TRASPORTI E CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI (MITIGAZIONE E ADATTAMENTO)

Per EMISSION TRADING (SCAMBIO DI QUOTE DI EMISSIONI) vedi: COSTI ESTERNI DEI TRASPORTI

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DOCUMENTI SUI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI

Parigi e oltre. Gli impegni nazionali sul cambiamento climatico al 2030. ENEA, Roma, ottobre 2016, 224 p. [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. "Questo rapporto racconta gli impegni nazionali sul cambiamento climatico al 2030. Il volume è nato dalla collaborazione tra Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare, ENEA, ed ISPRA. Il valore di questa pubblicazione sta nell'aver messo insieme analisi e proposte che, grazie ad un approccio globale non trascurano alcun aspetto delle innumerevoli variabili che entrano in gioco nella predisposizione di un programma di un'"Italia sostenibile" realmente credibile.2

Edo Ronchi, Andrea Barbabella, Raimondo Orsini e Toni Federico, La svolta dopo l'accordo di Parigi. Italy Climate Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, aprile 2016, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Dopo l'Accordo di Parigi, alla luce degli impegni più sfidanti sottoscritti anche dall'Italia e delle recenti difficoltà e rallentamenti, è necessario e urgente varare una nuova Strategia energetica nazionale (SEN). L'obiettivo per le emissioni di gas serra al 2030 potrebbe essere collocato in una posizione intermedia, fra i 1,5 °C e 2 °C, con una riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra del 50% rispetto al 1990. Per raggiungere questo risultato, gli impieghi finali di energia dovrebbero scendere dagli attuali 115 Mtep circa ai 90 Mtep nel 2030, contando su un contributo rilevate delle politiche di efficienza energetica. Rispetto allo scenario tendenziale al 2030 si tratterebbe di una riduzione dei consumi di circa il 40%. Parallelamente, nei prossimi 15 anni il contributo delle fonti rinnovabili sul consumo energetico finale dovrebbe raddioppiare, passando da 17,3% a 35%, e nel solo comparto elettrico, le rinnovabili dovrebbero soddisfare almeno 2/3 della domanda di elettricità: ciò significherebbe 1 Mtep di energia complessiva e 8 TWh di produzione elettrica in più ogni anno, in linea con le performance migliori degli ultimi quindici anni. La nuova SEN al 2030, per raggiungere i nuovi e più impegnativi target necessari per attuare l'Accordo di Parigi, dovrebbe indicare anche le politiche e le misure da adottare."

Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided. A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC, November 2012, 106 p. [formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "This report provides a snapshot of recent scientific literature and new analyses of likely impacts and risks that would be associated with a 4° Celsius warming within this century. It is a rigorous attempt to outline a range of risks, focusing on developing countries and especially the poor. A 4°C world would be one of unprecedented heat waves, severe drought, and major floods in many regions, with serious impacts on ecosystems and associated services. But with action, a 4°C world can be avoided and we can likely hold warming below 2°C."

European Environment Agency, Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012. An indicator-based report. EEA Report n.12/2012, Copenhagen, 2012, 304 p. [formato PDF, 32,00 MB]. "This European Environment Agency (EEA) report presents information on past and projected climate change and related impacts in Europe, based on a range of indicators. The report also assesses the vulnerability of society, human health and ecosystems in Europe and identifies those regions in Europe most at risk from climate change. Furthermore, the report discusses the principle sources of uncertainty for the indicators and notes how monitoring and scenario development can improve our understanding of climate change, its impacts and related vulnerabilities."

L'adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici: strategie e piani in Europa. (Rapporti 94/2009). Istituto Superiore per la protezione e la ricerca ambientale (ISPRA), Roma, 2009, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,45 MB]. "Dall'entrata in vigore della Convenzione Quadro delle Nazioni Unite sui Cambiamenti Climatici - UNFCCC nel 1994, che attribuiva un ruolo prioritario ai meccanismi di riduzione dei gas serra (mitigazione), l’importanza delle misure di adattamento è cresciuta sempre più, anche in considerazione del fatto che dovremo affrontare gli impatti dei cambiamenti climatici per i prossimi decenni, pur nell’ipotesi teorica che le emissioni antropiche di gas serra possano essere azzerate. Già alcuni Paesi europei hanno definito strategie, programmi e piani di adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici, allo scopo di assicurare al proprio territorio un futuro sviluppo sostenibile e di evitare di pagare un prezzo troppo elevato in termini di danni ambientali, perdita di vite umane e costi economici. Il Rapporto analizza e confronta alcune tra le più significative iniziative intraprese da alcuni Paesi europei (Francia, Spagna, Finlandia, Danimarca), al fine di tracciare un percorso che, a partire dalle esperienze pregresse, possa fornire elementi utili per la definizione di politiche, strategie e piani di adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici."

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Assessment of the impacts of global change on regional U.S. air quality: a synthesis of climate change impacts on ground-level ozone. An Interim Report of the U.S. EPA Global Change Research Program. (EPA/600/R-07/094F). National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC, April 2009, 130 p. [formato PDF, 5,17 MB].

National Science and Technology Council, Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States. A Report of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, National Science and Technology Council, Washington D.C., May 2008, 271 p. [formato PDF, 2,73 MB]. (Il rapporto sugli effetti dei cambiamenti climatici negli Stati Uniti, che il governo USA voleva censurare). "This national scientific assessment integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and draws from and synthesizes findings from previous assessments of the science, including reports and products by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It analyzes current trends in global change, both natural and human-induced, and it projects major trends for the future. It analyzes the effects of these changes on the natural environment, agriculture, water resources, social systems, energy production and use, transportation, and human health. It is intended to help inform discussion of the relevant issues by decisionmakers, stakeholders, and the public."

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III (Mitigation of Climate Change). Summary for Policymakers.. Bangkok, IPCC, 4 May 2007, 35 p. [formato PDF, 560 KB]. (Le politiche per mitigare i cambiamenti climatici, proposte dall'IPCC).

Peter Schwartz, Doug Randall, An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security. Imagining the Unthinkable. October 2003, 22 p. [formato PDF, 920 KB]. Il rapporto, commissionato dal Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti, constata che i previsti cambiamenti climatici provocheranno conflitti e destabilizzazione, per cui mettono in guardia dai rischi per la sicurezza nazionale del paese. "There are some indications today that global warming has reached the threshold where the thermohaline circulation could start to be significantly impacted. These indications include observations documenting that the North Atlantic is increasingly being freshened by melting glaciers, increased precipitation, and fresh water runoff making it substantially less salty over the past 40 years. This report suggests that, because of the potentially dire consequences, the risk of abrupt climate change, although uncertain and quite possibly small, should be elevated beyond a scientific debate to a U.S. national security concern."

Philippe Richert, Qualité de l'air et changement climatique: un même défi, un même urgence. Une nouvelle gouvernance pour l'atmosphère. Paris, Février 2007, 120 p. [formato PDF, 3,03 MB]. "Philippe Richert, sénateur et vice-président du Conseil national de l'air, a été chargé par le Premier ministre de dresser un bilan de l'application de la loi du 30 décembre 1996 sur l'Air et l'Utilisation Rationnelle de l'Energie (LAURE), d'évaluer la politique mise en oeuvre par les différents acteurs concernés afin de réduire la pollution atmosphérique, notamment le "plan air" adopté en 2003 et le plan national santé environnement adopté en 2004. Il devait proposer, le cas échéant, des pistes d'amélioration de cette politique, en lien avec les politiques de préservation de la biodiversité et de lutte contre le changement climatique."

Stefan Rahmstorf (Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung), Urs Neu (ProClim, Schweizerische Akademie der Naturwissenschaften), Klimawandel und CO2: haben di "Skeptiker" recht?. (Cambiamenti climatici e CO2: hanno ragione gli "scettici"?). Potsdam, PIK, 2004, 12 p. [formato PDF, 290 kB]. Due esperti climatologi esaminano le argomentazioni e i dati forniti dai cosiddetti "scettici" che negano il rapporto tra aumento delle concentrazioni di CO2 ed effetti sul clima, constatando che i dati citati e le loro conclusioni possono convincere solo un pubblico non esperto e non a conoscenza della letteratura scientifica sull'argomento. "Der Artikel diskutiert die Argumente von Skeptikern, die den menschlichen Einfluss auf das Klima für gering und harmlos halten. Anders als von den Skeptikern häufig behauptet, untermauern gerade die in den letzten Jahren stark gewachsenen Kenntnisse über natürliche Klimaveränderungen in der Erdgeschichte die Erkenntnis, dass der menschliche Einfluss auf das Klima inzwischen sehr wahrscheinlich dominant ist. Er übersteigt mittlerweile die Wirkung natürlicher Faktoren wie Schwankungen der Sonnenaktivität deutlich. Ohne Klimaschutzmaßnahmen würde der weitere Anstieg der Treibhausgase in der Atmosphäre im 21. Jahrhundert zu einem weiteren Temperaturanstieg von (je nach angenommenen Szenarien) 1.4-5.8 ºC führen, mit wahrscheinlich gravierenden Folgen für natürliche Öko-systeme und menschliche Gesellschaft."

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (formally approved at the 10th Session of Working Group I of the IPCC, Paris, February 2007. Corrections made as of February 5th, 2007). Geneva, IPCC, 2007, 18 p. [formato PDF, 1,25 MB]. (I dati scientifici essenziali sui cambiamenti climatici, riassunti dall'IPCC).


DOCUMENTI SULLE EMISSIONI DI GAS CLIMALTERANTI, INVENTARI, SCENARI

Pierre Friedlingstein et al., Global Carbon Budget 2019. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783-1838, 2019 (56 p.) [formato PDF, 8,2 MB]. Open Access. "Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties."

European Environment Agency, Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2017 and inventory report 2019. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. EEA Report No 6/2019. (EEA/PUBL/2019/051). Copenhagen, 27 May 2019, 962 p. [formato PDF, 15,4 MB + 5 additional files (annexes)]. "Total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU) increased by 0.7 % in 2017, according to latest official data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Less coal was used to produce heat and electricity but this was offset by higher industrial and transport emissions, the latter increasing for the fourth consecutive year. total greenhouse gas emissions (including international aviation) rose by 0.7 % in 2017 compared with 2016. These official data confirm the preliminary estimates published by the EEA in October 2018. From 1990 to 2017, the EU reduced its net greenhouse gas emissions by 21.7 %. The EU is therefore still exceeding its 20 % reduction target set for 2020. EU greenhouse gas emissions have decreased since 1990 as a combined result of policies, economic and structural factors and, on average, milder winters (requiring less energy for heating). The largest emission cuts have been made in the energy sector, due to efficiency improvements, increased use of renewables and a less carbon intensive mix of fossil fuels - more gas, and less coal and oil. Energy efficiency and renewable energy will continue to play a key role in cutting future emissions and helping the EU achieve its 40 % reduction target by 2030."

Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Folęga (Silesian University of Technology), Impact of Road Transport Means on Climate Change and Human Health in Poland. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 31, 2019, No. 2, 195-204 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 380 kB]. Open Access. "Operation of means of transport is one of major sources of environmental impact. The goal of this article was to analyse the greenhouse gas emissions and to assess the impact of operation of means of road transport in Poland on human health using the life cycle assessment technique based on an analysis of emission of dust and gas pollutants. Road transport was assessed by taking the following means of transport into account: passenger cars, other cars with weight of up to 3,500 kg, lorries, buses, motorcycles, mopeds and tractors. The analysis covered various dust and gas pollutants, including the emission of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, NOx, NMVOC, PM and SO2. Using the IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment method, transport was assessed in a breakdown into the following impact categories: greenhouse gas emission and damage to human health, including damage caused by organic and inorganic compounds. It has been evidenced that the highest emissions of dust and gas pollutants are caused by passenger cars, which is mainly due to the number of vehicles of this type traversing Polish roads. The main cause of climate changes due to road transport is CO2 emission, while NOx emission is the main factor determining individual categories of damage to human health. The negative environmental impact is primarily related to the operation of combustion engine vehicles. Diesel oil and petrol are currently the main fuels used in Polish transport. In order to reduce their impact on the environment one should intensify the efforts aimed at increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport."

Paul Wolfram, Nic Lutsey, Electric vehicles: Literature review of technology costs and carbon emissions. Working Paper 2016-14. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, July 2016, 23 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This paper aims to inform the debate over how electric vehicle technology could fit into a lower-carbon 2020-2030 new vehicle fleet in Europe by collecting, analyzing, and aggregating the available research literature on the underlying technology costs and carbon emissions. It concentrates on the three electric propulsion systems: battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (HFCEVs). The authors project that the costs of all will decrease significantly between 2015 and 2030: PHEVs will achieve about a 50% cost reduction, compared with approximate cost reductions of 60% for BEVs and 70% for HFCEVs. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand for electric and conventional vehicles are presented on a well-to-wheel (WTW) basis, capturing all direct and indirect emissions of fuel and electricity production and vehicle operation. The authors find that carbon emissions of BEVs using European grid-mix electricity are about half of average European vehicle emissions, with HFCEVs and PHEVs having a lower emissions reduction potential. A lower-carbon grid and higher power train efficiency by 2020 could cut average electric vehicle emissions by another third. However, reductions in costs and CO2 emission will not be achieved without targeted policy intervention. More stringent CO2 standards, as well as fiscal and non-fiscal incentives for electric vehicles, can help the electric vehicle market grow and costs fall. Such efforts should also be combined with efforts to decarbonize the grid, or emission reductions will not be as great as they could be. Although the analysis is focused on Europe, similar technology, policy, and market dynamics can be observed in electric-vehicle markets throughout North America and Asia."

Climate Action Tracker, The road ahead: How do we move to cleaner car fleets? (CAT Decarbonisation Series). August 26, 2016, 7 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "Our analysis brings insights into the extent of change that is necessary in the transport sector to achieve decarbonisation. While a number of major emitting countries have set ambitious fuel economy and/or emission standards that can substantially reduce emissions (especially the EU and USA), 2°C trajectories can only be reached by a massive scale-up of EVs, to around 50% by 2050. More action is needed to ensure compatibility with the 1.5°C limit agreed upon in Paris, especially considering the current practices in conscious misreporting of emission standards by car manufacturers. Getting anywhere close to a 1.5°C compatible pathway would thus require changes on a different scale, with sales of zero-emission vehicles reaching 100% of new sales in the next two decades, combined with a completely decarbonised power sector. Some countries have made pledges in this direction, but more sustained action is needed on a global scale. Lastly, increasing EV sales is no silver bullet for the entire transport sector. For example, in heavy freight transport over long distances, EVs currently offer no feasible alternative to standard trucks, not to mention aviation, maritime transport, and train travel, which is still often powered by diesel fuel. Here, the focus on increasing fuel efficiency and emission standards is all the more important in the near term, although zero-emission technologies are still required sector-wide in the long-term."

Wolfgang Schade (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe), Achievements, strategies and further needs in (global) political discussions. International Conference "Climate Change and Transport", Karlsruhe, October 9-10th, 2014, 28 slides [formato PDF, 1,7 MB].

Joyce McLaren, John Miller, Eric O'Shaughnessy, Eric Wood, and Evan Shapiro (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type. (Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64852). NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Golden, CO, April 2016, 34 p. [formato PDF, 4,60 MB]. "With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policymakers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual amount of emissions reduction electric vehicles provide is dependent on when and where drivers charge the vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, the vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of anticipated emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios."

Hans Jakob Walnum, Carlo Aall and Søren Løkke, Can Rebound Effects Explain Why Sustainable Mobility Has Not Been Achieved?. Sustainability 2014, 6, 9510-9537 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. Open Access. "Since the report “Our Common Future” launched sustainable development as a primary goal for society in 1987, both scientific and political discussions about the term’s definition and how to achieve sustainable development have ensued. The manifold negative environmental impacts of transportation are an important contributor to the so-far non-sustainable development in financially rich areas of the world. Thus, achieving sustainable mobility is crucial to achieving the wider challenge of sustainable development. In this article, we limit our sustainability focus to that of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We discuss whether rebound effects can reveal why sustainable mobility has not been reached. Rebound effects refer to behavioral or other systemic responses after the implementation of new technologies or other measures to reduce energy consumption. Three main strategies exist for achieving sustainable mobility: efficiency, substitution, and volume reduction. (1) The efficiency strategy is based on the idea that environmental problems caused by transport can be improved by developing new and more efficient technologies to replace old, inefficient, and polluting materials and methods; (2) The second strategy—substitution—argues for a change to less polluting means of transport; (3) The volume reduction strategy argue that efficiency and substitution are not sufficient, we must fundamentally change behavior and consumption patterns; people must travel less, and freight volumes must decrease. We found rebound effects associated with all three of the main strategies that will lead to offsetting expected savings in energy use and GHG emissions in the transport sector."

Johannes Erhard, Werner Reh, Manfred Treber, Dietmar Oeliger, Daniel Rieger, Michael Müller-Görnert, Klimafreundlicher Verkehr in Deutschland. Weichenstellungen bis 2050 (Climate-friendly transport in Germany). WWF Deutschland, Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V. (BUND), Germanwatch e.V., Naturschutzbund Deutschland e.V. (NABU), Verkehrsclub Deutschland e.V. (VCD), Juni 2014, 75 p. [formato PDF, 3,16 MB]. "In their concept for “Climate-friendly transport in Germany”, the environmental associations WWF, BUND, Germanwatch, NABU and VCD present a way for the German transport sector to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 95 % by 2050. The core message is that in addition to technical solutions like efficiency improvements, measures to reduce traffic and shift traffic onto more environmentally friendly modes of transport need to be pursued to reduce final energy demand in the transport sector. By 2050, as a result, the transport sector’s final energy demand will fall by nearly 70 % (compared to 2005), with a 64 % cut in greenhouse gas emissions (compared to 1990). To close the remaining “gap” and deliver an almost total reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector will need to use electricity from renewable energy sources as well as regenerative gaseous and liquid fuels. Whether and how these can be made available and at the same time fulfil ambitious sustainability requirements is still uncertain today. Germany has set a target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 80 to 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. However, if global warming is to be limited to a maximum of two degrees Celsius by the end of the century compared to the pre-industrial age, Germany – as an industrial nation – will need to position itself at the top end of this range. Yet Germany will miss its climate goals unless the transport sector also makes an appropriate reduction. While the energy transition in the electricity sector is the talk of the day, so far the German federal government has completely lacked a transport policy that is aligned with the climate goals. The transport sector is currently responsible for around 20 % of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, yet has underperformed other sectors in reducing its emissions. Including international air and sea traffic originating in Germany, transport emissions actually rose by 2.5 % between 1990 and 2012. At the heart of the joint concept is a climate protection scenario which quantifies the target outlined above for a sustainable transport system. The associations’ concept includes international air and sea traffic originating in Germany and takes the higher climate impact of air traffic emissions into account. The scenario is based on assumptions which underline what changes are needed in the political framework and in our mobility patterns to make the target achievable. Priority is given to measures which preserve mobility and at the same time are associated with a better quality of life. For example, noise and pollutant as well as greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, and attractive public spaces are created. Passenger traffic falls 15 % by 2050. In the long term, this is influenced by a declining population and demographic change. In an ageing society, there is a shift away from journeys to and from places of work and education, towards leisure travel. Since everyday products are increasingly bought online, the number of shopping trips decreases, with a corresponding increase in goods distribution traffic. There is a significant change in the chosen modes of transport. Whereas car ownership is predominant today, what matters most in the long term is flexibility. Especially in urban and suburban areas, people will rely on (shared) bicycles, pedelecs, a good public transport network and electrically powered carsharing vehicles, according to their needs. For longer distances, an effective rail and long-distance bus network will be available with coordinated connections across the country. As a result, by 2050 there will be only around half as many private cars as there are today. Policymakers support these trends by providing integrated funding for attractive public transport offerings, and expanding the cycling infrastructure. This is accompanied by the introduction of distance- and emissions-based tolls for passenger cars. EU limits for new car CO2 emissions will be tightened to a maximum of 65–68 grams CO2/km by 2025 and a maximum of 50 grams CO2/km by 2030. While freight transport in Germany will increase further by 2030, in the long term it will stabilize at the current level. Growth in average transportation distances in the freight sector, which in the past was caused mainly by EU integration, will not continue. At least for food and animal feed, regional trade patterns will become more important again. The freight transport volume, i.e. the quantity of goods transported each year, will increase only slightly by 2050. While the transport volume for transit traffic moves somewhat higher, there is a drastic fall in the transportation of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, as a result of the systematic implementation of the energy transition. Rail and inland waterways account for a significantly larger share of transportation. Overall, around half of freight transport in 2050 uses these modes of transport. Also the combination of different modes of transport becomes more important. In cities, electrically powered light duty vehicles and cargo bikes are used for deliveries. Policymakers support these developments in goods traffic by increasing and extending truck tolls. The target of doubling rail capacity to 225 billion tonne-kilometres by 2050 is accompanied by target-oriented transport infrastructure planning in Germany. Its main focus is on boosting seaport hinterland transportation by rail. Air cargo traffic increases by around one-third by 2050. In contrast, growth in air passenger traffic weakens, resulting in a slight decline by 2050. The inclusion of air traffic and international flights in an effective emissions trading scheme has an increasing impact on airfares. At the same time, policymakers reduce subsidies for regional airports. Because of higher ticket prices, the trend for many short trips reverts to longer-duration and fewer air journeys. Business flights are increasingly replaced by telemeetings. Nevertheless, because of the higher climate impact of its emissions in the upper layers of the atmosphere, aviation constitutes a considerable problem for achieving the climate goals in the long term. Despite ambitious measures to reduce and shift traffic, and significant efficiency gains in all modes of transport, even in 2050 the transport sector still accounts for a considerable final energy demand of nearly 900 petajoules. The goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 95 % can only be achieved if sufficient low-greenhouse-gas and sustainable fuel alternatives are available. Biofuels made from food crops are not considered as a possible solution in this concept owing to current doubts as to their sustainability and actually achievable greenhouse gas reductions. In 2050, trains, local public transport, cars and light commercial vehicles will largely be powered by electricity from renewable energy sources. The remaining demand for liquid and gaseous fuels from heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), ships and aircraft as well as hybrid cars and light commercial vehicles can be partially covered by biofuels produced from waste and residues. In addition, synthetic fuels generated using electricity from renewable sources can be used. The enormous long-term electricity requirements of the transport sector underline the urgent need for systematic implementation of the energy transition in Germany. Uncertainties regarding the available quantities of sustainable alternative fuels make it all the more clear that a drastic reduction in final energy demand constitutes the essential core of a successful climate strategy for the German transport sector."

European Environment Agency, The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing. EEA Technical report n.4/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 9,77 MB]. "The main objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature and reports, taking into account expert knowledge, on the maritime transport sector. The report addresses the sector's impact on air quality and climate forcing in Europe. In order to provide this overview a broad range of topics have been addressed. Key findings, as highlighted below, focus on the importance of emissions compared to other sectors; present and future air quality issues; and, the contribution of the sector to present day and future climate forcing. Emissions from maritime transport in European waters constitute a significant share of worldwide ship emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This report also shows that the number of ships registered in the EU-27, combined with ships owned by European companies but registered in third countries, is substantial. In 2011, about 19 % of the world merchant vessel fleet above 100 gross tonnage (GT) were registered in European countries. When taking into account ships registered abroad by European ship owners the European share of the global merchant fleet will be higher. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from international maritime transport in European waters are projected to increase and could be equal to land-based sources by 2020 onwards. The report includes a review of recently developed scenario studies on ship emissions and shows that NOX emissions could be equal to land-based emissions sources from 2020 onwards. SO2 emissions in European waters will continue to decrease further from 2020 onwards due to legislation on the sulphur content in fuel. It is expected that this will also lead to a decrease in emissions of PM2.5. Shipping emissions can contribute significantly to local air quality problems in Europe, but the pan.European knowledge and observation base needs to be improved to provide a more complete picture. The review of available observation data shows that there are relatively few measurement data available to attribute the contribution of ship emissions to local air pollution. Available data shows that the contribution of particulate matter from shipping to local concentrations can be up to 20–30 %, especially for fine particulate matter."

Benoît Chèze, Julien Chevallier, Pascal Gastineau, Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?. (EconomiX Working Papers, 2012-35). Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Nanterre, August 2012, 27 p. [formato PDF, 702 kB]. "This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. "scenario of type I") recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2°C."

The Emissions Gap Report 2012. A UNEP Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, November 2012, 62 p. [formato PDF, 7,17 MB]. "The 2012 report provides the following information: an update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; an overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments; an estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; an update of the assessment of the "emissions gap" for 2020; a review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies already leading to substantial emission reductions and how they can be scaled up and replicated in other countries, with the view to bridging the emissions gap."

Railway Handbook 2012. Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. International Energy Agency, International Union of Railways, Paris, 2012, 116 p. [formato PDF, 32,1 MB]. "In this book you will find the result of the harmonization of the UIC energy/CO2 railway database with the IEA world energy balances (IEA, 2011a) and CO2 from fuel combustion (IEA, 2011b) databases. The publication is composed of a European part, followed by a selection from Non-European countries where partial data were available".

Jens Borken-Kleefeld, Terje Berntsen and Jan Fuglestvedt, Specific Climate Impact of Passenger and Freight Transport. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44 (15), pp 5700–5706 [formato PDF, 241 kB]. "Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares first the absolute climate impacts of current passenger and freight transportation. Second, the impacts are normalized with the transport work performed and modes are compared. Calculations are performed for the integrated radiative forcing and mean temperature change, for different time horizons and various measures of transport work. An unambiguous ranking of the specific climate impact can be established for freight transportation, with shipping and rail having lowest and light trucks and air transport having highest specific impact for all cases calculated. Passenger travel with rail, coach or two- and three-wheelers has on average the lowest specific climate impact also on short time horizons. Air travel has the highest specific impact on short-term warming, while on long-term warming car travel has an equal or higher impact per passenger-kilometer."

Jos G.J. Olivier, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Jeroen A.H.W. Peters, Julian Wilson, Long-term trend in global CO2 emissions. 2011 report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, September 2011, 42 p. [formato PDF, 892 kB]. "After a 1% decline in 2009, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased by more than 5% in 2010, which is unprecedented in the last two decades, but similar to the increase in 1976 when the global economy was recovering from the first oil crisis and subsequent stock market crash. CO2 emissions went up in most of the major economies, led by China and India with increases of 10% and 9% respectively. The average annual growth rate in CO2 emissions over the last three years of the credit crunch, including a 1% increase in 2008 when the first impacts became visible, is 1.7%, almost equal to the long-term annual average of 1.9% for the preceding two decades back to 1990. However, most industrialised countries have not recovered fully from their decreases in emissions of 7 to 12% in 2009. The industrialised countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol plus the non-ratifying USA have emitted approximately 7.5% less CO2 in 2010 than in 1990 and collectively remain on target to meet the original Kyoto Protocol objective of a 5.2% reduction. However, there are large national differences, with for instance over the period 1990 – 2010 decreases in CO2 emissions in the EU and Russia, increases in the USA and stabilisation in Japan. The efforts of the industrialised countries are increasingly hidden in the global picture where their share of CO2 emissions has dropped from about two-thirds to less than half since 1990. Continued growth in the developing nations and economic recovery in the industrialised countries are the main reasons for a record breaking 5.8% increase in 2010 in global CO2 emissions to an absolute maximum of 33.0 billion ton. Increased energy end-use efficiency, nuclear energy and the growing contribution from renewable energy cannot yet compensate for the globally increasing demand for power and transport. This illustrates the large and joint effort still required for mitigating climate change. These preliminary estimates have been made by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) on the basis of energy consumption data for 2008 to 2010 recently published by BP. The estimates are also based on production data for cement, lime, ammonia and steel and emissions per country from 1970 to 2008 from version 4.2 of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), a joint project of JRC and PBL."

Michèle Léglise, Les émissions de CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers. Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, La Défense, Septembre 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,05 MB]. "Comme pour les véhicules particuliers, le Conseil de l’Union européenne a adopté le 11 mai 2011 un règlement limitant les émissions de CO2 des VUL neufs à une moyenne de 175 g/km à partir de 2017. Il devrait à terme permettre d’avoir un parc moins émetteur. Cette étude propose une évaluation des émissions en CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers (VUL) et compare leur évolution avec celle des voitures particulières et des poids lourds. L’évaluation est faite à partir des résultats de l’enquête 2006 sur les VUL (dernière enquête disponible) et à partir des comptes des transports de la Nation (CCTN) de 1990 à 2010. Cette analyse montre que les émissions de CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers ont représenté 17,7 millions de tonnes en 2005. Mises en regard des émissions des autres véhicules routiers, les émissions des VUL représentent 18% des émissions de l’ensemble du trafic routier national. La part des émissions liées aux VUL n’a cessé de croître au cours des vingt dernières années. De 1990 à 2007, le taux de croissance annuel moyen des émissions en CO2 a presque atteint 2% pour les VUL, plus élevé que pour les PL (+1,3%) et surtout que les VP (+0,7%). La progression plus faible en 2008 et 2009 résulte d’une légère baisse du trafic en 2008, moins accentuée toutefois que pour les voitures particulières et surtout les poids lourds qui ont plus fortement réagi à la crise, mais avec amorce d’une reprise en 2010."

European Environment Agency, Approximated EU GHG inventory: early estimates for 2010. EEA Technical report n.11/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 208 p. [formato PDF, 2,01 MB]. "This report provides an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011 : Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets. EEA report n.4/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 152 p. [formato PDF, 5,24 MB]. "This report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008–2010, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2010 GHG emissions."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990–2008. EEA report n.6/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 146 p. [formato PDF, 5,96 MB]. "This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available."

Transport and Environment, CO2 emissions from transport in the EU27. An analysis of 2008 data submitted to the UNFCCC. T&E – European Federation for Transport and Environment AiSBL, Brussels, 2010, 6 p. [formato PDF, 163 kB]. "This note is written as a complement to the annual submissions to the UNFCCC on the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. These submissions are compiled by the EEA on the basis of the date from the 27 EU Member States. We wrote this complement because of the continuing confusion over the contribution of the transport sector to the EU’s CO2 emissions. This confusion arises because the EEA’s figures usually leave out emissions from international shipping and aviation (so-called ‘bunkers’). The Kyoto Protocol is to blame for this; it does not allocate the emissions from these two sectors to individual countries, and therefore EU-total figures also typically leave them out. This report includes bunker emissions, determined on the basis of fuel sales. All figures in this note apply to CO2 emissions in the EU27 and include emissions from international aviation and shipping, unless otherwise stated. • Between 1990 and 2008, transport emissions increased by 34% while emissions from other sectors decreased by 14%. Compared with 2007 transport emissions decreased by 1.6% and those of other sectors by 2.2%. • Consequently, the share of transport in total emissions rose further from 28 to 29%; in 1990 the share of transport was 21%; • Emissions from international aviation and shipping (both outside Kyoto) have risen by 110% and 56% respectively. Emissions from aviation were unchanged in 2008, those of shipping dropped by 2.1% compared with 2007; • In 2008 aviation and shipping accounted for 7.0% of total CO2 emissions, and 24% of transport emissions. In 1990, these figures were 3.8% and 18% respectively."

Govinda R. Timilsina, Ashish Shrestha, Why have CO2 emissions increased in the transport sector in Asia? Underlying factors and policy options. (Policy Research Working Paper No 5098). The World Bank, September 2009, 72 p. [formato PDF, 748 kB]. "Rapidly increasing emissions of carbon dioxide from the transport sector, particularly in urban areas, is a major challenge to sustainable development in developing countries. This study analyzes the factors responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in selected developing Asian countries during 1980-2005. The analysis splits the annual emissions growth into components representing economic development; population growth; shifts in transportation modes; and changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, and transportation energy intensity. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, particularly various fiscal and regulatory policy instruments. The study finds that of the six factors considered, three - economic development, population growth, and transportation energy intensity - are responsible for driving up transport sector CO2 emissions in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In contrast, only economic development and population growth are responsible in the case of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. CO2 emissions exhibit a downward trend in Mongolia due to decreasing transportation energy intensity. The study also finds that some existing policy instruments help reduce transport sector CO2 emissions, although they were not necessarily targeted for this purpose when introduced."

ISPRA, Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2007. National Inventory Report 2009. (Rapporti 98/2009). ISPRA, Roma, 2009, 355 p. [formato PDF, 4,80 MB]. "Nel documento si descrive la comunicazione annuale italiana dell’inventario delle emissioni dei gas serra in accordo a quanto previsto nell’ambito della Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici delle Nazioni Unite (UNFCCC), del protocollo di Kyoto e del Meccanismo di Monitoraggio dei Gas Serra dell’Unione Europea. Ogni Paese che partecipa alla Convenzione, infatti, oltre a fornire annualmente l’inventario nazionale delle emissioni dei gas serra secondo i formati richiesti, deve documentare in un report, il National Inventory Report, le metodologie di stima, le fonti dei dati di base e dei fattori di emissione utilizzati, e illustrare il sistema di Quality Assurance/Quality Control cui è soggetto l’inventario. Da un’analisi di sintesi della serie storica dei dati di emissione dal 1990 al 2007, si evidenzia che le emissioni nazionali totali dei sei gas serra, espresse in termini di CO2 equivalente, al netto delle emissioni ed assorbimenti di gas serra dall’uso del suolo, dai cambiamenti dell’uso del suolo e dalle foreste, sono aumentate del 7.1% nel 2007 rispetto all’anno base 1990 passando da 516 a 553 milioni di tonnellate di CO2 equivalente. Confrontando l’andamento della serie con l’obiettivo di riduzione previsto dal Protocollo di Kyoto, pari al 6.5% entro il periodo 2008-2012, si nota che le emissioni, pur avendo registrato una decrescita dal 2005 (-3.5% 2005-2007, -1.7% 2006-2007), sono ancora distanti dal raggiungimento dell’impegno nazionale."

Riccardo De Lauretis, Daniela Romano, Marina Vitullo, Chiara Arcarese National Greenhouse Gas Inventory System in Italy. Year 2009. ISPRA, Roma, April 2009, 36 p. [formato PDF, 256 kB]. "Il documento descrive il Sistema Nazionale per la preparazione dell’Inventario Nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera. Tale Sistema, obbligatorio nell’ambito del Protocollo di Kyoto, è stato istituito a livello nazionale dal decreto legislativo 51/2008. Come stabilito nel decreto ISPRA (già APAT) è responsabile della realizzazione dell’inventario nazionale delle emissioni e dell’aggiornamento del documento National System che descrive il sistema per la preparazione dell’inventario nazionale comunicato nel 2009 nell’ambito della Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici delle Nazioni Unite (UNFCCC), del Meccanismo di Monitoraggio dei Gas Serra dell’Unione Europea e del Protocollo di Kyoto. Nel documento sono riportati i ruoli e responsabilità degli organismi istituzionali coinvolti nella preparazione dell’inventario, le principali fonti informative, i sistemi e le procedure previste per il controllo della qualità dell’inventario cosi come la normativa nazionale di riferimento. Tale documento è comunicato annualmente da ISPRA al MATTM unitamente alle stime delle emissioni e alla documentazione che descrive le metodologie di stima e gli andamenti delle serie storiche delle emissioni."

Jan Fuglestvedt, Terje Berntsen, Gunnar Myhre, Kristin Rypdal, and Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Climate forcing from the transport sectors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 (2008) 454-458 [formato PDF, 429 kB]. "Although the transport sector is responsible for a large and growing share of global emissions affecting climate, its overall contribution has not been quantified. We provide a comprehensive analysis of radiative forcing from the road transport, shipping, aviation, and rail subsectors, using both past- and forward-looking perspectives. We find that, since preindustrial times, transport has contributed ?15% and 31% of the total man-made CO2 and O3 forcing, respectively. A forward-looking perspective shows that the current emissions from transport are responsible for ?16% of the integrated net forcing over 100 years from all current man-made emissions. The dominating contributor to positive forcing (warming) is CO2, followed by tropospheric O3. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to warming. The transport sector also exerts cooling through reduced methane lifetime and atmospheric aerosol effects. Shipping causes net cooling, except on future time scales of several centuries. Much of the forcing from transport comes from emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2008. Tracking progress towards Kyoto targets. Executive summary. (EEA Report n.5/2008). EEA, Copenhagen, October 2008, 14 p. + 33 country profiles [formato PDF, 490 kB + 33 files, file size: 30 kB]. "This report presents an assessment of the current and projected progress of EU Member States, EU candidate countries and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and of progress towards the EU target for 2020. This is based on their past greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2006, and the projected greenhouse gas emissions of these countries during the Kyoto commitment period 2008–2012 and for 2020, derived from data and related information they provided before 1 June 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-27 account for approximately 13 % of global greenhouse gas emissions covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Total EU-27 emissions are dominated by EU-15 Member States, in particular Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France and Spain (by decreasing order). More than 80 % of greenhouse gas emissions are energy related — that is, related to the production of electricity and heat, road transportation, etc. Between 1990 and 2006, greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 7.7 % in the EU-27. The largest absolute emission reductions took place in Germany, the United Kingdom and in most EU-12 Member States, while the largest absolute increases were observed in southern EU-15 Member States (Spain, Portugal, Greece and Italy). Between 2005 and 2006, greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 0.3 % in the EU-27. The largest absolute reductions took place in France, Italy, Spain and Belgium while the largest absolute increases were observed in Poland, Finland and Denmark. EU-15 emissions from transport, which represent a fifth of all EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions, increased by 26 % from 1990 to 2006 (excluding emissions from international aviation and maritime transport). More than 90 % of total EU domestic transport emissions are due to road transport. After a decrease in these emissions between 2004 and 2005, they increased very slightly in 2006 (0.3 % or 2.1 million tonnes). The overall EU-15 trend has been dominated on one side by the decreases observed in Germany since 1999, mainly attributed to an increased share of diesel-powered cars, increasing fuel prices and purchase of fuel outside Germany, and on the other side by the increases in emissions observed in other countries, in particular Spain and Italy." The full report will be published in November 2008.

Matthew Barth, Kanok Boriboonsomsin (University of California at Riverside), Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion. Paper for the 87th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 2008, 18 p. [formato PDF, 408 kB]. "Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, accounting for approximately a third of the United States’ inventory. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are looking to make vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be lowered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the reduction of traffic congestion. This paper examines traffic congestion and its impact on CO2 emissions using detailed energy and emission models and linking them to real-world driving patterns and traffic conditions. Using a typical traffic condition in Southern California as example, it has been found that CO2 emissions can be reduced by up to almost 20% through three different strategies: 1) congestion mitigation strategies that reduce severe congestion, allowing traffic to flow at better speeds; 2) speed management techniques that reduce excessively high free-flow speeds to more moderate conditions; and 3) shock wave suppression techniques that eliminate the acceleration/deceleration events associated with stop-and-go traffic that exists during congested conditions."

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector, 1990-2003. EPA, Washington, DC, March 2006, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB].

European Environment Agency, Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2006 and inventory report 2008. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat. EEA Technical report n.6/2008, Copenhagen, 27 May 2008, 587 p. [formato PDF, 5,74 MB + 13 annexes]. "Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union decreased slightly between 2005 and 2006 according to the official inventory report prepared by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Overall emissions within the EU-27 fell by 14 million tonnes (0.3 %) and now stand 7.7 % below 1990 levels. Total emissions in the European Union were slightly more than 5.1 billion tonnes in 2006."

Air Quality Expert Group, Air quality and climate change: a UK perspective. Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London, 2007, 317 p. [formato PDF, 5,31 MB]. "The report draws together the most up-to-date research on the linkages between climate change and air quality. It examines the scientific background to these interactions and identifies synergies, where measures to improve air quality can help to ameliorate climate change, and trade-offs where policy measures in the two areas act in opposition."

Alan McKinnon, CO2 Emissions from Freight Transport in the UK. Report prepared for the Climate Change Working Group of the Commission for Integrated Transport. Logistics Research Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 2007, 57 p. [formato PDF, 420 KB] "The contribution of the freight sector to global warming has so far received less attention than CO2 emissions from car traffic and aviation. This paper should help to redress the balance by shedding more light on the subject. It begins by assessing the validity of government statistics on CO2 emissions from the freight sector and reveals significant discrepancies between estimates derived in different ways. For example, time-series data for CO2 emissions from road freight in the UK Environmental Accounts and rail freight in the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory appear to give a misleading impression of trends in these sectors. The growth of emissions from heavy lorries between 1990 and 2004 appears to have been exaggerated while recent estimates of CO2 emissions per tonne-km for railfreight services substantially under-estimate the relative environmental benefits of using this mode. Using what are considered the most reliable estimation methods, it is suggested that domestic freight transport in the UK generated 33.7 million tonnes of CO2 in 2004, roughly 21% of emissions from the transport sector and 6% of total emissions from all sectors. Road transport accounted for 92% of these freightrelated CO2 emissions. The movement of freight in vans, which represented only around of 35% of all van-kms, was responsible for 13% of total freight emissions."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2007. Tracking progress towards Kyoto targets. EEA Report n.5/2007, Copenhagen, 2007, 108 p. [formato PDF, 2,90 MB + annexes: Additional information on greenhouse gas trends and projections by sector and by Member State, 132 p. 975 KB + 32 country profiles]. "This report presents an assessment of the current progress of EU Member States, EU candidate countries and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol. This is based on their past greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2005, and the projected greenhouse gas emissions of these countries by 2010, derived from data and related information they provided before 1 June 2007."

Veronika Eyring (DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics), Past, Present-day and Future Ship Emissions, presentation at the seminar "How to make the sea green: seminar on air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport", Brussels, 17 October 2007, 24 slides [formato PDF, 2,00 MB].

Réseau Action Climat-France, France Nature Environnement, WWF-France, Fubicy, FNAUT, ADEME, Mission interministérielle de l'effet de serre, Olivier Louchard (coord.), Transports et changements climatiques: un carrefour à haut risque. Ministère de l'Ecologie et du Développement Durable, Réseau Action Climat, Avril 2004, 66 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB].

APAT, Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2005. National Inventory Report 2007. APAT, Roma, 2007, 273 p. [formato PDF, 4,73 MB]. "This report provides an analysis of the Italian GHG emission inventory communicated to the Secretariat of the Climate Change Convention and to the European Commission in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism in the year 2007, including the update for the year 2005 and the revision of the entire time series 1990-2004. Emission estimates comprise the six direct greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride) which contribute directly to climate change owing to their positive radiative forcing effect and four indirect greenhouse gases (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, non- methane volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide)."

Riccardo De Lauretis, Inventario delle emissioni di gas serra in Italia 1990-2005. Presentazione al convegno "Emissioni di gas serra", Brindisi, 20 luglio 2007, 26 slides [formato PDF, 542 KB].

M.G.J. den Elzen, J.G.J. Olivier, M.M. Berk, Analysis of options for including international aviation and marine emissions in a post-2012 climate mitigation regime, (MNP Report 500114007/2007), Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, 2007, 63 p. [formato PDF, 342 KB]. "International aviation and shipping is projected to contribute significantly to international greenhouse gas emissions. These so-called bunker emissions are however not (yet) regulated by international policies under neither the UNFCCC nor its Kyoto Protocol. The aim of this study was to explore key options for dealing with including international bunker emissions in future climate policies, and to analyse their implications for regional emission allocations and global mitigation efforts."

R.M.M. van den Brink, J.A. Annema, Kosteneffectiviteit CO2-beleid personenauto’s. Methodische verkenning (Comparison of methods to assess cost-effectiveness of CO2 policies for cars), (MNP Rapport 500076001/2007), Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, Bilthoven, 2007, 69 p. [formato PDF, 446 KB]. "The purchase of smaller more fuel-efficient cars seems to have only advantages: the purchase results in less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the purchaser spends less money on the car and the fuel. In spite of this a general trend in buying more fuel-efficient cars is hardly observable in the Netherlands. This report argues that the reason is that consumers value other things in cars (size, comfort, status) next to out-of-pocket money they have to spend on purchase, taxes and fuels. This report recommends to estimating cost-effectiveness of CO2 policies for cars with methods including benefit losses related to buying other cars – smaller, less comfortable – compared to the reference case. This approach results in more realistic cost estimates of CO2 policies compared to methods, which are limited to a ‘narrow’ - only out-of-pocket money - cost concept."

Axel Friedrich, Falk Heinen, Fatumata Kamakaté, Drew Kodjak, Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from ocean-going ships: impacts, mitigation options and opportunities for managing growth, International Council on Clean Transportation, March 2007, 102 p. [formato PDF, 1,26 MB]. "This report describes the results of the ICCT review, focusing on the emission-reduction potential, feasibility, costs, and cost- effectiveness of available environmental mitigation measures for the shipping sector. It also analyzes the legal context within which local, regional, and international programs can be developed. The report concludes with a series of policy recommendations aimed at achieving steady, incremental progress towards reducing emissions from marine vessels that will result in significant environment and public health benefits."

European Environment Agency, Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2005 and inventory report 2007. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat. EEA Technical report n.7/2007, Copenhagen, 27 May 2007, 464 p. [formato PDF, 4,24 MB + 12 annexes]. "This report is the annual submission of the European Community (EC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It presents greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2005 by individual Member State and by economic sector. The report shows that between 2004 and 2005 emissions in the 15 pre-2004 Member States decreased by 35.2 million tonnes or 0.8 % and total EU-27 emissions decreased by 0.7 %. EU-15 emissions in 2005 were 2 % below base year levels under the Kyoto Protocol and EU-27 emission were 7.9 % below 1990 levels."

Bob Oliver, Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards For Canada. Pollution Probe, February 2005, 274 p. [formato PDF, 3,49 MB]. (Normative e realtà dell'efficienza energetica degli autoveicoli negli USA e in Canada). "This report presents background information and options for the development of a greenhouse gas emissions and related vehicle fuel efficiency standard for Canada. The report is based on extensive research and critical review by experts in Canada and the United States. It is designed to serve as a resource for the development of a standard for Canada. It is not a prescriptive document; rather it provides background information on standards for reducing vehicle GHG emissions and increasing fuel efficiency and presents the options and issues to be addressed in developing a new and effective standard." "This report illustrates the need for a comprehensive approach to designing an effective greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standard for Canada. The report was prepared to serve as a resource for this purpose."

Takamitsu Sawa (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University), Strategies to Prevent Global Warming After the Effectuation of the Kyoto Protocol. Washington DC, November 2005, 49 slides [formato PDF, 1,43 MB]

Japan International Transport Institute, Seminar on Global Warming and Road Transportation: The Impact of Motorization in Fast-Growing Developing Nations as China and India. Research paper. Washington DC, November 2005, 41 p. [formato PDF, 578 kB]

Iwao Matsuoka (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University), Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Road Transportation in China. Washington DC, November 2005, 19 slides [formato PDF, 90 kB]

Sanjay Marwah (Japan International Transport Institute), Impacts of Motorization in China and India on Global Warming. The Importance of Forecasts and Policy Measures. Washington DC, November 2005, 13 slides [formato PDF, 285 kB]

Stern Review Report on the economics of climate change, online pre-publication edition, 2006, 579 p. [diversi file PDF]. Rapporto steso per incarico del governo inglese dall’economista Sir Nicholas Stern e dal suo team.

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2006, EEA Report n.9/2006, Copenhagen, October 2006, 68 p. [formato PDF, 2,34 MB + annex].

Clearing the Air: The Myth and Reality of Aviation and Climate Change, Bruxelles, Transport amp; Environment, Climate Action Network Europe, 2006, 47 p. [formato PDF, 868 kB]. Recentissima pubblicazione di T&E sugli effetti del trasporto aereo sui cambiamenti climatici e sulle misure possibili per contrastarli, compresa la tassa sul cherosene.

European Environmental Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2005, EEA Report 8/2005, Copenhagen, 2005, 51 pp., ISBN 92-9167-780-9 [formato pdf, 9,32 MB; Annex 1-7 2,08 MB; Annex 8 – Country Profiles 928 kB]. “Projections show that the pre-2004 EU Member States (EU-15) could cut their total emissions to 9.3% below 1990 levels by 2010 with a combination of existing domestic policies and measures already implemented, additional policies and measures currently being planned and the use of credits from emissions-saving projects in third countries through the Kyoto Protocol's "flexible mechanisms". Thus the EU-15 Kyoto Protocol target could be achieved. All ten new EU Member States are on track to achieve their individual Kyoto targets.” [tra i Country Profiles c’è la scheda dell’Italia].

Energy Information Administration: Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003(eleventh annual report, 2004)

Edo Ronchi, N.M. Caminiti, T. Federico, Il protocollo di Kyoto in Italia. Le politiche e le misure sul cambiamento climatico. ISSI (Istituto Sviluppo Sostenibile Italia), novembre 2004, 200 p. [formato PDF, 2,52 MB] (comprende un ampio capitolo dedicato ai trasporti).


DECARBONIZZAZIONE DEI TRASPORTI, RIDUZIONE DELLE EMISSIONI DI GAS CLIMALTERANTI, COSTI DELLA RIDUZIONE, CARBON PRICING, CLIMATE RATING (POLITICHE DI MITIGAZIONE)

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. " Purpose. For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach. The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings. Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over Euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications. Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications. The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications. The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value. The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

EASAC, Decarbonisation of transport: options and challenges. EASAC policy report 37. EASAC Secretariat (European Academies' Science Advisory Council), Halle (Saale), March 2019, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "This EASAC report reviews options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from European transport. It argues for stronger policies to bridge the gap between the GHG emission reductions that will be delivered by current policies and the levels needed to limit global warming to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C (Paris Agreement). The report focusses on road transport because, in the EU, this contributes 72% of transport GHG emissions. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Opportunities for the EU to strengthen its industrial competitiveness and create high quality jobs are also discussed."

Federica Aldighieri (ISPRA), Ridurre le emissioni climalteranti: indicazioni operative e buone pratiche per gli Enti Locali. Quaderni Ambiente e Società 20/2019. ISPRA, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, 2019, 101 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "Le politiche per affrontare i Cambiamenti Climatici sono principalmente la mitigazione e l'adattamento. Questa pubblicazione si concentra sulla mitigazione, cioè l'abbattimento delle emissioni di gas serra o gas climalteranti. Tra i protagonisti di questo indispensabile e non più rimandabile impegno ci sono sicuramente le città e gli Enti Locali in generale, cui la pubblicazione si rivolge. Vengono affrontati tre settori sui quali le città hanno la possibilità di intervenire: la mobilità urbana (capitoli 2 e 3), il risparmio di energia (capitolo 4 e 5) e la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili (capitolo 6 e 7). I capitoli per ogni settore sono due: il primo fornisce una panoramica delle azioni possibili e degli strumenti a disposizione di un Ente Locale per abbattere le emissioni di gas serra; il secondo una selezione di buone pratiche cui ispirarsi. Sia il primo che il secondo capitolo di ogni settore hanno un approccio operativo fornendo link e pubblicazioni utili per entrare in azione. La pubblicazione si rivolge agli amministratori e i dipendenti degli Enti Locali. Potrebbe essere inoltre utile per i soggetti coinvolti dagli Enti Locali nei processi di partecipazione alle politiche decisionali. Precede un capitolo (capitolo 1) in cui si spiega che la pubblicazione intende partire dai "numeri" delle emissioni climalteranti in Italia, con facili tabelle in cui si riportano i dati concreti. La tabella guida aprirà ogni capitolo evidenziando di volta in volta il peso delle emissioni derivanti dal relativo settore a livello nazionale: i trasporti, lo spreco di energia, e la produzione di energia. Anche se la tabella non sarà uno strumento di lavoro per i lettori essi però potranno pesare con i propri occhi il contributo effettivo alle emissioni di gas serra del settore specifico e virtualmente sentirne il peso."

Transport & Environment, Emissions reduction strategies for the transport sector in Italy. A report produced under the framework of the EUKI project. Transport & Environment, Brussels, January 2019, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "Transport is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Italy. In contrast to the industry and public electricity and heating sectors, transport emissions are still just above 1990 levels, but emissions from international shipping and aviation have doubled in the same time. In the context of needing to be decarbonised by the mid-century under the Paris Agreement, this trend needs to be rapidly reversed. Italy is already experiencing amplified climate change and warming compared to Europe. The objective of this report is to show how Italy can decrease their transport emissions from a broad range of European and national measures. In particular, the report focuses on reductions in road transport emissions that fall under the jurisdiction of the European Climate Action Regulation, which enforces a 33% emissions reduction target in 2030 compared to 2005. Finally, policy recommendations are presented to enable Italy to meet the most ambitious targets. The effect of mitigating measures such as vehicle efficiency standards, modal shift, and demand reduction, among many others, are calculated using Transport & Environment's in-house transport model, the EUTRM. The main results of the scenarios investigated are shown below. Crucially, Italy can meeits 2030 targets as long as ambitious vehicle standards, electrification, and national measures are implemented."

Andrew R. Goetz, Serena Alexander, Urban Goods Movement and Local Climate Action Plans: Assessing Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Freight Transportation. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, April 2019, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This report examines how freight transport/goods movement has been addressed in U.S. city climate action planning. Transportation generally is a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and freight transport represents a growing component of transportation's share. Almost all climate action plans (CAPs) address transportation generally, but we wished to focus on efforts to reduce GHG emissions from freight transport specifically. We analyzed 27 advanced local CAPs to determine the degree to which freight transport was targeted in goals and strategies to reduce GHG emissions. We found only six CAPs that included direct measures or programs to reduce freight emissions. Many of the CAPs mentioned general transportation objectives such as lowering vehicle miles traveled or reducing emissions from city-owned vehicle fleets, but most did not include strategies or actions that explicitly targeted freight transport. We identified the specific strategies and actions that cities are taking to address GHG emissions from freight transport, such as working with the freight community to promote anti-idling and encourage transitions to electric and alternative fuel delivery vehicles. We also analyzed freight transport plans relevant for the same cities, and found that most do not explicitly mention reducing GHG emissions. Most of the freight plans are focused on improving reliability and efficiency of freight movement, which would likely have the ancillary benefit of reducing GHG emissions, but that goal was not explicitly targeted in most of these plans. Based on our findings, we recommend that cities specifically target freight transport goals and strategies in their CAPs and better coordinate with planners developing freight transport plans to identify GHG emission reduction approaches."

Rocío Rodríguez Quintero, Candela Vidal-Abarca Garrido, Hans Moons, Miguel Gama Caldas, Oliver Wolf (JRC), Ian Skinner (TEPR), Anouk van Grinsven, Maarten 't Hoen, Huib van Essen (CE Delft), Revision of the EU green public procurement criteria for transport. Technical report and criteria proposal. JRC Science for Policy report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, 155 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Public authorities' expenditures in the purchase of goods, services and works (excluding utilities and defence) constitute approximately 14% of the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Europe, accounting for roughly EUR 1.8 trillion annually. Thus, public procurement has the potential to provide significant leverage in seeking to influence the market and to achieve environmental improvements in the public sector. This effect can be particularly significant for goods, services and works (referred to collectively as products) that account for a high share of public purchasing combined with the substantial improvement potential for environmental performance. The European Commission has identified (road) transport as one such product group. Road transport covers a wide scope of vehicles (cars, LCVs, L-category vehicles, buses and waste collection vehicles) and services (mobility services, public bus services, waste collection services and post and courier services). The main environmental issues at the use phase addressed by the criteria are GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions and noise emissions. The impacts from the manufacture of batteries used in electric vehicle are also considered, leading to criteria on minimum and extended warranty of batteries. This revision has coincided with the evaluation of the Clean Vehicle Directive and the introduction of new test procedures to measure CO 2 and air pollutant emissions of vehicles (WLTP, Real Driving Emissions in Euro 6). All these policies have been taken into account in the revision process of the EU GPP criteria for transport, to ensure a full harmonisation of the EU policies."

Heikki Liimatainen, Markus Pöllänen and Riku Viri (Tampere University of Technology), CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios. European Journal of Futures Research (2018) 6:22 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "The transport sector produces 23% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. While the mitigation of climate change requires GHG emissions to be drastically reduced, the emissions from the transport sector are expected to grow. The purpose of this study is to produce alternative scenarios which meet the target of 80% CO2 emission reduction by 2050 for the Finnish transport sector and to analyse the carbon abatement potentials, costs and benefits of the required behavioural and technological measures. We found that the most cost-efficient measure for the society is to support a shift from private car use to shared car use through increasing car-sharing and ride-sharing. Aiming to reach the emission reduction targets solely through technological measures would require a rapid uptake of alternative energies and the society would not receive the possible benefits, including health benefits, energy savings and fixed car cost savings."

Michael Traut, Alice Larkin, Kevin Anderson, Christophe McGlade, Maria Sharmina & Tristan Smith, CO2 abatement goals for international shipping. Climate Policy, 2018, (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016, sets the ambitious climate change mitigation goal of limiting the global temperature increase to below 2°C and ideally 1.5°C. This puts a severe constraint on the remaining global GHG emissions budget. While international shipping is also a contributor to anthropogenic GHG emissions, and CO2 in particular, it is not included in the Paris Agreement. This article discusses how a share of a global CO2 budget over the twenty-first century could be apportioned to international shipping, and, using a range of future trade scenarios, explores the requisite cuts to the CO2 intensity of shipping. The results demonstrate that, under a wide range of assumptions, existing short-term levers of efficiency must be urgently exploited to achieve mitigation commensurate with that required from the rest of the economy, with virtually full decarbonization of international shipping required as early as before mid-century."

Caroline Rodier (University of California, Davis), Travel Effects and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automated Vehicles. A White Paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, April 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 897 kB]. "In much the same way that the automobile disrupted horse and cart transportation in the 20th century, automated vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to disrupt our current system of transportation and the fabric of our built environment in the 21st century. Experts predict that vehicles could be fully automated by as early as 2025 or as late as 2035. The public sector is just beginning to understand AV technology and to grapple with how to accommodate it in our current transportation system. Research on AVs is extremely important because AVs may significantly disrupt our transportation system with potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on our society and our environment. However, this research is very hard to do because fully AVs have yet to travel on our roads. As a result, AV research is largely conducted by extrapolating effects from current observed behavior and drawing on theory and models. Both the magnitude of the mechanism of change and secondary effects are often uncertain. Moreover, the potential for improved safety in AVs drive the mechanisms by which vehicle miles traveled (VMT), energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may change. We really don't know whether AVs will achieve the level of safety that will allow for completely driverless cars, very short headways, smaller vehicles, lower fuel use, and/or reduce insurance cost. We don't know whether AV fleets will be harmonized to reduce energy and GHG emissions. In this white paper, the available evidence on the travel and environmental effects of AVs is critically reviewed to understand the potential magnitude and likelihood of estimated effects. The author outlines the mechanisms by which AVs may change travel demand and review the available evidence on their significance and size. These mechanisms include increased roadway capacity, reduced travel time burden, change in monetary costs, parking and relocation travel, induced travel demand, new traveler groups, and energy effects. They then describe the results of scenario modeling studies. Scenarios commonly include fleets of personal AVs and automated taxis with and without sharing. Travel and/or land use models are used to simulate the cumulative effects of scenarios. These models typically use travel activity data and detailed transportation networks to replicate current and predict future land use, traffic behavior, and/or vehicle activity in a real or hypothetical city or region."

David Gray, Richard Laing, Iain Docherty, Delivering lower carbon urban transport choices: European ambition meets the reality of institutional (mis)alignment. Environment and Planning A, Vol 49, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 226-242 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector has become a critical imperative for public policy as our understanding of the impacts of the mobility system on the environment has developed. This paper contrasts policy development in three cities (Aberdeen, Bremen and Malmö) that collaborated as part of a European Union knowledge exchange programme designed to share innovative approaches to carbon reduction in the transport sector. We identify a number of critical aspects of governance, including the approach to policy formulation and implementation, and the status of consensus and cohesion, as key determinants of transport outcomes. We conclude that the degree of institutional alignment evident in each city's governance network is crucial in explaining their appetite for the pursuit of low carbon policies, and in turn the real potential for policy transfer to occur as envisaged by European Union collaboration frameworks."

Mario Zambrini, Il peso del settore dei trasporti sui cambiamenti climatici e le prospettive di contenimento delle emissioni: gli scenari internazionali ed europei. Relazione al convegno "Trasporti e cambiamenti climatici" organizzato da SIPoTra e Cattedra Jean Monnet "EU Environmental Law" a Genova, 20 maggio 2016. 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB].

Anna Donati, La mobilità urbana alla prova dei cambiamenti climatici. Relazione al convegno "Trasporti e cambiamenti climatici" organizzato da SIPoTra e Cattedra Jean Monnet "EU Environmental Law" a Genova, 20 maggio 2016. 18 slides [formato PDF, 1,6 MB].

Karl Peet, Cornie Huizenga, and Sudhir Gota, Transport and Climate Change. EcoMobility Dialogues / Technical Paper. ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, Bonn, September 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 975 kB]. "Urban transport constitutes 40% of total transport energy consumption, which is poised to double by 2050, despite ongoing vehicle technology and fuel economy improvements. At the same time, cities offer immense potential to scale up sustainable low carbon transport solutions to contribute to climate change mitigation, to improve health outcomes through non-motorized transport, and to create more compact developments to increase access and improve mobility. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), transport has traditionally been viewed as a sub-sector of energy, which has led to a failure of governments to significantly scale up transport projects to reduce climate impacts. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) have the potential to drive progress on transport, and among INDCs submitted to date, nearly 30% make specific reference to urban transport improvements. It is necessary to continue to raise the profile of sustainable urban transport within the UNFCCC framework - and especially through the actions of non-state actors - to help to raise mitigation ambition within the transport sector before and beyond 2020. An important leap forward can be seen in the growing role of cities through the Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), with the voluntary commitments made during and since the 2014 Secretary General (SG) Climate Summit a key example of non-state actors taking concrete transport mitigation actions. To complement the LPAA-backed initiatives, many city governments are taking steps to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon transport. The combination of these commitment types creates a key opportunity for matchmaking among 'supply-side' and 'demand-side' commitments, which can create further momentum to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon urban transport in the coming decades."

Inger Beate Hovi, Daniel Ruben Pinchasik, A CO2-fund for the transport industry: The case of Norway. Summary in English. TØI Report 1479/2016. TØI (Institute of Transport Economics), Oslo, 2016, 5 p. [formato PDF, 227 kB]. "A means to accelerate the phasing in of trucks with renewable propulsion technologies is to establish a CO2 fund for the private sector with the same principles as today's NOx Fund. The revenues of such a fund can be based on a percentage of the current CO2 tax on fuel. Using these revenues, the fund can provide subsidies towards the additional investment costs for vehicles with renewable propulsion technologies and towards partial coverage of investments in infrastructure, such as filling stations. The analysis in the present report shows that it is most cost effective to support investments in vehicles using biodiesel, but that the availability of sustainable fuel can pose a challenge. A fund should therefore also focus on providing subsidies towards vehicles using more expensive technologies, such as biogas, electricity and hydrogen. Technology for these latter two options is still immature for trucking. A CO2 fund may contribute to increasing demand for these technologies and to achieve a critical mass."

Inger Beate Hovi, Daniel Ruben Pinchasik, CO 2 -besparelser av forsert innfasing av lastebiler med fornybare fremdriftsløsninger [A CO2-fund for the transport industry: The case of Norway]. Language of report: Norwegian. TØI rapport 1479/2016. TØI, Oslo, mars 2016, 58 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB].

Felix Creutzig, Patrick Jochem, Oreane Y. Edelenbosch, Linus Mattauch, Detlef P. van Vuuren, David McCollum, Jan Minx, Transport: A roadblock to climate change mitigation? Urban mobility solutions foster climate mitigation. Science, 20 November 2015, Vol. 350 no. 6263 pp. 911-912 (2 p.) + Supplementary Materials [formato PDF, 182+351 kB]. "Global emissions scenarios studies, such as those informing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), highlight the importance of the transport sector for climate change mitigation—along with the difficulties of achieving deep reductions therein (1) [supplementary materials (SM)]. Transport is responsible for about 23% of total energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide (2). The sector is growing more rapidly than most others, with emissions projected to double by 2050. Global scenario studies, specifically those produced by integrated assessment models (IAMs), communicate aggregate mitigation potentials by sectors in IPCC reports. Yet recent evidence indicates that emissions may be reduced further than these global scenario studies suggest—if policy-makers use the full suite of policies at their disposal."

Ipek Gençsü and Miyuki Hino, Raising Ambition to Reduce International Aviation and Maritime Emissions. Working Paper. Contributing paper for Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2015, 24 p. [formato PDF, 849 kB]. "Global aviation and shipping together produce about 5% of global CO2 emissions, and by 2050 this is expected to rise to 10–32%. Yet these sectors offer some of the most costeffective emission reductions available today, particularly through improved fuel efficiency. There is a 27% difference in the fuel efficiency of the least and most fuel-efficient US airlines, and the most efficient crude oil tankers are about one-fifth as fuel-intensive as the least efficient. While domestic aviation and shipping are covered under national policies and emissions inventories, international aviation and shipping, which make up the majority of emissions, are not. Two specialised UN agencies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), govern international aviation and shipping activities, and are therefore best placed to drive further action. While ICAO has committed to introducing measures to cap net emissions at 2020 levels, and new IMO design efficiency standards for new ships are expected to lead to efficiency gains that will save an average of US$200 billion in annual fuel costs by 2030, progress in both sectors has been slow. The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate recommends that emissions from the international aviation and maritime sectors be reduced in line with a 2°C pathway through action under ICAO and the IMO. ICAO should take a decision in 2016 to start implementation of a market-based measure (MBM) from 2020, and should also introduce a stringent aircraft CO2 standard. The IMO should adopt a global emission reduction target, and promote fuel saving through strong operational efficiency standards and a supporting data-sharing system. These measures could help reduce annual GHG emissions by 0.6–0.9 Gt CO2e by 2030".

Silvio Nocera, Stefania Tonin, Maurizio Murino, Federico Cavallaro, La complessità della valutazione della CO2 nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT)(2014), n° 2, articolo 1, 22 p. [formato PDF, 15,2 MB]. "La riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 è fondamentale per valutare la sostenibilità nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Tuttavia, la maggior parte dei piani di mobilità non è ancora riuscita a trovare una metodologia condivisa per internalizzare tali emissioni e renderle uno dei parametri in grado di influenzare attivamente le scelte finali sulle politiche e sulle misure da adottare. In particolare, risulta estremamente complesso dapprima quantificare, quindi attribuire un prezzo economico unitario alle emissioni di CO2. Il presente contributo indaga le problematiche relative alla loro monetizzazione, mostrando le metodologie attualmente in uso e il vasto grado di incertezza scientifica ed economica che le caratterizzano. Attraverso una meta-analisi compiuta su una raccolta di circa settecento casi, si è arrivati a limitare l’enorme intervallo attualmente esistente (fino a sei ordini di grandezza) e predire un modello in grado di definire un valore economico basato sugli obiettivi stabiliti preliminarmente dai decisori politici. In tale modo, la CO2 può essere inclusa attivamente nelle decisioni relative alle misure da intraprendere per una corretta allocazione delle risorse pubbliche, garantendo ai decisori una maggiore trasparenza nelle scelte."

Felix Creutzig, Rainer Mühlhoff, Julia Römer, One Planet Mobility - Transforming Cities towards Low-Carbon Mobility. (Climatecon Working Paper 2012-02). Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Climate Change Economics, Berlin, 2012, 43 p. [formato PDF, 15,2 MB]. [Research on the local transport policy of Barcelona, Malmö, Freiburg and Sofia].

Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Josephine S. C. Chong, Supply Chain Decarbonisation in Shipping and Logistics Transportation. Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2013, 233-237 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 548 kB]. "The development and implementation of decarbonisation in shipping and logistics transportation is crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the perspective of products, supply chain, and organizations. There are increasing research interests on supply chain decarbonisation initiated by severe climate change, environmental awareness, government policy pressure, and corporate sustainability responsibility. A decarbonisation framework is developed as backbone for the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction in freight transport. The framework includes the introduction and review of the life cycle assessment, performance measurement metric, model emission targets, implementation, and monitoring tools. Carbon dioxide life cycle assessment is discussed with a recent example of a global fortune 500 corporations. Latest development and examples of carbon auditing and carbon calculator are presented. A review on the recent decarbonisation technology development and industrial practice is conducted with examples from companies from global 500. The analysis in the paper provides useful means for the future direction needed towards reducing the greenhouse gas emission in supply chain and logistics, with consideration on technology, education, corporation social responsibility, public environmental awareness, and government measures."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potenziale des Radverkehrs für den Klimaschutz (Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport). (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 84 p. [formato PDF, 5,24 MB]. "Das Ziel des Vorhabens bestand darin, belastbare Aussagen zu den Potenzialen des Radverkehrs in Bezug auf Umweltentlastungswirkungen zu gewinnen. Die Aufgabe bestand in der Untersuchung von Szenarien einer integrierten Radverkehrsförderung bzw. einer nachhaltigen Verkehrsentwicklung hinsichtlich Verkehrsmittelwahl, Zielwahl, Fahrleistung und Emissionen. Mit Hilfe eines für das Projekt entwickelten Kennwertmodells wurden Stellschrauben analysiert und variiert, um dadurch Veränderungen von Fahrleistungen und Umweltwirkungen abzuschätzen. In die Modellrechnungen konnten über die Variation von Modellparametern strukturelle Veränderungen und hypothetische Annahmen im Sinne von „Wenn-Dann“-Konstellationen integriert werden (Sensitivitätsanalysen). Über die dadurch erworbenen Systemkenntnisse wurden im Anschluss rekursiv Maßnahmenszenarien auf genereller Ebene entworfen und Bandbreiten für Wirkungen abgeschätzt. Im Ergebnis bringt die Verlagerung kurzer Kfz-Wege bis fünf Kilometer Länge nur eine geringe Änderung der CO2-Emissionen von ein bis drei Prozent, da der Anteil dieser Wege an der Fahrleistung niedrig ist. Würde das Fahrrad auch für die von der Bevölkerung als „gut mit dem Fahrrad erreichbar“ wahrgenommenen (weiter entfernten) Ziele genutzt, steigt das Reduktionspotenzial deutlich auf sechs bis elf Prozent der gesamten CO2-Emissionen des werktäglichen Personenverkehrs. Werden neben der reinen Verlagerung auch Strategien der Verkehrsvermeidung in die Modellrechnungen integriert sind Fahrleistungsrückgänge von 19 bis 38 Prozent bzw. eine CO2-Minderung von 13 bis 27 Prozent errechnet worden. Die Ergebnisse lassen damit Schlussfolgerungen über die Potenziale des Radverkehrs zur Emissionsreduzierung zu und geben Hinweise zu deren Einordnung in ganzheitliche nachhaltige Strategien. Dadurch wird deutlich, welchen Beitrag die Verlagerung von Verkehrsmittelanteilen (Modal Shift) vom MIV sowie die Vermeidung von weiten MIV-Wegen leisten kann. Insgesamt konnte festgestellt werden, dass Potenziale des Radverkehrs für die Reduktion von Klimagasemissionen in Deutschland vorhanden sind."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport. Executive Summary. (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 13 p. [formato PDF, 469 kB]. "The aim of the project was to obtain reliable estimates of the potential of cycling transport regarding environmental relief. The task was to study scenarios for integrated promotion of cycling transport and sustainable transport development with respect to mode choice, destination, vehicle kilometres and emissions. With the help of a statistical model developed for the project, different parameters were analysed and varied in order to estimate changes in driven kilometres and environmental impacts. By varying the model parameters structural changes and hypothetical assumptions in the sense of “if-then“ combinations were able to be integrated into the modelled variations (sensitivity analyses). Using the resulting system knowledge scenarios of measures were subsequently recursively conceptualised at a general level and the breadth of impact was estimated. The outcome reveals that shifting short car trips up to five kilometres only effects a small change in CO2 emissions of one to three percent since the share of these trips in driven kilometres is small. If cycling were to be used for destinations (further away) perceived by the public as having good cycling accessibility then the potential for reductions increases considerably to between six and 11 percent of total CO2 emissions in workday passenger transport. If along with mere shifts, strategies for avoiding or reducing traffic are integrated into the model then driven kilometres and CO2 emissions are reduced by 19 to 38 percent and 13 to 27 percent respectively. The results allow conclusions to be drawn as to the potential for cycling transport to reduce emissions and provide guidance on fitting this potential into holistic, sustainable strategies. Thus the contribution of modal shift away from the personal vehicle as well as of avoiding long car trips then becomes clear. On the whole it was determined that there is potential for cycling in Germany to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."

H.P.J. de Wilde, P. Kroon, Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020. (Report ECN-E--13-005). ECN, Petten, February 2013, 35 p. [formato PDF, 482 kB]. "The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020."

Paul Graham, David Gargett, Caroline Evans, David Cosgrove, A. Ritzinger, Greenhouse gas abatement potential of the Australian transport sector: Summary report from the Australian Low Carbon Transport Forum, CSIRO, Australia. CSIRO, Newcastle, September 2012, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,84 MB]. "The report focuses on the quantity of abatement achievable rather than the cost. However it draws some broad conclusions about likely cost, challenges and uncertainties. Almost fifty abatement options are included."

David Cosgrove, David Gargett, Caroline Evans, Paul Graham, A. Ritzinger, Greenhouse gas abatement potential of the Australian transport sector: Technical report from the Australian Low Carbon Transport Forum, CSIRO, Australia. CSIRO, Newcastle, September 2012, 102 p. [formato PDF, 1,85 MB]. "This current Technical Report is a companion document to the Summary Report, and aims to detail the methodology and results of the ALCTF process. That is, it describes how the estimated levels of abatement were calculated for each of the abatement options considered in the ALCTF workshops, and how the various abatement potentials were aggregated into an estimate for the maximum potential reduction."

Huib van Essen, Ewout Dönszelmann, Linda Brinke, Arno Schroten, Eelco den Boer, Climate Rating of Transport Infrastructure Projects. Exploration of a methodology for including climate impacts in project appraisal. CE Delft, Delft, October 2011, 56 p. [formato PDF, 641 kB]. "In its recent White Paper on Transport the Commission announced ambitious plans for building a competitive transport system. At the same time, the Commission set specific objectives for greenhouse gas reduction in transport in its Roadmap for decarbonisation, which were further elaborated in the White Paper. The climate policy set out in these papers aims at a dramatic reduction of Europe's dependence on imported oil and a cut in carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels. Infrastructure policy and climate policy interfere. Developing or upgrading transport infrastructure can have significant impacts on the decarbonisation of transport. While some types of infrastructure carry the risk to get locked-in to carbon intensive technology or transport modes, other projects may actually contribute to greenhouse gas reduction. Until now, the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are not well integrated in transport infrastructure project appraisal. This is not only true at a European level but also at most national and local levels. Climate rating could solve this by explicitly taking account of the effect on greenhouse gases emissions in the infrastructure project appraisal and funding decisions. The European Commission announced that it aims at making climate rating be a part of the decision process for investments (EC, 2011). However, the Commission has not yet decided on a methodology for climate rating. In order to achieve this interlinking of policy objectives and to feed the Commission with further developing this issue, the European Federation for Transport & Environment (T&E), together with partners asked CE Delft to develop a methodology for climate rating, which is presented in this report. Although the study primarily focuses on TEN-T, recommendations could also be applied to other EU funds which can, directly or indirectly, influence the decarbonisation of the European transport sector. The greenhouse gas impacts of new, extended or upgraded transport infrastructure consist of four main elements: 1. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions from traffic; 2. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions from infrastructure operation, maintenance and management (OMM); 3. Greenhouse gas emissions from infrastructure development and end-of-life processes; 4. Other impacts, such as indirect effects on other sectors. This is true for all different types of infrastructure, including the development of new or upgraded road, rail or waterway infrastructure, interconnection of different transport modes, intelligent transport systems or innovative energy projects (e.g. new carbon free operation). Traffic impacts are relevant for all types of projects. Sometime these are mainly the results form changes in transport volume or modal split, e.g. in the case of a port the upgrade of a railway line. In other cases, the changes in traffic emissions are mainly the result of changes in energy technology or vehicle efficiency, e.g. in the case of electrification projects. The greenhouse gas impacts from traffic can be calculated with the traffic volumes per mode and vehicle type and the relative emission factors per vehicle type. The traffic data can be retrieved from traffic modelling. They should be the same as the data used for the socio economic assessment of the project. The emission factors can be retrieved from national emission registration or datasets (e.g. TREMOVE). They should reflect real-life well-to-wheel emissions. The relative importance of emissions from developing, maintaining, managing or operating infrastructure depends strongly on the type of project. In some cases, such as the construction of high speed railway line, these impacts can vary significantly, while in other cases they can expected to be negligible, e.g. for traffic management systems. These emissions can be estimated using either emission factors per type of material and energy used (bottom-up approach) or by using typical values, e.g. per lane or track kilometre (top-down). For comparing different projects, the change in greenhouse gas emissions after project realisation compared to the reference scenario should be compared to a measure for the size or value of the project. The (EU or total) investment is the best candidate for this for the short to medium term. For the longer term, also the net contribution to economic welfare from the cost benefit analysis could be used, however, these are currently often not available. The value of the climate rating indicator could be used for deciding on the co-funding rate or for prioritisation of projects. The methodology has been applied to a few concrete examples. From this it can be concluded that climate rating is possible and can help to integrate climate and infrastructure objectives. A further development of the methodology is strongly recommended, both at the EU level (e.g. by the TEN-T Agency) as well as at national level, with support of relevant experts."

Zabi Bazari, Tore Longva, Assessment of IMO mandated energy efficiency measures for international shipping. Estimated co2 emissions reduction from introduction of mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships. Project final report. Lloyd‘s Register, Det Norske Veritas, London/Oslo, 31 October 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,72 MB]. "This IMO-commissioned study into the impact of mandatory energy efficiency measures for international shipping shows that implementation of the measures will lead to significant reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships, specifically reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting from enhanced fuel efficiency. The study found that, by 2020, an average of 151.5 million tonnes of annual CO2 reductions are estimated from the introduction of the measures, a figure that by 2030, will increase to an average of 330 million tonnes annually. CO2 reduction measures will result in a significant reduction in fuel consumption, leading to a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry."

Christopher R. Knittel and Ryan Sandler, Cleaning the Bathwater with the Baby: The Health Co-Benefits of Carbon Pricing in Transportation. (CEEPR Working Paper 2011-015). MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA, August 2011, 65 p. [formato PDF, 5,57 MB]. "Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US have relied on Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards and Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS). Economists often argue that these policies are inefficient relative to carbon pricing because they ignore existing vehicles and do not adequately reduce the incentive to drive. This paper presents evidence that the net social costs of carbon pricing are significantly less than previous thought. The bias arises from the fact that the demand elasticity for miles travelled varies systematically with vehicle emissions; dirtier vehicles are more responsive to changes in gasoline prices. This is true for all four emissions for which we have data—nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and greenhouse gases—as well as weight. This reduces the net social costs associated with carbon pricing through increasing the co-benefits. Accounting for this heterogeneity implies that the welfare losses from $1.00 gas tax, or a $110 per ton of CO2 tax, are negative over the period of 1998 to 2008 even when we ignore the climate change benefits from the tax. Co-benefits increase by over 60 percent relative to ignoring the heterogeneity that we document. In addition, accounting for this heterogeneity raises the optimal gas tax associated with local pollution, as calculated by Parry and Small (2005), by as much as 57 percent. While our empirical setting is California, we present evidence that the effects may be larger for the rest of the US."

Georg Bühler, Patrick Jochem, CO2 Emission Reduction in Freight Transports. How to Stimulate Environmental Friendly Behaviour?. (ZEW Discussion Paper No. 08-066). Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim, 2008, 20 p. [formato PDF, 198 kB]. "In the European Union (EU) and in Germany the transport sector is the only sector with increasing CO2 emissions (in the EU by about 32 % and in Germany by about 1 % since 1990). Especially in road freight and air transport a further strong increase is forecasted. In the transport sector this might be impeded by avoiding transport (accepting a lower economic growth), shifting modes or in optimizing logistics. Especially the second is mentioned to be an adequate solution to meet the increasing demand for transportation and reducing CO2 emissions simulatneously. It is often stated, that combined transport (mainly truck-train-truck) might be a very CO2 efficient mode. In this article a Logit-Model (based on a survey of 500 German forwarders) is used to determine mode shift potentials of hauliers. The main factors of influence depending on the service provision of the transport modes are frequency of combined transport services, speed, and costs. For an estimation of the corresponding impact on the mode shift and thus potentials of CO2 emission reductions two policy instruments are empirically tested: a further increase of the performance-based heavy vehicle fee (LSVA-Maut) and a hypothetical speeding up of the average speed in freight rail transport to 80 km per hour. Although the modal shift is rather high in the last policy simulation, the impact on CO2 emissions is still small."

André de Palma, Jacques Houard, Stef Proost, Gestion du transport et de la mobilité dans le cadre du changement climatique. Projet Carbone. (PREDIT). Tome 1: rapport. Tome 2 : annexes. Cachan : Ecole nationale supérieure ; Cergy-Pontoise : Université, Laboratoire THEMA UMR 8184, Mai 2010, 2 vol. (94 + 232 p.) [formato PDF, 1,71 MB + 6,01 MB]. "L'étude traite de l'impact sur les émissions de CO2 de mesures politiques dans le domaine du transport. Le «projet Carbone», qui désigne les travaux réalisés dans ce cadre, a consisté en une série de recherches dont les résultats sont résumés dans le rapport. La problématique de la limitation des émissions anthropiques de Gaz à Effets de Serre (GES) et donc de CO2 concerne tous les niveaux de la société et implique l'ensemble des nations à la recherche d'un accord autour de la limitation des émissions. Elle concerne aussi le citoyen lorsque ce dernier choisit ses déplacements et ses modes associés. Une étude de l'impact des mesures politiques dans le domaine du transport se doit de tenir compte de ces différentes échelles et de leurs interactions. Dans le cadre du projet Carbone, les auteurs ont voulu éviter le piège de la construction d'une grande étude théorique, orientée « top-bottom », dont les résultats, généraux et abstraits, resteraient difficiles à mettre en pratique. L'approche ici adoptée se veut plus horizontale : elle a été initiée en partant de manière relativement autonome de plusieurs points de vue orientés vers certains aspects importants et significatifs pour le domaine des transports (macroéconomie, dimension urbaine ou interurbaine). La plupart des travaux mettent en oeuvre des outils mathématiques ou statistiques variés, parfois innovants. Des aspects dynamiques et d'incertitudes inhérents à la problématique traitée ont été pris en compte. La problématique de la limitation des émissions de CO2 est globale. La seconde partie du rapport consiste donc en un rappel du contexte général autour de la prise en compte du changement climatique. Une attention particulière sera portée aux aspects concernant le secteur du transport. La partie 3 est consacrée aux aspects macroéconomiques de la problématique. Elle a pour but de préciser les scénarios importants sous-jacents. L'incertitude autour de la problématique de la limitation des émissions de CO2 qui a, elle aussi, une origine humaine, est étudiée. Dans le quatrième chapitre, l'efficacité relative d'instruments comme les mesures fiscales sur les carburants, sur la demande de voitures, ou l'imposition de normes est examinée. Les scénarios associés à l'environnement international décrit dans la section précédente sont ici pris en compte. Le chapitre 5 est dédiée au regard urbain. La tarification du transport routier urbain, une source prometteuse de double dividende, y est traitée. Cette section étudie les impacts à court terme, comme la diminution résultante du trafic et des émissions de CO2, ainsi que les conséquences à long terme sur le réaménagement urbain. La problématique des transports en commun y est aussi abordée de manière spécifique. Les modèles développés à cette occasion ont été appliqués et discutés dans le cas important de l' le-de-France. La sixième partie, le regard interurbain, traite des transports interurbains de marchandises. Les travaux se sont plus particulièrement intéressés à l'analyse des projets d'infrastructure favorisant le report vers des modes de transports moins polluants. Cette analyse se fait avec un modèle de simulation qui permet la prise en compte de l'incertitude relative à la demande de transport et au coût de l'énergie. Un exemple emblématique, le projet d'extension du canal Seine-Nord Europe, est étudié. Son impact sur les émissions de CO2 est estimé et les auteurs montrent que même si ce projet conduisait à une augmentation des émissions, ce serait notamment en contrepartie d'une augmentation significative de l'activité économique. La conclusion reprend une série de recommandations tirées des études présentées dans les chapitres précédents. Les annexes (tome 2) détaillent les travaux : Annexe A Le choix entre équité et efficience et la problématique du changement climatique ; Annexe B Equipement automobile, type de carburant, consommation et émissions de CO2 des véhicules privés ; Annexe C Fiscalité, congestion et émissions de CO2 ; Annexe D Marché des Options et taxes anti-pollution ; Annexe D-1 Hedging global environment risks: An option based portfolio insurance ; Annexe E Aspects macroéconomiques autour de l'objectif facteur 4 ; Annexe F Automobile Fuel Efficiency Policies with International Cost Spillovers ; Annexe G Le modèle monocentrique et son application ; Annexe G-1 Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France ; Annexe G-2 Cordon pricing in the monocentric city model: theory and application to Ile-de-France ; Annexe H Transport collectif : impacts sur la dynamique urbaine et les émissions ; Annexe I Analyse coût-bénéfice et évaluation de projets de transport avec demande et prix de l'énergie incertains. Application au canal Seine-Nord Europe."

Fredrik Hedenus (Chalmers University of Technology), On the Road to Climate Neutral Freight Transportation - a scientific feasibility study. (2008:92). Swedish Road Administration, Borlänge, 2008, 28 p. [formato PDF, 147 kB]. "This report is structured as follows: in Chapter 2, we characterize freight transportation in Sweden in its entirety as well as provide a more detailed description of freight transportation by road and its development over the past 20-30 years. In Chapter 3, we discuss long-term options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by almost 100%. In Chapter 4, we describe the potential for emissions reductions by 2015 and give rough estimates for the period 2025-2030. We also discuss policy instruments and strategic measures for the future."

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Report to Congress. Volume 1: Synthesis Report. Volume 2: Technical Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, April 2010, 605 (146 + 459) p. [formato PDF, 6,26 MB]. "This study evaluates potentially viable strategies to reduce transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study also examines the potential impact of these strategies on air quality, petroleum savings, transportation goals, costs, and other factors. Each GHG reduction strategy may have various positive impacts (including co-benefits) or negative impacts on these factors. Potential tradeoffs and interdependencies when reducing GHG emissions will need to be considered in order to develop balanced solutions. The study is presented in two parts: Volumes 1 and 2. Volume 1: Synthesis Report provides an overview of the study’s findings and discusses policy options that Congress may wish to consider to reduce transportation GHG emissions. Volume 2: Technical Report provides the technical details of the assessment."

A. Hoen (PBL), K. Geurs (PBL), H. de Wilde (ECN), C. Hanschke (ECN), M. Uyterlinde (ECN), CO2 emission reduction in transport. Confronting medium-term and longterm options for achieving climate targets in the Netherlands. Policy studies. (Report number ECN-B-09-015). Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Bilthoven, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), November 2009, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,11 MB]. "To meet long-term climate targets, developed countries should reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 65 to 95% compared to 2000 levels. If the transport sector should match these reductions three crucial conditions need to be fulfilled: (1) substantial changes in travel behaviour, travel demand and public acceptance, (2) availability of zero-carbon or lowcarbon fuels, (3) availability of advanced vehicle technology. The measures that are currently available for the period until 2020 do not have sufficient potential to meet the long-term climate targets. To meet these goals, there is a need for parallel investments in ‘new’ technologies (electricity, hydrogen) which, in the future, could be decarbonised to a large extent. Since these new technologies have long lead and implementation times, a policy strategy should be developed today, which ensures that experience is gained and cost reductions are induced. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the Dutch climate policy programme Schoon en Zuinig: Most transport measures in the Dutch policy programme that contribute substantially to the emission reduction target for 2020 create little incentive for the development of vehicle technology and low-carbon fuels, which are needed in the long term."

Matthijs Otten, Huib van Essen, Why slower is better. Pilot study on the climate gains of motorway speed reduction. Report. Delft, CE Delft, February 2010, 35 p. [formato PDF, 418 kB]. "Driving at lower speeds is better for the climate. In a pilot study CE Delft has estimated the potential CO2 savings arising in various scenarios with tighter motorway speed limits. Lowering the speed limit for cars to 80 km/h can reduce transport CO2 emissions on highways by 30% in the longer term. The maximum long-term CO2 reduction was estimated to be 2.8 Mt for passenger cars and a further 0.2 Mt for vans. In the case of cars, this means a 30% reduction in motorway emissions. This maximum reduction is achieved with a uniform speed limit of 80 km/h, with strict enforcement thereof. Less drastic tightening of speed limits means more modest emission cuts, but depending on the scenario still leads to a 8 to 21% reduction in motorway car emissions. It is common knowledge that, on average, vehicles burn less fuel per kilometre at lower speeds. Less widely realised is the fact that, because of the longer travel times resulting, lowering motorway speed limits will also lead to less car-kilometres being driven and a certain shift from private car to public transport. In the long term the CO2 savings resulting from the reduction in car-kilometres will become increasingly pronounced, as structural behavioural change sets in (people moving closer to their workplace, shops relocating closer to consumers, etc.). Reduced CO2 emissions are just one of the benefits of lowering speed limits. There will also be improvements in terms of air pollution, noise nuisance and possibly congestion and traffic safety, too. Lowering motorway speed limits also has its downside, though. On average, people will be on the road for longer for a given journey and their annual mileage will be lower. From the perspective of economic welfare, both the lower speed and the reduced volume of traffic count as costs. A follow-up study on the social costs and benefits would enable calculation of ‘optimal’ speed limits."

L.C. (Eelco) den Boer, A. (Arno) Schroten G.M. (Gijs) Verbraak, Opties voor Schoon & Zuinig verkeer. Effecten op klimaatverandering en luchtverontreiniging (Options for clean and efficient transport. Impacts on climate change and air pollution). Rapport. Delft, CE Delft, februari 2010, 91 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "For policy reviews of the revised European NEC Directive and the Gothenburg Protocol and the Dutch government’s climate change programme ‘Clean and Efficient’, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency commissioned CE Delft to update the existing option documents for transport emissions reduction for the year 2020. In the ensuing study the following options were elaborated in the form of factsheets. CO2: Road pricing for passenger cars and light goods vehicles - Speed limit reduction on motorways - CO2 differentiation in company car tax charge - Lowering of tax-free rebate for business travel - Car scrappage premium on purchase of efficient vehicle - Lowering of excise duty on motor fuels - Speed limiters on light goods vehicles - More efficient tyres - CO2 standards for heavy goods vehicles - Hybrid buses - Emissions trading scheme for fuels - Kerosene duty for European air flights. NOx: Road pricing for freight vehicles - Incentives for Euro 6 heavy goods vehicles - Incentives for Euro 6 passenger cars - Increase in road vehicle diesel duty - Car scrappage premium for old vehicles - NOx charge for inland shipping + subsidy - Quayside power for inland shipping - Incentive scheme for particle filters for inland shipping - Tier III for fisheries - Quayside power for seagoing vessels - Differentiation in marine port dues based on NOx performance - LTO differentiation based on NOx performance." (Report in Dutch).

Stefan Rodt, Birgit Georgi, Burkhard Huckestein, Lars Mönch, Reinhard Herbener, Helge Jahn, Katharina Koppe, Jörn Lindmaier, CO2-Emissionsminderung im Verkehr in Deutschland. Mögliche Maßnahmen und ihre Minderungspotenziale. Ein Sachstandsbericht des Umweltbundesamtes (CO2 Emissions Reduction in the Transport Sector in Germany. Possible measures and their reduction potential. A status report by the Federal Environment Agency). (Texte Nr. 05/2010). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2010, 84 p. [formato PDF, 682 kB]. "Höhere Energiesteuern für Kraftstoffe können eine effektive Maßnahme sein, um den CO2 Ausstoß des Verkehrs zu mindern. Warum und wie Energiesteuern sich positiv auf unsere Umwelt auswirken, legt das Umweltbundesamt in seinem Sachstandbericht „CO2-Emissionsminderung im Verkehr in Deutschland“ dar. Der Bericht macht deutlich: bei steigenden Benzinpreisen sinkt der Kraftstoffverbrauch. Dieser Effekt zeigte sich in den vergangenen Jahren immer wieder. Wenn der Staat, die Energiesteuern weiter erhöhen sollte, muss er das aber aufkommensneutral machen, damit der Bürger an anderer Stelle entlastet wird. Gleichzeitig sind attraktive und preiswerte Alternativen im öffentlichen Nah- und Fernverkehr zu schaffen." English-language summary, 5 p. [formato PDF, 106 kB].

David McCollum, Gregory Gould, David Greene, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Challenges. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, December 2009, 56 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050—reductions scientific studies suggest are necessary to stabilize the climate and avoid the most destructive impacts of climate change (IPCC 2007)—will require lowering GHG emissions across all sectors of the economy. Aviation and marine transportation combined are responsible for approximately 5 percent of total GHG emissions in the United States and 3 percent globally1 and are among the fastest growing modes in the transportation sector. Controlling the growth in aviation and marine transportation GHG emissions will be an important part of reducing emissions from the transportation sector. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that global demand for aviation increased by 5.9 percent and demand for marine transportation by 5.1 percent, during 2005 alone (IPCC 2007). Business-as-usual (BAU) projections for CO2 emissions from global aviation are estimated at 3.1 percent per year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine transportation emissions is more uncertain. BAU growth projections by the IEA (2008b) and IMO (2008) are between 1 and 2 percent per year. By 2050, international marine transportation emissions are estimated to increase by at least 50 percent over 2007 levels. In summary, the potential for mitigating GHG emissions from aircraft and marine vessels is considerable— reductions of more than 50 percent below BAU levels by 2050 from global aviation and more than 60 percent for global marine shipping are possible. For these reductions to be realized, however, international and domestic policy intervention is required. Developing an effective path forward that facilitates the adoption of meaningful policies remains both a challenge and an opportunity."

Robert Gross, Phil Heptonstall, Jillian Anable, Philip Greenacre and E4tech, What policies are effective at reducing carbon emissions from surface passenger transport? A review of interventions to encourage behavioural and technological change. A report produced by the Technology and Policy Assessment Function of the UK Energy Research Centre. London, UK Energy Research Centre, March 2009, 192 p. [formato PDF, 31,7 MB]. "This report from the Technology and Policy Assessment (TPA) function of the UK Energy Research Centre examines the merits of a range of different policies that offer the prospect of CO2 emissions reduction from road transport. It addresses the following key question: What policies are effective at reducing carbon emissions from surface passenger transport? UKERC’s advisors indicated that the potential for policies to deliver carbon emissions reduction through encouraging changes to ‘behaviour’ (changing people’s ‘travel choices’ and reducing car travel) may not be as well understood as policies that target vehicle technologies. The report therefore has the following objectives: Review the evidence for CO2 emission reduction potential and cost-effectiveness across policies that target car technology/choice and those that target wider travel choices; Identify the key issues and problems associated with each policy type ; Identify whether and where policies are complementary or synergistic ; Identify evidence gaps and highlight future research needs ; Draw conclusions relevant to current UK policy. This report does not undertake new modelling or empirical research; rather it provides a thorough review of the current state of knowledge on the subject, guided by experts and in consultation with a range of stakeholders. The project team undertook a systematic search for every report and paper related to the assessment question. Experts and stakeholders were invited to comment and contribute through an expert group. A team of expert consultants was commissioned to categorise, review and distil the evidence. This tightly specified search revealed over 500 reports and papers on the subject, each of which was categorised and assessed for relevance. The evidence on each policy is reviewed against the following criteria: Potential emissions saving; in absolute and percent terms where the evidence permits; Key issues and problems; including reasons for effectiveness, evidence gaps, obstacles to policy implementation, interactions with other policies and potential rebound effects; Costs; where possible we provide evidence of costs in £/tonne carbon terms. Where this is not available in the literature we provide a discussion of what evidence does exist. This report represents one output from this process of review, evaluation and synthesis. The other main output is a set of detailed evidence tables which are published on the UKERC website alongside this report."

Daniel Bongardt, Frederic Rudolph, Wolfgang Sterk, Transport in Developing Countries and Climate Policy: Suggestions for a Copenhagen Agreement and Beyond. (Wuppertal Papers no. 179). Wuppertal, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, May 2009, 51 p. [formato PDF, 528 kB]. "This Paper aims at connecting the need for transport actions in developing countries to the international negotiations on a post-2012 climate change agreement. It outlines the decisions to be taken in Copenhagen and the preparations to adequately implement these decisions from 2013. Arguing, that a sustainable transport approach needs to set up comprehensive policy packages, the paper assesses the substance of current climate negotiations against the fit to sustainable transport. It concludes that the transport sector's importance should be highlighted and a significant contribution to mitigation efforts required. Combining the two perspectives lead to several concrete suggestions: Existing elements of the carbon market should be improved (e.g. discounting), but an upscale of the carbon market would not be an appropriate solution. Due to a lack of additionality, offsetting industrialised countries' targets would finally undermine the overall success of the climate agreement. Instead, a mitigation fund should be established under the UNFCCC and financed by industrialised countries. This fund should explicitly enable developing countries to implement national sustainable development transport and mobility policies as well as local projects. While industrialized countries would set up target achievement plans, developing countries should outline low carbon development strategies, including a section on transport policy."

Department for Transport, Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future. A Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport. London, July 2009, 117 p. [formato PDF, 1,49 MB]. "This strategy sets out how we intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport. It also shows how transport will make a major contribution to UK efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by 2022 and 2050 in line with the Climate Change Act 2008." Questo rapporto del governo inglese è già stato criticato dalla Light Rail Transit Association per aver ignorato le potenzialità del trasporto locale su ferro.

Department for Transport, Impact Assessment of the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport, Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future. London, July 2009, 129 p. [formato PDF, 990 kB]. "This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport, “Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future”. It provides a high level discussion of costs, benefits and other impacts of the Carbon Reduction Strategy between 2008 and 2022."

Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, Andrew Little, The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. ICF International, February 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 150 kB]. "This study began with the hypothesis that public transportation interacts with land use patterns, changing travel patterns in neighborhoods served by transit. Importantly, this effect would apply not just to transit riders, who make an exchange of automobile use for transit, but also for people who do not use transit. These people, who live in places shaped by transit, would tend to drive less, reducing their overall petroleum use and their carbon footprint. In order to test this hypothesis, we began with a survey of the literature on the interaction of land use and travel patterns. The literature focuses on three major categories of influences on travel: land use/urban environment, socio-demographic factors, and cost of travel. For the purposes of this study, land use/urban environment variables were further broken down to include a separate category for transportation infrastructure. Many past studies have found a significant correlation between land use variables and travel behavior, though results vary depending on how the problem and the variables are defined. Boarnet and Crane (2001) emphasized that without accounting for social characteristics, like age and education, land use-transportation models are incomplete. They also discussed the importance of economic measures, such as household or personal income, as a measure of the cost of travel time. Other studies evaluated the relative importance of these and other variables, informing this model. After evaluating possible variables for this model, we formed a statistical model that would allow us to tease apart the relationship between land use, transit availability, and travel behavior."

Erik Särnholm, Jenny Gode, Abatement costs for carbon dioxide reductions in the transport sector. (IVL report B1716). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, March 2007, 39 p. [formato PDF, 274 kB]. "In the process of developing policy instruments to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) it is important to know the abatement costs. The purpose of this report is to examine the abatement costs for measures that reduce the emissions of fossil carbon dioxide from the transport sector. Interviews were made with Swedish companies that may affect these emissions. Six measure categories have been examined. Only measures that the companies have implemented or are planning to implement are included in the study. The data provided by the companies have formed the basis for calculations of abatement costs and reduction potentials. The abatement costs and reduction potentials depend to a large extent on the assumed fuel prices and emission factors. Fuel prices including taxes (but excluding VAT ) and emission factors based on LCA -data from literature are used in the report. A sensitivity analysis with other fuel prices and emission factors, reflecting the importance of these input parameters, has been performed. In this study abatement costs for 26 carbon dioxide reducing measures, grouped into six different categories, have been calculated. The majority of the measures are included in the categories "investment in new vehicles" and "ecodriving". The overall result shows that efficiency measures are cheaper than fuel-shift measures. The cheapest fuel-shift measure (low blending of bio fuels) has a negative cost (about -1500 SEK / ton CO2) when taxes are included, while most other fuel-shift measures are considerably more expensive. Most efficiency measures had abatement costs far below 0 SEK / ton CO2. The abatement costs for fuel-shift measures are much higher in the transport sector than in the energy sector, under comparable circumstances. No national reduction potentials have been calculated for the measures in this study, neither has any MAC -curves been constructed. This was not in the scope of this study. Further studies are recommended to include these aspects, preferably based on the measures in this report. In addition to descriptions of abatement costs, descriptions of the road transport categories and the measures provide valuable insights into the transport sector. The differences between the road transport categories, e.g. between road freight transport and buses, provide different possibilities to implement carbon dioxide reducing measures."

National Transport Commission (Australia) and Rare Consulting, Freight Transport in a Carbon Constrained Economy. National Transport Commission, Melbourne, July 2008, 65 p. [formato PDF, 231 kB]. "This report discusses the key issues for addressing growing greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport. The report proposes actions for managing and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport over the longer term."

Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions. A CBO Study. The Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC, February 2008, 42 p. [formato PDF, 606 kB]. "The most efficient approaches to reducing emissions involve giving businesses and individuals an incentive to curb activities that produce CO2 emissions, rather than adopting a "command and control" approach in which the government would mandate how much individual entities could emit or what technologies they should use. Incentive-based policies include a tax on emissions, a cap on the total annual level ofemissions combined with a system of tradable emission allowances, and a modified cap-and-trade program that includes features to constrain the cost of emission reductions that would be undertaken in an effort to meet the cap. In this study, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) compares these incentive-based approaches, focusing on three key criteria: 1) efficiency in maintaining a balance between the uncertain benefits and costs of reducing CO2 emissions; 2) ease or difficulty of implementation, and 3) possible interactions with other countries’ policies for curbing CO2—that is, the potential to ensure that U.S. and foreign policies produce similar incentives to cut emissions inside and outside the United States. The policy options described above differ in their potential to reduce emissions efficiently, to be implemented with relatively low administrative costs, and to create incentives for emission reductions that are consistent with incentives in other countries. CBO draws the following conclusions: A tax on emissions would be the most efficient incentive-based option for reducing emissions and could be relatively easy to implement. If it was coordinated among major emitting countries, it would help minimize the cost of achieving a global target for emissions by providing consistent incentives for reducing emissions around the world. If other major nations used cap-and-trade programs rather than taxes on emissions, a U.S. tax could still provide roughly comparable incentives for emission reductions if the tax rate each year was set to equal the expected price of allowances under those programs."

International Transport Forum, Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the Transport Sector: Preliminary Report. OECD/ITF, Paris, 2008, 137 p. [formato PDF, 6,36 MB].

Michel Savy, Caroline Daude, Transport routier de marchandises et gaz à effet de serre. Pour une régulation durable du transport routier de marchandises. Centre d'analyse stratégique, Paris, Avril 2008, 82 p. [formato PDF, 482 kB].

Centre d'analyse stratégique, La valeur tutélaire du carbone. Rapport de la commission présidée par Alain QUINET. Paris, Juin 2008, 110 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. In Francia, secondo quanto annunciato dal Presidente Chirac, i progetti e le decisioni pubbliche dovranno tener conto del loro costo per il clima, cioè del costo delle emissioni di CO2. Una commissione istituita dal governo francese ha rivalutato il valore della tonnellata di CO2 e del carbonio stimandone l'aumento fino al 2050.

Centre d'analyse stratégique, Analyse : la valeur tutélaire du carbone. (La Note de veille n° 101) Paris, Juin 2008, 8 p. [formato PDF, 245 kB]. Sintesi del rapporto pubblicato dalla commissione Quinet per conto del governo francese sul valore delle emissioni di CO2.

Karl Steininger, Sandra Berdnik, Brigitte Gebetsroither, Josef Hochwald, Stefan Hausberger, Michael Getzner, Klimaschutz, Infrastruktur und Verkehr. (Informationen zur Umweltpolitik ; Nr. 175). Bundeskammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte, Wien, 2007, 173 p. [formato PDF, 600 kB]. "Eine AK Studie über CO2-Einspareffekte und Auswirkungen auf Beschäftigung und Verteilung zeigt: Der Ausbau von umweltfreundlicher Infrastruktur, Umsteigen vom Auto auf Öffis, Fahrrad oder zu Fuß gehen sowie die Verlagerung des Güterverkehrs von der Straße auf die Schiene nützen dem Klima und schaffen oder sichern Beschäftigung."

Christian Brand (Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University), Personal air and car travel – just don’t do it!. ECEEE 2007 Summer Study "Saving Energy - Just Do It!", 12 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "Greenhouse gas emissions from personal transport have risen steadily in the UK and most other countries of the EU. Yet surprisingly little is known about who exactly is contributing to the problem at the personal level and the extent to which different groups of the population will be affected by the any responses to the climate change problem. This paper describes an innovative methodology and evaluation tool for profiling annual climate change emissions from personal travel across all modes of travel. A case study application of the methodology involving surveys of UK residents provides an improved understanding of the extent to which individual and household travel activity patterns, choice of transport mode, geographical location, socio-economic factors and vehicle technology choice impact on greenhouse gas emissions."

CarbonLimited, The potential for personal carbon trading in tackling CO2 emissions from the transport sector. RSA, London, 2008, 11 p. [formato PDF, 124 kB]. "This discussion paper sets out to assess the implications of this idea for the transport sector. In doing so we hope to promote discussion amongst transport professionals and stakeholders of all kind, to help further develop thinking on the appropriateness of PCT as a response to the pressing issue of carbon emissions."

T&E – European Federation for Transport and Environment, CO2 Emissions from New Cars. Position paper in response to the European Commission proposal. European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Brussels, April 2008, 13 p. [formato PDF, 505 kB]. "Tackling fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new cars is the single most effective policy measure the EU can take to simultaneously address climate change, reduce dependence on oil, spur investment in low-carbon car technologies in Europe and elsewhere, and lower energy bills for European citizens. We welcome the European Commission’s proposal to set binding fleet average CO2 standards for new cars sold in Europe, following the failure of the decade-old voluntary industry commitment. However, the proposal has some serious shortcomings that must be addressed."

Stephen Perkins (International Transport Forum), Cutting transport CO2 emissions: Putting effectiveness and value for money centre stage. Emissions and Climate Change. What can Europe do? Climate Change Session of the European Transport Conference 2007, Nordwijk, Netherlands, 17-19 October 2007, 25 slides [formato PDF, 410 kB].

Marc Davidson, Marisa Korteland, Arno Schroten, Richard Smokers, Sander de Bruyn, Climate policy costing methodologies: A comparative analysis for the transport sector. Final report. CE Delft, December 2007, 79 p. [formato PDF, 682 kB]. "This study examines why studies to assess the cost effectiveness of policies addressing the climate impact of transport have yielded such widely different results to date. To this end, experts in the Netherlands were consulted and the national and international literature reviewed. Our analysis of the costing methodologies in use shows there are three types of choice having a major influence on results. The first concerns the perspective adopted. Are costs being considered from the perspective of the end user, society or government? Secondly, there are a series of choices to be made in calculating direct expenditures, with respect to depreciation rates and prior estimates of investments, among other things. Finally, there is a basic choice as to whether only direct expenditures are to be included, or a comprehensive welfare-economic analysis carried out. Are the welfare effects of behavioural change or additional externalities to be included, for instance?"

The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions. Summary and Conclusions. Joint Transport Research Centre Round Table, 31 January - 1 February 2008, Paris. (Discussion Paper No. 2008-9). OECD, International Transport Forum, April 2008, 32 p. [formato PDF, 258 KB].

Jack Short (Secretary General, International Transport Forum), Reducing Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much, How Fast and at What Cost?. Climate Change and Transport Strategy, International Symposium, Tokyo, 14 December 2007 , 31 slides [formato PDF, 1,84 MB].

Todd Davis, Monica Hale, Public Transportation's Contribution to U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), September 2007 [formato PDF, 390 KB]. (study conducted for the American Public Transportation Association (APTA).

Karl Otto Schallaböck, Manfred Fischedick, Bernd Brouns, Hans-Jochen Luhmann, Frank Merten, Hermann E. Ott, Andreas Pastowski, Johannes Venjakob, Klimawirksame Emissionen des PKW-Verkehrs und Bewertung von Minderungsstrategien. (emissioni climalteranti del traffico automobilistico e valutazione delle strategie di riduzione delle emissioni). (Wuppertal Spezial Nr. 34). Wuppertal, Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie, 2006, ISBN 3-929944-72-3, p. 106 [formato PDF, 1,79 MB]. "Das Wuppertal Institut hat hier in übersichtlicher und systematischer Form Stand und Perspektiven zusammengetragen. Nach einer ausführlichen Einbettung in den Klimadiskurs erfolgt die schrittweise Konzentration auf den PKW-Verkehr Deutschlands. Für diesen Bereich werden im Detail die denkbaren technischen Ansätze und die möglichen Umsetzungsmaßnahmen erörtert."

Robin Hickman, David Banister, Towards a 60% Reduction in UK Transport Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Scenario Building and Backcasting Approach. Paper presented to the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, April 2005, p. 18 [formato PDF, 572 KB]. "This paper examines the possibilities of reducing transport carbon dioxide emissions in the UK by 60% by 2030 using a scenario building and backcasting approach. It draws on the VIBAT project, which examines Visioning and Backcasting for UK Transport Policy, and examines a range of policy measures (technological and behavioural), assessing how they can be effectively combined to achieve the required level of emissions reduction. The intention is to evaluate whether such an ambitious target is feasible, identify the main problems (including the transition costs), and the main decision points over the 30-year time horizon."

David Banister, Carey Newson and Matthew Ledbury, The cost of transport on the environment - the role of teleworking in reducing carbon emissions . (Working paper N° 1024). Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, June 2007, p. 51 [formato PDF, 572 KB].

Robin Hickman, Paul McCartney, David Banister, Transport and global warming: what is the potential for carbon reduction in Scotland? (Working paper N° 1025). Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, August 2007, p. 22 [formato PDF, 242 KB]. "This paper reports on two recently completed studies considering these issues – for the UK Department for Transport and the Scottish Executive. The core analysis considers the options available to meet a 60% CO2 reduction target by 2030 in the transport sector at the UK level and, using an innovative backcasting study approach, develops a business as usual (BAU) baseline for transport emissions, and alternative scenarios to 2030. Different policy measures are assessed and assembled into mutually supporting combinations. These are grouped into policy packages to establish whether the challenging 60% CO2 reduction target can be reached and when the key actions need to be taken."

European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Cutting Transport CO2 Emissions: What Progress? Summary Document. OECD, Paris, 2007, 24 p. [formato PDF, 581 KB]. Short summary of the report (228 p.). "Despite significant efforts on the part of some countries, transport CO2 emissions have increased steadily over the last ten years. This report reviews the progress OECD and ECMT countries have made in reducing transport sector CO2 emissions and makes recommendations for the focus of future policies. It includes detailed country-by country information on measures adopted and transport sector emissions for the period 1990 - 2003."

Susan A. Shaheen, Timothy E. Lipman (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Reducing greenhouse emissions and fuel consumption. Sustainable approaches for surface transportation. IATSS Research 31 (2007) p. 6-20 [formato PDF, 671 KB]. "Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis). Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon) and carsharing (shortterm auto access). Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling."

Duccio Bianchi, La resistenza italiana alle politiche per la riduzione delle emissioni climalteranti e il declino dell’efficienza energetica nazionale. Atti del convegno “Clima che cambia” (Legambiente Lombardia), aprile 2004, 12 p. [formato PDF, 129 kB].

Abigail Bristow, Alison Pridmore, Miles Tight, Tony May, Frans Berkhout and Michelle Harris, How can we reduce carbon emissions from transport?. Technical Report 15, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, June 2004, 54 p. [formato PDF, 3,28 MB] "Target reductions in CO2 emissions to 2050 have been established for the transport sector in the UK as a whole and for the land based passenger transport sector separately. The targets range from 8.2 MtC to 25.7 MtC for the sector as a whole, compared with current emissions of around 39 MtC. Within this the targets for land based passenger transport are between 4.9 MtC and 15.4 MtC. These targets cannot be met without technological advance and behavioural change."

PACT (Pilot Actions for Combined Transport), Combined Transport CO2 Reduction. Final Report. March 2003, 165 p. [formato PDF, 1,75 MB] "The PACT study on CO2 savings was based on a detailed comparison between an intermodal solution and pure road transport. A sample of twenty relations was chosen, giving an overview of today’s Combined Rail-Road Transport." CO2 Reduction through Combined Transport. Summary report, UIRR, Bruxelles, July 2003, 16 p. [formato PDF, 522 KB].

Umweltbundesamt, Reducing CO2 emissions in the transport sector. A status report by the Federal Environmental Agency. A description of measures and update of potentials. Berlin, September 2003, 68 p. [formato pdf, 436 kB]. Proposte di provvedimenti tecnici ed economici per ridurre le emissioni di CO2 dovute ai trasporti in Germania.


EFFETTI DEI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI (IN GENERALE)

Nick Watts, Markus Amann, Nigel Arnell, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Kristine Belesova, Maxwell Boykoff, Peter Byass, Wenjia Cai, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Stuart Capstick, Jonathan Chambers, Carole Dalin, Meaghan Daly, Niheer Dasandi, Michael Davies, Paul Drummond, Robert Dubrow, Kristie L Ebi, Matthew Eckelman, Paul Ekins, Luis E Escobar, Lucia Fernandez Montoya, Lucien Georgeson, Hilary Graham, Paul Haggar, Ian Hamilton, Stella Hartinger, Jeremy Hess, Ilan Kelman, Gregor Kiesewetter, Tord Kjellstrom, Dominic Kniveton, Bruno Lemke, Yang Liu, Melissa Lott, Rachel Lowe, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Mark Maslin, Lucy McAllister, Alice McGushin, Slava Jankin Mikhaylov, James Milner, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Karyn Morrissey, Kris Murray, Simon Munzert, Maria Nilsson, Tara Neville, Tadj Oreszczyn, Fereidoon Owfi, Olivia Pearman, David Pencheon, Dung Phung, Steve Pye, Ruth Quinn, Mahnaz Rabbaniha, Elizabeth Robinson, Joacim Rocklöv, Jan C Semenza, Jodi Sherman, Joy Shumake-Guillemot, Meisam Tabatabaei, Jonathon Taylor, Joaquin Trinanes, Paul Wilkinson, Anthony Costello, Peng Gong, Hugh Montgomery, The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate. Lancet 2019; 394: 1836-1878 (43 p.)[formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "The data published here elucidate the ongoing trends of a warming world with effects that threaten human wellbeing. As the fourth hottest year on record, 2018 saw a record-breaking 220 million additional exposures to extremes of heat, coupled with corresponding increased vulnerability to heat across every continent. As a result of this and broader climatic changes, vectorial capacity for the transmission of dengue fever was the second highest recorded, with 9 of the past 10 most suitable years occurring since 2000. Progress in mitigation and adaptation remains insufficient, with the carbon intensity of the energy system remaining flat; 2-9 million ambient air pollution deaths; and a reversal of the previous downward trend of coal use."

European Environment Agency, Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016. An indicator-based report. EEA Report n.1/2017, Copenhagen, 2017, 424 p. [formato PDF, 67,4 MB]. "This report is an indicator-based assessment of past and projected climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society. It also looks at society's vulnerability to these impacts and at the development of adaptation policies and the underlying knowledge base. This is the fourth 'limate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe' report, which is published every four years. This edition aims to support the implementation and review process of the 2013 EU Adaptation Strategy, which is foreseen for 2018, and the development of national and transnational adaptation strategies and plans."


POLITICHE DI ADATTAMENTO AI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI (IN GENERALE)

European Environment Agency, National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe, 2018. EEA Report n.1/2018. EEA, Copenhagen, 2018, 84 p. [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "The EEA report "National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe 2018," is the first review of how the 33 EEA member countries (including the 28 European Union Member States) have assessed the risks from climate change, and how they used this information in developing adaptation policies to address these risks. Adaptation is key to ensure that the EU as a whole is better prepared to handle the impacts of heat waves, floods, droughts and storm surges. The report is based on a survey which was completed by 24 of the 33 EEA member countries. Information for additional countries was gathered from Climate-ADAPT - the European climate adaptation platform - and other public sources of information. The report aims to promote a better understanding among experts and policymakers involved in adaptation planning. The findings will contribute to better informed decision making and adaptation in key vulnerable sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity protection, spatial planning and infrastructure development. They will also help inform the European Commission's on-going evaluation of the EU Adaptation Strategy."

Takayoshi Kato, Jane Ellis (OECD), Communicating progress in national and global adaptation to climate change. Climate Change Expert Group: Paper No. 2016(1). OECD, IEA, Paris, May 2016, 47 p. [formato PDF, 719 KB]. "The Paris Agreement, adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reinforces the international framework for adaptation action by establishing a global adaptation goal. Under the Paris Agreement, countries have also agreed to an enhanced transparency framework for action, which includes adaptation. The Agreement also requests each Party to submit and update an "adaptation communication" as appropriate. This paper explores what elements of countries' adaptation responses and progress could be reported under the Paris Agreement so as to better communicate efforts towards enhanced adaptation and resilience. The paper also highlights the potential benefits both at a national and an international level from identifying and collating adaptation-related information. Finally the paper outlines a possible structure of an adaptation communication, and identifies options and associated information needs for the adaptation- related components of the global stocktake agreed to in the Paris Agreement."

Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti Climatici. Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 2015, 195 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB].

Susanne C. Moser, Adaptation, mitigation, and their disharmonious discontents: an essay. Climatic Change (2012) 111:165-175 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 189 KB]. DOI:10.1007/s10584-012-0398-4 "The frequently heard call to harmonize adaptation and mitigation policies is well intended and many opportunities exist to realize co-benefits by designing and implementing both in mutually supportive ways. But critical tradeoffs (inadequate conditions, competition among means for implementation, and negative consequences of pursuing both simultaneously) also exist, along with policy disconnects that are shaped by history, sequencing, scale, contextual variables, and controversial climate discourses in the public. To ignore these issues can be expected to undermine a more comprehensive, better integrated climate risk management portfolio. The paper discusses various implications of these tradeoffs between adaptation and mitigation for science and policy."


EFFETTI DEI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI SUI TRASPORTI E POLITICHE DI ADATTAMENTO

Cerema, Adapter la mobilité d'un territoire au changement climatique. Cerema, 2018, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Les changements du climat, déjà sensibles et amenés à s'amplifier à l'avenir, ont et auront des incidences importantes sur la mobilité des territoires. Destiné aux acteurs des territoires, le présent ouvrage propose dans un premier temps une démarche puis développe une méthode en quatre étapes. Après avoir posé quelques principes préalables de la démarche, la première étape de la méthode vise à délimiter le cadre temporel et spatial de la réflexion; la deuxième étape permet d'identifier les effets du changement climatique sur la mobilité à l'échelle du territoire, en s'appuyant sur neuf effets répertoriés; la troisième étape consiste à élaborer des scénarios sur la base de trois familles proposées; enfin, la quatrième étape précise le contenu du scénario choisi grâce à sept leviers opérationnels."

International Transport Forum, Adapting Transport to Climate Change and Extreme Weather. Implications for Infrastructure Owners and Network Managers. ITF Research Report. OECD, Paris, 2016, 144 p. [formato PDF]. Click to read online and share. "This report addresses the fundamental challenges that climate change poses to infrastructure owners, who face two major challenges. First, they must ensure continued asset performance under sometimes significantly modified climate conditions that may decrease the present value of their networks or increase maintenance and refurbishment costs. Second, they must build new assets in the context of changing and uncertain climate variables. This creates a risk of over- or under-specification of infrastructure design standards, potentially resulting in non-productive investments or network service degradation. This report investigates strategies that can help transport authorities contain network performance risks inherent in changing patterns of extreme weather."

European Environment Agency, Adaptation of transport to climate change in Europe. Challenges and options across transport modes and stakeholders. EEA Report n.8/2014. EEA, Copenhagen, December 2014, 60 p. [formato PDF, 2,79 MB]. "This report explores current climate change adaptation practices concerning transport across European countries. It provides an overview on the challenges and state adaptation action, a review of a number of initiatives in different countries, and conclusions on a potential way forward. Its purpose is to stimulate discussions among the many different stakeholders concerned with transport adaptation. Opening the perspective on the transport system and sector as a whole should inspire and encourage learning from practices across modes and areas of responsibility and support efforts to mainstream adaptation within transport-related policy and practices. The factual information collected is based on data available in the Climate-ADAPT information platform, a literature review, case studies provided by many stakeholders, and a questionnaire on transport and adaptation addressed to EEA member countries in 2013."

HM Government, Climate resilient infrastructure: Preparing for a changing climate. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, May 2011, 76 p. [formato PDF, 2,92 MB]. "This document has been produced as a response to calls from industry - infrastructure owners, investors and insurers - for a Government vision and policy on adapting infrastructure to climate change. It is designed to catalyse action to adapt infrastructure in the energy, ICT, transport and water sectors (infrastructure networks)."

Klaus Eisenack, Rebecca Stecker, Diana Reckien, Esther Hoffmann, Adaptation to Climate Change in the Transport Sector: A Review. (PIK Report No. 122). Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Mai 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 301 kB]. "The paper identifies the literature that deals with adaptation to climate change in the transport sector by means of an extensive search, and presents a systematic review of the publications. Although it is frequently claimed that this socially and economically important sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change, there is comparatively little research into adaptation by industry, utilities and settlements. The 63 sources we found are analysed following an action theory of adaptation that distinguishes different adaptational functions. A very heterogeneous set of adaptations is identified and the actors and means of adaptation are classified by an open coding procedure. The paper shows that a broad diversity of actors is relevant for adaptation in the transport sector – ranging from transportation service providers to public and private sector actors and private households. Most adaptations discussed in the literature require inputs in the form of technical means, institutional means, and knowledge. The review shows that the existing literature either focuses on overly general and vague proposals, or on detailed technical measures. The paper concludes that the knowledge on adapting transport to climate change is still in a stage of infancy and suggests fields for further research."

Committee on Climate Change and U.S. Transportation, Transportation Research Board and Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies, Potential impacts of climate change on U.S. transportation. (Transportation Research Board Special Report 290). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 298 p. [formato PDF, 7,36 MB]. "The report explores the consequences of climate change for U.S. transportation infrastructure and operations. The report provides an overview of the scientific consensus on the current and future climate changes of particular relevance to U.S. transportation, including the limits of present scientific understanding as to their precise timing, magnitude, and geographic location; identifies potential impacts on U.S. transportation and adaptation options; and offers recommendations for both research and actions that can be taken to prepare for climate change. The report also summarizes previous work on strategies for reducing transportation-related emissions of carbon dioxide—the primary greenhouse gas—that contribute to climate change."


LOW CARBON TRANSPORT

Marissa Moultak, Nic Lutsey, Dale Hall, Transitioning to zero-emission heavy-duty freight vehicles. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, September 2017, 59 p. [formato PDF, 586 kB]. "In this report, we assess zero-emission heavy-duty vehicle technology to support decarbonization of the freight sector. We compare the evolution of heavy-duty diesel, diesel hybrid, natural gas, fuel cell, and battery electric technologies in the 2025-2030 timeframe. We synthesize data from the research literature, demonstrations, and low-volume commercial trucks regarding their potential to deliver freight with zero tailpipe emissions. We analyze the emerging technologies by their cost of ownership and life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for the three vehicle markets of China, Europe, and the United States."

Rod Brown, Gustavo O. Collantes, Anthony R. Eggert, Susan L. Handy, Jeff Kessler, Chuck Shulock, Julie Witcover, Sonia Yeh, Achieving California's Greenhouse Gas Goals: A Focus on Transportation. (Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-15-14). Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 2015, 114 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "This report focuses on the core suite of policies adopted by the State of California to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation as part of the AB 32 Scoping Plan."

Aimée Aguilar-Jaber, Daniela Glocker, Shifting towards low carbon mobility systems. (Discussion Paper 2015-17). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 29 p. [formato PDF, 833 kB]. "The present section of this report provides results obtained through modelling carried out for the Transport Outlook of the International Transport Forum (ITF) of the long-term CO2 mitigation potential of aligning policies towards public transport-oriented urbanisation in Latin America, China, and India (part 1). It will then review some of the major institutional challenges for achieving policy coordination and implementing sustainable urban transport strategies in urban centres (part 2). It also provides evidence from cities that have made significant progress in increasing institutional coordination for advancing sustainable urban transport strategies (part 3)."


CARBON FOOTPRINT

Manfred Lenzen, Ya-Yen Sun, Futu Faturay, Yuan-Peng Ting, Arne Geschke and Arunima Malik, The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, volume 8, pages 522-528 (2018) [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions."


SITI, ENTI, NETWORKS

ClimateWise. Representing a global network of leading insurance industry organisations, ClimateWise aligns its members skills and expertise to enhance societal resilience to climate risk. Its focus is on addressing the growing protection gap: the divide between rising exposure to climate risks versus a decline in access to insurance cover. ClimateWise both facilitates action research and annually reports on its members activities as they integrate The ClimateWise Principles. ClimateWise is convened by the University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL), which also provides the Secretariat.

Climate Action Tracker (CAT) is an independent scientific analysis produced by four research organisations tracking climate action and global efforts towards the globally agreed aim of holding warming below 2°C, since 2009.

Climate Analytics, a multidisciplinary and culturally diverse team composed of experts in climate science and impacts, including authors of the IPCC, experts in climate finance, adaptation, climate negotiation, mitigation policies and climate policy analysis. For many years our team members have been firmly embedded in the global climate science, impacts and policy research community, and have been actively engaged with the climate change negotiations. In addition to our expert knowledge, we have a deep understanding of the negotiations and are able to call on an extensive network of experts in the field of climate change. Through this extensive experience, we are able to understand the different perspectives and concerns of various stakeholders and are capable of delivering well-founded expe

Ecofys serves public and corporate clients all over the world and has become a leading expert in energy saving, sustainable energy solutions and climate policies. Ecofys is an innovative and creative company with a unique pool of knowledge and expertise. Key to the company's success are the synergies that arise from our wide range of energy and climate activities. Ecofys creates smart, effective and practical sustainable solutions across the entire spectrum of renewable energy, energy & carbon efficiency, energy systems & markets and energy & climate policy.

NewClimate Institute supports research and implementation of action against climate change around the globe. We generate and share knowledge on international climate negotiations, tracking climate action, climate and development, climate finance and carbon market mechanisms. We connect up-to-date research with the real world decision making processes, making it possible to increase ambition in acting against climate change and contribute to finding sustainable and equitable solutions.

Climate ChangeS, a selection of the most recent and most interesting working papers on the Economics of Climate Change. On a weekly basis, links to the most recent and interesting working papers are aggregated from a variety of sources for easy and convenient reference. The focus is on research at the frontier, with most contributions appearing just a few days after having been released. For this reason, journal articles are not tracked.

CICERO (the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo). CICERO is an independent research center established by the Norwegian government and associated with the University of Oslo.

Climalteranti.it è un sito/blog di formazione e discussione sul tema dei cambiamenti climatici, ideato per dare continuità all’analisi critica delle voci negazioniste sulla tematica climatica effettuata nel libro “A qualcuno piace caldo”, nonchè per permettere una discussione sulle politiche climatiche decise (o non decise) in ambito italiano. Il sito desidera inoltre costituire un punto di riferimento per il reperimento di informazioni, documenti e notizie a proposito dei cambiamenti climatici.

Climate Change Activities at the Transportation Research Board. This website serves as a gateway to TRB activities and products addressing transportation and climate change.

Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) è una struttura di ricerca scientifica che si prefigge di approfondire le conoscenze nel campo della variabilità climatica, le sue cause e le sue conseguenze, attraverso lo sviluppo di simulazioni numeriche con modelli globali del Sistema Terra e con modelli regionali.

Climate Alliance / Klima-Bündnis. "Since the foundation in 1990 around 1.500 cities, municipalities and districts have joined the Climate Alliance. More than 50 provinces, NGOs and further organisations have joined the Climate Alliance as associated members. The members of the Climate Alliance commit themselves to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions continuously. The aim is to cut CO2 emissions by 10 % every 5 years. The important milestone of halving per capita emissions (baseline year 1990) shall be achieved at the latest in 2030. In the long-term, Climate Alliance members aim at a sustainable level of 2,5 tons CO2 equivalent emissions per capita and year by energy saving, energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources."

Het Klimaatportaal is de website van het Platform, Communication on Climate Change (PCCC), een samenwerkingsverband tussen PBL, KNMI, NWO, WUR, UU, ECN, VU Amsterdam en Deltares (Wageningen, the Netherlands).

Nature Reports: Climate Change. "An online resource from Nature Publishing Group, covers the news behind the science and the science behind the news of global climate change, arguably the most far-reaching challenge of this century. The site is dedicated to authoritative in-depth reporting on climate change and its wider implications for policy, society and the economy."

RealClimate. Climate science from climate scientist. "RealClimate is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. We aim to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary. The discussion here is restricted to scientific topics and will not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science." (sito scientifico aggiornato).

myclimate - The Climate Protection Partnership. "myclimate is based on the concept of voluntary and innovative solutions for climate protection and the promotion of renewable energies and energy efficient technologies. The international initiative originated 2002 as an ETH spin-off in Switzerland. myclimate is one of the leading providers of carbon offsetting measures. Its clients include large firms, small and medium-sized enterprises, public authorities as well as non-profit organisations and event organizers." L'organizzazione offre certificati di compensazione delle emissioni di C02 a ditte e a privati, per esempio vendendo i "myclimate ticket" a compensazione di un viaggio in aereo. Il ricavato va a finanziare progetti di sostituzione di consumi energetici fossili con la produzione di energie rinnovabili in Africa, Asia e America Latina. Il sito è in inglese e in tedesco.

Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011. The Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011 provide a new assessment of how this climate may change over the 21st century. They are based on new generations of climate models with higher resolution, improved statistical methods, and an account of all recent relevant studies as well as the assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (Deutsch, Français, Italiano, English).

EEA (Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

GDAE - Global Development And Environment Institute at Tufts University (USA).

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK) (D)

ProClim - Forum for Climate and Global Change. Platform on the Swiss Academy of Science. Portale sulla ricerca scientifica svizzera e internazionale sui cambiamenti climatici e globali.

The Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse is designed as a one-stop source of information on transportation and climate change issues. It includes information on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, analytic methods and tools, GHG reduction strategies, potential impacts of climate change on transportation infrastructure, and approaches for integrating climate change considerations into transportation decision making (U.S. Department of Transportation).

Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, (UK). "The Tyndall Centre brings together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists, who together are working to develop sustainable responses to climate change through trans-disciplinary research and dialogue on both a national and international level - not just within the research community, but also with business leaders, policy advisors, the media and the public in general."


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