlined."

Taede Tillema, Bert Van Wee. Tom De Jong, Road pricing from a geographical perspective: a literature review and implications for research into accessibility, Paper presented at the 43rd ERSA Congress, August 27th-30th 2003, Jyväskylä (Finland). 25 p. [formato PDF, 172 KB]. "Road pricing policies have been a subject of research for many decades. Even though until now examples of actual implication in the real world are limited, many different road-pricing measures have been considered, both in literature as well as in the political debate in several countries. However, most literature focuses on economic aspects, more or less ignoring spatial consequences. In this paper we will concentrate on the spatial effects of pricing policy and introduce the typical geographic concept of accessibility into the discussion about pricing policy. The paper firstly gives some backgrounds of pricing policies. Some objectives of road pricing in general are given. Furthermore some examples of already implemented pricing measures in countries all over the world are mentioned. General literature concerning pricing policies aims specifically on economic effects. This is mainly because of the typical economic aspects, which can be found in the theory of pricing policy such as the pricing of a scarce good as infrastructure capacity, related to time aspects. Also studies concerning acceptability of road pricing policies are discussed, because acceptance plays an important role in the implementation of pricing policies. The paper shortly addresses some of the economic and acceptability related literature. But the literature review of the paper focuses specifically on the geographical aspects of pricing policies. These geographical aspects have received much less attention so far although road-pricing measures may cause important spatial effects. Therefore the second part of the paper focuses on these geographical aspects. A specific research field in geography is accessibility. Accessibility is a concept that connects infrastructure and land-use. The research fields of accessibility and pricing policies in isolation are well elaborated. However, the link between road pricing policies and accessibility (measures) forms a new research field. The paper explains the importance of the concept of accessibility. In practice accessibility can be computed with accessibility measures. These measures form quantifications of accessibility. Different types of accessibility measures exist differing in concept as well as complexity. All these measures have in common that transport costs are not included at all or at least not in a realistic way. After explaining the concept of accessibility different categories of accessibility measures are explained and their general advantages and disadvantages are given. Furthermore possibilities to adapt or improve accessibility measures are discussed. After this discussion the actual link between road pricing policies and accessibility measures is explained. The discussion begins with the presentation of a conceptual model of the accessibility (and spatial) effects of road pricing. Subsequently an observation is made where current measures fall short to include pricing policy costs in a realistic way. This observation will lead to the determination of directions for improvement. Besides the general possibilities to adjust different accessibility measures, each measure is specifically evaluated on the ability to improve the way of describing accessibility effects of road pricing."

CERTU, Schémas directeurs d'accessibilité de transports collectifs urbains. Analyse de cas. Certu, Lyon, décembre 2006, 69 p. [formato PDF, 666 KB].

Ahmed M. El-Geneidy, David M. Levinson (Univ. of Minnesota), Access to destinations: development of accessibility measures. Final report. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, May 2006, 125 p. [formato PDF, 7,83 MB]. ("This study: a) reviews the literature on accessibility and its performance measures with an emphasis on measures that planners and decision makers can understand and replicate; b)identifies the appropriate measures of accessibility, where accessibility measures are evaluated in terms of ease of understanding, accuracy and complexity; c) illustrates these accessibility measures.")

K.T. Geurs, J.R. Ritsema van Eck (Univ. Utrecht), Accessibility measures: review and applications. Evaluation of accessibility impacts of land-use transport scenarios, and related social and economic impacts. (RIVM report 408505 006). RIVM, Bilthoven, June 2001, 265 p. [formato PDF, 19,6 MB]. "This report describes an extensive literature study and three case studies aimed at reviewing accessibility measures for their ability to evaluate the accessibility impacts of national land-use and transport scenarios."

K.T. Geurs, J.R. Ritsema van Eck (Univ. Utrecht), Verstedelijking, bereikbaarheid en milieu (Urbanizzazione, accessibilità e ambiente). Achtergrondstudie voor de Toets van de Vijfde Nota Ruimtelijke Ordening (PKB deel 1) op ekologische effecten. (RIVM rapport 711931006/2001/2002). RIVM, Bilthoven, 2001, 114 p. [formato PDF, 20,9 MB]. (abstract in English)


Isti Hidayati, Wendy Tan, and Claudia Yamu, Conceptualizing Mobility Inequality: Mobility and Accessibility for the Marginalized. Journal of Planning Literature. First Published May 4, 2021. (16 p.) [formato PDF, 317 kB]. Research Article. Open Access. "The burgeoning landscape of literature on mobility inequalities has led to discrepancies between a conceptual understanding of mobility inequalities and its implementation in planning practice. Reviewing 270 publications across five decades, this article identifies intrinsic and extrinsic factors and approaches for understanding and analyzing mobility inequality. Using two thought experiments to critically locate variations in factors and approaches, dilemmas and challenges in addressing mobility inequality for the marginalized are exposed. The article concludes with future research directions for investigating mobility inequality."

Ana Horta, Automobility and Oil Vulnerability Unfairness as Critical to Energy Transitions. Nature and Culture, 15 (2) 2020, 134-145 (12 p.)[formato PDF, 152 kB]. "Climate policies in the European Union require a substantial reduction in carbon emissions from road transport. However, in the last decades the system of automobility has expanded considerably, establishing a process of path dependence that is very difficult to reverse. Changes in current patterns of automobility may increase oil vulnerability of citizens dependent on the use of the car, aggravating forms of social inequity. Based on an analysis of how television news framed a period of oil price rises in a country highly dependent on car use, the article shows that oil vulnerability may resonate with socially shared sociocultural meanings such as lack of trust in political leaders, which may aggravate the social perception of unfairness and compromise public support for energy transitions toward sustainability."

Yujie Guo, Zhiwei Chen, Amy Stuart, Xiaopeng Li, Yu Zhang (University of Florida), A systematic overview of transportation equity in terms of accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes: From conventional to emerging technologies. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, in press, available online 5 February 2020, 100091, 14 p. [formato PDF, 644 kB]. Open Access. "Emerging transportation technologies (e.g., electric vehicles) and services (e.g., shared mobility) provide efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to traditional travel modes. However, whether these innovative technologies bring benefits to different population groups in an equal and reasonable manner is still an open question. The various methods applied to evaluate the equity performance of these systems are also not clearly comparable. In this paper, we comprehensively review methods from the existing literature for assessing the equity of a few important system outcomes: accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety. We also identify the existing challenges of analyzing equity for emerging transportation technologies. We unify the existing methodologies into a three-step framework that includes population measurement, cost/benefit measurement and equity assessment, and we summarize the applicable measurements for each step, in detail. A handful of literature focusing on emerging transportation technologies, such as shared mobility and autonomous vehicles, were also identified and surveyed; the methodologies used were found to fit with the three-step framework. We summarize the major findings and discuss promising directions for developing more sophisticated equity assessment methodologies for emerging transportation technologies. Overall, based on a comprehensive review, this paper contributes a framework for assessing the equity of transportation systems that integrates accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes. The summarized framework can be an overview resource to assist researchers and transportation planners who require equity analysis methods. The research gaps identified also provide directions for equity research on emerging transportation technologies."

Wei-Shiuen Ng and Ashley Acker, Understanding Urban Travel Behaviour by Gender for Efficient and Equitable Transport Policies. Discussion Paper No. 2018-01. International Transport Forum, Paris, France, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Gender is one of the key socio-demographic variables that can influence travel behaviour, but it is often the least understood. Understanding travel behaviour by gender will help better design transport policies that are efficient and equitable. Due to the gendered division of work in households, women often have multiple tasks and activities. As a result, women are more likely to have shorter commute distances, to chain trips, to have more non-work related trips, to travel at off-peak hours, and to choose more flexible modes. This study examines travel behaviour by gender in eight different cities, across three different continents, focusing on transport mode, trip purpose, travel distance and departure time for Auckland, Dublin, Hanoi, Helsinki, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon and Manila. The most common trends found in the cities are that women tend to travel shorter distances and prefer public transport and taxi services to cars more than men."

John Stanley, David A. Hensher, Janet Stanley, Graham Currie, William H. Greene and Dianne Vella-Brodrick, Social exclusion and the value of mobility. (Working Paper ITLS-WP-10-14). Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, University of Sydney, July 2010, 21 p. [formato PDF, 293 kB]. "This paper investigates factors likely to increase a person’s risk of social exclusion, drawing on survey data specifically framed for this purpose. We use a generalised ordered logit model that accounts for observed and unobserved heterogeneity and derive the marginal effects for each influencing attribute. We find that people are less likely to be at risk of social exclusion if they have regular contact with significant others, have a sense of community, are not poor, are mobile and are open to new experiences which enable them to grow on a personal level. The value of an additional trip is estimated at $A20."

David Lewis, Economic Perspectives on Transport And Equality. (Discussion Paper No 2011-9) International Transport Forum, April 2011, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,02 MB]. "Poverty, inequality and social exclusion are closely tied to personal mobility and the accessibility of goods and services. Evidence of the economic role of transport in promoting better living standards and greater wellbeing can be seen in the effects of both overall public investment in transport infrastructure, and in the impacts of specific transport policies, projects and multi-project plans. At the level of overall public expenditure, transport capital investment measurably promotes growth in worker productivity: This is significant because productivity growth is key to facilitating growth in personal incomes and living standards, and to closing income disparities between regions and sub-regions. At the level of specific policies, investments and plans, transport is seen to create economic wellbeing for a wide range socially disadvantaged groups, including the poor, elderly people, people with disabilities, children, young adults, and women. Such benefits include greater accessibility to work and other life-chances and reduced stigmatic harms associated with social exclusion. This paper argues that transport planning, economic evaluation, and governance modalities need to do a better job of adapting to the perspective on transport as a legitimate policy instrument for diminishing inequality and creating a just distribution of social value. Analysis methods to identify and measure such value, and governance mechanisms to ensure that equity objectives are properly served, are beginning to appear. This is a trend to be encouraged, particularly through the extension of economic evaluation methods and governance mechanisms to: Account for a wider range of transport benefits and effects than traditionally recognized; Address multi-project and multi-policy plans as well as individual projects; and Shape transport plans with measures, both transport and non-transport, that mitigate systematic social biases; and Give transport a direct, proactive role in fostering equality (rather than merely mitigating social biases) by encouraging the development of emerging policy development and planning methods that are rooted less in welfare economics and more in the operational ideas of social justice."

Mobilità ed esclusione sociale. Pianificare l'accessibilità. Metodologia di indagine. Un’applicazione di studio: Bologna e il suo territorio. ACI, Roma, Novembre 2006, 183 p. [5 files in formato PDF, 10,6 MB]. "Il rapporto ha in sintesi evidenziato un modello di esclusione sociale da mobilità che riguarda le grandi città e indica quali soggetti più a rischio, i pendolari della città diffusa e dei comuni limitrofi alla città metropolitana, in riferimento ai seguenti fattori: reddito medio-basso che costringe ad abitare in aree di minor valore, con rendite fondiarie più basse, quindi poco servite dalle reti di trasporto; lontananza dalle sedi di lavoro localizzate prevalentemente nel centro urbano o sulla cintura metropolitana; isolamento da aree di servizi; distanza dai nodi della rete principale del trasporto pubblico su ferro e su gomma; necessità di possedere, utilizzare e mantenere un’autovettura privata. I principali elementi individuati sui quali occorre intervenire per limitare il rischio e consentire a tutte le persone di raggiungere le destinazioni prescelte per motivi di lavoro, di studio e di consumo, in tempi e con costi ragionevoli e in modo umanamente confortevole, sono principalmente due: uso del suolo e localizzazione delle residenze rispetto ai principali luoghi di lavoro, di studio e di consumo (DOMANDA); disponibilità di un trasporto pubblico locale efficiente e sufficientemente radicato sul territorio, in alternativa all’auto privata (OFFERTA). A questi si aggiungono: il costo del trasporto pubblico e privato; la sicurezza durante il viaggio, sulla strada e sul mezzo di trasporto; l’esistenza dei principali servizi alla residenza, facilmente raggiungibili a piedi. Tutto ciò deve tenere conto, inoltre, delle nuove popolazioni in movimento che si suddividono tra coloro che vivono la città e coloro i quali invece più semplicemente la usano (cfr. Figura 1. “Maslow e bisogni di mobilità”) e delle diverse esigenze di mobilità per alcune particolari categorie di persone (donne, anziani, bambini)."

David Caubel, Réduire les disparités d'accès à la ville ? Une réponse concrète, mais imparfaite, par les transports collectifs. Les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, 51 (2007) 9-36 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 262 KB]. "After the identification of the richest and the poorest districts of Lyon urban area, the implementation of accessibility indicators to the average structure of a basket of goods, interrogates about the plurality and the social reproduction of inequalities. A first “gap” between the access to transportation modes returns account of chances inequality to profit from the amenities of an urban area. A retrospective on the evolution of the amenities’ localisation between 1990 and 1999 highlight the digging of the inequalities between the richest and the poorest districts, which a drastic increase of public transport supply struggles to reduce. The chances inequalities between the richest and the poorest districts are all the more pronounced, that the access to a private car is weak in the poorest districts."

Christophe Jemelin, Vincent Kaufmann, Julie Barbey, Tina Klein, Giuseppe Pini, Politiques de transport et inégalités sociales d'accès. Analyse comparative de huit agglomérations européennes. Rapport final. (Cahier du LaSUR, 10). Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Janvier 2007, 152 p. [formato PDF, 6,20 MB]. Lo studio analizza le politiche del trasporto urbano in otto città europee (Lione, Grenoble, Rennes, Strasburgo, Zurigo, Berna, Losanna e Ginevra), gli spostamenti quotidiani, le differenziazioni sociali nelle città considerate e gli effetti della politica dei trasporti sulla mobilità e la dipendenza dall'automobile nelle città stesse.

Jean-Pierre Orfeuil (Université Paris XII), Accessibilité, mobilité, inégalités: regards sur la question en France aujourd'hui. 2004, 26 p. [formato PDF, 210 KB].

Eric le Breton, Mobilité et inégalités sociales. Texte de la 603. conférence de l'Université de tous les savoirs donnée le 7 janvier 2006. 12 p. [formato PDF, 127 kB].

Georg Rudinger, Kieran Donaghy and Stefan Poppelreuter, Societal trends, mobility behaviour and sustainable transport in Europe and North America. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 6 (2006), 61-76. 16 p. [formato PDF, 146 kB].


David R. Ragland, Kara E. MacLeod, Tracy McMillan, Sarah Doggett, Grace Felschundneff (University of California), Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population. Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, April 2019, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "The mobility needs of an aging population is one of the most substantial challenges facing California in the coming decades. The number of residents age 65 and older is expected to double between 2012 and 2050, and the number age 85 and above is expected to increase by over 70% between 2010 and 2030. Declines in physical function related to age may reduce mobility options dramatically. A survey of 510 residents age 55 and older in Contra Costa County was conducted to determine mobility patterns and limitations related to age and other factors. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of seniors are car dependent. However, some older adults miss important activities due to mobility limitations associated with increasing age, poorer health, living alone, not having a licensed driver in the household, and having a disability. Mobility options are also limited in some geographic areas and demographic groups. Importantly, older adults want to "age in place". Based on these findings and those in related studies, the travel options and the quality of life for older adults, now and in the future, can be greatly enhanced if efforts are made to develop mobility solutions beyond use of private vehicles. The findings support the recommendations of recent regional plans such as the Coordinated Public Transit-Human Services Transportation Plan (2018), adopted by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) of the San Francisco Bay Area, which recommends supporting a range of mobility options centered around shared mobility and accessibility for populations at risk for limited mobility."

Tracy McMillan, Ana Lopez, Jill Cooper, Safe Routes for Older Adults. UC Berkeley Research Reports. UC Berkeley SafeTREC, April 2018, 22 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "This guide provides communities with background information on walking and bicycling safety for older adults and tools to make transportation in California communities age-friendly for all."

Mieux accueillir les piétons âgés. Recommandations d'aménagement. Fiche Marche n° 02. Cerema, novembre 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. La fiche est téléchargeable gratuitement. "Dans 30 ans, la part des plus de 75 ans dans la population aura doublé. La santé et l'autonomie de ces seniors dépendent en partie de leur mobilité piétonne. Or, les seniors sont surreprésentés dans les accidents de piétons. Les accueillir dans un espace public où les déplacements à pied sont effectués avec le moins de risques possibles de chuter ou d'être accidenté est donc un enjeu de société. Les recommandations proposées dans cette fiche destinée aux aménageurs montrent que cet objectif est atteignable en appliquant les règles de l'art et les recommandations d'accessibilité, tout en les complétant par des aménagements utiles à tous mais répondant spécifiquement aux besoins de la population âgée en perte de mobilité. Grâce aux aménagements proposés dans cette fiche, les seniors peuvent se déplacer de manière plus confortable et plus sécurisée."

Bruno Aguiar, Rosário Macário (Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa), The need for an Elderly centred mobility policy. Paper presented at the World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. Transportation Research Procedia (2017) 15 p. [formato PDF, 446 kB]. Open Access. "This paper reflects the ageing process as a normal and universal transformation, their physical and cognitive limitations when faced with a mobility system that is not adapted to the reality of the elders and which facts must be considered in a possible restructuring of the system in order to promote the quality of life of the elderly, access to goods, opportunities and social groups providing them with the necessary empowerment to independently fulfil their needs. Improve mobility is not just a set-directive, but rather a process of multidisciplinary collaboration and coordination with other urban policies and projects, such as health, infrastructure and land use, so that it serves the objectives and needs of the population, promote security for all citizens, reflect community values, and support the activities already under development and foster community sustainability. The objectives described, will have a positive impact on economic vitality, stimulates the development of land use, and promotes a healthier lifestyle and improved interconnectivity between activities. For an approach to these issues, we need to get a better understanding about the individual needs on the public space, the transportation system in social and political context. To satisfy elderly mobility a strategy is needed covering political, educational initiatives towards empowered mobility for elderly people."

Matthew RJ Baldock, James P Thompson, Jeffrey Dutschke, Craig N Kloeden, VL Lindsay, JE Woolley, Older Road Users: Emerging Trends. Research Report AP-R530-16. Austroads, Sydney, October 2016, 142 p. [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. [Free download, free registration needed]. "This report identifies trends in crash involvement amongst older road users (aged 75+). The project incorporated a literature review; analysis of 10 years of crash data from every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand; analysis of three years of detailed hospital injury data for older road users in South Australia; analysis of the contributing factors in older road user crashes examined using the Centre for Automotive Safety Research in-depth investigation method; consultations with representatives of all jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand; and a summary of relevant sections of road safety strategies in a sample of international jurisdictions. The report provides policy recommendations and describes crash countermeasures relevant to older road users."

Susan Shaheen, Lauren Cano, Madonna Camel (University of California at Berkeley), Exploring Electric Vehicle Carsharing as a Mobility Option for Older Adults: A Case Study of a Senior Adult Community in the San Francisco Bay Area International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2015 (44 p.) [formato PDF, 688 kB]. [Researchgate]. "By the year 2030, 57 million people will be over the age of 65 in the United States. Baby Boomers drive approximately 17% more than other age groups and are active well past retirement. This paper examines electric vehicle (EV) carsharing (short-term vehicle access) as a future alternative to vehicle ownership for older adults living on fixed incomes in a gated community to provide reduced cost mobility and eliminate vehicle maintenance hassles. The authors conducted a study of the response to the EV carsharing concept in a senior community in Northern California, between Winter 2009 and Spring 2011, to gauge early adoption potential. The study consisted of in-depth interviews (n = 7), four focus groups (n = 31), and survey data collection (n = 443) with residents of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community in Walnut Creek, California. Eighty-three percent of survey respondents drive short distances often (eight kilometers (km) five times/month); 100% of interview participants plan their trips in advance; and 77% of focus group subjects made changes to their driving behavior due to high fuel prices. These findings are indicators that an EV carsharing program could potentially complement travel patterns and price sensitivity. Finally, the survey results indicate that 30% of all respondents were interested in participating in an EV carsharing program, while 36% were “maybe” interested. If the carsharing fleet also contained non-EVs, 71% of community-wide survey participants were interested or “maybe” interested in participation. Inclusion of EVs and non-EVs in the carsharing fleet would likely increase interest and participation overall."

Sofi Fristedt, Anna K. Dahl, Anders Wretstrand, Anita Björklund, Torbjörn Falkmer, Changes in Community Mobility in Older Men and Women. A 13-Year Prospective Study. PLoS ONE 9(2): e87827, February 2014(8 p.) [formato PDF, 580 kB]. Open Access. "Community mobility, defined as “moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation”, has a unique ability to promote older peoples’ wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons’ subjective health."

Rural Transport and Older People in Lincolnshire. Research report. Lincolnshire County Council, Lincoln, March 2013, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. "The research report examines the challenges facing older people accessing affordable transport in rural Lincolnshire. In a 12 month research study, older people who do not currently use any form of public or community transport were asked what prevents them from doing so. Some of the key findings illustrate that amongst the groups of older people interviewed many did not understand what transport services were available, how they could be accessed and how they operated. Based on the research in this report, a series of short and longer term recommendations are suggested to increase the use of public and community transport services by older people in rural communities. The research was conducted by Dr Mike Ward, in a partnership between the University of Lincoln and Lincolnshire County Council, and funded by the Excellent Ageing Programme."

Lena Levin, Pål Ulleberg, Anu Siren, Randi Hjorthol, Measures to enhance mobility among older people in Scandinavia. A literature review of best practice. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, (VTI rapport 749a), Linköping, 2012, 84 p. [formato PDF, 1,17 MB]. "The present report is part of a larger project about mobility and its impact on older people’s well-being and welfare: Mobile age: The impact of everyday mobility for elderly people’s welfare and well-being. The heterogenity of older people is emphasised, not only with respect to physical age but also with respect to the specific resource situation and social context of everyday life. The geographical context of the project is Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The report is a literature review examining and evaluating measures designed to improve the independency of mobility among older people. While a few good examples of “best practice” in the Scandinavian area (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) have been highlighted, gaps and weaknesses remain. The areas which are examined in the present report are private car, public transport, cycling, walking and to some extent other transport modes defined by motorized wheelchairs, scooters, four-wheeled mopeds/motorcycles, etc. Measures to increase travel with public transport are on the agenda in all three countries, i.e. accessible vehicles and increased accessibility to the interchanges. Also, often small amendments through the travel route could make difference, such as pavements without stairs and benches on the way to the bus stop. Furthermore, strategies and measures for improving public transport concern not only issues such as accessible vehicles, wind shelters and plain pavements at bus stops, but also frequency and routes in relation to the mobility needs of a new generation of older people. However, lack of information and knowledge about public transport services is often rife among older people, which results in them travelling less than they might have done or shying away completely from using public transport. Information campaigns could be synchronised consciously to meet older people’s travel trajectories. New ways of providing information using the latest technology could be found to meet the needs of older people. Actually, sometimes the problem is not lack of information but too much of it or the wrong kind."

Eric Dumbaugh, Yi Zhang, Wenhao Li (Texas A&M University), Community Design and the Incidence of Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Motorists Aged 75 and Older. Final Report. (Report No. UTCM 11-03-67). University Transportation Center for Mobility, the Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, April 2012, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,65 MB]. "Contemporary community design practice has focused on strategies intended to make communities safe for families with children. Comparatively little attention has been given to its effects on older adults. This study employs a series of negative binomial regression models to understand how urban form may affect the incidence of total and killed-or-severely-injured (KSI) crashes involving older drivers and pedestrians. Intersections, strip commercial uses, big-box stores, and arterial thoroughfares pose crash hazards for older motorists, while big-box stores and arterials are problematic for older pedestrians. A network of lower-speed streets was found to be associated with reductions in crashes involving older motorists and pedestrians."

Emelie Eriksson Thörnell, Relation between hazard perception and visual behaviour. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, (VTI notat 11A-2010), Linköping, 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "The hazard perception test developed by Sagberg and Bjornskau (2006) measuring reaction times in relation to different hazardous situations in traffic, has been used inthe present study to analyze older drivers’ visual behaviour when passing/responding to the test. The overall objective of this study has been to investigate the relation between hazard perception in traffic and visual behaviour among older drivers in comparison with ayounger age group. The purpose of the study was to provide knowledge on what traffic situations that are more difficult for older drivers to interpret or perceive as hazardous. The elderly were expected to have more problems in situations that included objects classified as context hazards. Context hazards consist of objects that are slowly moving on the side of the road, which poses a situation where the driver should be prepared for the potential behaviour of that object. The study was composed of two groups of drivers, one group of middle-aged drivers, 35-55 years old, and one group of older drivers, 65 years old and above, who performed the hazard perception test wearing an eye tracker. Hazard interpretation level within age group and situation was investigated, and eye movement data analyzed in terms of fixation duration time. Overall results showed that the older participants had more problems in interpreting situations classified as context hazards as risky, especially context hazards consistingof pedestrians or cyclists. The differences were nevertheless significant. In addition, when investigating total fixation time on the hazard objects, the differences between age groups were shown to be significant for one of the situations consisting of pedestrians, classified as context/hidden hazard. No significant differences betweenage groups were found in either of the other situations. The conclusions are that the elderly tentatively should be exposed to context hazards composed by pedestrians or cyclist in future training schemes. Since there were no significant differences between age groups, more research is, however, needed in the area. Also, since the class of context/hidden hazards, which showed significant differences in fixation time between age groups, was composed by only one situation, resembling situations should be investigated in order to verify these differences."

Lars Leden, Charlotta Johansson (Luleå University of Technology), The safety of elderly bicyclists. 12th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, 17 p. [formato PDF, 334 kB] "Demographic changes show that the absolute number and portion of the population in Europe that can be categorized as older or very old will continue to grow over the next several years. One aim should be to keep them active and healthy for as long a time as possible. Exercise, for example cycling, plays an important role in this context but data shows that the elderly bicyclists are overrepresented in crashes when compared with their exposure to traffic. Senior cyclists. needs and preferences should be a base for developing a safe and joyful cycling environment. This project uses in-depth crash data analysis, questionnaires with senior cyclists, and questionnaires with experts to identify potential for improving elderly bicycling. Elderly bicyclists have a significantly higher risk than younger age groups. The consequences are significantly more severe for elderly bicyclists compared to other age groups and increase with vehicle speeds. Elderly bicyclists are significantly more involved in crashes when intending to turn left compared to other age groups. 22% of elderly in fatal crashes intend to turn left compared to 8% for adults and 14% for children. As expected, elderly bicyclists are significantly more often impaired by bad sight and/or bad hearing as well as being impaired from taking medication in crashes compared to other age groups. Elderly bicyclists are less often in a hurry (5%) in crashes compared to other age groups (11%). Elderly bicyclists obey traffic rules no more and no less than other age groups. In darkness (incl. dawn and dusk), non-elderly adult bicyclists are significantly more often involved in crashes (37%) than elderly (11%). The most stated safety-increasing measure according to the senior cyclists is construction of more cycle tracks. According to the expert questionnaire the most important preconditions were safety and a feeling of security when cycling, the existence of a network of roads for cycling including appropriate bike parking facilities and positive attitudes from users and non-users regarding travelling by bicycle. This is much in accordance with the opinions expressed by the senior cyclists."

Anders Wretstrand, Helena Svensson, Sofi Fristedt, Torbjörn Falkmer, Older people and local public transit: Mobility effects of accessibility improvements in Sweden. Journal of Transport and Land Use 2 (2) [Spring 2009] pp. 49–65 [formato PDF, 2,01 MB]. "Several transportation factors concerning older and disabled people are under transition in Sweden at present. By the year 2010, the public transit system must be fully accessible for all passengers. The present survey studied older people, in order to assess the perceived travel opportunities. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of older citizens (75+) in three Swedish mid-sized municipalities. The general conclusions were that even though older people show appreciation of the existing travel opportunities, there was evidence for restricted mobility for some sub-groups of these older people, due to various perceived barriers. These groups have few optional modes, and despite various accessibility measures, special transportation services – the mandatory demand-responsive transport service – continues to provide crucial mobility. Hence, there is more to be done regarding accessibility and usability in public transit for older people. Further studies have to clarify reasons for bus travel cessation. Even larger efforts have to be put into accessibility improvements, in particular intermediate transit solutions in order to meet the regulations and policies."

Jennifer Oxley, Bruce Corben, Brian Fildes, Mary O'Hare, Talib Rothengatter, Older vulnerable road users - measures to reduce crash and injury risk. (Monash University Accident Research Centre - Report No. 218 - 2004). Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, April 2004, 182 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "Older pedestrians and cyclists are vulnerable road users, comprising a substantial proportion of all road fatalities world-wide. Pedestrian fatalities constitute between 20 and 30 percent of road fatalities, while cyclist deaths range from 2 percent in Australia to 10 percent in Denmark, Belgium, Germany and Sweden to 23 percent in the Netherlands. Older pedestrians and cyclists are over-represented in these figures, accounting for up to 45 percent of pedestrian fatalities and up to 70 percent of cyclist fatalities. The nature of injuries to older pedestrian and cyclists are severe once involved in a crash because they are largely unprotected and more frail than younger pedestrians and cyclists. Even in moderate crashes, the elderly are in greater danger of being seriously injured or killed than younger pedestrians and cyclists. The first section of this review provides an outline of the problem, discussing the contributing factors to increased crash and injury risk including age-related changes in functional performance, vehicle design factors and the road infrastructure, design and operation. There are consequences of ageing on sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical abilities that can result in problems coping with traffic. Safe walking and cycling requires the adequate functioning of all these systems and loss of efficiency in any one can reduce performance and increase risk on the road. Many older pedestrians and cyclists, therefore, experience some difficulty participating safely in complex traffic. Selecting a safe gap in which to cross in front of oncoming traffic seems to be a major problem for older pedestrians and cyclists as well as adjusting walking and cycling pace and maintaining balance on a bicycle in the event of an emergency. In addition, the frontal structures of vehicles can greatly affect injury outcome. Current bumper, bonnet and windscreen design is not conducive to pedestrian and cyclist safety. Moreover, the trend of increasing numbers of large and aggressive sports-utility vehicles, four-wheel-drives and vans (often fitted with rigid bull-bars) in the vehicle fleet adversely affects the injurious consequences to pedestrians and cyclists. Last, the growing complexity of the road environment places increasing demands on an older person's adaptability. The current road system, for the most part, seems to be unforgiving for older vulnerable road users and few facilities are designed specifically for the special needs and capabilities of older adults. The second section of this report provides a comprehensive review of the international 'best-practice' solutions aimed to reduce the crash and injury risk to older pedestrians and cyclists including behavioural/educational programs, enforcement, vehicle design improvements and improvements to infrastructure, road design and operation of the road-transport system. Given that the behaviour of older road users is thought to contribute, in part, to their increased risk of collision, it is suggested that education, awareness and training programs as well as encouragement and enforcement of safe walking and cycling practices are considered. In terms of improvements to vehicle design, improvements to frontal structures, prohibition of rigid bull-bars and use of in-vehicle ITS applications are recommended. Consideration of changes to the road transport system to create a safer more 'crashworthy' environment for older pedestrians and cyclists, whilst maintaining their mobility, is also recommended. It is recommended that: i) more attention be given to reducing numbers of vehicles travelling at excessive or high speeds in areas of high pedestrian activity, ii) more attention be given to reducing pedestrian-vehicle and cyclist-vehicle interactions along roads, within curves and at intersections, iii) more attention be given to reducing the complexity of traffic environments, and iv) consideration of other road design improvements such as provision of improved facilities at public transport stops and provision of good street lighting in high risk areas."

Jérôme Bertrand, Jérémy Courel, Les usages et les usagers des services PAM. Analyse comparative de PAM 75, Filival et PAM 78 (lot Sud). Institut d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme d’Île-de-France, Paris, Mars 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 2,25 MB]. "En Île-de-France, les services PAM, «Pour Aider à la Mobilité», sont des services de transport collectif à la demande à destination des personnes à mobilité réduite qui ne peuvent utiliser les transports en commun réguliers en raison d’un handicap physique, sensoriel ou mental. L’étude des usages et des usagers de 3 services PAM les plus anciens (PAM 75, Filival et PAM 78) permet de présenter les caractéristiques socio-démographiques des usagers ainsi que les comportements de mobilité de la clientèle. Les éléments les plus marquants et saillants de cette analyse sont exposés ci-après. Plus de 40% des usagers sont âgés de 60 ans et plus alors que moins de 20% de la population francilienne atteint ces âges. La déclaration aux âges avancés des déficiences, en particulier motrices et sensorielles, se vérifie pour le public des services PAM. À l’origine, au milieu des années 70, les services de transport spécialisé sont mis en place à l’initiative des associations de personnes ayant un handicap moteur, en particulier par le groupement pour l’insertion des personnes handicapées physiques (GIHP). Depuis, la clientèle des services de transport adapté s’est élargie à des usagers ayant des déficiences mentales ou visuelles. L’organisation des services PAM a permis ainsi à de nombreuses personnes handicapées de bénéficier d’un nouveau service de transport, et tout particulièrement les personnes ayant une déficience intellectuelle qui représentent environ 15 à 30% des usagers selon les services PAM étudiés. En moyenne, un usager se déplace 40 à 80 fois par an, soit, selon les services PAM 3 à 5 fois moins que la mobilité annuelle en transport collectif ordinaire pour la population francilienne. Cependant, ce constat peut cacher des comportements de mobilité bien disparates. Ainsi, une partie des usagers réguliers a une mobilité bien plus intense (selon les services 7 à 11% des usagers génèrent à eux seuls 50% des déplacements, en sollicitant un service PAM 200 à 800 fois par an). En outre, le poids du motif travail dans les usages des services PAM est sensiblement plus élevé qu’au sein de la mobilité générale de l’ensemble de la population francilienne (10 à 20 points de plus) et il en est de même pour les déplacements liés à un besoin de santé (10 fois plus important). La géographie des déplacements est fortement marquée par la localisation des établissements d’accueil des personnes handicapées qui sont des lieux de destination privilégiés par les usagers des services PAM. En effet, une dizaine de ces établissements engendre 10% à 20% des déplacements, selon les services. Les services PAM sont fortement sollicités aux périodes de pointe (les 2/3 ou les 3/4 des déplacements se concentre le matin entre 7h et 10h et le soir entre 15h et 18h). Ainsi, les services ne peuvent pas répondre à l’ensemble de la demande, ils refusent alors des courses ce qui conduit certains clients à renoncer à les utiliser (2 à 6% des clients inscrits). La répartition des voyages effectués montre une relative hétérogénéité selon le type de déficience. Les clients ayant une déficience intellectuelle représentent entre un tiers et près de la moitié du trafic, les usagers en fauteuil roulant (électrique ou non) entre un quart et près d’un tiers, les personnes présentant une déficience motrice entre 17% et 28%, les personnes mal voyantes ou aveugles constituent une forte minorité (entre 10% et 14%). Ces handicaps de natures très différentes posent des questions particulières pouvant donner lieu à des aménagements intérieurs des véhicules ou à des prestations complémentaires des conducteurs très spécifiques (accompagnement, accueil et conduite notamment). Dès lors, la question de la prise en charge et de la cohabitation ou non de ces publics au sein des mêmes véhicules peut se poser."

Lena Levin, Tania Dukic, Per Henriksson, Selina Mårdh, Fridulv Sagberg, Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden. Studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception. Stockholm, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI Rapport 656A, 2009, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,35 MB]. "By investigations on risky situations in older people’s everyday travelling it is possible to minimize their suffering and death rates from road accidents. Older people will in the future, to a larger proportion than today have a driving license and access to a car, especially older women will be car drivers to a larger proportion than today and they will probably use their car as long as possible. At the same time, recent years’ accident figures have shown an increased risk in road traffic for older people. The patterns of accidents vary between different groups of older people and also between older drivers and drivers from other age groups. The present project identifies hazardous situations for older drivers and analyses older drivers’ accident involvement and visual behaviour in complex traffic situations. Typical and atypical older driver accidents are identified. Three main methods have been used: 1) a thorough accident analysis of police reported accidents in Norway, 2) a literature study on existing research on older drivers’ behaviour (i.e. cognitive aspects on car driving) and accident involvement, and 3) experimental studies comprising visual and perception tests accomplished in Norway and Sweden and a field study on the road, accomplished in Sweden. In the experimental study and in the field study it was found significantly more individual differences among the older than among the younger drivers in the samples from Norway and Sweden. From in depth analyses of fatal crashes in Norway during the years 2005-2007 it was found that tiredness was the most often suspected cause of the accident among the group aged 35-55 years (28 %) and the second most often suspected cause in the group aged 75+ (19 %). Illness could be the cause of the accident twice as often among the older drivers (28 %) as in the younger control group (14 %). The definition of older people as a problem (e.g. risky car drivers), and as a homogeneous group based on chronological age, may obscure the differences between groups and individuals based on variations in health, gender, ethnicity, living or economy. There is nothing in the results that supports age based limitations for renewal of driving license for otherwise healthy older people. Instead the study strengthens arguments for further research and refining of methods for identifying hazardous behaviour in complex situations, i.e. testing of drivers in complex situations; behaviour due to temporary illness or tiredness; and in depth studies of drivers’ perspectives, experiences and strategies to avoid road accidents. Furthermore research on intelligent technical systems (e.g. information access, and recommended route and speed) plus other adaptive systems in the vehicles that support older car drivers, are suggested. Also, how the ageing drivers give priority to and afford new technological solutions."

Petros Evgenikos (National Technical University of Athens), Road safety and the elderly in Europe. 4th IRTAD Conference, Seoul, 16-17 September 2009, 8 p. [formato PDF, 272 kB]. "The objective of this research is the analysis of basic road safety parameters related to elderly people (> 64 years old) by the use of the EU CARE database with disaggregate data on road accidents, as well as of other international data files (Eurostat, IRTAD, etc.). Data for ten years and 19 EU countries on road accidents involving elderly people are correlated with basic safety parameters like the road user type, the road network type, the casualty age and gender as well as the day of the week, the time of the day and the season. This comparative analysis revealed a decrease of more than 30% in elderly fatalities in traffic accidents within the decade 1997 - 2006 and it was also shown that in most European countries the elderly - specifically those between 75 and 84 years old - are at greater risk of being killed in a road accident than the average person. Additionally, more than one third of elderly fatalities were pedestrians and also elderly people are proportionately more likely than middle-aged people to be killed in an accident in an urban road. Contrary to middle-aged people, elderly are mostly killed during the morning, with three-fourths of those during the week days. Specific countries with higher elderly accident fatalities for particular accident types were also identified. The analysis results allow for an overall picture of the safety level of elderly people in Europe, providing thus useful support to all decision makers working for the improvement of safety in the European road network."

Krister Spolander, Better cycles. An analysis of the needs and requirements of older cyclists. (VINNOVA Report VR 2007-17). VINNOVA, Stockholm, December 2007, 82 p. [formato PDF, 2,01 MB]. "The purpose of the project has been to analyse the need for more comfortable and safer cycles for elderly people, the possibilities of achieving this, plus how to initiate such a development and the role of research in this context. Background to this is the increased interest in the cycle as a mode of local conveyance in urban areas, a European trend which more recently has reached Sweden. A prerequisite for increased cycle traffic is a better cycle infrastructure but also better cycles. The basic design of the cycle is over 100 years old. Its development has been greatly inhibited by tight international rules (for competition bikes) which have set the frame geometry of all cycles in stone. Three different activities were conducted to highlight the need for better cycles for older people: group discussions with elderly cyclists, test-riding with a new type of cycle with displaced frame geometry and an expert seminar with participants from the cycle industry, design and ergonomics, research and public institutions. From the point of view of elderly people, it is quite clear that today’s cycles are marred by many shortcomings. The group discussions highlighted obvious comfort and manoeuvrability problems. The frequent starting and stopping in urban traffic is awkward, the riding position which stresses hands, arms and buttocks is uncomfortable and the high step-through means that, with age, it is difficult to climb onto the cycle. The safety analysis showed a remarkably strong age effect, involving a considerably greater relative risk of serious injury for elderly cyclists than for elderly people walking and motorists; two to three times greater. Furthermore, the step-through emerged as a major injury problem. Just over one quarter of all medical care days required by injured elderly cyclists relate to mounting and dismounting. Weight was another problem which was criticised. Generally, cycles are too heavy for comfortable handling; they get heavier the older a person gets. Technically and in terms of design, there are great opportunities to develop more comfortable, safer cycles. A long list of ideas in that direction was discussed in the expert seminar and group discussions. There were the issues of seat height, riding position and step-through to deal with, but also many components to improve functionally and ergonomically. The requirements appear consistent regarding design - a design which provides better comfort but also better safety."

Susanne Iwarsson (Lund University), Ageing and Supportive Environments: Accessibility, Usability and Safety in Urban Environments. Presentation, 3rd joint international conference "Healthy Ageing – Active Ageing II", Jurmala, Latvia, 17-18 April 2008, 58 slides [formato PDF, 4,74 MB].

R. Mercado, A. Páez, D.M. Scott, K.B. Newbold and P. Kanaroglou, Transport Policy in Aging Societies: An International Comparison and Implications for Canada. The Open Transportation Journal, 1 (2007) 1-13 [formato PDF, 174 kB]. "This paper provides a framework for evaluating and comparing country transport policies to understand the extent to which these are being altered to cope with aging societies. Using the framework, transport policy documents of six countries in the industrialized world were analyzed and compared. A deliberate effort is made in the selection of countries to draw lessons from the comparative evaluation for Canadian transport policy. The paper highlighted the importance of country policy context and motivations in influencing the country's choice of transport strategies and approaches. The paper also proposed a checklist of policy areas encompassing the wider variety of concerns that directly and indirectly impact on older people's mobility. Finally, future policy and research issues on transport and aging are underlined in general and as they relate to Canadian situation."

Public Transportation Programs for Seniors. 2007 Final Report. Prepared by the Beverly Foundation (Pasadena, CA) and the American Public Transportation Association (Washington, DC), December 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 432 kB]. "The purpose of the project was to identify the activities and special programs for seniors carried out or supported by public transportation services. The project survey was undertaken as a partnership effort between the Beverly Foundation of Pasadena, California and the American Public Transportation Association of Washington, DC. This report, which includes twelve one-page case studies, was prepared by the Beverly Foundation."

Birgit Kasper and Joachim Scheiner (Univ. of Dortmund), Leisure Mobility and Mobility Problems of Elderly People in Urban, Suburban and Rural Environment. Preliminary results from the research project FRAME. Paper presented at the 42nd congress of the European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Dortmund, August, 27th to 31th, 2002. 24 p. [formato PDF, 111 kB]. "Leisure mobility of elderly persons is characterised by manifold aspects. Mobility chances or limitations have significant impact on leisure activities and constraints. One the one hand, future seniors will be more mobile than nowadays, as the availability of driving licenses and cars heavily increases. On the other hand, age -related health problems will continue to play a major role. Access to leisure destinations decreases because of the ongoing spatial concentration of large-scale facilities. This process causes mobility limitations as soon as the loss of the fitness to drive and the dependence on facilities within the residential area sets in. The papers presents preliminary results from the research project "FRAME – leisure mobility of elderly people". The 'demand side' is represented by a household survey in three study areas: the city Bonn representing an urban area, parts of its suburban space on the left-Rhine side (suburban area), and parts of the Eifel, a rural area west of Bonn. The presentation concentrates on activity participation, modal choice, and mobility problems (unfulfilled activity wishes). The 'supply side' is investigated by expert interviews with representatives of leisure facilities, transport providers, social facilities and senior housing facilities in the study areas. The interviews provide substantial insight into experts' opinions and suggestions on the supply side."

Ragnhild Davidse, Assisting the older driver. Intersection design and in-car devices to improve the safety of the older driver. SWOV, Leidschendam, 2007, 261 p. [formato PDF, 3,85 MB]. (tesi di dottorato, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen). "In this thesis, the main focus was on assistive devices that may improve and prolong the safe mobility of older drivers".

Transportation in an Aging Society. A Decade of Experience. Technical Papers and Reports from a Conference, November 7-9, 1999, Bethesda, Maryland. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2004, 339 p. [formato PDF, 2,03 MB]. (Documenti e studi sui problemi degli anziani in quanto utenti della strada, come pedoni e come automobilisti).

Rania Wasfi, David Levinson, The transportation needs of seniors. Research report CTS 07-01. Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, January 2007, 195 p. [formato PDF, 4,49 MB]. "This paper examines the transportation needs of the elderly in Hennepin County through a mail out-mail back survey of their existing travel behavior and their unmet needs. The survey had both demographic and attitude questions as well as a travel diary for recording actual trips and desired but untaken trips."

Mart Tacken, Ellemieke van Lamoen (TU Delft), The MOBILATE survey: enhancing outdoor mobility in later life. Transport and mobility, differences between European countries in transport behaviour and in realized journeys and trips of elderly people . Second deliverable of the European project MOBILATE, Comparative report, Chapter Transport. Spatial Planning Department of the Delft University of Technology, Delft, August 2002, 74 p. [formato Word, 1,36 MB, zippato].

Mart Tacken, Fiorella Marcellini, Heidrun Mollenkopf, Isto Ruoppila (editors), Keeping the elderly mobile. Outdoor mobility of the elderly: problems and solutions . Papers and discussions of the Euroconference in Rolduc (NL), June 1998. TRAIL Research School, Delft, February 1999, 371 p. [formato Word, 3,17 MB, zippato].

Kurt Ackermann, Jürgen Gerlach, Planung des Verkehrsraumes unter Berücksichtigung der Mobilität älterer Menschen . (Pianificazione della mobilità degli anziani). In: Straßenverkehrstechnik, Januar 2005, 16 p. [formato PDF, 955 kB].

Dirk Boenke (Bergische Universität Wuppertal), Sicherung der Nahmobilität älterer Menschen - Strategien und Massnahmen für einer seniorengerechte Verkehrsraumgestaltung . (Garantire la mobilità degli anziani: strategie e misure per una organizzazione spaziale della mobilità adatta agli anziani). Relazione al congresso BUVKo, Stuttgart, 4. März 2007, 29 slides [formato PDF, 2,58 MB].

Peter Ottmann (Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe), Mobilitäts-Biographien: Wie ändert sich die Verkehrsnachfrage im Leben eines Menschen? . (Biografie della mobilità: come cambia la domanda di trasporto nella vita di un uomo). Relazione al congresso BUVKo, Stuttgart, 2. März 2007, 15 slides [formato PDF, 133 kB]. La popolazione tedesca invecchia: quali mutamenti comporterà in futuro questa tendenza nel campo della mobilità?

Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist, Anu Sirén, Ragnhild Davidse, Old drivers – a review, Stockholm, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI Rapport 497A, 2004, 100 p. [formato PDF, 956 kB]. Studio sui rischi dei guidatori anziani, di fronte all’invecchiamento crescente della popolazione nei paesi europei.

Sandra Rosenbloom, Agneta Stahl, Automobility among the Elderly. The Convergence of Environmental, Safety, Mobility and Community Design Issues. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 2 (2002), 197-213. 17 p. [formato PDF, 316 kB]. "The paper describes the aging of the population in developed countries on several continents, the growing automobility of the elderly, the significant environmental, safety, mobility, and community design and land use implications of that automobility, and the implications for research and policy analyses."

FRAME - Freizeitmobilität Aelterer Menschen - Ein Forschungsprojekt. Progetto di ricerca svolto in Germania da un gruppo di ricercatori (psicologi, geografi, esperti di trasporti) sulla mobilità degli anziani nel tempo libero.


Kay Inckle, Disabled Cyclists and the Deficit Model of Disability. Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol 39, No 4 (2019) [HTML]. Open Access. "Disability and cycling rarely appear in the same sentence and there is very little research about cyclists with physical disabilities. Nor, indeed, is there any acknowledgement of the experiences and needs of disabled cyclists in policy, practice or the public imagination. Nonetheless, cycling is a key form of mobility for people with disabilities, and cycling facilitates autonomy and independence of movement for many disabled people, as well as providing health-promoting physical activity. Drawing from qualitative interviews, this paper explores this gap in the context of the deficit model of disability and its impacts upon people with physical disabilities who cycle, many of whom who use their cycle as their main form of transport and mobility. It highlights the barriers that disabled cyclists face in terms of mobility, accessing cycling and the perceptions and attitudes which impede their everyday activities and underpin exclusionary policy, practice and infrastructure. Rejecting the deficit model of disability and recognising cycling as a key strength/ability for people with physical disabilities will lead to greater equality and improve the lives and experiences of disabled people."

Carlo Carminucci (Isfort), Giacomo Lozzi e Annita Serio (Federmobilità), a cura di, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, competenze, servizi. Presentazione al convegno, Roma, 5.2.2015, 28 slides [formato PDF, 693 kB].

Federmobilità e Isfort, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, offerta di servizi, meccanismi di finanziamento: un Rapporto introduttivo. Federmobilità e Isfort, Roma, gennaio 2015, 76 p. [formato PDF, 1,00 MB].

Aud Tennøy, Merethe Dotterud Leiren (TØI), Accessible public transport. A view of Europe today - policies, laws and guidelines. (TØI Report 952/2008). Institute of Transport Economics TØI, Oslo, March 2008, 164 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "This report is the deliverable from work package 1 Review of current policies and regulations within the project For a European Accessibility of Public Transport for People with Disabilities (Euro Access), funded by the DG Research of the European Commission, under the 6th Framework Programme. For more information, see . The reports describes ca. 350 documents containing current policies, action plans and strategies, legal frameworks (laws, acts, provisions, regulations, guidelines etc.), and other means (concessionary fares, economic incentives, budget requirements, special transport services, strategic plans, training etc.) in the EU countries, Iceland and Norway. The report will be used in later analysis in the Euro Access project. The references are organised as an inventory, listed by topic and country, and may be useful for others dealing with accessibility of public transport system."

Ministère des Transports du Québec, Etude sur les besoins et la satisfaction de la clientèle. Transport adapté. Québec, Mars 2006, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "Près de 4 000 questionnaires ont été transmis aux usagers du transport adapté. Il s’agissait de la première étude de besoins en transport adapté effectuée à l’échelle du Québec depuis que le gouvernement verse des subventions pour soutenir les sociétés de transport et les municipalités offrant des services de transport adapté, soit depuis plus de 25 ans." I risultati di un'indagine sul livello di soddisfazione degli utenti disabili nei confronti dei servizi di trasporto dedicati.

AIAS Milano Onlus, Trasporti Accessibili: Passeggeri disabili e trasporto pubblico in Lombardia (studio). "Lo studio si prefigge di: 1. monitorare l’accessibilità ai passeggeri disabili del sistema di trasporto pubblico sul territorio lombardo; 2. valutarne i punti di forza e di debolezza; 3. realizzare un data base con le informazioni sulle società di trasporto intervistate e sulle infrastrutture rilevate; 4. elaborare una metodologia di analisi e intervento esportabile in altri contesti geografici. I dati sono aggiornati al settembre 2005." (in italiano e in inglese)

Provincia di Roma, Piano Provinciale per la Mobilità delle persone diversamente abili. Roma, 2003, 69 p. [formato PDF, 1,78 MB]


Associazione Tetra-paraplegici del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Guida alla progettazione accessibile e funzionale, Udine, 2006, 105 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB].

Luca Marzi (Univ. di Firenze), Piani per l’eliminazione delle barriere architettoniche: esperienze in Toscana, TeMA, vol. 2, n.2, giugno 2009, 59-66 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 969 kB]. English abstract. "Il piano d’abbattimento delle barriere architettoniche è uno strumento metaprogettuale, necessario ad avviare procedure coordinate, per eseguire gli interventi di “attenuazione” dei conflitti uomo-ambiente. E’ quindi il preludio, la base, sulla quale iniziare tutte quelle azioni di “design urbano” che mirano ad interventi più o meno dedicati. La metodologia illustrata, ha proprio come obbiettivo generale, quello di produrre conoscenza al fine di poter iniziare concretamente le azioni di progettazione in grado di mirare all’innalzamento della qualità della rete di servizi, tempi e occasioni che la città offre, partendo dalle necessità di chi maggiormente richiede attenzioni, per giungere a definire risposte, capaci di garantire il quadro associante a cui mira una città solidale e quindi accessibile. Secondo questa visione, il piano è così strumento, trasversale, di analisi e verifica, necessario per alfabetizzare, utenti e gestori della città ad una cultura dell’accessibilità. Cultura sempre più necessaria per una città moderna nel aspetto più allargato del termine." "From the experiences of Arezzo, Pisa and Viareggio local administrations, and monitoring accessibility of Florence and Prato, it has been created a method to draw up plans for the elimination of architectural barriers (called P.E.B.A.). These experiences, described in the following part, have been made by groups of technicians, both inside and outside the administrations, and by validators and detectors coming from involved associations. These groups have formed the pool management of privileged stakeholders. Our method start from a setting that take cares of more needs and performances. These experiences have sought the processes and methods to verify level of environmental quality (as “usability connected to a framework of needs”) of urban spaces. For “urban spaces” we mean the body of all the routes (streets, squares and infrastructures of public transport) and destinations (public and private buildings). The main purpose is to achive the knowledge that is needed to execute concrete projects, able to mitigate the conflict between man and environment. In this way we can define the planning of all the actions, in accordance with existing regulations and “good practices”, always compared to groups of “real people”. Plans for removal architectural barriers are meta-planning instruments, necessary to start coordinated procedures of “urban design”, in order to realize all the interventions that can minimise conflicts between man and environment. We must start from all those people that need more these kind of attentions, to be able to define all the answers that can guarantee the usability and accessibility of a town more sensitive to disability."


Piani per l'Accessibilità, Provincia di Pistoia. I Piani per l'Accessibilità sono strumenti finalizzati a garantire a tutti gli abitanti migliori condizioni di fruizione dell'ambiente costruito affinché ciascuno possa, nella misura più ampia possibile, svolgere le attività quotidiane in modo autonomo. Tali piani rappresentano la naturale evoluzione dei Piani per l'Eliminazione delle Barriere Architettoniche (PEBA), strumento di pianificazione reso obbligatorio dalle leggi 41/1986 e 104/1992. Questo sito nasce all'interno di un percorso di ricerca su tali strumenti. Il lavoro è stato commissionato dalla Provincia di Pistoia al Centro Interuniversitario TESIS dell'Università di Firenze e finanziato dalla Regione Toscana. La ricerca ha preso avvio nel 2008 ed è tuttora in corso. Il sito si rivolge al personale degli enti pubblici, agli studiosi, ai progettisti, e, in generale, ai cittadini interessati alla materia. Contenuti: i Piani per l'Accessibilità; eventi e risorse; cultura dell'accessibilità.

MapAbility è un’associazione di promozione sociale per la raccolta di informazioni utili all’accessibilità urbana. Le mappe di Mapability possono essere consultate online per verificare l’accessibilità di una città prima di visitarla. Visualizzando in tempo reale i percorsi più facilmente accessibili e gli eventuali ostacoli è possibile pianificare il proprio itinerario localizzando servizi idonei, strade, parcheggi, ristoranti.

Inclusive Cycling Forum is a CTC member group created to work for, support and encourage disabled people who use cycles. The definition of disabled is that used in the Disability Discrimination Act, however, in line with our name, the group is inclusive of those who have recovered from a longterm illness, friends, carers, helpers and the people who provide services and equipment (UK).

ANGLAT - Associazione Nazionale Guida Legislazione Andicappati Trasporti (Sezione Mobilità & Auto)

Mobilità (rivista bimestrale online). "E' una rivista aggiornata e documentata, grazie all'autorevolezza e alla disponibilità dei collaboratori, impegnati da anni per affermare in Italia e in Europa una nuova cultura della disabilità." Blog Disabili (vedi sezione Trasporti)

Mobilità nel TP (Trasporto Pubblico) per i disabili (Svizzera)

AUNT-SUE network (Accessibility and User Needs in Transport for Sustainable Urban Environments). The aim of this major research project is to develop and test sustainable policies and practice that will deliver effective socially inclusive design and operation in transport and the associated public realm from macro down to micro level.

DPTAC - Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Commitee (Regno Unito) Sito del Comitato consultivo istituito dal Parlamento britannico per dare indicazioni al Governo sulle necessità dei disabili nel settore della mobilità e dei trasporti. "The website provides an overview of what DPTAC does and the activities of its working groups. It focuses primarily on different transport modes, including air travel, buses, ferries, motoring, rail, taxis and walking."

ASK-IT. Ambient Intelligence System of Agents for Knowledge-based and Integrated Services for Mobility Impaired users. "The ASK-IT integrated project aims at establish Ambient Intelligence (AmI) in semantic web enabled services, to support and promote the mobility of Mobility Impaired people, enabling the provision of personalised, self-configurable, intuitive and context-related applications and services and facilitating knowledge and content organisation and processing." (Progetto europeo)

Europe on Wheels est un projet de recensement des meilleures pratiques européennes en matière d'amélioration du cadre de vie et de l'accessibilité des villes aux personnes à mobilité réduite afin de reproduire ces pratiques ailleurs / a pan European inventory of best practices inasmuch as the mobility and quality of life of disabled persons are concerned.

Mobile en Ville est une association loi 1901 qui a pour but de favoriser l'accessibilité des villes aux roulettes (rollers, fauteuils roulants, trottinettes, poussettes, etc...) (Francia).

Competence Center - Traffic Environment for Older and Disabled Persons, Lund University / Lunds Tekniska Högskola (Sweden)

AENEAS was a new European project in the framework of the Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) programme (2008-2011). Its acronym stands for "Attaining Energy-Efficient Mobility in an Ageing Society." The project's objective was nothing less than to become the cornerstone for international reference projects in the field of urban mobility of older people. Although the project concluded its activities in April 2011, this website is still being updated from time to time and gives you access to the wealth of information that was created during the project's duration.