(Tecnologie motoristiche, sistemi ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems, veicoli elettrici, veicoli ibridi, autonomous cars, driverless cars, self driving cars)


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AIDA - Applications of Integrated Driver Assistance. Knowledge centre realised by TNO and the University of Twente. Its aim is to carry out innovative research and to educate students working in the field of driver support systems, a field in which the integration and coordination of subsystems and services is an issue.

ATEC – Association pour le développement des techniques de transport, d’environnement et de circulation (France)

ITS France

InnovITS, UK ITS Centre of Excellence for Transport Telematics and Sustainable Mobility "The ITS Centre of Excellence will seek out inventive telematics technology to integrate on a realistic scale and validate that it delivers value to road users and transport operators. As a result, it will act as a catalyst for subsequent deployment and commercial exploitation."

ITS United Kingdom

ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems (Department of Transportation )

ITS America - Intelligent Transportation Society of America

Intelligent Transportation Society of California (ITS-CA), formerly CAATS.

ATA – Associazione Tecnica dell’Automobile – Sezione Liguria (Italia)

TTS Italia, Associazione Nazionale per la Telematica per i Trasporti e la Sicurezza. "E' stata costituita nel 1999 con lo scopo di contribuire al miglioramento dell'efficienza e della sicurezza del sistema dei trasporti italiano, attraverso l'analisi dei problemi e delle opportunità, la formulazione di proposte e la diffusione delle informazioni e delle conoscenze nel settore dei Sistemi Intelligenti di Trasporto (ITS)."

Solar Team Eindhoven, "Stella Lux", The energy positive family car. This means Stella Lux is so efficient that she generates more energy than she consumes during the entire year, even in Dutch weather conditions! The aerodynamic design has an important role in this: consider, for example, the tunnel which runs through the center of the car. Furthermore, Stella Lux has an extended roof on both sides of the car. Because of this, we were able to place another row of solar panels on the car. Stella Lux was designed extremely light by making use of materials like carbon fibre and aluminium.

Alberto Broggi is a professor of Computer Engineering at the University of Parma in Italy, and a pioneer of machine vision applied to driverless cars and unmanned vehicles in general.


Mobility Tech, il portale dell'innovazione tecnologica e organizzativa per lo sviluppo della mobilità.

Transport-intelligent.net "Ce site a été réalisé sous l’égide de la mission « Transport intelligent » du Ministère français de l’Equipement et des Transports. Il a été structuré pour permettre à chacun de s’approprier facilement le domaine, en lui donnant aussi la possibilité d’apporter des contributions pour enrichir le site."

IET, the Institution of Engineering and Technology


ATA Sezione Liguria, Atti del Seminario “Inquinamento e Traffico nei Centri Urbani”, Genova, 26 ottobre 2000, organizzato da ATA Sezione Liguria e dall’Università di Genova - Dipertimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti (relazioni su tecnologie motoristiche, fattori di emissione, gasolio bianco, veicoli elettrici e ibridi, autobus a celle a combustibile ...)


Jens Schippl, Bernhard Truffer, Torsten Fleischer, Potential impacts of institutional dynamics on the development of automated vehicles: Towards sustainable mobility?. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 14 (2022) 100587 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "Most experts agree that automated vehicles (AV) will be commercialized sooner or later and that this will lead to far-reaching changes in the mobility system. However, it is still open whether these developments will lead to more sustainable transport systems. AVs may render private car ownership more attractive and therefore intensify car-oriented mobility patterns, or may increase the attractiveness of public transport when mostly used as robo-taxis. Once development has started to move in a specific direction, self-reinforcing dynamics and path-dependencies may unfold. Therefore, it is important to analyze which factors may influence the direction of path-dependencies. We argue that understanding emerging path-dependencies requires an understanding of the interrelated technical, economic and societal dynamics. We draw on recent insights into societal dynamics in sociotechnical regimes, drawn from sustainability transition research, to identify potential development trajectories of automated driving due to changes in what is conceptualized as normative-cognitive institutions. We introduce an approach to map such institutional dynamics based on recent data from developments in the German mobility sector. Results demonstrate that the direction of future AV pathways may depend on such institutional developments. Both a reinforcing and a disruptive pathway are plausible. Governance strategies that aim to tap the potential of AVs in supporting sustainable urban mobility should consider institutional dynamics more explicitly."

Mojdeh Azad, Nima Hoseinzadeh, Candace Brakewood, Christopher R. Cherry and Lee D. Han (Univ. of Tennessee), Fully Autonomous Buses: A Literature Review and Future Research Directions. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Volume 2019, Article ID 4603548 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles (AVs) represent a new, growing segment of transportation research. While there have been prior studies and deployments of AVs worldwide, full autonomy in bus transit has gained interest among researchers and practitioners within the last decade, which presents an opportunity to synthesize early trends. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a review of the latest research on fully autonomous buses to summarize findings and identify gaps needing future research. Forty studies were reviewed in detail, and five main themes were identified, which are (1) technology deployment; (2) user acceptance; (3) safety; (4) social and economic aspects; and (5) regulations, policies, and legal issues. The results reveal that most prior studies have focused on technology development, and the area of regulation and policy would benefit from additional study. Noteworthy differences between research in Europe and the United States were also identified. In Europe, large funded projects involving real-world deployments have focused on user acceptance, security and safety, costs, and related legal issues, whereas in the United States, research has primarily concentrated on simulation modelling with limited real-world deployments. The results of this review are important for policy-makers and researchers as AV technology continues to evolve and become more widely available."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens, Alexander Boden and Paul Bossauer, Unintended Effects of Autonomous Driving: A Study on Mobility Preferences in the Future. Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2404 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 880 kB]. Open Access. "Innovations in the mobility industry such as automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions by allowing the traffic to flow more freely and reducing the number of vehicles according to some researchers. However, the effectiveness of these sustainable product and service innovations is often limited by unexpected changes in consumption: some researchers thus hypothesize that the higher comfort and improved quality of time in driverless cars could lead to an increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles. So far, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting either one or other of these hypotheses. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as indicators for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 participants in Germany. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether conventional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, the findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more emphasis should be placed in making public transport more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens and Paul Bossauer, Shared Autonomous Vehicles: Potentials for a Sustainable Mobility and Risks of Unintended Effects. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 52, 2018, p. 258-269 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 325 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "Automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions through a more efficient flow of traffic and a reduction in the number of vehicles. An increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles is also conceivable due to higher comfort and improved quality of time using driverless cars. So far, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis is missing. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as an indicator for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 German participants. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether traditional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more effort should be placed in making public transportation more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Caroline Rodier (University of California, Davis), Travel Effects and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automated Vehicles. A White Paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, April 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 897 kB]. "In much the same way that the automobile disrupted horse and cart transportation in the 20th century, automated vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to disrupt our current system of transportation and the fabric of our built environment in the 21st century. Experts predict that vehicles could be fully automated by as early as 2025 or as late as 2035. The public sector is just beginning to understand AV technology and to grapple with how to accommodate it in our current transportation system. Research on AVs is extremely important because AVs may significantly disrupt our transportation system with potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on our society and our environment. However, this research is very hard to do because fully AVs have yet to travel on our roads. As a result, AV research is largely conducted by extrapolating effects from current observed behavior and drawing on theory and models. Both the magnitude of the mechanism of change and secondary effects are often uncertain. Moreover, the potential for improved safety in AVs drive the mechanisms by which vehicle miles traveled (VMT), energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may change. We really don't know whether AVs will achieve the level of safety that will allow for completely driverless cars, very short headways, smaller vehicles, lower fuel use, and/or reduce insurance cost. We don't know whether AV fleets will be harmonized to reduce energy and GHG emissions. In this white paper, the available evidence on the travel and environmental effects of AVs is critically reviewed to understand the potential magnitude and likelihood of estimated effects. The author outlines the mechanisms by which AVs may change travel demand and review the available evidence on their significance and size. These mechanisms include increased roadway capacity, reduced travel time burden, change in monetary costs, parking and relocation travel, induced travel demand, new traveler groups, and energy effects. They then describe the results of scenario modeling studies. Scenarios commonly include fleets of personal AVs and automated taxis with and without sharing. Travel and/or land use models are used to simulate the cumulative effects of scenarios. These models typically use travel activity data and detailed transportation networks to replicate current and predict future land use, traffic behavior, and/or vehicle activity in a real or hypothetical city or region."

Mingyang Hao, Toshiyuki Yamamoto (Nagoya University), Shared Autonomous Vehicles: A Review Considering Car Sharing and Autonomous Vehicles. Asian Transport Studies, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2018), 47-63 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 278 kB]. "In recent years, the transformation in transportation mobility has seen an acceleration in numbers of studies establishing a sustainable, smooth and cost-efficient system by applying automated concepts to the conventional car-sharing system. The development from a personally owned vehicle-oriented scheme to shared automated transit provides us informative images to the optimal stage of the transportation mobility. This study aimed to find the gaps in impacts and features, demand and performance studies of SAVs by a systematic approach when looking at the corresponding aspects of car sharing in AVs and SAVs. This is the first attempt to review SAV studies and the author illustrates the importance of this research by demonstrating impacts and features of SAVs, future research aspects of demand analysis, as well as the research trend of performance studies on SAVs."

Anna Pernestål Brenden, Ida Kristoffersson, Lars-Göran Mattsson Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles in Sweden. Report. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2017, 35 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. "The development of Self-Driving Vehicles (SDVs) is fast, and new pilots and tests are released every week. SDVs are predicted to have the potential to change mobility, human life and society. In literature, both negative and positive effects of SDVs are listed (Litman 2015; Fagnant and Kockelman 2015). Among the positive effects are increased traffic throughput leading to less congestion, improved mobility for people without a driver's license, decreased need for parking spaces, and SDV as an enabler for shared mobility. On the other hand, SDVs are expected to increase the consumption of transport which leads to an increase in total vehicle kilometers travelled. This effect is further reinforced by empty vehicles driving around. This will increase the number of vehicles on the streets and lead to more congestion and increased energy usage. Since the SDV technology is expensive, segregation may be a consequence of the development. In addition there are several challenges related to for example legislation, standardization, infrastructure investments, privacy and security. The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how? As we are in a potential mobility shift, and decisions made today will affect the future development, understanding possibilities and challenges for the future is important for many stakeholders. To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden. This study will also be used in the ongoing governmental investigation about future regulations for SDVs on Swedish roads (Bjelfvenstam 2016). A third motivation for the study is to shed light on how demography, geography and political landscape can affect the development of new mobility services. Since there are many different forces that drive the development, often uncertain and sometimes in conflict with each other, a scenario planning approach was chosen. In previous studies, different types of predictions have been derived. Most of them are made by US scholars and are therefore naturally focused on the development in the US. The culture, both with respect to urban planning and public transport is different in Europe compared to the US. The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team. The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme: trend analysis, defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and consequence analysis. The analysis team, consisting of the present three authors and two future strategists, has analyzed, refined and condensed the material from the expert group. During the project certain trends and strategic uncertainties were identified by the expert group. The uncertainties that were identified as most important for the development of SDVs in Sweden are: whether the sharing economy becomes a new norm or not, and whether city planners, authorities and politicians will be proactive in the development of cities and societies or not, especially regarding the transportation system. This led to four scenarios: "Same, same but all the difference" - a green, individualistic society; "Sharing is the new black" - a governmentally driven innovation society based on sharing; "Follow the path" - an individualistic society based on development in the same direction as today, and "What you need is what you get" - a commercially driven innovation society where sharing is a key. In the paper, we describe the scenarios and the process to derive them in more detail. We also present an analysis of the consequences for the development of SDVs in the four scenarios, including predictions concerning pace of development, level of self-driving, fleet size, travel demand and vehicle kilometers travelled. The paper also includes a discussion and comparison with other studies on the development of SDVs in the US, Europe and Asia."

Clemence Cavoli, Brian Phillips, Tom Cohen, Peter Jones (UCL Transport Institute), Social and behavioural questions associated with Automated Vehicles. A Literature Review. Department for Transport, London, January 2017, 124 p. [formato PDF, 5,6 MB]. "This literature review is part of a wider scoping study commissioned by the UK Department for Transport that aims "to identify the key social and behavioural questions associated with AVs". This literature review has informed the formulation of the research questions and recommendations which can be found in the main report. This review summarises the various themes and topics that have been addressed or discussed in the academic and in the grey literature relating to the behavioural, social and societal aspects of automated vehicles (AVs). The study also highlights the gaps in the literature linked to these topics."

Tom Cohen, Peter Jones and Clémence Cavoli (UCL Transport Institute), Social and behavioural questions associated with automated vehicles. Scoping study by UCL Transport Institute. Final report. Department for Transport, London, January 2017, 91 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. "The UCL Transport Institute (UCLTI) was commissioned by the Department for Transport to conduct a scoping study to identify the key social and behavioural questions that should be addressed relating to automated vehicles (AVs). The study consisted of: a literature review; a series of group events and interviews with stakeholders; and a workshop with representatives of the government-funded "four cities driverless vehicles" trials 1 in the UK, which was followed up by visits to these trials. The research recommendations include: A scenarios exercise. Drawing on best practice in 'futures' work and embracing a wide range of themes, this would produce a manageable number of plausible scenarios of future technologies and usage patterns that could then act as a reference for a range of other research, including into consequences/wider impacts. Deliberative exercise with citizens and organisations to investigate attitudes and likely behavioural responses to the technology. This project could serve four purposes: to assess the value of work done to date on attitudes; to test the validity of the scenarios developed in the project described above, including the behavioural responses component; to gauge general attitudes to those scenarios and their likely social impacts; and to provide a foundation for detailed research concerning wider impacts. Scoping work on the interaction between AVs and road users (including AV users themselves). This project would explore in greater detail than has been possible in this project the state of knowledge in this area and the nature and quality of research work currently being undertaken. This would enable the identification of a number of research projects that would complement existing work and inform, amongst other things, vehicle standards and a Highway Code of the future. Exploration and appraisal of the potential role of the public sector. Reflecting the prominence of the role of the public sector amongst the research questions generated, this rigorous exercise would be designed to map out the range of paths available to government at all levels to influence positively the development of the technology and its impacts. Transport network simulation exercise. Ideally drawing upon the scenarios exercise to provide a set of well-rounded and plausible combinations of technology and behavioural responses to it, this simulation would assist in identifying likely first-order network effects of the advent and use of AV technology."

Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni, The autonomous car - a blessing or a curse for the future of low carbon mobility? An exploration of likely vs. desirable outcomes. Eur J Futures Res (2015) 3:14 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "Certain developed countries have experienced the 'peak car' phenomenon. While this remains to be confirmed longitudinally, it looks certain that future mobility in Europe and elsewhere will be shaped by a particular technological development: driverless or autonomous transport. The 'autonomous car' ignites the imagination, yet the research and debate on this topic largely focus on the 'autonomous' and not adequately on the 'car' element. Like any new technological development, autonomous transport presents ample opportunities to better our mobility system, but similarly it carries risks and can lead into a future mobility that exacerbates, rather than relieves, current deficiencies of our mobility systems, including its high carbon and high cost characteristics. Now it is high time to explore these, before we lock ourselves into the autonomous car future. Using Low Carbon Mobility (LCM) as a guiding framework to assess mobility patterns and based on an extensive literature review, this paper aims to explore where there is a gap between the likely and desirable outcomes when developing the autonomous car and suggest how we might reduce it. Moreover, enhancing on global empirical evidence and forecasts about the opportunities and threats emerging from ICT deployment in transport and initial evidence on the development of the autonomous car, the paper concludes that a desirable outcome will only come if technological development will be accompanied by a social change. A change where public and sharing will be seen as superior to private and individual transport, could make the autonomous car a blessing."

Juan Rosenzweig, Michael Bartl, A Review and Analysis of Literature on Autonomous Driving. The Making of Innovation, October 2015, 57 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]

Bart van Arem (Delft University of Technology), Automated Driving: The Future of Transport Starts Today. Keynote IEEE IV 2015, Seoul, Korea, July 2015, 28 slides [formato PDF, 2,53 MB].

Eva Fraedrich, Sven Beiker, Barbara Lenz, Transition pathways to fully automated driving and its implications for the sociotechnical system of automobility. Review Article. Eur J Futures Res (2015) 3:11 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. Open Access. "The advent of fully automated road vehicles is a topic currently getting attention in the field of transport as well as futures research: the technology is assumed to radically change the way we move in the future as well as to expand and differentiate existing mobility concepts. Still, the implications of automated driving are first and foremost discussed from a technological point of view and uncertainty about how this transition might take place remains. The embedding in the system of automobility respectively the transport system as a whole, currently lacks analytical as well as empirical examination. In our paper, we will discuss the topic in relation to three possible sociotechnical transition scenarios: (1) evolution, (2) revolution and (3) transformation. We will extrapolate different scenarios of automated driving based on current technical, economic, infrastructural, spatial, and transport developments and discuss its consequences for the transport system and mobility concepts."

Michael Sivak, Brandon Schoettle, Road Safety with Self-Driving Vehicles: General Limitations and Road Sharing with Conventional Vehicles. (Report No. UMTRI-2015-2). The University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan, January 2015, 13 p. [formato PDF, 223 kB]. "Self-driving vehicles are expected to improve road safety, improve the mobility of those who currently cannot use conventional vehicles, and reduce emissions. In this white paper we discuss issues related to road safety with self-driving vehicles. Safety is addressed from the following four perspectives: (1) Can self-driving vehicles compensate for contributions to crash causation by other traffic participants, as well as vehicular, roadway, and environmental factors? (2) Can all relevant inputs for computational decisions be supplied to a self-driving vehicle? (3) Can computational speed, constant vigilance, and lack of distractibility of selfdriving vehicles make predictive knowledge of an experienced driver irrelevant? (4) How would road safety be influenced during the expected long transition period during which conventional and self-driving vehicles would need to interact on the road? The presented arguments support the following conclusions: (1) The expectation of zero fatalities with self-driving vehicles is not realistic. (2) It is not a foregone conclusion that a self-driving vehicle would ever perform more safely than an experienced, middle-aged driver. (3) During the transition period when conventional and self-driving vehicles would share the road, safety might actually worsen, at least for the conventional vehicles."

Kyung-Hwan Kim, Yong-Seok Ko, Dong-Hyung Yook, Dong-Han Kim (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements), An analysis of expected effects of the autonomous vehicles on transport and land use in Korea. Working Paper. NYU, Marron Institute of Urban Management, August 17, 2015, 29 p. [formato PDF, 5,04 MB]. This paper was written for the Marron Institute Conference on Self-Driving Vehicles, which took place on May 28 & 29, 2015 and was convened with support from Google. "This paper aims to examine the existing studies to extract the expected effects of the autonomous vehicle system and quantify its impact on transport and land use through a spatial impact simulation based on South Korean data. The paper starts with a review of the literature with a specific focus on the expected effects of autonomous vehicle on traffic safety, travel demand, roadway capacity, and land use. Secondly, the development stage towards complete autonomous driving is examined with the reviews on projected timeframe as well as optimistic and pessimistic views. The third section specifies the expected effects by applying an analysis to the existing transportation network and the land use pattern in South Korea. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for further studies."

Amanda LoBello, The Implications of Self-Driving Cars on Insurance. (Honors Projects in Mathematics, Paper 21). Bryant University, May 2015, 91 p. [formato PDF, 553 kB]. "Self-driving cars, also known as autonomous vehicles, are being researched and tested by automakers, technology industry leaders, and other institutions. Lawmakers and politicians are discussing the legislation that will affect the fate of such technology. Primary benefits include safety, mobility, free time, less traffic, and green effects. However, there are also obstacles to the implementation of self-driving vehicles including consumer acceptance, legal liability, and cost. With the potential shift in responsibility from driver to automaker, rating factors for insurance may change, weighing more heavily on the model of the car as a factor. The fate of auto insurance is in the demand for autonomous vehicles by consumers, as business leaders react on data, not ideas. This project measures demand for self-driving cars and applies the results to how auto insurance will change. A survey was distributed in order to determine students’ experience with car insurance and their attitudes on self-driving technology. The survey group is divided between general students and those with some insurance knowledge. By using the demand findings from the survey as well as existing data for older driver populations, we are better able to predict the demand and liability of self-driving cars and how auto insurance will be priced."

Urban Mobility System Upgrade. How shared self-driving cars could change city traffic. (Corporate Partnership Board Report). International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2015, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,86 MB]. "This report examines the changes that might result from the large-scale uptake of a shared and self-driving fleet of vehicles in a mid-sized European city. The study explores two different self-driving vehicle concepts, for which we have coined the terms “TaxiBot” and “AutoVot”. TaxiBots are self-driving cars that can be shared simultaneously by several passengers. AutoVots pick-up and drop-off single passengers sequentially. We had two premises for this study: First, the urban mobility system upgrade with a fleet of TaxiBots and AutoVots should deliver the same trips as today in terms of origin, destination and timing. Second, it should also replace all car and bus trips. The report looks at impacts on car fleet size, volume of travel and parking requirements over two different time scales: a 24-hour average and for peak hours only."

Muhammad Azmat, Clemens Schuhmayer (Vienna University Of Economics and Business), Self Driving Cars: Future has already begun. Presentation at the Workshop "Innovation Platform – e-Mobility", Wien, May 7th 2015, 25 slides [formato PDF, 1,89 MB]

Sharlene A. McEvoy (Fairfield University), A Brave New World: The Environmental and Economic Impact of Autonomous Cars. Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, April 2015, Volume 1, No. 1, pp. 1-7 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 55,7 kB] "In Japan and in states such as Nevada and California, autonomous cars* have obtained permission to operate on the roads. While the technology is being perfected anticipating that “driverless” vehicles will be sold by 2020, there are concerns about the economic dislocations these vehicles will cause."

Michael Bartl, The Future of Autonomous Driving. Introducing the Foresight Matrix to Support Strategic Planning. The Making of Innovation, April 2015, 7 p. [formato PDF, 504 kB]


Carina Goldbach, Jörn Sickmann, Thomas Pitz, Tatjana Zimasa (Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences), Towards autonomous public transportation: Attitudes and intentions of the local population. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 13 (2022) 100504 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 491 kB]. Open Access. "Public autonomous vehicles (AVs) have a high potential to solve traffic related problems and environmental challenges. However, without the passengers' acceptance, the potential to achieve these benefits will not be fulfilled. Therefore, this paper is focused on the factors that influence the acceptance of such vehicles and investigates how much the acceptance varies if different levels of supervision are provided. An online survey was conducted and factors like trust and experience were found to impact on the stated intention to use a self-driving bus. Additionally, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) factors, such as, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and social influence were found to impact user intentions. Interestingly, socio-demographic factors appeared to be determinants of the acceptance of public AVs only if an employee was no longer present in the bus. The study highlighted the importance of paying sufficient attention to qualitative psychological factors, next to classic instrumental attributes like travel time and costs, before and during the implementation of public AVs. As experience was found to be a relatively robust factor in explaining public AV acceptance, we expect that preferences towards autonomous public transportation evolve along with the transition from hypothetical scenarios to demonstration pilots, to their deployment in regular operations. We therefore recommend the extension of this research to revealed preference studies, thereby using the results of field studies and living labs. Policy makers and researchers should allow users to access public AVs in test phases, so that users can generate positive experiences. This is expected to reduce future efforts of encouraging the use of this new technology, before its implementation."

Pol Camps-Aragó, Laura Temmerman, Wim Vanobberghen and Simon Delaere (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Encouraging the Sustainable Adoption of Autonomous Vehicles for Public Transport in Belgium: Citizen Acceptance, Business Models, and Policy Aspects. Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 921 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. Open Access. "Several mobility-related issues persist in and around urban areas. Autonomous vehicles promise substantial environmental, safety, and economic benefits but may also cause unintended adverse effects that stem from single-passenger mobility becoming more affordable and accessible. While using them for public transport (i.e., autonomous shuttles) can help avoid such downsides, there are many challenges to their adoption, particularly ones that are related to citizen acceptance and economic aspects. Based on a novel survey of Brussels' citizens, we provide insights from user opinions on last-mile autonomous shuttle services and analyze the effect of various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors affecting such acceptance. Our respondents exhibit an overall positive acceptance albeit with a limited willingness to pay for it. In addition, based on expert interviews, we provide a discussion on appropriate business models and policy recommendations to help ensure the timely adoption of AVs in Belgium that adapts to mobility needs and policy goals."

Marjan Hagenzieker, Reanne Boersma, Pablo Nuñez Velasco, Maryna Ozturker, Irene Zubin, Daniël Heikoop, Automated Buses in Europe: An Inventory of Pilots. version: 0.5. TU Delft, February 2020, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB].


Blerim Cici, Athina Markopoulou, Enrique Frías-Martínez, Nikolaos Laoutaris, Assessing the Potential of Ride-Sharing Using Mobile and Social Data. A Tale of Four Cities. (arXiv:1305.3876). 2014, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Published in: UbiComp '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, p. 201-211, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2632048.2632055 "Ride-sharing on the daily home-work-home commute can help individuals save on gasoline and other car-related costs, while at the same time it can reduce traffic and pollution. This paper assesses the potential of ride-sharing for reducing traffic in a city, based on mobility data extracted from 3G Call Description Records (CDRs, for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid) and from Online Social Networks (Twitter, collected for the cities of New York and Los Angeles). We first analyze these data sets to understand mobility patterns, home and work locations, and social ties between users. We then develop an efficient algorithm for matching users with similar mobility patterns, considering a range of constraints. The solution provides an upper bound to the potential reduction of cars in a city that can be achieved by ride-sharing. We use our framework to understand the different constraints and city characteristics on this potential benefit. For example, our study shows that traffic in the city of Madrid can be reduced by 59% if users are willing to share a ride with people who live and work within 1 km; if they can only accept a pick-up and drop-off delay up to 10 minutes, this potential benefit drops to 24%; if drivers also pick up passengers along the way, this number increases to 53%. If users are willing to ride only with people they know ("friends" in the CDR and OSN data sets), the potential of ride-sharing becomes negligible; if they are willing to ride with friends of friends, the potential reduction is up to 31%."

Catherine Morency, Hubert Verreault, Pierre-Léo Bourbonnais, Évaluation des potentialités du WEB comme outil de collecte de données sur la mobilité. Rapport final. Étude réalisée pour le compte du ministère des Transports. Polytechnique Montréal, Transports Québec, Montréal, Octobre 2013, 165 p. [formato PDF, 9,50 MB] "Ce rapport presente les resultats d'un projet de recherche realise a la demande du ministere des Transports du Quebec et portant sur l'evaluation des potentialites du WEB comme outil de collecte de donnees sur la mobilite. Il s'est articule autour des etapes suivantes: revue de litterature, developpement d'un outil d'enquete WEB adapte aux enquetes regionales sur la mobilite du Ministere et administration de deux enquetes (Trois-Rivieres et Quebec), description des echantillons recueillis lors des enquetes WEB de Trois-Rivieres et Quebec et comparaison avec les echantillons des enquetes telephoniques, analyse comparative des comportements de mobilite tels que reveles par les enquetes WEB et telephonique pour les deux regions, evaluation des fonctionnalites de geolocalisation de Google Maps et formulation de perspectives a la lumiere des resultats obtenus."


Ugo Fiore, Adrian Florea and Gilberto Pérez Lechuga, An Interdisciplinary Review of Smart Vehicular Traffic and Its Applications and Challenges. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8, 13 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of the hefty data volumes generated by sensors, and the coordinated operation between selfish agents. The purpose of this work is to survey recent literature with an emphasis on applications and a multidisciplinary eye, with the aim of stimulating discussion and reflection in the scientific communities. The principal application areas of smart traffic and smart mobility are discussed, synthesizing different perspectives. Many intriguing areas for future research exist besides those relative to connectivity, data fusion, and privacy. Some research challenges pertinent to sustainability, insurance, simulation and the handling of ambiguous information are highlighted."

Anna Kramers, Tina Ringenson, Liridona Sopjani and Peter Arnfalk, AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport. Creating a framework to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 30, 2018, p. 1-16 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 504 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article."

Yanying Li, Tom Voege, Mobility as a Service (MaaS): Challenges of Implementation and Policy Required, Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2017, 7, 95-106 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 827 kB]. "Mobility as a service (MaaS) is a relatively new concept, which holds the promise for a paradigm shift in the provision of urban mobility. The concept of MaaS is to use a single app to access and pay for various transport modes within a city or beyond; and the app will give options to allow a traveller to select the most suitable transport mode. The concept of MaaS is enabled by the current mass uptake of smartphones and social media as well ubiquitous internet connection. By studying current applications of MaaS in Europe and US conditions of operation of MaaS have been summarised. Based on the necessary conditions, a checklist has been developed for potential developers of MaaS to assess if they can implement MaaS in a city. This paper also discusses challenges of implementation of MaaS and their potential impacts on urban mobility and societal changes".

Johan Wahlström, Isaac Skog, Peter Händel (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), Smartphone-based Vehicle Telematics - A Ten-Year Anniversary. Paper/preprint, 2016, 23 p. [formato PDF, 4,0 MB]. "Just like it has irrevocably reshaped social life, the fast growth of smartphone ownership is now beginning to revolutionize the driving experience and change how we think about automotive insurance, vehicle safety systems, and traffic research. This paper summarizes the first ten years of research in smartphone-based vehicle telematics, with a focus on user-friendly implementations and the challenges that arise due to the mobility of the smartphone. Notable academic and industrial projects are reviewed, and system aspects related to sensors, energy consumption, cloud computing, vehicular ad hoc networks, and human-machine interfaces are examined. Moreover, we highlight the differences between traditional and smartphonebased automotive navigation, and survey the state-of-the-art in smartphone-based transportation mode classification, driver classification, and road condition monitoring. Future advances are expected to be driven by improvements in sensor technology, evidence of the societal benefits of current implementations, and the establishment of industry standards for sensor fusion and driver assessment."

Björn Hildebrandt, Gerrit Remané, Benjamin Brauer, Lutz M. Kolbe (University of Göttingen), Facilitating e-mobility through digital technologies - development and evaluation of a dynamic battery-leasing business model. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 Proceedings. Paper 217. 14 p. [formato PDF, 574 kB]. "The electric mobility sector - an important pillar for counteracting climate change - is facing a sluggish market development. In this paper, we present a new dynamic battery-leasing business model that can play a key role in promoting the market introduction of electric mobility. Unlike medium- to long-term approaches for creating additional value from electric vehicles (e.g., demand response or vehicle-to-grid), the business model we propose can be applied in the short run as all necessary prerequisites are already fulfilled. To demonstrate, we proceed in two major steps. First, we design the digital technology-enabled business model that breaks with current business logics by actively involving users in the value generation process. The concept contributes to reducing battery degradation effects and thus increases the residual value of the batteries. Second, we test the underlying hypothesis of our business model - the user's willingness to follow a certain charging guideline in order to extend battery lifetime - using a comprehensive conjoint analysis. Thus, our research demonstrates how information systems can be used to encourage green choices by consumers."

Xiaoxia Wang, Zhanqiang Li, Yanbo Cui (Beijing Jiaotong University), Urban Logistics under the Internet. WHICEB 2016 Proceedings. Paper 46. 9 p. [formato PDF, 318 kB]. "With the promotion of "Internet + efficient logistics" and refer Tomorrow's Elastic Mobility Adaptive(TEAM), this paper extends the framework of urban logistics based on the Internet and cloud computing environment, specifies the challenges and transitions experienced by the commodity market, transport market, infrastructure market, then discusses several key technologies of IT application in urban freight transportation including dynamic regulation of the transport market for administrator, "last mile" solutions, coding system and green vehicles. Now IT building blocks of digitally free open source software not only provide the IT infrastructure but also facilitate "Share more - Develop less" for mass innovation convenience of cities. It no doubts that an efficient, environmentally friendly and intelligent urban freight system will come true in the near future."

Tim Schwanen (Univ. of Oxford), Beyond instrument: smartphone app and sustainable mobility. EJTIR (European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research) 15(4), 2015, 675-690 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 352 kB] "The rise of smartphones and mobile applications (apps) is of major importance to multiple recent innovations in sustainable urban mobility, including car sharing schemes and real-time information provision in public transport, as well as the recent surge in urban cycling. Yet, exactly how apps feature in these innovations and trends remains largely unclear. This paper argues that this lack of understanding reflects not only the rapid pace of developments in apps and their technical functionalities but also gaps in academics’ conceptualization of the nature of apps and their effects. Too easily and often are apps seen as mere instruments for the realisation of human-centred goals and intentions, or are their capacities and effects assumed to emerge from the webs of relations in which apps and smartphones are enmeshed. An alternative conceptualisation is therefore proposed, one that is informed principally by the object-oriented approach developed by philosopher Graham Harman. After summarising some of Harman’s original concepts and developing his account of power, the paper elaborates a series of ideas and recommendations about how the developed conceptual framework can be deployed in empirical research on the interactions between apps and physical mobility in the city."

Tony Dutzik and Travis Madsen, Phineas Baxandall, A New Way to Go. The Transportation Apps and Vehicle-Sharing Tools that Are Giving More Americans the Freedom to Drive Less, U.S. PIRG Education Fund, Frontier Group, Boston, Fall 2013, 54 p. [formato PDF, 938 kB].

Jeffrey R. Lidicker, Timothy E. Lipman, Susan A. Shaheen, (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Economic Assessment of Electric-Drive Vehicle Operation in California and the United States, (Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-10-06), 2010 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, March 15, 2010. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 18 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "This study examines the relative economics of electric vehicle operation in the context of current electricity rates in specific utility service territories. The authors examined 14 utility territories offering electric vehicle (EV) rates, focusing on California but also including other regions of the United States. The consumer costs of EV charging were examined in comparison with gasoline price data, geographic location, and during three highly variable gasoline price periods of July 2008, January 2009, and July 2009. In a switch from a conventional 23 mile per gallon (10.2 liters/100 kilometers) vehicle to a 300 watt-hours/mile electric vehicle driven 10,000 miles (16,100 km) per year, the study finds that savings in fuel costs ranged from approximately $100US to $1,800US annually, with considerable geographic variation and with higher-end values mostly in Summer 2008 when gasoline prices were relatively high. Charging off-peak instead of during peak periods saves an average of only a few hundred dollars US per year, rendering the incentive to charge off-peak a relatively small one except perhaps during some summer months when the on-peak prices are especially high. Gasoline price variances have a larger effect and switching from a low fuel economy conventional vehicle to the reference EV (compared with a switch from an already efficient vehicle) presents the highest savings level. The West and Midwest are generally the most favorable regions for EV economics, when EV charging rates and gasoline prices are considered together."

Friedrich Pötscher, Ralf Winter, Günther Lichtblau, Elektromobilität in Österreich. Szenario 2020 und 2050. (Report REP-0257). Umweltbundesamt, Wien, 2010, 46 p. [formato PDF, 2,58 MB] "Der Einsatz von Elektrofahrzeugen ist die derzeit beste technologische Option, um langfristig eine Kohlendioxid-freie individuelle Mobilitätzu erreichen. Der Report des Umweltbundesamt untersucht das erreichbare Potenzial von Elektrofahrzeugen in Österreich bis zu den Jahren 2020 und 2050. Ausgangspunkt für die Szenarien sind optimale wirtschaftliche und rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen zur Einführung von Elektromobilität in Österreich. Die Gegenüberstellung von Nachfrage und Angebot zeigt, dass bis 2020 ca. 4 % der österreichischen Fahrzeugflotte elektrisch betrieben sein kann. Bis 2050 könnte dieser Anteil auf ca. 74% anwachsen. Um das Treibhausgasreduktionspotenzial, das durch die Substitution von Elektrofahrzeugen erreicht werden kann, auszunützen, ist der Einsatz von Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen eine notwendige Voraussetzung."

How to avoid an electric shock. Electric cars: from hype to reality. Transport & Environment, Brussels, November 2009, 52 p. [formato PDF, 1,71 MB] "The report argues that industry and policymakers have relied in the past on distant ‘dream’ technologies to solve environmental problems rather than setting targets for CO2 emissions and fuel efficiency. Hydrogen, biofuels, and earlier interest in electric cars all came to nothing for different reasons but what they have in common is that they all distracted policymakers from forcing carmakers to improve fuel efficiency across the board."

Susan A. Shaheen, Timothy E. Lipman (University of California, Berkeley), Reducing greenhouse emissions and fuel consumption. Sustainable approaches for surface transportation. IATSS Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2007, p. 6-20 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 2,21 MB] "Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, accounting for approximately 14 percent of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27 percent in the U.S. Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation modes, scenarios analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis). Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential in Europe and Canada, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon) and carsharing (short-term auto access). Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling."

T&E – European Federation for Transport and Environment, CO2 Emissions from New Cars. Position paper in response to the European Commission proposal. European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Brussels, April 2008, 13 p. [formato PDF, 505 kB]. "Tackling fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new cars is the single most effective policy measure the EU can take to simultaneously address climate change, reduce dependence on oil, spur investment in low-carbon car technologies in Europe and elsewhere, and lower energy bills for European citizens. We welcome the European Commission’s proposal to set binding fleet average CO2 standards for new cars sold in Europe, following the failure of the decade-old voluntary industry commitment. However, the proposal has some serious shortcomings that must be addressed."

Francesco Avella (Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili), Le nuove tecnologie per la riduzione delle emissioni degli autoveicoli, I° Convegno nazionale sul particolato atmosferico, Università di Milano Bicocca, 12-14 maggio 2004, 28 slides [formato PDF, 625 kB].

Francesco Avella (Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili), Qualità dei combustibili e tecnologie motoristiche, Giornata di Studio "Emissioni Autoveicolari. Qualità dell'Aria e Salute", Pavia, 26 ottobre 2007, 26 slides [formato PDF, 936 kB].

Junji Kawasaki (East Japan Railway Company), Development of a fuel cell hybrid railcar. Third UIC Energy Efficiency Conference, September 19-21 2007, Portorož, Slovenia, 22 slides [formato PDF, 10,8 MB]. L'autore mette a confronto le prestazioni del treno diesel ibrido (in servizio) con quelle, migliori dal punto di vista del rendimento energetico, del treno sperimentale a celle a combustibile.

Reinhald Grünwald, Perspektiven eines CO2- und emissionsarmen Verkehrs - Kraftstoffe und Antriebe im Überblick. (Prospettive per un trasporto con ridotte emissioni inquinanti e di CO2, una panoramica dei carburanti e dei motori). Vorstudie zum TA-Projekt. (Arbeitsbericht Nr. 111), Büro fur Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB), Berlin, Juli 2006, 244 p. [formato PDF, 2,88 MB]. Lo studio, sviluppato per conto del parlamento tedesco, prende in esame la riduzione potenziale delle emissioni per i vari modi di trasporto e per i vari sistemi di propulsione (motori a benzina e diesel, ibridi, elettrici, celle a combustibile) e combustibili, le necessità produttive, di importazione e di infrastrutture per le varie soluzioni (metano, idrogeno).

Osservatorio Intelligent Transportation Systems, Intelligent Transportation Systems per le merci: la prospettiva degli utenti. Rapporto 2007. Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Gestionale, giugno 2007, 93 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "Rapporto contenente i risultati conclusivi della Ricerca 2007 dell'Osservatorio Intelligent Transportation Systems, focalizzata sul trasporto merci e sulla logistica distributiva, che ha previsto la realizzazione di oltre 100 casi di studio aziendali." (necessaria la registrazione gratuita sul sito dell'Osservatorio).

Bob Oliver, Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards For Canada. Pollution Probe, February 2005, 274 p. [formato PDF, 3,49 MB] "This report presents background information and options for the development of a greenhouse gas emissions and related vehicle fuel efficiency standard for Canada. The report is based on extensive research and critical review by experts in Canada and the United States. It is designed to serve as a resource for the development of a standard for Canada. It is not a prescriptive document; rather it provides background information on standards for reducing vehicle GHG emissions and increasing fuel efficiency and presents the options and issues to be addressed in developing a new and effective standard." "This report illustrates the need for a comprehensive approach to designing an effective greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standard for Canada. The report was prepared to serve as a resource for this purpose."

Federal Highway Administration, ITS Applications for Coordinating and Improving Human Services Transportation: a Cross-Cutting Study. Improving Service for the Transportation Disadvantaged , U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., August 2006, 68 p. [ formato PDF, 536 KB]. Rassegna delle applicazioni delle nuove tecnologie negli Stati Uniti al trasporto e alla mobilità delle persone handicappate.

Francesco Mazzone, Le tecnologie ITS per la riduzione dell'inquinamento da traffico, 17. convegno tecnico ACI “La strada per Kyoto”, Roma, 16-17 febbraio 2006, 25 slides (presentazione) [formato PDF, 773 kB].

Paolo Beria, L’approccio Analisi Costi Benefici per la valutazione economico-ambientale di opzioni tecnologiche nella sostituzione di flotte nazionali, 7. riunione SIET, Genova 18-20 novembre 2004, 13 p. [formato PDF, 165 kB].