(per l'accettazione di Road Pricing, Congestion Charging vedi: PSICOLOGIA DEL TRAFFICO E DEI TRASPORTI )




Stefan Gössling, Jessica Kees, Todd Litman, The lifetime cost of driving a car. Ecological Economics 194 (2022) 107335 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 722 kB]. Open Access. The car is one of the most expensive household consumer goods, yet there is a limited understanding of its private (internal) and social (external) cost per vehicle-km, year, or lifetime of driving. This paper provides an overview of 23 private and ten social cost items, and assesses these for three popular car models in Germany for the year 2020. Results confirm that motorists underestimate the full private costs of car ownership, while policy makers and planners underestimate social costs. For the typical German travel distance of 15,000 car kilometers per year, the total lifetime cost of car ownership (50 years) ranges between €599,082 for an Opel Corsa to €956,798 for a Mercedes GLC. The share of this cost born by society is 41% (€4674 per year) for the Opel Corsa, and 29% (€5273 per year) for the Mercedes GLC. Findings suggest that for low-income groups, private car ownership can represent a cost equal to housing, consuming a large share of disposable income. This creates complexities in perceptions of transport costs, the economic viability of alternative transport modes, or the justification of taxes."

Lena Nerhagen, Sara Janhäll, Exhaust emissions and Environmental classifications of cars. What indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?. (VTI notat 3A-2015). VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, 2015, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,46 MB]. "Folksam is a Swedish insurance company that for more than 30 years has undertaken traffic safety research with an emphasis on the study of real-world accidents. Folksam provides advice on the best vehicles and on how accidents and injuries can be prevented. Environmental aspects have also been assessed in recent years, and Folksam now produces a yearly report on “Safe and Sustainable” new cars. Currently the guidelines developed by Folksam focus on the emissions of CO2 using the criteria determined by the EU. This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration (Vägverket, 2001) and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium (Mayeres & Proost, 2013). We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars (Ecotraffic, 2012 a and b) and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass; the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations."

María Luisa Delgado Jalón, Sandra Flores Ureba, José Ángel Rivero Menéndez (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos), Identificación de los factores del coste social del transporte: una revisión de la literatura (Identification of the factors from transport social costs: A review of the literature). Observatorio Medioambiental, Vol. 17 (2014) 65-89 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 308 kB]. "The prevailing model of transport characterized by a predominant use of private vehicles, identified the need to develop a policy transport towards sustainability in the European Union. This policy marked the Spanish Strategy for Sustainable Mobility, aimed at promoting more sustainable means - i.e. “public transport”, "car-sharing”- to reduce emissions and energy consumption. With these objectives it was launched in 2013 the Co-Mobility (TIN2012-31104) project, funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness which seeks to apply new technologies to improve the mobility of people on their commute. As one of the objectives of this project is to identify the transport costs to alert the commuter to a more sustainable mobility, this paper highlights an approach to the key variables for commute costs calculator by a detailed review of the existing literature in order to justify the variables and quantities included in the commuting costs."

Artem Korzhenevych, Nicola Dehnen, Johannes Bröcker, Michael Holtkamp, Henning Meier, Gena Gibson, Adarsh Varma, Victoria Cox, Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport. Final Report. Ricardo-AEA, London, January 2014, 139 p. [formato PDF, 3,42 MB]. This report is the Copyright of the European Commission and has been prepared by Ricardo-AEA as an independent consultant. "The 2008 Handbook proved to be an important source of input data and unit cost values for policy analysis, research projects and academic papers in Europe. In order to maintain this strong standing, this revised Handbook aims to update the 2008 Handbook with new developments in research and policy. This updated Handbook continues to present the state of the art and best practice on external cost estimation. Accordingly, the most recent information for the following impact categories has been gathered: 1. Congestion; 2. Accidents; 3. Noise; 4. Air pollution; 5. Climate change; 6. Other environmental impacts (costs of up- and downstream processes); 7. Infrastructure wear and tear for road and rail. Most important in this context is the road transport sector, due to the fact that road transport is responsible for the majority of external costs. The illustrative values and bandwidths presented in the Handbook main text are at the EU-level. Supplementary tables provide unit values for Member States. The updated Handbook provides for each cost category: An overview of the latest methods for calculating external costs, their advantages and limitations; Highlights on any differences in approach between the updated Handbook and the original 2008 Handbook; Recommended approach for calculating external costs; Updated recommendations for input values; and Updated recommended unit (marginal cost) values. Every chapter on individual cost categories is structured in a similar way by first providing a discussion of the methodology for the given cost category, then providing updates for critical parameters used in the calculations, and finally updating the unit cost values for road transport and for other modes. The update is based on a comprehensive literature review. In recent years, progress has been achieved in several areas relevant for external cost estimation: Large new databases on noise, accidents and emission factors; New and updated models; Updated estimates of important input parameters; Research identifying additional health effects; Case studies and marginal cost calculations. All of these sources have been used to provide a comprehensive update of the methodology and of the recommended unit costs."

Frédéric Klopfert, Walter Hecq, Clean Vehicles External Costs Comparison in the Brussels-Capital Region. An Attempt with Transfer Techniques. (CEB Working Paper 10/037). Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, July 2010, 25 p. [formato PDF, 418 kB]. "It is known that transport activities give rise to environmental impacts. In contrast to the travelling benefits, the costs of these impacts are generally not borne by the transport users. Without policy intervention, these so called external costs are not taken into account by the transport users when they make a transport decision. The idea to take the external costs of transport into consideration within the transport costs was formalised by the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT,1998) which adopted a resolution 1998/1 on “the policy approach to internalising the external costs of transport”. In this resolution, Ministers of Transports of all ECMT member countries agreed that full internalisation is an important transport policy objective in order to improve economic efficiency, and that it should be seen as a long term and gradually met objective. They recommend governments to provide incentives for internalisation in the framework of national legislation and to develop economic instruments for the internalisation of transport externalities. These ideas were confirmed at the Gothenburg Summit of 2001, as well as by the European Parliament, which promotes the principle (CEC, 2008). In preparation of its policy, the European Commission supported the development and application of a framework for assessing external costs of energy use. The ExternE (Externalities of Energy) project started in 1991 as the European part of a collaboration with the US Department of Energy in the “EC/US Fuel Cycles Study”. The scope of the ExternE Project is to value the external costs, i.e. the major environmental impacts of economic activities, referring both to production and consumption. (ExternE, 1999; ExternE, 2001) In this framework, the impact pathway analysis (IPA) has been developed, improved and applied for calculating externalities from air pollution for electricity and heat production as well as transport (ExternE, 2001). Continued funding allowed the European study team to expand, bringing additional expertise and broadening the geographical coverage of the study. The impact pathway analysis was extended and new scientific knowledge coming from in depth meta-analyses were included, above all in the areas of health impact quantification, modelling of global warming effects, and monetary valuation (ExternE, 1999, 2005). The main objective of this study is to assess some main environmental externalities of current vehicles using conventional and alternative fuels, and/or alternative propulsion system and to compare the related external costs in urban areas. The results will contribute towards providing useful information for selection of new types of cars – and so to orientate choices in taking measures that reduce environmental and health impacts, as well as to help policy makers to promote cleaner cars. For this purpose, another objective of the study is to take into account the latest developments related to the impact pathway methodology, (Torfs et al, 2007, Miller, 2009) and new contributions of the literature (EC, 2008, Baum et al. 2008, OECD, 2008) for assessing external costs from vehicles. To test the methodology, the Brussels-Capital Region is selected. This region (161.4 km2) is indeed a densely populated area (6,250 inhabitants per km2) and build-up environment, where impacts are the highest. Moreover, air pollution issues are managed by local regional institutions (IBGE, 2003)."

Mark Lijesen, Jaap Anne Korteweg, Harry Derriks, Welvaartseffecten van het internaliseren van externe kosten (effects on prosperity of the internalisation of the external costs). Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid, Den Haag, Maart 2009, 89 p. [formato PDF, 1,12 MB]. English summary. "In this study we consider five variants (and one sub-variant). Three of the variants explore the effects of partial internalisation of external costs, while the other two variants (and the sub-variant) explore the effects of complete internalisation. The latter variants in particular go further than the European Commission’s current plans. This study quantifies the effects on prosperity of internalising external costs according to these five variants. Internalising the external costs of traffic and transport will increase prosperity in the Netherlands, as can also be expected based on economic theory."

The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions. Summary and Conclusions. Joint Transport Research Centre Round Table, 31 January - 1 February 2008, Paris. (Discussion Paper No. 2008-9). OECD, International Transport Forum, April 2008, 32 p. [formato PDF, 258 KB].

M. Maibach, C. Schreyer, D. Sutter (INFRAS), H.P. van Essen, B.H. Boon, R. Smokers, A. Schroten (CE Delft), C. Doll (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft – ISI), B. Pawlowska, M. Bak (University of Gdansk), Handbook on estimation of external cost in the transport sector. Produced within the study Internalisation Measures and Policies for All external Cost of Transport (IMPACT). Version 1.0. Delft, December 19th, 2007, 336 p. [formato PDF, 4,38 MB]. (Manuale prodotto per e distribuito dalla Commissione Europea.) "The Commission intends to make use of this handbook to prepare a communication on a strategy to internalise the external costs for all modes of transport that is due in June 2008 and a proposal to revise the directive on the charging of heavy goods vehicles." "This Handbook presents the state of the art and best practice on external cost estimation to make this accessible for those who are not familiar with the issue. It covers all environmental, accident and congestion costs and considers all transport modes. The focus is on marginal external costs of transport activity as a basis for the definition of internalisation policies such as efficient pricing schemes. The handbook does not include information on the existing taxes and charges and does not include information on Infrastructure costs. The handbook is based on the existing scientific and expert work mainly done at EU level and within European countries. It has been reviewed by a panel of more than thirty experts, including experts who were designated by Member States. The handbook recommends: - Methods for calculating external cost figures. - Best available input values for such calculation (e.g. value of one life year lost). - Estimated default unit values of external cost for different traffic situations (e.g. air pollution cost of a vehicle in Euro per kilometre)."

Costi sito informativo dell’economista Andrea Molocchi, comprende schede sui costi esterni dei trasporti terrestri e marittimi e una bibliografia generale

The Eddington Transport Study. The case for action: Sir Rod Eddington's advice to government, (Summary report), London, Department of Transport, December 2006, 64 p. [formato PDF, 2,04 MB]. Sintesi e conclusioni dello studio commissionato dal governo inglese a Sir Eddington sul rapporto tra i trasporti e il sistema economico inglese. Lo studio propone l'applicazione generalizzata del road pricing al trasporto su strada per contrastare le evidenti tendenze alla saturazione della rete stradale e autostradale. "Policy should get the prices right (especially congestion pricing on the roads and environmental pricing across all modes) and make best use of existing networks." E' disponibile anche il rapporto completo in 4 volumi con allegati, The Eddington Transport Study

Transport demand to 2025 & the economic case for road pricing and investment. December 2006, 166 p. [formato PDF, 982 kB]. Allegato allo studio di Sir Eddington. Questa ricerca è basata sulle previsioni di traffico al 2025 nel Regno Unito (National Transport Model) e analizza i possibili investimenti nelle infrastrutture di trasporto in presenza o assenza del road pricing, con i loro impatti economici, sociali ed ambientali.


Elisabetta Cornago, Alexandros Dimitropoulos, Walid Oueslati, Evaluating the Impact of Urban Road Pricing on the Use of Green Transport Modes: The Case of Milan. OECD Environment Working Papers No. 143, OECD Publishing, Paris. 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of congestion pricing on the demand for clean transport modes. To this end, it draws on an empirical analysis of the effect of Milan's congestion charge on the use of bike sharing. The analysis indicates that congestion pricing increases daily bike-sharing use by at least 5% in the short term. Extending the schedule of the congestion charge in the early evening increases bike-sharing use in the affected time window by 12%. The impact of the policy on bike-sharing use mainly occurs through the reduction of road traffic congestion, which makes cycling safer and more pleasant. The findings of the study indicate that policies aiming to reduce car use also have positive repercussions on the uptake of green mobility options. Relying solely on direct incentives for cycling, which often involve infrastructure projects, is likely insufficient to remove barriers to bike use."

Elmar Wilhelm M. Fürst, Maria Dieplinger (WU, Vienna University of Economics and Business), The acceptability of road pricing in Vienna: the preference patterns of car drivers. Transportation, July 2014, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 765-784 (20 p.) [formato PDF, 301 kB]. "The acceptability of road pricing has attracted considerable attention among researchers over the last decade, as is evident in the amount of literature about transport and environmental economics. The general conclusion from these studies has been that there is low acceptability for road pricing among car users. In this paper, we add more knowledge to the existing literature by conducting an acceptability study of road pricing in Vienna, where such a study has never been conducted before. We used a replication study approach where a previous approach used in the EU research project AFFORD (acceptability of fiscal and financial measures and organisational requirements for demand management) was replicated for Vienna and further supplemented with a conjoint analysis. In order to examining whether the Vienna study confirms previous findings. We investigated the acceptability of two concrete policy packages factors influencing this acceptability, and preference patterns that can be used in designing a road pricing policy for Vienna. The survey reveals a higher acceptability if road pricing schemes lead to perceived personal benefits. According to the multivariate analyses, the ‘‘personal outcome expectations’’, ‘‘social norm’’ and ‘‘perceived effectiveness’’ variables account for more than 50 % of the criterion variance and therefore these are the most influential factors. Road pricing schemes can be an effective transport management instrument for a city particularly if they are associated with direct investment in public transport and public infrastructure. Thus, personal benefits can be perceived more easily and direct effects can be expected."

Silvia Moroni, in collaboration with Ario Ruprecht, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts on traffic and environment. Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio, Milano, 2014, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,55 MB]. Relazione dell'ing. Moroni per le autorità cinesi, farà parte della pubblicazione "International Best Practices for Congestion Charge and Low Emissions Zone". "Milan is located in one of the most polluted area in the world and is historically affected by traffic congestion problems due to its central economic and cultural role in the Northern part of Italy and to one of the highest motorization rate in Europe. Air quality is mostly affected by road traffic, therefore Local Administration is working to reduce exposure to traffic-related air pollution both by mean of short time interventions during winter season - when persistent episodes of high stability lead to the longest period of EU Limit Values non-attainment episodes - and by mean of structural measures in the context of the Sustainable Mobility Urban Plan. In Milan traffic emissions, noise, accidents and congestion give external costs for more than 5 billion euros/year, for related health and life quality problems, material damages for buildings and artistic patrimony, global climate change and time losses in transport. Milan launched several measures to face air pollution and traffic congestion including two innovative road price schemes applied to the historical center, the first, started in 2008 and called ‘Ecopass’, based on the ‘polluter pays principle’, and the second and definitive scheme, launched in January 2012, called ‘Area C’, which combine a Congestion Charge scheme with the banning of the most polluting vehicles. The ‘Area C’ LTZ was introduced in observance to the results of a public referendum indicating that the vast majority (79%) of the Milan voting citizens wanted to potentiate public transports and to limit traffic-related pollution. Thus the Area C was conceived as a congestion charge measure aiming to improve environmental conditions in the city of Milan and consequently to enhance the life quality and health both of citizens and city users. The successful results of the Area C measure are the following: Less Traffic - 30,2% (reduction of daily entrance - 39.864 vehicles, compared with 2011 Ecopass, the previous pollution charge scheme); Less Road accidents - 23.8%; Less occupation of on-street parking -10% (with a gain in public space availability); Increase of public transport speed (during peak hours: +9,3% for buses and +5,4% for tram); Less pollutant vehicles: - 49% (-2.400 pollutant vehicles entering every day the Area C); More cleaner vehicles + 6,1 % (from 9,6% to 16,6% of the total vehicles); Less polluting vehicular emissions: Total PM10 -18% ; Exhaust PM10 -10%; Ammonia -42%; Nitrogen Oxides -18%; Carbon Dioxide -35%; Less Airborne Black Carbon (BC) concentrations: -52% (Summer, at kerbside) and - 28% (Winter, residential site). Briefly, almost one out of three cars was left at home, the number of clean vehicles has almost doubled thus road traffic emissions had important reductions (in particular for CO2) and inside the ‘Area C’ LTZ traffic-related toxic compounds, traced by airborne Black Carbon measurements, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts 140540010_00 rev. 00 20/02/2014 6/51 were found lower from 1 to 3 epidemiological change units (Janssen et al., 2011), attesting an important benefit in public health. In the framework of the Urban Traffic Plan (PGTU), as part of the Environmental Report required by the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure, it was assessed that ‘congestion charge’ scenario at 2015 leads to a decrease of exposure to the highest Black Carbon traffic emission levels (>50 grams/day) for about 9,000 residents with respect to the ‘Loop’ circulation scheme (an alternative option for the same area), with an important improvement on public health. This result supported, together with other evaluations, the adoption by the Municipal Board, in March 2013, of the ‘Area C’ Congestion Charge scheme as a permanent and strategic measure, after one year trial period. All the Area C LTZ incomes have been reinvested in projects for Sustainable Mobility such as the strengthening of public transport and the development of the bike-sharing system. A survey carried out in April 2013 analyzing the perception of the citizens of Milan stated that 58% of residents expressed favorable views of ‘Area C’ measure. Possible perspectives of road pricing schemes are going to be discussed in the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) process, just started. The Environment Mobility and Transport Department of the Municipality of Milan is responsible for the implementation of the Area C measure. AMAT, the local Agency, provides monitoring and assessment technical services. ‘Area C’ LTZ description and monitoring results can be accessed at the websites:;;;"

Marten van den Bossche, Rutger Beekman, Broos Baanders, Bas Scholten, Arno Schroten, Huib van Essen, Study on Urban Aspects of the Internalisation of External Costs - MOVE/B4/310-1/2011. Final report. Ecorys, CE Delft, Rotterdam, November 2012, 228 p. [formato PDF, 4,73 MB]. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission. "This study aims to address Action 12 (The internalisation of external costs), and consists of: an analysis of the general principles and methodologies of internalisation of external costs of urban mobility; an overview of present and failed attempts of economic instruments and policy measures, based on 12 case studies specifically on urban road charging and paid parking; and an assessment of mobility, environmental and socio-economic impacts of the two economic instruments."

Marco Percoco (Università Bocconi), Is road pricing effective in abating pollution? Evidence from Milan. (Working paper). Università Bocconi, Milano, June 2013, 27 p. [formato PDF, 493 kB] "In January 2008 Milan implemented a road pricing scheme in the city center to decrease pollution concentration. By adopting a regression discontinuity design to account for potential confounders, we estimate the effect of the policy on the concentration of benzene, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide. We have found a sizeable effect of the Ecopass on air quality in terms of reduction in the concentration of carbon monoxide and particulates few days after its introduction, although this effect disappears after only one week. We interpret these results as indicative of an inefficient policy design since motorbikes were not charged and the treated area is too limited to generate positive outcomes on the whole city."

Congestion tax in Gothenburg. Information sheet on the Gothenburg congestion tax, introduced on 1 January 2013. 1 p. [formato PDF, 352 kB]

Maria Börjesson, Jonas Eliasson, Muriel Hugosson, Karin Brundell-Freij, The Stockholm congestion charges – five years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt. (CTS Working Paper 2012:3). Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,59 MB] "Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general." Published in Transport Policy, 2012, vol 20, p. 1-12.

World Road Association (PIARC), Worldwide situation of road pricing and assessment of its impacts. PIARC, La Défense, 2012, 246 p. [formato PDF, 4,49 MB]. "The report of Technical Committee "Road System Economics and Social Development" presents the state of road pricing schemes, the corresponding developments and an assessment of their impacts. Pricing schemes implemented or under study in the following twenty-two countries: Austria, Canada, Czech Rep., Denmark, USA, Spain, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, UK, Singapore, Slovak Rep., Sweden, Switzerland, and those of the Economic and in the countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union, are presented in an appendix. For the different cases, the report presents the objectives, the pricing scheme, the results (success and difficulties) and the prospects. Road pricing is increasingly seen as a reaction to the dual challenge of reduced budgetary revenues and increased congestion. The range is expanded beyond the traditional taxes on fuels. Tolling remains widespread; vignette systems tend to decline with the emergence of pricing based on the distance traveled. If congestion charging in urban areas tends to grow, implementation of national systems of mobility pricing still faces many challenges including that of obtaining public support. The impact of different pricing methods on: characteristics of mobility, the environment, road safety, the economy, social equity and acceptability are examined from fifteen case studies presented in appendix. The examples covered range from urban congestion schemes to the impact of the internalisation of externalities accompanying the revision of the Eurovignette Directive, through the experiences of pricing related to the distance traveled. Infrastructure charging is not effective in reducing the total demand for transport on inter-urban roads and therefore has no environmental effect. The situation is different for urban pricing. The social acceptance is a key determinant for the success of the implementation of urban systems: neutrality in terms of revenue or their use to improve public transport may contribute to mitigating the social rejection." Full text available, free registration needed.

Romeo Danielis, Lucia Rotaris, Edoardo Marcucci, Jérôme Massiani, An economic, environmental and transport evaluation of the Ecopass scheme in Milan: three years later. SIET, 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 236 kB]. "The paper provides an evaluation of the Ecopass scheme for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The term Ecopass conveys the stated political objective of the scheme: a PASS to improve the quality of the urban environment (ECO). The scheme has actually improved the air quality in Milan, although the recommended PM10 threshold is still exceeded for a larger number of days than that recommended by EU directives. This paper estimates the costs and benefits of the scheme three years after its implementation using the same methodology applied in Rotaris et al. (2010) for the year 2008. It results that the benefits still exceed the costs by an increasing amount, but at an annual decreasing rate of improvement. The Ecopass scheme has proved beneficial, but it seems to have exhausted its potential: little further gains in environmental quality could be obtained via a fiscal incentive to improve the abatement technology of the vehicles. The new administration, elected in June 2011, is faced with the task of deciding whether to dismiss, maintain or change the Ecopass scheme. The prevailing idea coming from the Ecopass Commission and from the advocacy groups is to extend both the area of application and the number of classes subject to the charge. A move from a pollution charge to a congestion charge, or at least a combination of a pollution and a congestion charge is envisaged."

Todd Litman, Smart Congestion Relief: Comprehensive Analysis Of Traffic Congestion Costs and Congestion Reduction Benefits. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, October 2011, 40 p. [formato PDF, 409 kB]. "This report critically evaluates the methods used to measure traffic congestion impacts. Current methods tend to exaggerate congestion costs and roadway expansion benefits. This study develops a more comprehensive evaluation framework which is applied to various congestion reduction strategies. The results indicate that highway expansion often provides less overall benefit than alternative congestion reduction policies. Comprehensive evaluation can identify more efficient and equitable congestion solutions."

Frank Kelly, H. Ross Anderson, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, Ben Barratt, Sean Beevers, Dick Derwent, David Green, Ian Mudway, and Paul Wilkinson, The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London. Part 1. Emissions Modeling and Analysis of Air Pollution Measurements; Part 2. Analysis of the Oxidative Potential of Particulate Matter. (Research Report n.155). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, April 2011, 194 p. [formato PDF, 8,77 MB] "This report describes a study by Dr. Frank Kelly of King's College, London and colleagues that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). The investigators used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors."

Bruno De Borger, Stef Proost, A political economy model of road pricing. (Research Paper 2010-014). University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Antwerpen, 2010, 40 p. [formato PDF, 200 kB]. "In this paper, we take a political economy approach to study the introduction of urban congestion tolls, using a simple majority voting model. Making users pay for external congestion costs is for an economist an obvious reform, but successful introductions of externality pricing in transport are rare. In the few cases where tolls were actually introduced, implementation was characterized by two salient facts. First, the toll revenues were tied to improvements of public transport. Second, opposition to the introduction of tolling decreased substantially after it was introduced. In most cases, a majority was against ex ante, but a majority favored the introduction of tolling after it was implemented. This paper develops a stylized model with car and public transport, allowing for idiosyncratic uncertainty about modal substitution costs. We show that uncertainty reduces the number of voters that favors road pricing ex ante. The model can explain the presence of a majority that is against road pricing ex ante and in favor ex post. Moreover, uncertainty also implies that, if a majority is against ex ante, there will be no majority for organizing an experiment that would take away the individual uncertainty. Finally, we show that it is easier to obtain a majority when the toll revenues are used to subsidize public transport than when they are used for a tax refund."

Jörg Bellmann, Andreas Eichinger, Alexander Eisenkopf, Andreas Knorr, Urban Congestion Charging with an Environmental Component - The Central London Congestion Charge. (Discussion Papers 47). Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung, Speyer, Februar 2009, 51 p. [formato PDF, 1.77 MB]. [Free download, registration requested].

Paul Sorensen (The RAND Corporation), System Trials to Demonstrate Mileage-Based Road Use Charges. NCHRP Web-Only Document 161. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2010, 193 p. [formato PDF, 1,60 MB]. "Increasing vehicle fuel economy and the likely adoption of alternative fuel vehicles in the coming decades dim prospects for continued reliance on gasoline and diesel excise taxes to fund highway and bridge maintenance, expansion, and completion. Road use charges based on vehicle miles of travel (VMT fees) are viewed by many as a promising replacement for fuel taxes; their revenue yield would be unaffected by fuel economy or fuel type, the fees could be structured to help address additional transportation goals (e.g., reducing recurrent traffic congestion, harmful emissions, and excessive road wear), the system could provide detailed travel data to support improved transportation planning and operations, and the in-vehicle metering equipment could serve as a platform for additional driver services. Yet transitioning from fuel taxes to VMT fees would be a complex undertaking, with many technical, institutional, and political uncertainties to be resolved. To prepare for such a transition, it could be helpful to conduct an extensive set of system trials. The goal in this study is to explore options for scoping and organizing such trials. Policymakers interested in staging trials with the aim of examining and refining concepts for implementing a VMT-fee system would need to consider such questions as: how large the trials should be and how long they should last; how much it would cost to conduct the trials; whether the trials should be conducted in all states or just a few; whether the trials should involve trucks, passenger cars, or both; what types of pricing policies the trials should examine; what technical, institutional, and user acceptance issues should be probed; and who should oversee, manage, and conduct the trials. To gain insight into such questions and identify the factors likely to influence the success of trials, the research team solicited the thoughts and perspectives of representative stakeholders and subject matter experts through an extensive set of guided interviews followed by a one-day workshop. Based on participant responses and supporting research, it is possible to outline several approaches for funding, organizing, structuring, managing, and conducting a set of VMT-fee system trials. The trials could be complemented by parallel efforts in the areas of planning and policy guidance, analytic studies, technical research and development, and public education and outreach."

Comune di Milano, Monitoraggio Ecopass Gennaio – Dicembre 2008. Indicatori sintetici, Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio, Milano, 25 febbraio 2009, 49 p. [formato PDF, 1,49 MB].

Comune di Milano, Monitoraggio Ecopass Primo Semestre 2009. Indicatori sintetici, Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio, Milano, 27/07/2009, 48 p. [formato PDF, 394 kB].

Daniel Albalate, Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), Shaping urban traffic patterns through congestion charging: What factors drive success or failure?. (Working Papers 2008/01). Research Institute of Applied Economics (IREA), Universitat de Barcelona, 2008, 27 p. [formato PDF, 215 kB]. "Congestion costs are emerging as one of the most important challenges faced by metropolitan planners and transport authorities in first world economies. In US these costs were as high as 78 million dollars in 2005 and are growing due to fast increases in travel delays. In order to solve the current and severe levels of congestion the US department of transportation have recently started a program to initiate congestion pricing in five metropolitan areas. In this context it is important to determine those factors helping its implementation and success, but also the problems or difficulties associated with charging projects. In this article we analyze worldwide experiences with urban road charging in order to extract interesting and helpful lessons for policy makers engaged in congestion pricing projects and for those interested in the introduction of traffic management tools to regulate the entrance to big cities."

Caroline Lemoine, EcoPass: le péage urbain écologique de Milan. Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme Île-de-France, Paris, Octobre 2009, 39 p. [formato PDF, 3,44 MB] "Depuis le 2 janvier 2008, un péage écologique permet de limiter l’accès des véhicules les plus polluants au cœur historique de la ville de Milan. La zone s’étend sur l’équivalent des cinq premiers arrondissements de Paris. Sous le nom d’Ecopass et avec le slogan « moins de trafic et plus d’air pur », il sera testé pendant 2 ans. Le système de tarification est basé sur le principe « pollueur-payeur » et il impose des tarifs journaliers allant de 2 à 10 euros selon le niveau de pollution du véhicule indiqué par sa norme Euro. Les véhicules à faible émission de polluants y accèdent gratuitement. Le premier objectif était de rendre l’air plus propre en réduisant de 30 % la concentration des poussières fines (PM102) au sein de la zone. Cet objectif a été ambitieux puisque la réduction constatée dans la zone n’a été que de 19 % par rapport à la moyenne sur la période 2002-2007. Le bilan réalisé par l’Agenzia Milanese Mobilità Ambiente (AMA) montre aussi des améliorations de la qualité de l’air sur l’ensemble de la ville. Le deuxième objectif était de fluidifier la circulation en réduisant de 10 % les voitures entrant dans la zone. Cet objectif a été dépassé. Le bilan réalisé par l’AMA sur les 12 premiers mois conclut à une baisse moyenne du nombre de véhicules de 14 %, soit 22 000 véhicules en moins dans la zone à péage. Une des conséquences les plus remarquables a été la baisse des véhicules les plus polluants dans la zone. Lorsque l’on rapproche les chiffres 2008 de baisse du nombre de véhicules entrant tous types confondus avec celle des véhicules soumis au péage, on constate un surplus de véhicules entrants (+ 3 000) correspondant à des véhicules moins polluants. Le troisième objectif était de pouvoir réinvestir les bénéfices dans le cadre du programme cofinancé par le gouvernement, la région lombarde et la province en faveur de la mobilité durable. Cependant, le total des recettes brutes pour 2008 ne s’élève qu’à 12 millions d’euros, soit la moitié des estimations initiales (24 millions d’euros par an). Du fait des coûts de fonctionnement, le produit net du péage est faible. Par ailleurs, les recettes sont vouées à diminuer en raison des changements de comportements des utilisateurs. Cet effet se fait d’ores et déjà sentir sur les recettes du premier semestre 2009 qui sont en baisse de 20 % par rapport à celles du premier semestre 2008. Ce constat est à rapprocher du cas encore plus marqué de la zone à faible émission de polluants de Londres (Low Emission Zone LEZ) où, malgré une redevance journalière élevée (200 £ soit 250 euros), le système est déficitaire hors amortissements des coûts d’implantation. Malgré la faible étendue de la zone « Ecopass », le bilan présenté montre un effet particulièrement important sur la qualité de l’air. En fait, les péages écologiques répondent bien à leur objectif principal en réduisant les émissions de polluants. Malgré la faible étendue de la zone « Ecopass », le bilan présenté montre un effet particulièrement important sur la qualité de l’air, sur la circulation automobile et sur la fréquentation des transports en commun. La réduction du nombre de véhicules entrant dans la zone a permis en plus d’améliorer la sécurité routière et la vitesse commerciale des bus. D’autre part, Ecopass n’est qu’un des outils de la politique globale des déplacements à Milan. D’autres mesures sont en cours comme la réglementation du stationnement, l’automatisation des feux rouges, l’extension du réseau de métro... entre autres, qui jouent aussi en faveur d’une optimisation de l’usage des infrastructures et d’une mobilité plus durable."

Lucia Rotaris, Romeo Danielis, Edoardo Marcucci, Jérôme Massiani, The urban road pricing scheme to curb pollution in Milan: a preliminary assessment. (Working Paper n. 122). Università degli Studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Statistiche, Trieste, 2009, 23 p. [formato PDF, 705 kB]. "Starting from January 2008 Milan implemented a charging scheme to enter an 8 km2 area in the city centre. The term used in Italy to denote the scheme is Ecopass, conveying the stated political objective of the scheme: a PASS to improve the quality of the urban environment (ECO). The charge is set according to the Euro emission standard of the vehicles entering the area. Having recalled the main theoretical and empirical issues discussed in the literature, the paper illustrates and discusses the main features and impacts of the Milan Ecopass Scheme, and reports a preliminary cost-benefit analysis. This analysis shows that the scheme has been effective in curbing not only pollution emissions, but also congestion, and that these results have been achieved with low implementation costs and without major political opposition. The cost-benefits analysis presents an overall net benefit. The identification of the winners and losers of the policy is conditioned by penalty payments. In fact, a striking feature of the Milan Ecopass Scheme, compared to that of London and Stockholm, is that in the first year of implementation the penalty payments were higher than the toll revenues. If the penalties are included in the cost-benefit analysis, the public administration and the society at large are the main winners, whereas car users and especially freight vehicle users, are net losers."

André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Traffic congestion pricing methods and technologies. (Cahier n° 2009-31). Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau, September 2009, 49 p. [formato PDF, 348 kB]. "This paper reviews the methods and technologies for congestion pricing of roads. Congestion tolls can be implemented at scales ranging from individual lanes on single links to national road networks. Tolls can be differentiated by time of day, road type and vehicle characteristics, and even set in real time according to current traffic conditions. Conventional toll booths have largely given way to electronic toll collection technologies. The main technology categories are roadside-only systems employing digital photography, tag and beacon systems that use short-range microwave technology, and in vehicle-only systems based on either satellite or cellular network communications. The best technology choice depends on the application. The rate at which congestion pricing is implemented, and its ultimate scope, will depend on what technology is used and on what other functions and services it can perform. Since congestion pricing calls for the greatest overall degree of toll differentiation, congestion pricing is likely to drive the technology choice."

Tuomo Suvanto, Suvi Anttila, Paavo Moilanen, The Helsinki Region Congestion Charging Study. Ministry of Transport and Communications, Helsinki, June 2009, 128 p. [formato PDF, 5,43 MB]. "The study considered whether congestion charging could help achieve the transport policy objectives in a cost-effective manner in the Helsinki region. Forming the backdrop to the study are the goals set out in the Government Programme and in the Government Transport Policy Report, and the expectations of society at large regarding the transport system in the region. The study is also a part of transport system development work in the region. The study, undertaken between spring 2008 and summer 2009, involved extensive cooperation with the different parties concerned in the region. The study produced an abundant and diverse array of information on the use of congestion charging as a transport policy tool. This information provides the basis for debate and decision-making on whether to go ahead with preparations for congestion charging in the Helsinki region. The study examined a range of different impacts associated with congestion charging and evaluated them extensively from six different viewpoints: the functioning of the transport system, the environment, road safety, the business operating environment and financial position of businesses, land use and urban structure and the mobility of different groups of transport system users. Also costs, revenues and risks were estimated. In addition, the study looked at whether the same impacts could be achieved in a better and more cost-effective manner using other means than congestion charging (additional road capacity, more or cheaper public transport etc.). The impacts were illustrated using three different congestion charging models (the single-cordon model, the multiple-cordon model and the zone model). The study results show that congestion charging could help to achieve the transport policy objectives in a effective manner: reduce private car usage, reduce the extent of congestion, increase the use of public transport, improve road safety and there would be fewer emissions from traffic. The socio-economic benefits of congestion charging would exceed the costs. Some other tools and measures which are in use today could achieve a similar impact, but not as cost-effectively as congestion charging."

Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion. CBO Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC, March 2009, 39 p. [formato PDF, 1,97 MB]. "This study—prepared at the request of the Chairman of the House Committee on the Budget— explains how congestion pricing works, reviews the best available evidence on projects that make use of such pricing in order to assess the benefits and challenges of the approach, and discusses federal policy options for encouraging congestion pricing."

A.P. Gopinath Menon, Chin Kian-Keong, ERP in Singapore - what's been learnt from five years of operation?. Tec, February 2004, p.62-65 [formato PDF, 2,98 MB]. Electronic road pricing (ERP) in Singapore since 1998.

Jonas Eliasson (Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology), Lessons from the Stockholm congestion charging trial. Via Nordica 2008, Helsingfors, 10 June 2008. 24 p. [formato PDF, 245 kB].

Michael Replogle (Environmental Defense Fund), Transportation Pricing for Greenhouse Gas Efficiency. Presentation to CARB Symposium on Vehicle Efficiency Gains, April 21, 2008, 35 slides [formato PDF, 944 kB]. Panoramica su varie esperienze di road pricing e congestion charging, con alcuni dati interessanti sugli effetti ottenuti o previsti negli USA.

Philip T. Blythe (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne), Congestion Charging: Challenges to Meet the UK Policy Objectives. Review of Network Economics, 3 (2004) 356-370 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 366 kB]. "This paper reviews and comment on the current issues of road-use charging in the UK from two perspectives, the technical and the political. The paper concludes that the lack of appropriate technology will not be the constraint in implementing road-use charging in the near future in the UK, and new technologies that are currently being researched should not be excluded as possible future solutions for charging. However the local authority schemes that are now up and running in London and Durham, the on-going National Trials in Leeds, the policy of introducing distancebased charging for Heavy Goods Vehicles and the Commission for Integrated Transport’s proposal to have distance-charging black-boxes in all UK registered vehicles suggests certain policy divergence which may be difficult to “sell” to the public."

Daniel Albalate & Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), Shaping urban traffic patterns through congestion charging: What factors drive success or failure?. (Research Institute of Applied Economics/Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada. Working Papers 2008/01). Barcelona, 2008, 27 p. [formato PDF, 216 kB]. "Congestion costs are emerging as one of the most important challenges faced by metropolitan planners and transport authorities in first world economies. In US these costs were as high as 78 million dollars in 2005 and are growing due to fast increases in travel delays. In order to solve the current and severe levels of congestion the US department of transportation have recently started a program to initiate congestion pricing in five metropolitan areas. In this context it is important to determine those factors helping its implementation and success, but also the problems or difficulties associated with charging projects. In this article we analyze worldwide experiences with urban road charging in order to extract interesting and helpful lessons for policy makers engaged in congestion pricing projects and for those interested in the introduction of traffic management tools to regulate the entrance to big cities."

Peter Bonsall and Charlotte Kelly, Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups. Transport Policy, 12 (2005) 406-418 (27 p.) [formato PDF, 680 kB]. "The importance of social exclusion in the context of congestion charging is discussed, and the groups most particularly at-risk identified. A new technique, based on generation and investigation of a synthetic population is introduced and used to establish the impacts on at-risk groups of six congestion charging schemes in Leeds. The distribution and severity of impacts are seen to depend crucially on the precise definition of the charge area, the basis of the charges and exemptions provided. Using the new technique, it can be seen how the impact on at-risk groups could be minimized without compromising the overall objectives of congestion charging. Further potential applications of the new technique are outlined."

Taede Tillema, Bert Van Wee. Tom De Jong, Road pricing from a geographical perspective: a literature review and implications for research into accessibility, Paper presented at the 43rd ERSA Congress, August 27th-30th 2003, Jyväskylä (Finland). 25 p. [formato PDF, 172 KB]. "Road pricing policies have been a subject of research for many decades. Even though until now examples of actual implication in the real world are limited, many different road-pricing measures have been considered, both in literature as well as in the political debate in several countries. However, most literature focuses on economic aspects, more or less ignoring spatial consequences. In this paper we will concentrate on the spatial effects of pricing policy and introduce the typical geographic concept of accessibility into the discussion about pricing policy. The paper firstly gives some backgrounds of pricing policies. Some objectives of road pricing in general are given. Furthermore some examples of already implemented pricing measures in countries all over the world are mentioned. General literature concerning pricing policies aims specifically on economic effects. This is mainly because of the typical economic aspects, which can be found in the theory of pricing policy such as the pricing of a scarce good as infrastructure capacity, related to time aspects. Also studies concerning acceptability of road pricing policies are discussed, because acceptance plays an important role in the implementation of pricing policies. The paper shortly addresses some of the economic and acceptability related literature. But the literature review of the paper focuses specifically on the geographical aspects of pricing policies. These geographical aspects have received much less attention so far although road-pricing measures may cause important spatial effects. Therefore the second part of the paper focuses on these geographical aspects. A specific research field in geography is accessibility. Accessibility is a concept that connects infrastructure and land-use. The research fields of accessibility and pricing policies in isolation are well elaborated. However, the link between road pricing policies and accessibility (measures) forms a new research field. The paper explains the importance of the concept of accessibility. In practice accessibility can be computed with accessibility measures. These measures form quantifications of accessibility. Different types of accessibility measures exist differing in concept as well as complexity. All these measures have in common that transport costs are not included at all or at least not in a realistic way. After explaining the concept of accessibility different categories of accessibility measures are explained and their general advantages and disadvantages are given. Furthermore possibilities to adapt or improve accessibility measures are discussed. After this discussion the actual link between road pricing policies and accessibility measures is explained. The discussion begins with the presentation of a conceptual model of the accessibility (and spatial) effects of road pricing. Subsequently an observation is made where current measures fall short to include pricing policy costs in a realistic way. This observation will lead to the determination of directions for improvement. Besides the general possibilities to adjust different accessibility measures, each measure is specifically evaluated on the ability to improve the way of describing accessibility effects of road pricing."

Marc Deuber, Road Pricing Parameter. Paradigmenwechsel von einer distanzabhängigen Gebühr hin zu einer zeitdauerbezogenen Gebühr (cambio di paradigma da una tassa basata sulla distanza a una basata sul tempo). Master-Arbeit, Universität St. Gallen, 30 Mai 2007, 93 p. [formato PDF, 1,54 MB].

Anna Gervasoni, Massimiliano Sartori, Il road pricing: esperienze internazionali, costi, benefici e sostenibilità finanziaria, Liuc Papers n. 198, Università Carlo Cattaneo, Castellanza (VA), gennaio 2007, 42 p. [formato PDF, 530 KB]. "Il presente lavoro di ricerca è strutturato nel modo seguente: nella sezione 2 si presentano gli obiettivi perseguibili attraverso l’implementazione di un sistema di Road Pricing; nella sezione 3 si propongono alcune considerazioni sulla sostenibilità finanziaria connessa allo sviluppo di un determinato sistema di tariffazione; nella sezione 4 si presentano alcuni casi di successo di applicazione del Road Pricing. Nella sezione 5 si valutano i principali costi e benefici socio – economici connessi a tali sistemi e nella sezione 6 si presenta una struttura di modello per la valutazione finanziaria del Road Pricing."

Petros Ieromonachou, When might we see congestion charging in British cities outside London?, TPS Bursary Paper, Transport Planning Society, London, February 2007, 39 p. [formato PDF, 313 KB]. Un confronto tra le esperienze di road pricing e access control nei centri urbani in Norvegia, Italia e Gran Bretagna.

Civitas Caravel Training Workshop, Urban pricing and new forms of access regulations. Workshop proceedings, Genoa, Italy, November 21, 2006. 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,44 MB]. (Relazioni sulle esperienze di: Beijing, Stockholm, Roma, Bologna, Genova e sulle tecnologie applicabili al controllo degli accessi e al pagamento).

Simon Braunholtz, Robert Cumming (MORI Scotland), Evaluation of Edinburgh residents' attitudes to the proposed road user charging scheme; ISBN 0 7559 6101 3, Web Only Publication, June 2006. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive Social Research, 2006, 67 p. [formato PDF, 672 kB]. "The research explores public attitudes and perceptions towards Edinburgh's proposed road user charging scheme and associated referendum and the factors that may have influenced these attitudes".

City of Stockholm, Facts and results from the Stockholm Trials, First version, June 2006, 132 p. [formato PDF, 2,67 MB]. Approfondita analisi dell’Expert Group sui risultati della sperimentazione del road pricing a Stoccolma.

City of Stockholm, Facts and Results from the Stockholm Trial, Stockholm, 2006, 6 p. [formato PDF, 3,33 MB]. Scheda sintetica sui risultati dell’applicazione del road pricing a Stoccolma.

MD-PIT A Multi-Disciplinary study of Pricing policies In Transport (NL) – progetto di ricerca multidisciplinare di 4 università olandesi sulla teoria e pratica delle applicazioni e sugli effetti delle politiche di road pricing e transport pricing. Il sito contiene numerose pubblicazioni.

Mario Zambrini (a cura di), Road pricing: uno strumento di gestione del traffico urbano. Ipotesi per una congestion charge a Milano. Milano, Istituto di Ricerche Ambiente Italia, marzo 2006, 28 p. [formato PDF, 2,83 MB]. Rapporto curato da Mario Zambrini per Legambiente, contiene una dettagliata proposta di introduzione del road pricing nell’area urbana di Milano.

Gerardo Marletto, Road pricing? Elementi per un giudizio (negativo). Roma, 24 gennaio 2006. 6 p. [formato Word, 50 kB]. Contributo del prof. Marletto, docente di economia applicata all’Università di Sassari, al dibattito sulla possibile introduzione del road pricing a Firenze. Vengono messi in rilievo il rischio di non equità sociale e la necessità di attivare numerosi altri strumenti per intervenire sulla domanda e offerta di mobilità urbana.

Road Pricing Schemes for Motorways and Urban Areas in Switzerland. Summary, Zurich/Basel, 19 January 2006, RAPP Trans AG / INFRAS AG, 16 p. [formato PDF, 224 kB] (risultati di un progetto di ricerca per SVI (Swiss Association of Traffic Engineers) sugli scenari di diverse applicazioni del road pricing in Svizzera (traffico automobilistico), sia nelle aree urbane che sulla rete autostradale). Il testo completo dello studio è disponibile solo in lingua tedesca (Road Pricing Modelle auf Autobahnen und in Stadtregionen. Schlussbericht, 295 p. [formato PDF, 19,9 MB] ), le sintesi anche in tedesco, francese ed inglese.

Idee sulla Toscana: una tariffa per Firenze? contributi sulla proposta del sindaco di Firenze di introdurre un ticket di ingresso in città. Interventi di Alessandra Garzanti (Comune di Firenze), Mario Preti (ACI), Franco Vichi (CNA), Luciano Bartolini (sindaco di Bagno a Ripoli), Alessandro Viviani (docente dell'Università di Firenze), Elisabetta Tesi (ATAF), Gerardo Marletto (professore di economia applicata), Maurizio Da Re (Legambiente Toscana), Patrizia Lattarulo (IRPET), Erasmo d'Angelis (consigliere regionale). Firenze, 26 gennaio 2006, 15 p. [formato PDF, 144 KB]

Trivector Traffic AB, Evaluation of the congestion charge trial in Stockholm. Summary. Lund, 16.02.2005, 25 p. [file PDF, 80 KB]

Congestion charges trials in Stockholm sito ufficiale della città di Stoccolma (Svezia) (descrive il progetto approvato e in corso, ma non riporta le ultime disavventure giudiziarie riguardanti la sospensione della gara per la gestione dell’iniziativa da parte della magistratura)

Magnus Carle, Congestion charging in Stockholm , PRoGRESS Final Conference “Road Pricing – the Way Forward”, 24 Feb. 2004, 15 slides [file PowerPoint, 174 KB] (sintesi del progetto di Road pricing, o Congestion charging, di Stoccolma (Svezia)

London Congestion Charging : il sito dedicato al sistema di accesso a pagamento al centro di Londra, in applicazione del principio dell’internalizzazione dei costi esterni dei trasporti

Nick Ayland, Congestion Charging – The International Perspective, PRoGRESS Final Conference “Road Pricing – the Way Forward”, 24 Feb. 2004, 23 slides [file PowerPoint, 1,6 MB] (una sintesi delle esperienze, modalità e caratteristiche del Congestion Charging nel mondo)

Urban Transport Pricing in Europe Portale di sei progetti sull’internalizzazione dei costi esterni dei trasporti finanziati dalla Commissione UE : CUPID, PRoGREss, EUROPRICE, MCICAM, DESIRE, IMPRINT-EUROPE


Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. " Purpose. For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach. The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings. Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over Euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications. Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications. The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications. The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value. The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

European Environment Agency, Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution. EEA Technical Report n.1/2013, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 3,87 MB]. "In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011). The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe."

Andreas Knorr, André Heinemann, Alexander Eisenkopf, Germany's Autobahn Toll for Heavy Goods Vehicles after four Years: Experiences and Perspectives. (Discussion Papers 53). Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung, Speyer, Dezember 2009, 35 p. [formato PDF, 437 kB]. "On January 1st, 2005, Germany introduced a road charging system for all heavy goods vehicles (HGV) using the country's Autobahn network (i.e. the country's main interstate highways). The introduction of this so-called Lkw-Maut (HGV toll) marked a watershed event in the history of Germany's transport policy as it represented the first ever deviation from the traditional approach of financing road infrastructures out of the general budget. In our paper we will first provide an overview of the current legal and institutional framework of the German Lkw-Maut regime. Then we will analyse its performance and shortcomings since its implementation in 2005, using a model which enhances the traditional theory of club goods by incorporating the relevance of the degree of rivalry for the efficient provision of road infrastructures." [Free download, registration requested].

Vera Ferrón Vílchez, Juan Alberto Aragón Correa, María Dolores Vidal Salazar (Universidad de Granada), La Internalización de los Costes Medioambientales en el transporte de mercancías por carretera. (Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry). Cuadernos de Gestión, Vol. 11. Nº 1 (Año 2011), pp. 117-139 (24 p.) [formato PDF, 632 kB]. "Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies."

Gerard de Jong, Arno Schroten, Huib van Essen, Matthijs Otten, Pietro Bucci, Price sensitivity of European road freight transport – towards a better understanding of existing results. A report for Transport & Environment. Significance, CE Delft, June 2010, 138 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. "The study examines all relevant scientific sources on the sensitivity of road freight demand to price changes (‘price elasticity of demand’ in economic parlance), and checks the results against evidence from the lorry charging schemes already in place in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic."

Nihan Akyelken (Univ. of Oxford), Policy implications of External Costs: Charging Policies. (Working paper N° 1045). Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford, January 2010, 19 p. [formato PDF, 297 kB]. (This is a section of the report on the analysis of 35 different measures on sustainable freight transport – part of the FREIGHTVISION project, funded by the European Commission). Sintesi sulle politiche di internalizzazione dei costi esterni dei trasporti e la tassazione dei camion in diversi paesi europei.

Werner Rothengatter, Gernot Liedtke, Eckhard Szimba, Markus Kraft, Christian Reynaud, Jean-Baptiste Buguellou, Internalisation of External Costs of Transport: Impact on Rail. Study for the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER). Final Report. IWW Universität Karlsruhe, NESTEAR, Karlsruhe and Paris, July 2009, 62 p. [formato PDF, 6,60 MB]. "The purpose of this study is to assess the likely impact in 2020 of the internalisation of external costs for heavy goods vehicles on modal shift and the environment. The analysis has been made for inter-regional traffic, both for the whole network and for two corridors. It was based on studies carried out by INFRAS/IWW (2004; 2005) and various studies for the Commission for which the main results are summarised in the IMPACT Study (CE Delft et al., 2008) for the Commission. Transport modelling was done by combining the NESTEAR freight transport model with its detailed logistic features and the IWW road transport model which provides a detailed simulation of congestion on roads and its environmental impacts. Different scopes and levels of internalisation of external costs have been analysed. These range from the narrow scope (air pollution, noise and congestion) and capped values in the Commission’s 2008 proposed revision to the Eurovignette directive to the wider scope (inclusion of CO2 and accidents) and uncapped values from the IMPACT Handbook. In our analysis we first assumed that rail productivity would grow – according to the expected productivity growth in other industrial sectors - at the industrial average of 1.8% per year. The effect of the Commission’s July 2008 proposal would be relatively limited, both in terms of modal shift and CO2 emissions. However, including all external costs and setting all values at more realistic levels would increase the proportion of inter-regional traffic carried by rail from 19% to 24% for the inter-regional transport markets (distance >300 km). Additional investment by governments and railways, which could be supported by earmarked revenue from charging, could easily bring a further 0.9% p.a. increase in rail productivity, and this would further increase the proportion of this traffic carried by rail to 31% of market share for inter-regional transport. Most of this is longer distance traffic for which rail is most competitive. For example, 59% of all land-borne traffic over distances exceeding 700 km and 68% for distances exceeding 900 km would be carried by rail. Much of this is combined transport for which the feeder part of the trip would be by road. This demonstrates the increasingly complementary relationship between rail and road transport, i.e. rail using its obvious strengths on long distances and road freight playing its critical role for regional feeders and distribution. These changes would represent a major turnaround in the transport sector. They would substantially improve transport efficiency and make a major contribution to achieving the objectives of the White Paper on Common Transport Policy (European Commission, 2001). There would also be significant savings in CO2 emissions amounting to about 7% of the EU’s CO2 reductions target as set out in the “Bali Roadmap”. These changes would represent a first and major concrete step to achieving these targets and make a serious and important move towards sustainability in the transport sector. The analysis of two key corridors (Rotterdam-Genoa and Antwerp-Warsaw) shows that the modal shift would be even greater on these corridors than for the network as a whole. Rail traffic would concentrate along these corridors with an increasing modal share. The share of rail transport carried along the Rotterdam-Genoa corridor would go up from 11 to 13% and on the Zeebrügge/Antwerp-Warsaw corridor from 5 to 7%. The impact of internalisation would be particularly marked for the Antwerp-Warsaw corridor for which the rail offer is currently less well developed."

Kilometre tax for lorries. Effects on industries and regions. Report on a government commission in collaboration with ITPS. (SIKA Report 2007:2). Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Stockholm, 2007, 129 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. "The Government has commissioned SIKA and ITPS to analyse the effect on industries and consequences for regions of the introduction of a kilometre tax for heavy vehicles."

Matthias Rapp, Per Skrumsager Hansen, Evaluation of different scenarios of a HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) charging system in Denmark. Paper presented at the ITS Congress in Aalborg (DK), June 2007, 12 p. [formato PDF, 219 KB]. "The Danish Ministry for Transport and Energy is investigating the effects of replacing the existing Eurovignette cooperation with Sweden, Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg with a distance based Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) charging scheme for Denmark. In 2006 a study has been conducted for estimating the financial effects on the costs and income of different EFC schemes corresponding to alternative charging scenarios. Four Scenarios have been de-termined using two alternative technologies: Network charging with Satellite positioning technology and tag and beacon technology, and area charging with distance charging based on tachograph impulses and charging based on driving time using motion sensors. In the paper, the estimates of the costs and revenues of the scenarios are presented and they are compared with the benchmark figures from other European HGV charging systems. Sensitivities and risks related to the scenarios are discussed, too."

Matthias Rapp, Per Skrumsager Hansen, Evaluation of different scenarios of a HGV charging system in Denmark. Presentation at the ITS Congress in Aalborg (DK), June 2007, 19 slides [formato PDF, 1,09 MB].

Markus Liechti, Nina Renshaw, A Price Worth Paying. A guide to the new EU rules for road tolls for lorries. Second edition. Bruxelles, T and E - European Federation for Transport and Environment, June 2007, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB].

Markus Liechti, Nina Renshaw, Cena, ki jo je vredno plačati. Vodič po novih pravilih EU za plačevanje cestnin za tovornjake. T&E – Evropska federacija za transport in okolje, Bruselj, 2006, 57 p. [formato PDF, 396 KB].

Österreichisches Institut für Raumplanung, LKW-Roadpricing - Trends und Ausbaumöglichkeiten, (Verkehr und Infrastruktur Nr. 30), Wien, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien (AK Wien), 2007, 53 p. [formato PDF, 320 KB]. (analisi del trasporto merci in Austria dopo l'introduzione del pedaggio elettronico per i camion sulle strade di grande comunicazione (01.01.2004) e proposta di pedaggio generalizzato per i camion in Austria).

Markus Liechti, Nina Renshaw, A Price Worth Paying. A guide to the new EU rules for road tolls for lorries. Bruxelles, T and E - European Federation for Transport and Environment, 2006, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,00 MB]. T and E's latest publication takes an in-depth look at the new Eurovignette directive governing road tolls for lorries that came into force in June 2006. As well as explaining the scope of the new rules, the report also examines the state-of-the-art of road charging schemes across the EU25. Finally it looks at the opportunities available under the new directive for introducing new schemes or improving existing ones. This new report is essential reading for national government policy makers interested in road charging as well as NGOs and other stakeholders.

Roman Rudel, Schweizer Politik zur Verkehrsverlagerung am Gotthard. Ein Zwischenbericht. Luzern, 1.-3. Dezember 2005, Internationale Konferenz "Verkehr durch die Alpen - Monitraf", 12 slides [presentazione PDF, 288 kB]. In lingua tedesca. Una sintesi sugli effetti, i vantaggi e i limiti della tassa sul traffico pesante nel contesto della politica svizzera dei trasporti. Versione ampliata della relazione tenuta a Napoli.

Roman Rudel, La tassa sul traffico pesante e nuove infrastrutture ferroviarie in Svizzera. Una storia di successo? Napoli, 24 settembre 2005, relazione al convegno ISFORT "Logistica Sostenibile", 13 slides [presentazione PDF, 151 kB]. In italiano. Una sintesi sugli effetti, i vantaggi e i limiti della tassa sul traffico pesante nel contesto della politica svizzera dei trasporti.

Werner Rothengatter, Claus Doll, Anforderungen an eine umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgabe für den Strassengüterverkehr / Requirements for an environmentally orientated road user charge for heavy-duty vehicles. Kurzfassung/Summary , Umweltbundesamt Texte 57/2001, Berlin, 28 p. [formato pdf, 280 kB]. Una valutazione preliminare degli effetti dell’introduzione della tassa sui camion in Germania, utilizzando il modello ESCOT per l’andamento del trasporto merci su strada.

TOLL COLLECT (D) il sito del sistema funzionante in Germania per tassare il traffico dei camion in autostrada (il pedaggio viene riscosso con un sistema satellitare)

FNE (France Nature Environnement), Tarification des PL en France ... une réalité atteignable? (La tassazione dei camion in Francia - un obiettivo realizzabile?) Relazione di Elsa Coslado al convegno T&E/ITE di Vitoria-Gasteiz dell’8 aprile 2005, 13 slides [presentazione PowerPoint, 131 kB]

Independent Transport Commission (UK) Project Reports on Transport Pricing (2001-2003)

Transport Pricing and Investment Technical Report Autori: S. Glaister, D. Graham. Prodotto nel 2003 per l’Indipendent Transport Commission [formato PDF, 3,52 MB]

Transport Pricing and Investment Summary Report Autori: S. Glaister, D. Graham. Prodotto nel 2003 per l’Indipendent Transport Commission [formato PDF, 2,72 MB]

TTPCP Tassa sul traffico pesante commisurata alle prestazioni / Amministrazione federale delle dogane (CH)

Relazioni al convegno T&E di Vienna (27-28 ottobre 2004) Conference on Sustainable Transport in Sensitive Areas sul sito T&E I temi sono: traffico merci e aree sensibili, esempi dalle Alpi e dai Pirenei, la Convenzione delle Alpi, il trasporto intermodale, il trasferimento del trasporto merci dalla strada alla rotaia, la tassazione del trasporto su camion (esempi dalla Svizzera e dall’Austria), le infrastrutture stradali in Slovenia e Repubblica Ceca, la VIA strategica, ed altro ancora.

Per Kageson, Amending the ‘Eurovignette Directive’: an alternative to the European Commission’s proposal T&E, dicembre 2003, 54 p. [formato PDF, 274 KB] (L’associazione T&E propone radicali modifiche alla proposta di revisione della Direttiva europea “Eurovignette” sulla tassazione dei veicoli industriali, approvata dalla Commissione Europea il 23/07/2003)

Proposta di Direttiva COM (2003) 488 (in francese, 360 kB) – (idem in inglese) adottata dalla Commissione il 23/07/2003, che modifica la Direttiva 1999/62 sulla tassazione dei veicoli industriali e Comunicato stampa del 23 luglio 2003 sulla proposta della Commissione (in italiano).

Federtrasporto Bollettino economico n.12: Fisco e pedaggi per ridurre i costi del trasporto: metodologia


Booz & Co, Study on Impacts of Application of the Vignette Systems to Private Vehicles. Final Report. London, February 2012, 60 p. [formato PDF, 774 kB]. Prepared for: European Commission Directorate – General for Mobility and Transport. "Of the seven EU countries to have a ‘vignette’ tax system for cars, Hungary has the best and Slovenia the worst. That’s the finding of a study for the Commission that has looked at the seven existing systems as it is soon to publish draft guidelines for governments on minimum standards for vignettes. A vignette in road transport is a time-based charge that gives access to part or all of a road network. The seven EU countries to operate a vignette system are Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Switzerland also requires any vehicles using its motorway network to have a vignette, while Great Britain is considering a time-based vignette system for lorries. In preparation for the communication on making vignettes fairer, greener and less discriminatory towards foreigners, the Commission asked the American management consultancy Booz and Company to study all seven existing systems. Hungary comes out best in terms of respecting EU principles, while Slovenia is the worst. There are currently no EU rules on vignettes for cars, but any charges have to be ‘proportionate’ and ‘non-discriminatory’".

Christoph Erdmenger, Caroline Hoffmann, Kilian Frey, Martin Lambrecht, Wojciech Wlodarski, Pkw-Maut in Deutschland? - Eine umwelt- und verkehrspolitische Bewertung (Pedaggio per le auto in Germania? Una valutazione di politica ambientale e dei trasporti). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, April 2010, 17 p. [formato PDF, 1,89 MB]. "Rund 47 Milliarden Euro der vom Pkw-Verkehr verursachten Kosten sind zurzeit nicht durch die erbrachten Steuern und Abgaben gedeckt. Eine fahrleistungsabhängige Pkw-Maut für das gesamte Straßennetz könnte diese Lücke schließen und umweltfreundlichere Mobilität fördern. „Die streckenbezogene Maut ist die gerechteste Lösung, weil die Kosten dort bezahlt werden, wo sie entstehen.“, sagte UBA-Präsident Flasbarth in der Berliner Zeitung." L'Ufficio federale tedesco per l'ambiente interviene a favore della tassazione delle auto in proporzione ai costi esterni provocati e al consumo delle infrastrutture, estesa a tutta la rete stradale.

Ministry of Transport, Public Works & Water Management, Rules for Charging a Pay-By-Use Price for Driving with a Motor Vehicle [Dutch Road Pricing Act]. The Hague, 26.01.2010, 99 p. [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. "Explanatory memorandum Road Pricing Act". Illustrazione della legge che introduce il road pricing in Olanda.

Lucas Harms, Ellen van der Werff, Psychology and pricing policy. European Transport Conference 2009, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, The Netherlands, 5–7 October 2009, 13 p. [formato PDF, 63 kB]. "The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis has conducted a literature study into psychological aspects of pricing policy. The goal of the study was to provide insight into the acceptance and effectiveness of different ways in which the kilometre price is implemented and designed. This has resulted in the following points of concern: Type of payment and cost feedback: - Pay as you go (direct payment) is, according to expectations, highly effective in terms of conscious choice and behaviour, but it is not beneficial to the acceptance of pricing policy. - Direct feedback creates a direct link between cause (driving a car) and effect (payment), which can increase the awareness of the costs for mobility (and thus also the effectiveness of the kilometre price). - The retroactive invoicing of the costs is expected to be good for the acceptance, while a short term of payment in such a case is good for the effectiveness. - Differentiating the costs for owning and using a car will make people more aware of paying for mobility. The effect of becoming aware will likely result in a subjective cost increase (even though there is none from an objective point of view). Provision of information: - Resistance to the kilometre price seems to be fed primarily by ignorance, distrust and erroneous or selective interpretation of available knowledge. - By informing people prior to the implementation of pricing policy through advertisements, brochures and websites, the acceptance and the effectiveness can be promoted. - Providing insight into the consequences of the pricing policy for one’s personal situation can contribute to the acceptance and effectiveness of the kilometre price. This can be done, for example, through the use of so-called kilometre calculator, which would preferably be administered by an independent party."

Tuomo Suvanto (Ministry of Transport and Communications of Finland), Road charging system in Finland. Seminar "Innovation in Road Transport: Opportunities for Improving Efficiency", Lisbon, Portugal, 2 October 2009, 4 p. [formato PDF, 362 kB].

Matthias Rapp, Bernhard Oehry, Christian Egeler, Andrea Felix, Stefan Loewenguth, Mobility Pricing. Synthesebericht. Bundesamt für Strassen, Bern, Oktober 2007, 232 p. [formato PDF, 4,97 MB]. “Transport Financing Models” is one of the key issues of the research strategy 2004 – 2007 of the Committee for Road research of the Swiss Federal Ministry of Transport. The Research programme on Mobility Pricing, which includes 9 individual research projects, has been examining all aspects of charging for the use of transport infrastructure and services. It has produced findings about the instruments and mechanisms in the overlapping domain of transport financing and traffic management and it has answered the questions about the consequences of moving transport financing away from general taxes and making it more use related. The research has shown that there is currently insufficient user acceptance for pricing measures in Switzerland and that the expected quantitative effects of such measures are relatively small. Notwithstanding this, many insights lead to a preference where in the future the cost of mobility is borne less by the taxpayer and increasingly by the consumers of mobility. The long term strategy of the Swiss Government should enable road user charges for motorised vehicles in the future, complementing the existing traffic management measures. For this strategy to succeed, the present interdiction of road user charges in the Swiss constitution would need to be abolished, and international rules would be needed to achieve interoperability of the EFC systems particularly in respect of compulsory vehicle equipment and co-operation for cross-border law enforcement. (Il testo completo è in lingua tedesca, il riassunto è anche in inglese e francese).

Matthias Rapp, Tarification de la mobilité. Rapport de synthèse abrégé. Office fédéral des routes, Bern, Octobre 2007, 44 p. [formato PDF, 1,70 MB]. "Le péage routier est l’un des instruments de la tarification de la mobilité. Le programme de recherche Tarification de la mobilité met l’accent sur le péage routier, mais propose également des comparaisons avec les autres instruments de tarification de la mobilité et en étudie les interactions, sans examiner autant en profondeur les sujets de la politique tarifaire des TP et des redevances de stationnement. Le transport de marchandises n’est impliqué que dans la mesure où les redevances sur le trafic lourd permettent de tirer des conclusions sur les instruments applicables au transport de personnes. L’accent du présent rapport porte sur l’analyse d’une tarification de la mobilité pour le transport des personnes sur les routes. Le rapport de synthèse reprend non seulement le contenu des projets de recherche, mais tient également compte d’un grand nombre d’autres études et travaux récents consacrés à la perception de redevances." (versione abbreviata del rapporto, in lingua francese).

A Different Way of Paying for Road Use. Impacts on traffic, environment & safety, technology, organisation, enforcement, and costs. Management summaries. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague, The Netherlands, March 2005, 21 p. [formato PDF, 382 KB]. "The Dutch Minister of Transport, Public Works and Water Management and the Dutch Minister of Finance has asked the platform on ‘A Different Way of Paying for Road Use’, led by Mr Paul Nouwen, for a considered opinion on pricing policy that can receive broad public support. The platform asked the AVV (Transport Research Centre), the CPB (Central Planning Bureau) and the MNP (Environment and Nature Planning Bureau) to assess the traffic impacts of ten different forms of pricing policy. The platform will base its opinion, among other things, on these impacts."

Paul Besseling, Wim Groot, Rik Lebouille, Economische analyse van verschillende vormen van prijsbeleid voor het wegverkeer. (CPB Document No 87), Centraal Planbureau, Den Haag, Juni 2005, 154 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "The Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management has asked CPB to assess 10 different schemes of road pricing. The assessment serves to support the platform on ‘A Different Way of Paying for Road Use’ and the preparation of part III of the governments’ Mobility Policy Document. The schemes of road pricing that have been analysed can roughly be grouped into two: 1) specific charges, on a limited number of places and hours, and 2) flat charges on each kilometer driven. These pricing schemes have been assessed on their merits as a regulatory instrument (traffic flows, the environment) and as a financing instrument. Moreover, the impacts on the distrubution of income over groups of households and enterprises is studied. According to the cost-benefit analysis, reducing congestion is best served with a policy of constructing new roads in areas where costs are not too high combined with specific road charges on other congested parts of the network. The welfare gains of well-designed congestion charges can exceed 1½ bln euro a year. Capitalised, this amounts to more than 20 bln euro. Flat charges turn out to be less efficient."


Per Kågeson, Linking CO2 Emissions from International Shipping to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. (Texte 24/2009). Umweltbundesamt,Dessau-Roßlau, September 2009, 43 p. [formato PDF, 373 kB]. "The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO2 emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO2 allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO2 would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector"

Per Kågeson, Christian Bahlke, Arnulf Hader, Andreas Hübscher, Market Based Instruments for Abatement of Emissions from Shipping. A pilot project for the Baltic Sea. (Texte 25/2009). Umweltbundesamt,Dessau-Roßlau, September 2009, 121 p. [formato PDF, 1,44 MB]. "Emissions from shipping, especially SOx, NOx, and PM, are perceived increasingly as a problem for human health and the environment. Efforts by the International Maritime Organisation to reduce these emissions by international agreements have not resulted in legislation that takes account of more than a very limited part of the existing technological potential. These efforts will not even offset the expected increase in emissions due to traffic growth. This seemed a good reason to start investigating potential marked-based incentives aimed at motivating action beyond internationally legally required measures. This project summarises the situation for the Baltic Sea with regard to technical standards and opportunities to reduce ship emissions, and looks at the expected growth in traffic and emissions up to 2020. It then provides an analysis of the legal enforceability and feasibility of market based instruments for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions in the area. Based on two scenarios for traffic growth in the Baltic Sea, effect of the implementing different measures for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions is calculated and compared with the reduction of social costs. The calculation shows that under socio-economic cost/benefit considerations it is reasonable to expect that emissions can be reduced to below what can be achieved under current rules. However, the additional measures have to start soon and be substantial in order to at least offset the expected increase in ship emissions. Finally, a proposal is made on how to begin implementing market based instruments for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions in the Baltic Sea."

Kristina Holmgren, Mohammed Belhaj, Jenny Gode, Erik Särnholm, Lars Zetterberg, Markus Åhman, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport sector. (IVL report B1703). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, December 2006, 111 p. [formato PDF, 652 kB]. "In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector."

Odette Deuber (Univ. of Cologne), Climate externalities of aviation – Particularities, economic evaluation methods and emissions trading as internalisation strategy. GARS Conference "Aviation and Climate Change", Amsterdam, July 2008, 23 p. [formato PDF, 297 KB]. "Aviation emissions contribute to climate change by causing environmental damages which in general are not or not adequately reflected in the air transport prices. As long as third parties are affected they represent climate externalities. Non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses of society may occur unless policy intervention is undertaken. To design effective climate policies in aviation, policy makers should assess the full impact of candidate policies, while also accounting for potential interdependencies with other externalities. There is a variety of potentially important impacts and trade-offs with regard to aviation and climate change, for example the trade-offs between short-lived and long-lived climate effects like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and aviation-induced cloud formation. Therefore the identification, quantification and economic evaluation of aviation-induced climate externalities and their interdependencies seem to be a valuable basis for evaluating climate policies in aviation. In 2006, the EU Commission adopted a proposal for legislation to include aviation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). Although full climate impact of aviation is more comprehensive, the proposal puts forward a CO2 based scheme. In this paper the economic theory of externalities is reviewed. Subsequently the particularities of climate externalities (in aviation) are pointed out and discussed in the context of economic evaluation approaches. It was shown that human-induced climate change is at its most basic level an externality. However, climate change has some special features that together distinguish it from other environmental externalities. Furthermore aviation-induced climate impacts take a special position in climate externalities. Evaluating and regulating short- and long-lived climate impacts in parallel present a great scientific, economic and political challenge. Economic evaluation methods focusing on well-mixed GHG fall short when looking at the aviation sector. The role of market-based option emissions trading as internalization strategy is highlighted and exemplified by the planned EU-ETS in aviation. It is a first step towards an internalization of climate externalities in the aviation sector. A short evaluation of the planned CO2 EU-ETS finalizes the paper."

Christian Brand (Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University), Personal air and car travel – just don’t do it!. ECEEE 2007 Summer Study "Saving Energy - Just Do It!", 12 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "Greenhouse gas emissions from personal transport have risen steadily in the UK and most other countries of the EU. Yet surprisingly little is known about who exactly is contributing to the problem at the personal level and the extent to which different groups of the population will be affected by the any responses to the climate change problem. This paper describes an innovative methodology and evaluation tool for profiling annual climate change emissions from personal travel across all modes of travel. A case study application of the methodology involving surveys of UK residents provides an improved understanding of the extent to which individual and household travel activity patterns, choice of transport mode, geographical location, socio-economic factors and vehicle technology choice impact on greenhouse gas emissions."

CarbonLimited, The potential for personal carbon trading in tackling CO2 emissions from the transport sector. RSA, London, 2008, 11 p. [formato PDF, 124 kB]. "This discussion paper sets out to assess the implications of this idea for the transport sector. In doing so we hope to promote discussion amongst transport professionals and stakeholders of all kind, to help further develop thinking on the appropriateness of PCT as a response to the pressing issue of carbon emissions."

European Environment Agency, Application of the emissions trading directive by the EU Member States - reporting year 2007. (EEA Technical report No 3/2008), Copenhagen, 2008, 84 p. [formato PDF, 1,27 MB]. "The European Union is running the largest multi-country, multi-sector greenhouse gas Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) world-wide. A report presented today by the European Environment Agency shows that the implementation of the ETS is improving. For the reporting year 2007, all Member States have delivered information on their experience in accordance with Article 21 of the Emissions Trading Directive."

Jeroen Klooster, Bettina Kampman (CE, Delft), Dealing with transport emissions. An emission trading system for the transport sector, a viable solution ? (Report 5550). Stockholm, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Mars 2006, 92 p. [formato PDF, 938 KB]. "This report by CE Delft for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) assesses the possibilities for CO2 emission trading schemes for the transport sector as a whole and for specific transport modes (road, railways, maritime shipping and aviation)."

Ron C.N. Wit, Bart H. Boon, André van Velzen, Martin Cames, Odette Deuber, David S. Lee, Giving wings to emission trading. Inclusion of aviation under the European Emission Trading System (ETS): design and impacts. Delft, CE, July 2005, 251 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "The main conclusion of the study is that emissions trading is a policy option worthy of consideration alongside other instruments for tackling aviation climate impacts. Effects on ticket prices are expected to be relatively modest. The system can be designed to encompass non-European air carriers too, thereby minimising economic distortions among carriers."

European Environment Agency, Application of the emissions trading directive by the EU Member States. (EEA Technical report No 2/2006), Copenhagen, 2006, 54 p. [formato PDF, 982 kB].

Martin Cames, Odette Deuber, Emission trading in international civil aviation, Öko-Institut e.V. - Institute for Applied Ecology, Berlin, 2004, 154 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "The contribution of international aviation to the greenhouse effect is increasing continually. The study investigates how the contribution of aviation can be reduced or limited through emissions trading. Not only are different design options (trading regime, basis for assessment, obligated parties etc.) examined, but also the avoidance costs and potentials of different reduction measures (flight route optimization, early retirement of aircraft, improvement of aerodynamics etc.). The study shows that an emissions trading system for aviation is both possible and sensible. It is important, however, that the total climatic impact of aviation be covered, for otherwise misdirected control might be the result."

Per Kågeson, The impact of CO2 emissions trading on the european transport sector. (VINNOVA Report VR 2001/17), VINNOVA, Stockholm, 2001, 68 p. [formato PDF, 612 KB]. "The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO2 emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO2 are assumed to be internalised by kilometre charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO2 emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the extent needed. Road fuels would also in future be produced from crude oil or natural gas. The latter would be the base for hydrogen used in fuel cells."


Marion Leroutier, Philippe Quirion, Air pollution and CO2 from daily mobility: Who emits and Why? Evidence from Paris. Energy Economics 109 (2022) 105941 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Urban road transport is an important source of local pollution and carbon emissions. Designing effective and fair policies tackling these externalities requires understanding who contributes to emissions today. We estimate individual transport-induced pollution footprints combining a travel demand survey from the Paris area with NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 emission factors. We find that the top 20% emitters contribute 75%-85% of emissions on a representative weekday. They combine longer distances travelled, a high car modal share and, especially for local pollutants, a higher emission intensity of car trips. Living in the suburbs, being a man and being employed are the most important characteristics associated with top emissions. Among the employed, those commuting from suburbs to suburbs, working at a factory, with atypical working hours or with a manual, shopkeeping or top executive occupation are more likely to be top emitters. Finally, policies targeting local pollution may be more regressive than those targeting CO2 emissions, due to the different correlation between income and the local pollutant vs. CO2 emission intensity of car trips."

Patrick Jochem, Claus Doll, Wolf Fichtner, External costs of electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D 42 (2016) 60-76 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "Electric vehicles (EV) are often considered a promising technology to decrease external costs of road transport. Therefore, main external cost components are estimated for EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). These include costs of accidents, air pollution, climate change, noise, and congestion. All components are estimated over the product lifetime and, where appropriate, differentiated according to fuel type, vehicle size as well as emission location and time. The advantage of this differentiation is, however, compensated by high uncertainties of most cost estimates. Overall, the external costs of EV and ICEV do not differ significantly. Only for climate change, local air pollutants in congested inner-cities, and noise some advantageous effects can be observed for EV. The advantages depend strongly on the national electricity power plant portfolio and potentially also on the charging strategy. Controlled charging might allow for higher emission reductions than uncontrolled charging of EV."

Henrik Andersson, Jan-Erik Swärdh & Mikael Ögren (VTI), Traffic noise effects of property prices: Hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators. (CTS Woorking Paper 2015-11). Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 624 kB]. "Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated."

Fumitoshi Mizutani, Yusuke Suzuki, Shuji Uranishi, Estimation of Social Costs of Highways in Japan. (Discussion Paper 2015-18). Kobe University, 2015, 52 p. [formato PDF, 792 kB].

Silvio Nocera, Stefania Tonin, Maurizio Murino, Federico Cavallaro, La complessità della valutazione della CO2 nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT)(2014), n° 2, articolo 1, 22 p. [formato PDF, 15,2 MB]. "La riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 è fondamentale per valutare la sostenibilità nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Tuttavia, la maggior parte dei piani di mobilità non è ancora riuscita a trovare una metodologia condivisa per internalizzare tali emissioni e renderle uno dei parametri in grado di influenzare attivamente le scelte finali sulle politiche e sulle misure da adottare. In particolare, risulta estremamente complesso dapprima quantificare, quindi attribuire un prezzo economico unitario alle emissioni di CO2. Il presente contributo indaga le problematiche relative alla loro monetizzazione, mostrando le metodologie attualmente in uso e il vasto grado di incertezza scientifica ed economica che le caratterizzano. Attraverso una meta-analisi compiuta su una raccolta di circa settecento casi, si è arrivati a limitare l’enorme intervallo attualmente esistente (fino a sei ordini di grandezza) e predire un modello in grado di definire un valore economico basato sugli obiettivi stabiliti preliminarmente dai decisori politici. In tale modo, la CO2 può essere inclusa attivamente nelle decisioni relative alle misure da intraprendere per una corretta allocazione delle risorse pubbliche, garantendo ai decisori una maggiore trasparenza nelle scelte."

Andrea Rusich, Romeo Danielis (Univ. Trieste), The private and social costs of a car. An estimate for cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy. 14th CIRIAF National Congress, Perugia, April 4-5, 2014, 11 p. [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "The paper estimates the private and social costs of several cars, making use of the Italian data with reference to vehicles’ purchase and maintenance costs, fuel and electricity costs, energy mix, pollution and noise costs. Focusing on Italy, this paper: a) reviews the current literature; b) sets up a model able to assess the social and private costs of several car types fueled by gasoline, diesel, CNG-bifuel, LPG-bifuel, hybrid, fully electric and fully electric with leased battery with a specific brand and with reference to the current Italian car market; c) performs a scenario analysis to get an idea of future car market developments. A previous version of the model is described in Rusich e Danielis (2013) “The private and social monetary costs and the energy consumption of a car. An estimate for seven cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy”, Working Papers Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica."

Alex Auf der Maur, Stefan Rommerskirchen, Johannes Eggert, Externe Effekte des Personen- und Güterverkehrs auf Österreichs Straßen. Grundlagen und Größenordnungen. Schlussbericht. Erarbeitung einer Broschüre für die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der AISÖ. ProgTrans AG, Basel, 11. April 2013, 49 p. [formato PDF, 663 kB]. Erstellt für Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internationaler Straßenverkehrsunternehmer Österreichs (AISÖ).

Adrian Bader, Christina Hürzeler, Externe Kosten 2005-2009. Berechnung der externen Kosten des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs in der Schweiz. Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung (ARE), 12.2012, 22 p. [formato PDF, 596 kB]. "Insgesamt verursacht der Strassen- und Schienenverkehr im Jahr 2009 externe Kosten von 9 Mrd. CHF. Rund 94% davon werden durch den Strassenverkehr verursacht, 6% entfallen auf den Schienenverkehr."

The True Costs of Automobility: External Costs of Cars Overview on existing estimates in EU-27. Final Report. Technische Universität Dresden, October 2012, 52 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. Study commissioned by the Greens/European Free Alliance (EFA) in the European Parliament. "This report analyses the external costs of car use within the EU-27 by evaluating the existing literature in the field and developing a database from these figures. No own field research has been carried out for the preparation of this report; all input data has been published and discussed previously. Based on the assumptions described in this study, the cars used within the EU-27 externalize about 373 billion € per year (high estimate) on to other people, other regions and other generations (low estimate: 258 billion €). This is a considerable sum, and it leads to a level of car use that is inefficient from the perspective of society. The findings of this study clearly show that the frequent claim "that cars cover all their internal and external costs" cannot be sustained. Although no detailed estimation of charges and earmarked taxes of cars attributable to external costs has been made in this study, it is obvious that a sum in the range of 300 to 400 billion € of earmarked funds against these costs cannot be reached. On the contrary; it must be stated that car traffic in the EU is highly subsidized by other people and other regions and will be by future generations: residents along an arterial road; taxpayers; elderly people who do not own cars; neighbouring countries; and children, grandchildren and all future generations subsidize today´s traffic."

FEFS (Foro de Empresas Ferroviarias por la Sostenibilidad), Estudio "La Aportación del Ferrocarril - tren, metro, tranvía - a la Sostenibilidad en España: Ahorro de Costes Externos en 2010". Noviembre de 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 306 kB]. "El presente estudio de estimación para el año 2010 de los ahorros monetarios generados por los servicios ferroviarios en toda España en concepto de costes externos, parte de la hipótesis de la no prestación de los servicios que realiza el ferrocarril en toda España y de la sustitución de estos viajes por otros modos competidores. Para realizar esta estimación de ahorros de externalidades se ha utilizado el nuevo Estudio “External Costs of Transport in Europe” publicado en 2011 por las consultoras CEDelft, Infras y Fraunhofer ISI por encargo de la Unión Internacional de Ferrocarriles (UIC), actualizando a 2008 las cifras relativas a los costes externos del transporte en Europa. Este nuevo estudio recoge nuevas componentes y adapta la metodología a los criterios del estudio “Internalisation Measures and Policies for All External Costs of Transport -IMPACT- (Medidas y Políticas de Internalización de todos los costes externos del transporte) encargado por la Dirección General de Transporte y Movilidad de la Comisión Europea y publicado en 2008. El principal objetivo de este estudio de actualización es cuantificar los costes externos generados por el transporte para poder dar una información completa de las externalidades en el sector del transporte, utilizando el conocimiento científico más actualizado y proporcionando un manual que permita el desarrollo de políticas de transporte encaminadas a corregir los fallos actuales en el mercado de transportes europeo, especialmente mediante la internalización de costes externos en cada uno de los modos."

Michael Meschik, Gregor Trunk (Institute for Transport Studies, BOKU Vienna), Costs of Bicycle Traffic for the Overall Economy. Comparing economic effects of bicycle and car traffic in Vienna. Presentation, Velo-city 2011 conference, Sevilla, March 23-25, 2011, 29 slides [formato PDF, 16,7 MB].

Raúl Brey, Valoraciones económicas de externalidades asociadas a proyectos de transporte. (Documentos de Trabajo). Evaluación Económica de Proyectos de Transporte, 1 Noviembre 2009, 28 p. [formato PDF, 0,99 MB]. "El propósito de este trabajo es analizar los principales impactos producidos por proyectos de transporte y que no son recogidos por el mercado, así como mostrar valoraciones económicas de estos impactos que han sido estimadas, recomendadas o empleadas en otros trabajos previos para el análisis de proyectos de transporte en España."

Raúl Brey, Valoraciones económicas de externalidades asociadas a proyectos de transporte: fundamentos y procedimientos. (Documentos de Trabajo). Evaluación Económica de Proyectos de Transporte, 1 Noviembre 2009, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "El propósito de este trabajo es exponer, de forma simplificada y prescindiendo en lo posible de terminología especializada, los principales procedimientos existentes para la valoración económica de aquellos costes y beneficios de proyectos de transporte que no son recogidos por el mercado, así como mostrar los fundamentos teóricos en los que se sustentan dichos procedimientos."

A. Miola, V. Paccagnan, I., Mannino, A. Massarutto, A. Perujo, M. Turvani, External costs of transportation. Case study: maritime transport. (Maritime transport – report 2). (JRC Scientific and Technical Reports). (EUR 23837 EN). Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, 2009, 109 p. [formato PDF, 1,38 MB]. "This report aims at proposing a methodological approach to estimate the external costs of maritime transport. In order to do so, It is organised into two sections: (i)identification of all environmental impacts of maritime transport (at sea and in ports) and a detailed analysis for those already studied in previous researches in literature; (ii)Estimation of identified environmental impacts focusing on those related to air pollutants. In the first paragraph we review external costs of transportation. Then, a description of maritime transportation activities (par. 2) and vessels (par.3) is provided. This will contribute to clarify the sources of environmental impacts. The central part of this report will be devoted to a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts listed above. The ultimate objective is to highlight the gaps that have to be filled in future research works. All the environmental effects entailed by maritime activities (both in port and at sea) are analysed (par. 4). The following environmental impacts of maritime transport have been considered: emissions to air and water, soil and sediment contamination, erosion, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, and waste generation. In order to emphasise the complexity and uncertainty about the analysis of environmental impacts entailed by maritime transport, a review of research findings is provided (par. 5) and suggest research directions (par. 6). Next, we make a step forward and discuss the methodological aspects related to the economic valuation of these impacts (par. 7), so as to derive a monetary indicator able to summarise them. In particular, we review the economic literature regarding the valuation of the several environmental impacts discussed previously (par. 8 and 9), to sketch the state of the art. This review will provide a description of proposed methods for measuring each external cost. Then, we focus on impacts on air (par. 10). The strengths and limitations of existing approaches are described, by proposing at the same a methodological approach to estimate maritime pollution activities (par. 11). The proposed approach is tested through a case study, by estimating the external costs of a type of maritime activities in Venice (par. 12). The idea is to determine the relevant parameters that should be taken into account in the definition of an analytical approach, to signal research gaps so as to pave the way to future research activities. This will make possible to propose a methodology to be developed in future research for maritime transport and to test through a case study what are the main steps of such analysis. The last part of the report will emphasise future research directions."

Lena Nerhagen, Håkan Johansson, Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: the case of Sweden. (VTI notat 36A-2003). VTI, Linköping, 2003, 34 p. [formato PDF, 192 kB]. "In recent years large efforts have been devoted in EU-funded research projects, i.e. the ExternE-projects, to the development of an approach that can be used to estimate the external costs of air pollution. The calculation in these projects is based on the so called Impact pathway approach where the impacts from air pollution are assessed and valued. This approach has now been used to estimate the cost of air pollution of transport in Sweden for the year 2000. In addition, we have used abatement cost estimates to include the costs due to acidification and eutrophication. This is a joint project between VTI, TFK and IER at the University of Stuttgart. This report presents and discusses the results from this project, "the all-modes study", regarding air pollutants with a local and regional dispersion. It also relates the results from this project to cost estimates in other studies. Cost estimates have been calculated for all transport modes. For road transport, estimates were calculated for extra urban and urban traffic and also for two cases, Skellefteå and Stockholm. The purpose was to obtain information on the variation in costs between different traffic situations. Such information is an input in the evaluation of infrastructure investments and is also a basis for marginal cost pricing. The costs vary since there is a large number of variables that influence the estimates. Costs will depend upon which pollutant we consider and where the emissions occur. Costs will also depend upon other relationships such as the number of people being asthmatics in a population and the value placed on an asthma attack. For the latter, the assumptions used in the all-modes study are the same as those used in the EU-funded UNITE-project."

Externe Kosten des Verkehrs im Bereich Natur und Landschaft. Monetarisierung der Verluste und Fragmentierung von Habitaten. Bern, Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung ARE, 2005, 204 p. [formato PDF, 6,78 MB]. "The determination of the external costs of transport on nature and landscape is based on a range of preliminary work in which such external costs were identified and the methods for their monetarisation evaluated (Ökoskop 1998). The following relevant impacts of transport on nature and landscape were recorded: Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation and habitat quality loss. The impact on the appearance of landscape was not examined. Digital 3D aerial photographs were used to determine habitat loss between the 1950s/1960s and 1998/99 in a strip bordering the road and rail infrastructures. The monetarisation of habitat loss used a repair cost method. Habitat fragmentation was determined using current aerial photographs according to the requirements of different animal groups. The external costs of this fragmentation were calculated using the costs of constructing actual links between the habitat fragments. Habitat quality loss can be identified but not quantified and therefore not monetarised either. The average external costs for habitat loss and fragmentation are CHF 765 million/year (range: CHF 443-1,083 million/year), CHF 662 million/year of which is caused by road and CHF 103 million/year by rail. The results were compared with existing work and the inaccuracies which may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the external costs of transport on nature and landscape were indicated." (Résumé en français, compendio in italiano, summary in english).

Centre d’analyse stratégique, La valeur tutélaire du carbone. Rapport de la commission présidée par Alain QUINET. Paris, Juin 2008, 110 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. In Francia, secondo quanto annunciato dal Presidente Chirac, i progetti e le decisioni pubbliche dovranno tener conto del loro costo per il clima, cioè del costo delle emissioni di CO2. Una commissione istituita dal governo francese ha rivalutato il valore della tonnellata di CO2 e del carbonio stimandone l'aumento fino al 2050.

Centre d’analyse stratégique, Analyse : la valeur tutélaire du carbone. (La Note de veille n° 101) Paris, Juin 2008, 8 p. [formato PDF, 245 kB]. Sintesi del rapporto pubblicato dalla commissione Quinet per conto del governo francese sul valore delle emissioni di CO2.

Direcció General de Ports i Transports, Observatori de Costos Socials i Ambientals del Transport a Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2004, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,42 MB].

Advanced Logistic Group, Estudi dels costos socials i ambientals del transport a Catalunya, Barcelona, 2004, 9 files [formato PDF] + allegati [formato PowerPoint e Excel]. Analisi dei costi esterni del traffico e dei trasporti applicata alla Catalogna (in lingua catalana).

J.P.L. Vermeulen, B.H. Boon, H.P. van Essen, L.C. den Boer, J.M.W. Dings, F.R. Bruinsma, M.J. Koetse, The price of transport - Overview of the social costs of transport Delft, CE, 2004, 187 p. [formato PDF, 843 kB].

Jos M.W. Dings, Marc D. Davidson and Maartje N. Sevenster, External and infrastructure costs of road and rail transport - analysing European studies Delft, CE, 2003, 48 p. [formato PDF, 337 kB]. The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management commissioned CE to undertake an analysis of five important European studies presenting figures on ’optimal’ prices for different modes of transport.

Susan Grant-Muller, James Laird (Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds) Costs of congestion: literature based review of methodologies and analytical approaches; ISBN 0 7559 6306 7, Web Only Publication, January 2007. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive Social Research, 2006, 84 p. [formato PDF, 1,22 MB]. "International literature review of the costs of road traffic congestion with the main focus on the different methods used to measure the costs of congestion."

Silvia Maffii, Stima dei costi esterni [dei trasporti] in Lombardia, Workshop Regione Lombardia-ISPI “Convenzione tripartita sulla mobilità sostenibile”, Milano, 15 giugno 2005; TRT Trasporti e Territorio, 9 slides [formato PowerPoint, 148 kB].

Mike Holland, Paul Watkiss, BeTA, Benefits Table database: estimates of the marginal external costs of air pollution in Europe, Netcen, 2002, 20 slides [formato PDF, 323 KB]. Created for the European Commission, DG Environment. Esempi di applicazioni del database creato per la Commissione UE per valutare I costi esterni dell’inquinamento atmosferico in Europa.

Patrizia Lattarulo, Monica Plechero, Traffico e inquinamento: i danni per la salute dell’uomo e i costi sociali. IRPET, (Interventi, note e rassegne n. 28/05), 30 aprile 2005, 62 p. [formato PDF, 274 kB]. Una valutazione aggiornata dei costi esterni del trasporto stradale con applicazione alla Toscana.

Michele Faberi, Marco Martuzzi, Franco Pirrami, Assessing the health impact and social costs of mopeds: feasibility study in Rome. World Health Organization, Rome, 2004, xvii, 193 p. [formato PDF, 8,07 MB] (studio molto completo, accurato e dettagliato sull’impatto sociale (incidenti, mortalità, morbilità) e ambientale (emissioni) causati dai motorini nella città di Roma, con una valutazione dei costi esterni (monetarizzati). Contiene diversi riferimenti a dati italiani e generali (fattori di emissione, parco motorini per provincia, ecc.) e costituisce un modello per un possibile studio a livello nazionale (italiano).

ARE (Ufficio Federale dello Sviluppo Territoriale, CH) Pubblicati i nuovi dati sui costi esterni dei trasporti (2005): i nuovi calcoli dell'ARE comprendono quattro settori: i costi esterni della salute derivanti dall'inquinamento atmosferico provocato dal traffico stradale e ferroviario, i costi non coperti del rumore, i costi esterni dei trasporti nel settore natura e paesaggio e i danni agli edifici provocati dal traffico. Un quinto studio sui costi esterni degli incidenti è già stato pubblicato nel 2002. Scheda informativa e riassunti in italiano e in francese, studi in tedesco [formato PDF].

INFRAS : aggiornamento 2004 dello studio sui costi esterni dei trasporti (in inglese, formato Pdf: short version 198 kB, final report 1.3 Mb ), Total external costs of transport in the EU (incl. Norway and Switzerland) amount to 650 billion € in 2000. This corresponds to nearly 7% of the GDP of the respective countries. Most important cost categories are climate change risks (30% of total costs), air pollution costs (27%) and accident risks (24%).

ANFIA, I costi e i benefici esterni del trasporto (volume intero in formato zip – 25 Mb)

ANFIA, I costi e i benefici esterni del trasporto (indice e singoli capitoli)

Ferrovie dello Stato, Costi ambientali e sociali della mobilità in Italia, quarto rapporto “Amici della Terra”, 2002

Confitarma, Confederazione Italiana Armatori: I vantaggi ambientali e sociali del trasporto merci via mare, Amici della Terra, dicembre 2001

DEAMS, ex Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Statistiche (Università di Trieste): Working Papers n.74, 79, 80, 81, 82, 122 (autori: A. Chiabai, G. Borruso, R. Danielis, L. Rotaris, E. Marcucci)


Mark Wardman, Richard Batley, James Laird, Peter Mackie, Tony Fowkes, Glenn Lyons, John Bates and Jonas Eliasson, Valuation of Travel Time Savings for Business Travellers. Main Report. Prepared for the Department for Transport. University of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies, April 2013, 138 p. [formato PDF, 1,60 MB]. "This report reviews the feasibility of different methods for valuing business travel time savings; international appraisal practice in this area; and the existing evidence base for the different approaches. The report also describes options for future research."

Values of time and reliability in passenger and freight transport in the Netherlands. Report for the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. Significance/VU/John Bates, 2013, 189 p. [formato PDF, 1,94 MB]. "In the Netherlands, proposals for large transport infrastructure projects are evaluated using a cost-benefit analysis. In such an analysis, impacts of the project are predicted using transport models and, if needed and possible, converted into monetary units. For many projects, the time savings in passenger and freight transport are the most important benefit. For the conversion of travel and transport time savings, official values of time are available. For passenger transport, the current values are based on a survey among travellers carried out in 1997; for freight transport, the current values are based on a survey among shippers and carriers carried out in 2003/2004. Another potentially important benefit of a project could be the improvement in travel time reliability. If travel and transport times would become more predictable, travellers and agents in freight transport would find it easier to arrive at the destination at the preferred moment and therefore reduce their safety margins in departure time. At the moment, in the Netherlands we only have provisional values to convert reliability gains into monetary units. These reliability values are based on rules of thumb and not supported by empirical evidence obtained from valuation studies. However, it is very important to have accurate values for reliability, since the benefits of some transport investments –and potentially also of some environmental and safety investments– may otherwise be underestimated. This project was carried out to update the official values of time in both passenger and freight transport in the Netherlands and to deliver the first values of reliability based on an empirical foundation. We use the standard deviation of travel time as the measure for reliability, since all other possible measures of reliability would be much harder to incorporate in national and regional transport models."

Lucia Rotaris, Romeo Danielis, Paolo Rosato (Univ. di Trieste), Stima del valore del tempo per gli studenti universitari: aspetti metodologici e primi risultati. (Working Papers SIET 2011). XIII Riunione Scientifica della Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica, Messina, 16-17 giugno 2011, 14 p. [formato PDF, 72 kB]. "Il bacino di utenza dell'ateneo di Trieste si caratterizza in modo non trascurabile per la presenza di studenti pendolari. Una parte non marginale degli studenti universitari iscritti in questo ateneo, infatti, preferisce il pendolarismo alla domiciliazione in prossimità della sede universitaria di appartenenza. Le dimensioni del fenomeno e le ragioni che lo originano, con particolare attenzione al livello di accessibilità garantita dai mezzi pubblici e alle caratteristiche dell'offerta di alloggi sia pubblici sia privati, rappresentano temi di grande interesse non solo ai fini dell'adeguamento dei servizi offerti dall'ateneo alle esigenze dell'utenza che opta per la domiciliazione a Trieste, ma anche al fine di una migliore gestione della mobilità degli studenti (sia domiciliati, sia pendolari). Il presente lavoro illustrerà i risultati di un'indagine condotta su questi temi di ricerca presso l'Università di Trieste. L'indagine, sviluppata nell'ambito del progetto UNIMOB , è stata realizzata attraverso interviste personali ed ha previsto il coinvolgimento non solo degli studenti pendolari, ma anche degli studenti che, pur essendo domiciliati a Trieste, potrebbero verosimilmente scegliere di fare i pendolari. Le determinanti della scelta fra il pendolarismo e la domiciliazione a Trieste, la percezione che gli intervistati hanno espresso sull'impatto che tale scelta produce sul loro rendimento scolastico e le implicazioni che ne derivano in termini di politiche della mobilità e di investimento in alloggi pubblici saranno illustrati nel presente lavoro."


Claudia de Stasio, Angelo Martino, Francesca Fermi, Dorota Bielanska, Tariffazione dell’uso delle infrastrutture stradali da parte dei veicoli pesanti: la valutazione d’impatto di politiche a scala europea. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 3 (2014), 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,77 MB]. "La Direttiva Eurovignetta (1999/62/EC e sue successive modifiche) definisce a livello europeo la politica di tariffazione stradale attraverso la regolazione dell’applicazione di tasse, pedaggi e diritti di utenza ai veicoli commerciali che utilizzano la rete di trasporto trans-europea e altre autostrade. Nonostante la Direttiva si collochi lontano nel tempo, il panorama europeo delle tariffe autostradali è ancora oggi discordante e necessita di essere armonizzato. Quest’articolo illustra i principali risultati di un’analisi ex-post sugli impatti della Direttiva Eurovignetta e descrive la metodologia di valutazione seguita per l’analisi ex-ante d’impatti derivanti da future proposte legislative europee."

Imputation aux usagers PL et VL du coût d’infrastructure des routes. Rapport d’études. Bagneux, Service d'études sur les transports, les routes et leurs aménagements (Sétra), Juin 2009, 72 p. [formato PDF, 426 kB]. "La directive européenne 2006/38/CE du 9 Juin 2006, dite "directive Eurovignette 2", encadre les modalités de tarification du réseau routier transeuropéen pour les PL (véhicules de transport de marchandises de plus de 3,5t) en limitant les niveaux moyens de péage aux coûts d’infrastructure (construction, exploitation, entretien et éventuellement développement) engendrés par la circulation de ces PL. Cette directive propose, en son annexe III, un certain nombre de coefficients d’imputation de ces coûts en fonction des classes de PL et, en son annexe IV, un système de classification indicatif. Ces annexes devront, soit être transposées en l’état, soit être adaptées à la doctrine de construction des routes du pays sous réserve d’une validation par la Commission Européenne. En prévision de cette transposition, la Direction générale des routes a donc demandé au Sétra de justifier et quantifier l’incidence du trafic PL sur les coûts des routes du réseau transeuropéen (hors autoroutes concédées, celles-ci étant déjà soumises à redevance)." Analisi dell'incidenza dei camion (veicoli industriali) sui costi di costruzione e manutenzione delle infrastrutture stradali, ai fini dell'applicazione della direttiva europea sull'eurovignetta (imputazione dei costi dell'uso delle infrastrutture alle diverse categorie di utenti della strada).


Jan Willem Bolderdijk, Linda Steg (Univ. of Groningen), Pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance as a tool to reduce crash risk: Results so far and further potential. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-23). International Transport Forum, Paris, September 2011, 27 p. [formato PDF, 741 kB]. Prepared for the Roundtable on Insurance Costs and Accident Risks (22-23 September 2011, Paris). "In this paper, we provide an extensive summary of a field experiment we have recently conducted on the behavioural effects of pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) vehicle insurance (Bolderdijk et al., 2011a). We start with a review of the rationale for PAYD schemes from a behavioural science perspective. Next, we describe the design of our study, and discuss and elaborate on the main empirical findings. Based on this, we present practical guidelines for policy makers and insurance companies aiming to introduce PAYD schemes as a tool to reduce crash risk, improve traffic safety, and reduce the negative environmental impacts of car use."

Lars Hultkrantz, Gunnar Lindberg, Accident cost, speed and vehicle mass externalities, and insurance. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-26). International Transport Forum, Paris, September 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 613 kB]. ITF/OECD Joint Transport Research Centre Roundtable 151, 22-23 September 2011. "Traffic accidents are a human tragedy that kills 1.2 million people worldwide annually (World Health Organization, 2004). The cost of traffic accidents are huge and recent estimates for US alone suggest the cost to be USD 433 billion in year 2000 or 4.3 percentage of GDP (Parry et al, 2007). A reduction of this cost can be done in two ways, either by reducing the number of accidents or by mitigating the consequences of the existing accidents. Insurance systems can contribute to both. Vickrey (1968) suggested a partial solution to problems of unaffordable insurance, uninsured driving, premium unfairness and inefficiencies by proposing usage-based car insurance. In fact, several insurance companies have now adopted Vickrey’s idea in the form of Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) automobile insurance (Bordoff and Noel 2008). This policy enables insurers to charge the vehicle owner per mile instead of a pre-set number of miles per year. PAYD is offered to motorists on an optional basis, i.e., they can also choose a conventional scheme.2 PAYD insurance builds on the improved possibilities brought by new in-vehicle technologies for measuring distance driven. However, there is a range of other risk factors that could be supervised, some of which are already used by the insurance industry. For instance, one Swedish insurance provider charges a lower premium to vehicles that have an alco-lock installed to make it impossible to use the vehicle for an intoxicated driver. In this report, we summarize some work we have done on how to incorporate two of the most important risk factors; vehicle mass and speed. The possibility to differentiate insurance premiums according to various risk factors raises questions on the interaction between vehicle insurance schemes and taxes. Distance driven, speeding and vehicle mass are in many countries subject to taxation (for instance gasoline tax for distance, speeding tickets for speed and vehicle tax for vehicle mass). These kind of taxes can be thought of as (often imperfectly implemented) Pigou taxes levied by a principal (a state regulator) that wants to control agents (motorists) that cause various externalities. Insurance companies are then another principal influencing these agents. As the state and the insurance companies have different objective functions and are subject to different legal, informational and technological constraints, taxes and insurance programs are imperfect substitutes as instruments for influencing road traffic safety. In section 2 we will briefly discuss how a PAYD scheme with a speeding penalty (this will here be called Pay As You Speed, PAYS) can be combined with taxes to implement a Pigou taxation of road accident externalities. PAYS vehicle insurance is designed to affect speed, which is a main risk factor that affects the number of accidents as well as the severity of accidents. In section 3 we summarize results from a vehicle-fleet experiment with a PAYS insurance incentive for keeping within speed limits using a speed-alert device. The PAYS scheme was simulated with a monthly bonus to participants during two months reduced by a non-linear speeding penalty. Participants were randomly assigned into four treatment and two control groups. A third control group consisted of drivers who had the device and were monitored, but did not participate. We found that participating drivers reduced severe speeding during the first month, but in the second, after having received feedback reports with an account of earned payments, only those that were given a penalty changed behaviour. In sections 4 and 5 we turn to another major risk factor; vehicle mass. Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a twovehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time it inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner vehicle. In section 4 we analyse this “mass externality” using a database including collision accidents in Sweden involving two passenger cars during five years. In each accident the two involved vehicles are divided into the lighter vehicle and the heavier vehicle and the effect of weight is examined separately for the two groups. We find that the accident costs that fall on the lighter vehicle increases with the mass of the heavier vehicle and decreases with its own mass. Given that a vehicle is the heavier one in the crash, neither the own mass nor the mass of the lighter vehicle significantly affect the accident cost. The expected external accident cost is calculated and it is shown to increase rapidly with vehicle mass. Section 5, finally, uses the results from the previous section to discuss different solutions to internalization of this external accident cost. We calculate a mass dependent multiplicative tax on the insurance premium in a no-fault insurance system. Sections 2 and 3 on PAYS insurance are brief summaries of studies that will soon be published, and therefore can be read in full length elsewhere, while sections 4 and 5 on differentiation with respect to vehicle mass present more novel results and will therefore be presented more extensively."

Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Pay-As-You-Drive Vehicle Insurance in British Columbia. Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions, Victoria, BC, May 2011, 28 p. [formato PDF, 768 kB]. "Insurance is one of the largest motor vehicle expenses, costing about $1,200 annually for a typical British Columbia automobile. This report shows that insurance pricing can affect how vehicles are used, and evaluates the impacts and benefits of alternative price structures. Most insurance policies, including those sold by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC), are a fixed cost with respect to vehicle use; moderate reductions in vehicle travel generally provide little or no premium savings. An alternative price structure, called Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD), changes insurance into a variable cost, so motorists save money when they reduce their mileage. As a result, they tend to drive less. Various studies using a variety of research methods indicate that a vehicle’s chance of having a crash tends to increase with its annual vehicle mileage, so PAYD tends to increase actuarial accuracy, that is, insurance premiums more accurately reflect vehicles’ claim costs. Mileage is just one of several factors that affect crash rates so it would be inappropriate to use mileage instead of existing rating factors, for example, by charging all motorists the same per-kilometre fee. However actuarial accuracy increases if mileage is incorporated with existing rating factors. PAYD does not simply shift costs from one group to another: premium reductions reflect, in part, the claim cost savings that result when motorists reduce their vehicle travel and therefore crashes. As a result, it need not reduce insurance company profitability. Under most proposals PAYD would be a user option, so motorists could choose the price structure that best meets their needs and preferences. As a result, only motorists who expect to save money would choose this option. In addition to consumer savings, PAYD pricing tends to reduce energy consumption, carbon and other pollution emissions, and traffic congestion. It increases insurance affordability by allowing motorists a new opportunity to save money, and it is progressive with respect to income since lower-income motorists tend to drive less than average. It can help achieve ICBC policy objectives including traffic safety, social equity, consumer affordability, emission reductions, and infrastructure cost savings. There are many possible ways to implement PAYD, some that offer greater impacts and benefits than others. Total benefits tend to increase as more vehicle travel has PAYD pricing, and as the incentive to reduce mileage increases. A relatively simple approach, called basic PAYD, prorates existing premiums by the average annual mileage of each rate class, so a $600 premium becomes 3¢ per kilometre, and a $1,800 premium becomes 9¢ per kilometre. Mileage can be verified with odometer readings at the start and end of the policy term recorded by motorists using digital cameras, by insurance brokers or by service stations. Because this approach is relatively simple and inexpensive to implement, it is likely to have the largest travel reduction impacts and therefore the largest total benefits. Instrumented PAYD, in which electronic instruments are installed in each participating vehicle, allows pricing to vary by time and location, which can further increase actuarial accuracy, but this approach has high implementation costs and raises privacy concerns, and so is likely to have smaller impacts and benefits. PAYD insurance is not currently available in British Columbia but has been implemented elsewhere, including in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is some uncertainty concerning the magnitude of some PAYD impacts. It is impossible to predict with precision the risk profile of motorists who would choose optional PAYD, the amount and type of mileage they would reduce, and the claim cost savings that would result. A pilot project based on the following recommendations would resolve these issues while minimizing risks to ICBC: • Offer fully-prorated basic PAYD applied to all categories of coverage (all existing premiums prorated by average annual mileage), with a 2,000 kilometre annual minimum purchase requirement. Other pricing options (such as instrumented PAYD) can also be offered for comparison. • Base mileage on odometer readings verified by digital photos or brokers and service stations. • During the pilot program, collect mileage data from participating vehicle for at least one month prior to applying PAYD pricing, to provide baseline data. • Provide effective marketing to promote PAYD insurance to appropriate candidates."


Costi sito informativo dell’economista Andrea Molocchi, comprende schede sui costi esterni dei trasporti terrestri e marittimi e una bibliografia generale

Confetra, Centro Studi

CURACAO. 'Co-ordination of Urban RoAd-user ChArging Organisational issues' is a new EC funded project which aims to coordinate research and monitor the results of the implementation of road user charging as a demand management tool in urban areas.

Swedish Transport Agency: Congestion tax. A congestion tax system is currently in place in two Swedish cities: Stockholm and Gothenburg.


Inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels. Preliminary version. Paris, OECD, 2011, 355 p. [formato PDF, 4,97 MB]. "This document provides preliminary quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. This information has been compiled as part of the OECD's programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It is also intended to inform the on-going efforts of the Group of Twenty (G20) nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. It may be seen as a complement to the information on fossil-fuel consumption subsidies that has been compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA), primarily for developing and emerging economies." "Covering 24 countries, which account for about 95% of OECD’s total primary energy supply, the Inventory shows that 54% of this support was for petroleum. Overall, the support to fossil-fuel production and consumption in OECD countries was USD 45 – 75 billion annually during the 2005 – 2010 period."

Working Party on National Environmental Policies, Working Group on Transport, Environmentally Harmful Subsidies in the Transport Sector. (ENV/EPOC/WPNEP/T(2007)1/FINAL). Paris, OECD, 12 March 2008, 86 p. [formato PDF, 738 KB]. "This report discusses environmentally harmful subsidies in the transport sector, with the aim of helping policy-makers better understand the broad literature available on this issue. It was drafted by Michael Donohue, currently with Health Canada, while he worked in the OECD Environment Directorate in 2006/2007."

European Environment Agency, Size, structure and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe. (EEA Technical report, No 3/2007). Copenhagen, 2007, 36 p. [formato PDF, 712 KB]. "Transport contributes to several environmental problems such as climate change, air emissions and noise and is at the same time favoured by significant subsidies. An EEA report identifies European transport subsidies worth at least EUR 270 to 290 billion a year. Road transport receives EUR 125 billion in annual subsidies, most of it as infrastructure subsidies, assuming that taxes on road transport are not regarded as contributions to finance infrastructure. Aviation, as the mode with the highest specific climate impact, gets significant subsidies in the form of preferential tax treatment, in particular exemptions from fuel tax and VAT, which add up to EUR 27 to 35 billion per year. Rail is subsidised with EUR 73 billion per year and benefits the most from other on-budget subsidies. For water-borne transport, EUR 14 to 30 billion in subsidies have been identified."


Govinda R. Timilsina, Hari B. Dulal, A Review of Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector. (Policy Research Working Paper ; WPS4867). The World Bank, Washington, DC, March 2009, 54 p. [formato PDF, 267 KB]. "This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities."