Masuch, Kristin; Harnischmacher, Christine; Greve, Maike; and Trang, Simon (Georg-August-University Göttingen), Why Electrify? - A Qualitative-Empirical Study on Electrification of Fleet Transportation Systems. Research-in-Progress Papers, 74. ECIS 2020 Proceedings at AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2020, 11 p. [formato PDF, 729 kB]. "Global climate change is one of the most pressing matters needing to be addressed by the worldwide community. The deployment of electric vehicles in logistical fleets offers a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, organizations barely adopt this technology. Thus, this study aims to understand the factors that enable and hinder the innovation adoption process. In this context, we focus on the perceived characteristics of the electrified fleet as an innovation and on the characteristics of the organizations as the adopters of the innovation. Our study conducted semistructured interviews to assess and gain a comprehensive understanding of the influencing factors. The preliminary results suggest that the relevant characteristics of the decision-making unit such as corporate reputation, EV action radius requirements, and driving forces in the organization have positive and negative effects on the perceived characteristics of the innovation, which are cost of ownership, technical requirements, and environmental superiority. Both sets of characteristics in turn, determine whether the innovation of the electrification of the organization's transportation fleet is adopted or rejected."

Öko-Institut, Ensuring a Sustainable Supply of Raw Materials for Electric Vehicles: A Synthesis Paper on Raw Material Needs for Batteries and Fuel Cells. Agora Verkehrswende, Berlin, 2018, 74 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. "Electric vehicles are the key to decarbonising the transport sector. Indeed, research shows that the rapid, robust and widespread adoption of vehicles powered with electricity from batteries or fuel cells is essential for the global transport sector to become climate-neutral by 2050. However, a range of non-renewable materials that are only mined in a limited range of countries are required to manufacture batteries and fuel cells. This study examines whether these commodities (i.e. lithium, cobalt, nickel and graphite for batteries, and platinum for fuel cells) are available in sufficient quantities for the large-scale production of electric vehicles. In this connection, it explores how market prices for key commodities could potentially develop in coming decades. It also considers measures for ensuring raw-materials mining is socially and environmentally sustainable. The study's estimates are based on the climate protection scenarios developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Specifically, we estimate the commodity needs in 2030 and 2050 that would be associated with the IEA's forecasts for growth in electric-powered trucks, cars, buses, motorcycles and pedelecs. Our study assumes continued use of lithium-ion batteries up to 2050."

Peter Kasten, Moritz Mottschall, Wolfgang Köppel, Charlotte Degünther, Martin Schmied, Philipp Wüthrich, Erarbeitung einer fachlichen Strategie zur Energieversorgung des Verkehrs bis zum Jahr 2050 [A long-term energy strategy of the transport sector until 2050]. Endbericht. (Texte 72/2016). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, November 2016, 127 p. [formato PDF, 3,6 MB]. "The objective of this project is to compare different energy scenarios and options for a greenhouse-gas-neutral transport sector in 2050. This comparison will be used to provide recommendations for a long-term energy strategy of the transport sector. Energy supply costs, infrastructure costs and vehicle production costs will be compared in four different energy supply scenarios. Interactions with other energy sectors are not included in the analysis. Electrification of road transport in which the use of electricity is technologically possible is the most cost-efficient energy supply option; but systemic obstacles and low acceptance might impede broad market penetration of this technology. This study concludes that PtG-CH4 and PtL have similar costs in road transport. PtG-H2 and fuel cell vehicles appear to have higher costs, in particular with applications with low mileage per vehicle. Liquefied PtG-CH4 seems to be the most cost-efficient energy supply option in shipping and PtL fuels are the favored option in aviation due to a lack of alternative technologies. Additional electrification is a reasonable option in rail transport. The cost analysis in this report indicates that the cost for energy supply and the production of vehicles dominate the total cost of transforming the transport sector. The costs of energy supply gain relevance in long-distance transport applications (e.g. long-distance trucking or shipping). The cost for the adaption of the energy infrastructure is rather small compared to other cost factors. Public support for the adaption of infrastructure seems reasonable since the operation of the infrastructure is economically unprofitable with few vehicles during the market introduction phase. The case is similar for the market introduction of new drive technologies and alternative fuels. They are expensive to introduce on the market and might require regulative and market stimulation. International coordination of the energy supply strategies in the transport sector is required to reduce the risk of sunk costs."

Transport & Environment, Europe keeps burning more palm oil in its diesel cars and trucks. (Briefing). Transport & Environment, Brussels, November 2016, 4 p. [formato PDF, 254 kB]. "The use of palm oil for biodiesel has been increasing in the EU; 3.35 million tonnes of it was used in 2015. Currently 46% of palm oil imported to the EU is used for biodiesel, requiring around 1 million hectares of tropical land. The three largest producers of palm oil biodiesel are Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, accounting for 80% of production. Italy and Spain are also large users, while the Netherlands exports most of its palm biodiesel. The three countries consume 38% of what they produce, while the remaining 62% is used in the rest of the EU member states - thus making palm oil use a European issue. Despite earlier promises by the European Commission to phase out food-based biofuels, a recently leaked draft proposal on renewable energy proposes to have them account for a maximum 3.8% of Europe's transport fuel; only 1.1 percentage points down from the current 4.9% level. The Commission needs to stick to its promise and propose a phase-out of palm oil and other vegetable biodiesel by 2025, and land-based ethanol by 2030. This gives enough time for the industry to recover investments made and transition to production of second-generation biofuels."

Annika K. Jägerbrand, Joanna Dickinson, Anna Mellin, Mattias Viklund and Staffan Dahlberg, Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden. (VTI rapport 827a). VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, 2014, 103 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals."

Hans Jakob Walnum, Carlo Aall and Søren Løkke, Can Rebound Effects Explain Why Sustainable Mobility Has Not Been Achieved?. Sustainability 2014, 6, 9510-9537 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. Open Access. "Since the report “Our Common Future” launched sustainable development as a primary goal for society in 1987, both scientific and political discussions about the term’s definition and how to achieve sustainable development have ensued. The manifold negative environmental impacts of transportation are an important contributor to the so-far non-sustainable development in financially rich areas of the world. Thus, achieving sustainable mobility is crucial to achieving the wider challenge of sustainable development. In this article, we limit our sustainability focus to that of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We discuss whether rebound effects can reveal why sustainable mobility has not been reached. Rebound effects refer to behavioral or other systemic responses after the implementation of new technologies or other measures to reduce energy consumption. Three main strategies exist for achieving sustainable mobility: efficiency, substitution, and volume reduction. (1) The efficiency strategy is based on the idea that environmental problems caused by transport can be improved by developing new and more efficient technologies to replace old, inefficient, and polluting materials and methods; (2) The second strategy—substitution—argues for a change to less polluting means of transport; (3) The volume reduction strategy argue that efficiency and substitution are not sufficient, we must fundamentally change behavior and consumption patterns; people must travel less, and freight volumes must decrease. We found rebound effects associated with all three of the main strategies that will lead to offsetting expected savings in energy use and GHG emissions in the transport sector."

Peter Mock and Zifei Yang, Driving electrification: A global comparison of fiscal policy for electric vehicles. White Paper. The International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington DC, May 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 882 kB]. "Governments around the world—motivated by long-term targets for climate change mitigation and reduction of petroleum use—have set goals to increase electric vehicles’ future market share. In support of these goals, some governments have enacted direct subsidies, fiscal incentives, and regulatory policy to help accelerate the movement of electric vehicles into the marketplace. In the meantime, the number of electric vehicle models is increasing as early market adopters have begun to purchase these advanced-technology electric vehicles. The global sales of electric vehicles have about doubled in each of the past two years, from about 45,000 vehicles sold in 2011 to more than 200,000 in 2013. However, in the context of overall automobile sales, the consumer uptake of electric vehicles has been generally limited to less than 1% in nearly every major auto market. This report is the first to evaluate the response to fiscal incentives in 2013 to incentivize the purchase of plug-in electric vehicles in major vehicle markets around the world. It offers a synthesis of wide-ranging sales data, national taxation policy information, and direct electric vehicle purchasing rebates to analyze the link between government policy and electric vehicle sales. It does so by focusing on two representative vehicles, the Renault Zoe battery-electric vehicle (BEV) and the Volvo V60 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This work identifies markets with varying market growth in electric vehicles and quantifies the taxation difference between electric vehicles and their conventional, non-electric counterparts. The report incorporates fuel and electricity prices to evaluate the equivalent total cost of ownership. Finally, the paper links the level of incentives to the level of electric vehicle market share and sales growth, seeking to draw conclusions about the impact of different incentive programs. There are clear differences in the taxation benefits provided for electric vehicles and sales of electric vehicles across the major vehicle markets. Figure ES-1 summarizes the relationship between the equivalent per-vehicle fiscal incentive provided in each region (in percentage of vehicle base price, on the x-axis), and the respective passenger car market share of BEV and PHEV for 2012 and 2013 (y-axis). For example, Norway’s fiscal incentive of about 11,500 EUR per BEV (equivalent to about 55% of vehicle base price) is associated with a 6% market share for BEV in 2013, and a 90% market share increase from 2012 to 2013. Similarly, the fiscal incentive in the Netherlands of about 38,000 EUR for PHEV (equivalent to about 75% of vehicle base price) in 2013 is associated with a 5% market share for PHEV in 2013, and a 1,900% market share increase from 2012 to 2013. These two examples indicate how national fiscal policy can offer a powerful mechanism to reduce the effective total cost of ownership and entice consumers to purchase electric vehicles."

Kenji Amagai, Takayuki Takarada, Masato Funatsu, Kikuo Nezu, Development of low-CO2-emission vehicles and utilization of local renewable energy for the vitalization of rural areas in Japan. IATSS Research, 37, 2 (2014), 81-88 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]. Open Access. "Most of Japan's energy supply depends on imports from foreign countries, making the independence ratio of energy in Japan very low. The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to a mass shutdown of all the nuclear plants in Japan, a stoppage that is still in effect. In this paper, we review the energy supply situation and some social problems faced by rural areas in Japan. Given that lifestyles in rural Japan are reliant on automobiles, there is significant demand for the establishment of a sustainable mobility society. Furthermore, Japan is now entering an aging society ahead of other countries. In order to enhance the vitalization of rural areas and accelerate the establishment of sustainable society, our project developed low-CO2-emission vehicles (i.e., a single-driver EV [micro-EV] and a low-speed E-bus) for elderly people and tourists through the cooperation of regional industries, a local university, and a city office. This paper also reports some trial test results on renewable energy utilization as the driving energy supply for these low emission vehicles."

Eelco den Boer, Sanne Aarnink, Florian Kleiner, Johannes Pagenkopf, Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential. Report. CE Delft, Delft, July 2013, 151 p. [formato PDF, 3,83 MB]. "The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, a the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market."

Christopher Cherry, Jonathan Weinert, Yang Xinmiao, Eric Van Gelder, Electric bikes in the People’s Republic of China: impact on the environment and prospects for growth. Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 2009, 94 p. [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]. "Electric bikes (e-bikes) provide cheap, convenient, and relatively energy-efficient transportation to an estimated 40 million to 50 million people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as of 2007. They are quickly becoming one of the dominant travel modes in the PRC. As e-bike use grows, however, concerns are rising about lead pollution from their batteries and emissions from their use of grid electricity, primarily generated by coal power plants. This report examines the environmental performance of e-bikes relative to other competing modes, their market potential, and the viability of alternative battery technologies. The analysis is divided into five sections. Section 1 describes the environmental impact of e-bikes in the PRC. Section 2 analyzes the environmental impact of alternative modes and compares e-bike emissions with those of alternative modes. Section 3 discusses market potential and identifies factors that influence e-bike adoption. Section 4 presents prospects for battery technology improvements in the near and long term. Finally, section 5 frames the role of e-bikes in the PRC’s transportation system and recommends policies for the central government and the cities of the PRC."

Kazunori Kojima and Lisa Ryan (International Energy Agency), Transport Energy Efficiency. Implementation of IEA Recommendations since 2009 and next steps. Information paper. Paris, OCDE/IEA, September 2010, p.60 [formato PDF, 2,84 MB]. "Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so (IEA, 2009a). In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations for seven sectors: industry; transport; utilities; buildings; lighting; appliances; and cross-sectoral. Its four recommendations for the transport sector focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), and eco-driving. The IEA report, Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA member countries on track? (hereafter referred to as the Tracking Progress report) describes the level of implementation of the energy efficiency recommendations by IEA countries. It found that there was poor implementation of the transport recommendations up to March 2009 (IEA, 2009b). For this reason, and the fact that transport is such an important user of energy, it was decided to examine the extent of implementation of the transport recommendations in IEA countries. Though the IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations represent a significant step in addressing the continued high use of energy by the transport sector, it is important to continue to review the recommendations and consider whether their scope or focus should be changed. So this report has two purposes: firstly, to examine in more detail the fuel efficiency policies that have been implemented in IEA countries since March 2009 and update the Tracking Progress report; and secondly, to consider the four IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations and discuss whether complementary measures could extend their scope. This report concludes that during 2009 some progress was made in the implementation of the existing IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations and notes the following developments in implementation of each of the transport recommendations."

Pedro José Pérez Martínez, Andrés Monzón de Cáceres (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Consumo de energía por el transporte en España y tendencias de emisión (Transport energy Consumption in Spain and emission trends). Observatorio Medioambiental, 2008, vol. 11, 127-147 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 104 KB]. "This study analyzes the evolution of transport indicators in Spain and compares with other EU countries. The analysis shows the weakness of the transport sector: bigger growth of passengers than freight and doubled growth than in EU. This scenario is due to the inefficient modal share: there is a bigger growth in the most inefficient transport modes. The energy efficiency improvements reach by the technological improvements of both fuels and vehicles, are compensated by the increment in the travel distances and the motor size of the vehicles. The research presents results that determine the evolution of the energy consumption during last 15 years. The results allow to identify the main problems in order to define the measures to correct the current negative trend. Finally, there is a demonstration of how different measures can help to reduce road transport emissions in a medium-long term. The measures are related to the proposals of the Spanish Strategy of Energy Efficiency – E4."

Clean Air Power Ltd, Combining diesel and natural gas for clear cost efficiency. Overview of natural gas as a road fuel in: United Kingdom, Germany, Holland, Italy, Spain. High Wycombe, June 2007, 60 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]. "The road transport industry in Europe is currently faced with the twin challenges of rising operating costs and increasingly onerous environmental legislation. There is considerable movement towards the increased use of alternative “greener” fuels however, the only such fuel currently available that offers a practical solution to containing cost and reducing emissions is Natural Gas. With the advent of Clean Air Power Dual-FuelTM technology the traditional problems of limited range and major engine adaptation have now been solved and a system is now available to allow vehicles to gain all the environmental and cost advantages of using natural gas without compromising on operating distance. Additionally, the Dual-FuelTM system does not use spark ignition and therefore avoids the mechanical complexities of standard NG engines whilst offering significantly better efficiencies and cleaner emissions."

Govinda R. Timilsina, Hari B. Dulal, A Review of Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector. (Policy Research Working Paper ; WPS4867). The World Bank, Washington, DC, March 2009, 54 p. [formato PDF, 267 KB]. "This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities."

Enerdata, The impact of lower oil consumption in Europe on world oil prices. Grenoble, February 2009, 30 p. [formato PDF, 102 KB]. "European fuel efficiency standards for new vehicles will lead to a lower global oil price according to a groundbreaking new study published today by Enerdata energy consulting. National governments must respond by increasing fuel taxes to counteract the increase in oil demand and greenhouse gas emissions that would result, according to T&E who commissioned the study. Economic assessments of energy efficiency measures normally use fixed oil prices when accounting for economic benefits. But the Enerdata study, for the first time, examined the future effect on the oil price itself when carmakers are forced to comply with European fuel efficiency standards from 2012. The report found that for every 1% reduction in global oil consumption, the price of oil drops by up to 2%. Furthermore it found that the economic benefits of fuel efficiency measures in Europe are typically underestimated by up to 17% because of the failure to account for a drop in oil prices."

Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, Andrew Little, The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. ICF International, February 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 150 kB]. "This study began with the hypothesis that public transportation interacts with land use patterns, changing travel patterns in neighborhoods served by transit. Importantly, this effect would apply not just to transit riders, who make an exchange of automobile use for transit, but also for people who do not use transit. These people, who live in places shaped by transit, would tend to drive less, reducing their overall petroleum use and their carbon footprint. In order to test this hypothesis, we began with a survey of the literature on the interaction of land use and travel patterns. The literature focuses on three major categories of influences on travel: land use/urban environment, socio-demographic factors, and cost of travel. For the purposes of this study, land use/urban environment variables were further broken down to include a separate category for transportation infrastructure. Many past studies have found a significant correlation between land use variables and travel behavior, though results vary depending on how the problem and the variables are defined. Boarnet and Crane (2001) emphasized that without accounting for social characteristics, like age and education, land use-transportation models are incomplete. They also discussed the importance of economic measures, such as household or personal income, as a measure of the cost of travel time. Other studies evaluated the relative importance of these and other variables, informing this model. After evaluating possible variables for this model, we formed a statistical model that would allow us to tease apart the relationship between land use, transit availability, and travel behavior."

Transportation Economics and Management Systems, Inc. (TEMS), Impact of high oil prices on freight transportation : modal shift potential in five corridors. Technical report. Maritime Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, D.C., October 2008, 60 p. [formato PDF, 768 kB]. "In an environment of high oil prices, the results of this study, as well as the previous NC/NV Market Assessment, indicate that container shipping services are likely to become viable not only on the GLSLS but now also on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast corridors as well. Further work to follow up such high level analysis with greater market detail appears to be warranted. Overall, the impact of higher oil prices is to create a strong case for investing in the waterborne transportation industry – for both inland and coastal distribution. Potential increases in oil prices already forecast could increase transport costs two- to eight-fold. Despite the wide range in forecast oil prices, even the minimum forecast is creating a transportation environment more like that of Europe in the 1990’s than previous short-term fuel price hikes previously experienced in the United States. Historically, coastal and inland waterborne transportation has enjoyed a larger market share in Europe than in the United States because of Europe’s higher inland rail and truck transport costs that make water cost-effective. The recent European experience also demonstrates that water-based logistics chains can work effectively, for distributing not only bulk goods and industrial products but consumer goods as well. This could well become the case in the United States, if the cost differential between truck, rail, and water transportation is sustained at the levels reached during the summer of 2008 as the result of higher oil prices. Finally, it is recommended that fuel price levels be considered in future freight planning with respect to the relative roles of the various modes of transportation. While rail has enjoyed dramatically improved productivity in recent years, many of its gains relative to water stand to be erased should fuel prices rise to anticipated levels in coming years. As water is the most energy-efficient mode of freight transportation, planners should recognize it is likely to play a greatly expanded role in the future. Hence, national policy towards the water mode needs to become more proactive. Given higher oil prices, market forces could well promote a significantly enhanced role for water in the U.S. transportation system, provided that the potential for this modal shift is recognized and supported by public policies that are directed toward developing the needed infrastructure and in encouraging industry to make the needed investments."

Rosa M. González-Marrero, Rosa M. Lorenzo-Alegría, Gustavo A. Marrero (Universidad de La Laguna), Fuel Consumption, Economic Determinants and Policy Implications for Road Transport in Spain. (Documento de trabajo 2008-23). FEDEA (Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada), Madrid, June 2008, 18 p. [formato PDF, 393 KB]. "Road transport is one of the most polluting sectors in Spain, generating almost one fourth of total CO2 emissions. Moreover, the consumption of fuel is the main source of these emissions. In this paper we estimate several fixed-effect models to study the economic factors that explain the short-term variations in fuel usage per vehicle, distinguishing between gasoline and diesel, using data from the 17 regions in Spain between 2000 and 2006. Price variations in fuel, modernization of vehicles, improved infrastructures and the dieselization process have proved ineffective in reducing energy usage per-vehicle in Spain, which would indicate the need to implement several measures simultaneously to control the increasing use of road transport."

Joint Transport Research Centre, Oil Dependence: Is Transport Running Out of Affordable Fuel?. Round Table, Paris, 15-16 November. Summary and conclusions. (Discussion paper No. 2008-5). Joint Transport Research Centre, Paris, February 2008, p. 33 [formato PDF, 442 KB].

Sofronis Clerides, Theodoros Zachariadis, The Effect of Standards and Fuel Prices on Automobile Fuel Economy: An International Analysis. September 2007, 29 p. [formato PDF, 245 KB]. "There is an intense debate over whether fuel economy standards or fuel taxation is the more efficient policy instrument to raise fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions of cars. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of standards and fuel prices in new car fuel economy with the aid of cross-section time series analysis of data from 18 countries. We employ a dynamic specification of new car fuel consumption as a function of fuel prices, standards and per capita income. It turns out that standards have induced considerable fuel savings throughout the world, although their welfare impact is not examined here. If standards are not further tightened then retail fuel prices would have to increase significantly in order to attain similar fuel savings. Finally, without higher fuel prices or tighter standards, one should not expect any marked improvements in fuel economy under ‘business as usual’ conditions."

Kenneth A. Small, Kurt Van Dender, Long Run Trends in Transport Demand, Fuel Price Elasticities and Implications of the Oil Outlook for the Transport Policy. (Discussion paper No. 2007-16). Joint Transport Research Centre, Paris, December 2007, p. 38 [formato PDF, 287 KB].

David Banister, Reducing energy use in UK transport. (Working paper N° 1028). Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, September 2007, p. 10 [formato PDF, 102 KB]. "Transport is making a very limited contribution to carbon emissions reduction targets in the UK, and this paper argues the case for a substantial shift in thinking away from the concentration on technological alternatives to one that combines technological efficiency with behavioural change. It presents a critique of the UK approach to energy and transport, commenting on the approach and measures used, and their effectiveness. The focus here is on the 2007 Energy White Paper, the Climate Change Programme and the Environmental Audit Committee report on carbon emissions from transport. The necessary policy measures are available, but at present there is not sufficient political and public support for effective action. Technology on its own will not be enough."

Reinhald Grünwald, Perspektiven eines CO2- und emissionsarmen Verkehrs - Kraftstoffe und Antriebe im Überblick. (Prospettive per un trasporto con ridotte emissioni inquinanti e di CO2, una panoramica dei carburanti e dei motori). Vorstudie zum TA-Projekt. (Arbeitsbericht Nr. 111), Büro fur Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB), Berlin, Juli 2006, 244 p. [formato PDF, 2,88 MB]. Lo studio, sviluppato per conto del parlamento tedesco, prende in esame la riduzione potenziale delle emissioni per i vari modi di trasporto e per i vari sistemi di propulsione (motori a benzina e diesel, ibridi, elettrici, celle a combustibile) e combustibili, le necessità produttive, di importazione e di infrastrutture per le varie soluzioni (metano, idrogeno).

International Energy Agency, Saving oil and reducing CO2 emissions in transport. Options & strategies. Paris, OCDE/IEA, 2001, p.197 [formato PDF, 1,86 MB]. "This book identifies the potential for new strategies and options, as well as reviews and assesses existing ones, to reduce oil use and greenhouse gas emissions, and help meet targets set in the Kyoto Protocol. This report on the transportation sector is the first of a broader study whose purpose is to highlight options and strategies in a number of sectors that can improve energy efficiency and cut emissions."

José V. Colomer Ferrandiz y Ricardo Insa Franco, El consumo energético en el transporte urbano y metropolitano. Los modos ferroviarios. Ingeniería y territorio, n. 76, 2006 (Transporte ferroviario metropolitano y regional), p.48-51 [formato PDF, 208 KB]. Analisi dei consumi energetici dei diversi modi di trasporto urbani basata sui dati dell'area metropolitana di Valencia.

STEER Projects (Energy aspects of transport). STEER projects promote the more sustainable energy use in transport (i.e. increased energy efficiency, new and renewable fuel sources, and the take-up of alternatively propelled vehicles). The specific focus is on alternative vehicle propulsion, policy measures for the more efficient use of energy in transport, and strenghthening the knowledge of local management agencies in the transport field. (Progetti europei per promuovere l'efficienza energetica nei trasporti urbani, nell'ambito della mobilità sostenibile).

Duccio Bianchi, La resistenza italiana alle politiche per la riduzione delle emissioni climalteranti e il declino dell’efficienza energetica nazionale. Atti del convegno “Clima che cambia” (Legambiente Lombardia), aprile 2004, 12 p. [formato PDF, 129 kB].

Institut de l'energie et de l'environnement de la Francophonie (IEPF), L'efficacité énergétique dans les transports. Fiche technique PRISME n.2, Québec, 2002, 8 p. [formato PDF, 171 kB] (scheda informativa, autore Richard Darbéra)

Romeo Danielis, Energy use for transport in Italy: Past trends, in "Energy policy", 23 (1995) p. 799-807 [ necessario l'accesso a ScienceDirect - formato PDF, 744 KB]

Romeo Danielis, Consumo di energia ed emissioni di CO2 nei trasporti in Italia, in "Economia delle fonti di energia e dell'ambiente", 39 (1996) p. 187-210 [non disponibile online]


Chris N. Le Fevre, A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine transport fuel. OIES PAPER: NG 133. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK, June 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. This in part is due to the relatively poor data quality on marine fuel usage but primarily a reflection on the still early nature of market development and uncertainties over alternative fuel options. This paper, which is a follow up to an earler study published in 2013, aims: to assess the most promising sectors for LNG in marine transportation in global shipping markets; to derive a set of metrics that could be used to generate forecasts of LNG demand in the marine sector and to assess the validity of current forecasts; to assess the current state and planned state of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development; to briefly mention the comparative prospects for LNG in land-based transport. The paper concludes that the shipping sectors that are likely to be more promising for LNG include ro-ro ferries, cruise ships, bulk carriers, large container vessels, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, LNG tankers. It would also appear that because of the costs of retrofitting, most LNG-fuelled ships will be newly built and owners/operators are unlikely to commit without concluding a long-term supply contract covering both pricing and physical delivery. LNG suppliers which are prepared to conclude such contracts will provide an important stimulus to the market. The lead times involved and the relatively low capital cost of infrastructure suggest that refuelling capacity is unlikely to be a constraint. A review of recent forecasts suggest that global demand will be in the range of 25 to 30 mtpa of LNG by 2030. The paper describes how many new or converted vessels fuelled by LNG would be required to reach this level, how it might be achieved and where the main obstacles to uptake are likely to occur. It concludes, that on balance, a demand level of around 15 mtpa (excluding LNG tankers) by 2030 is a more realistic prospect at present."


Railway Handbook 2012. Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. International Energy Agency, International Union of Railways, Paris, 2012, 116 p. [formato PDF, 32,1 MB]. "In this book you will find the result of the harmonization of the UIC energy/CO2 railway database with the IEA world energy balances (IEA, 2011a) and CO2 from fuel combustion (IEA, 2011b) databases. The publication is composed of a European part, followed by a selection from Non-European countries where partial data were available".

Kimmo Klemola (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology), Life-cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of world cars. February 2006, 5 p. [formato PDF, 138 kB] + database of Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions data for various car models (Unites States, EU-15, Finland, Sweden)

Stacy C. Davis, Susan W. Diegel, Robert G. Boundy, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27. U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2008, 361 p. [formato PDF, 2,69 MB]

ENEA, Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2005. Volume 1 : l'analisi. Roma, 2005, 532 p. [formato PDF, 4.82 MB] (vedi il cap. 2: la domanda di energia nei settori d'uso)

ENEA, Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2005. Volume 2 : i dati. Roma, 2005, 340 p. [formato PDF, 9.18 MB] (vedi i dati su intensità energetica, consumo energetico unitario e consumi finali nei trasporti)

ENEA, Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2004. Volume 1 : l'analisi. Roma, 2004, 462 p. [formato PDF, 6.24 MB] (vedi il cap. 2: la domanda di energia nei settori d'uso)

ENEA, Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2004. Volume 2 : i dati. Roma, 2004, 360 p. [formato PDF, 19.8 MB] (vedi i dati su intensità energetica, consumo energetico unitario e consumi finali nei trasporti)

European Communities, Energy, transport and environment indicators pocketbook. Data 1992-2002, 2005 edition. Luxembourg, 2005, 175 p. [formato PDF, 2.71 MB]


mobilitah2.it. Mobilità Idrogeno Italia (MH2IT) riunisce i protagonisti della filiera idrogeno per dotare l'Italia delle infrastrutture necessarie al pieno sviluppo della mobilità elettrica con idrogeno e celle a combustibile all'orizzonte 2025. MH2IT ha redatto una proposta di Piano Nazionale Idrogeno, che il Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico ha integrato nel Quadro Strategico Nazionale per i combustibili alternativi, ai sensi della direttiva 2014/94/UE.

eMobilitätOnline ist das neue Branchen- und Informationsportal für die Elektromobilität im deutschsprachigen Raum. Viele Firmen oder deren Engagement und Produkte im Bereich der Elektromobilität sind noch unbekannt. Darüber hinaus fehlt ein bundesweiter Kompetenzatlas aktiver Unternehmen, in dem gezielt nach Zulieferern, Dienstleistern und Kooperationspartner gesucht werden kann. Wir haben es uns zur Aufgabe gemacht, dies zu ändern und die Branche zu vernetzen.

ENEA, Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile.

EurObserv'ER. Since 1998, The EurObserv'ER barometer measures the progress made by renewable energies in each sector and in each member State of the European Union in an as up-to-date way as possible (with figures less than 12 months old). EurObserv'ER produces a series of figure-backed indicators covering energetic, technological and economic dimensions. Every two months one barometer dedicated to one particular renewable energy sector is published in the magazine Systèmes Solaires - le Journal des Énergies Renouvelables and on PDF version. Moreover, onec a year an overview barometer gathered the main indicators published during the year and complete them with additionnal renewable sectors which has not been detailed. La versione italiana dei barometri, scaricabile gratuitamente in formato elettronico da ENEA, è realizzata dall’Ufficio Studi ENEA sulla base di un accordo di collaborazione con il consorzio Observ’ER e con la rivista QualEnergia che ne cura la pubblicazione (su carta).

International Energy Agency.

S.I.En.A. Biodiesel, Progetto pilota per lo Sviluppo Integrato delle Energie rinnovabili dal settore Agricolo. "Il progetto intende sperimentare una filiera integrata del biodiesel a partire da girasoli coltivati in Provincia di Siena e per il suo utilizzo in autobus e mezzi per la raccolta dei rifiuti operanti sul territorio senese. Ha durata biennale (2007 – 2008) ed è cofinanziato dalla Fondazione Monte dei Paschi di Siena e dalla Regione Toscana." Il sito contiene documenti divulgativi e scientifici (convegno dell'11 giugno 2009).

Biocombustibili : produzione e utilizzo dei biocombustibili liquidi derivati da oli vegetali. Sito sviluppato e gestito dal Comitato Termotecnico Italiano nell'ambito del programma PROBIO "Agricoltura per la città" ideato dalla Regione Lombardia e promosso dal MIPAF.


Johanna Yliskylä-Peuralahti (University of Turku), Sustainable Energy Transitions in Maritime Transport. The Case of Biofuels. The Journal of Sustainable Mobility, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 67-93, December 2016 (27 p.) [formato PDF, 837 kB]. "In maritime transport, progress towards a reduction in the environmental impacts, and responses to more recent calls for corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been slow and geographically highly uneven. In this paper the multi-level perspective of transition studies is used as an analytical setting to understand the drivers and barriers for the environmental upgrading of maritime transport in the Baltic Sea region. The specific focus of the analysis is on energy questions in the shipping industry. A case study methodology is followed in gathering and analysis of the data. With a company case, a possible path to biofuel use in maritime transport is illustrated; and, in the light of the sustainability transition framework, the potential barriers that new renewable energy niches are currently facing-before they can become mainstream technologies-are discussed. The results show that at a landscape level, low fossil fuel prices reduce the economic profitability of using non-fossil energy sources in maritime transport, and inhibit the development of related infrastructure. At a regime-level, the limited demand for low-emission, non-fossil fuel-based maritime transport from the side of the cargo-owners, lack of interest, and maritime regulations that do not currently support greenhouse gas reduction or energy efficiency strongly enough, hinder the transition. The paper ends with a discussion and conclusions section, summarizing the research and highlighting policy implications."

Detlef Stolten (Institute of Electrochemical Process Engineering, Jülich) Achievements and Issues of Fuel Cell Transportation at the Brink of Market Introduction. 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Gwangju, June 15-20, 2014, 38 slides [formato PDF, 3,35 MB].

Philippe Menanteau, Marie-Marguerite Quéméré, Alain Le Duigou, Sandra Le Bastard, An economic analysis of the production of hydrogen from wind-generated electricity for use in transport applications. (halshs-00582762) (Paper published in : Energy Policy, vol. 39, n° 5, May 2011, pp. 2957-2965). 2011, 18 p. [formato PDF, 210 kB]. "Wind-generated electricity is often considered a particularly promising option for producing hydrogen from renewable energy sources. However, the economic performances of such systems generally remain unclear because of unspecified or favourable assumptions and operating conditions. The aim of this paper is to clarify these conditions by examining how the hydrogen produced is used. The analysis which has been conducted in the framework of the HyFrance 3 project concerns hydrogen for transport applications. Different technical systems are considered such as motorway hydrogen filling stations, Hythane®-fueled buses or second-generation biofuels production which present contrasted hydrogen use characteristics. This analysis reveals considerable variations in hydrogen production costs depending on the demand profiles concerned, with the most favourable configurations being those in which storage systems are kept to a minimum."

Laura Lonza (JRC-EI), Heinz Hass, Heiko Maas (EUCAR), Alan Reid, Kenneth D. Rose (CONCAWE), EU renewable energy targets in 2020: Analysis of scenarios for transport fuels. JEC Biofuels Programme. Final report. (JRC Scientific and Technical Reports). European Union, Luxembourg, March 2011, 70 p. [formato PDF, 687 kB]. "In the three-year JEC Biofuels Programme, the research collaboration between the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, EUCAR and CONCAWE has investigated the potential role of biofuels and other renewable and alternative energy sources in achieving the mandatory 10% renewable energy target in the transport sector by 2020 with an associated calculation of the impact of renewable fuels on the Fuel Quality directive target. The focus of the analysis was on road transport although all other transport modes have been considered. A dedicated analytical tool, the so-called Fleet and Fuels (F&F) model, has been developed and used. The modelled fleet development leads to a transport fuel demand and constitutes the basis on which penetration and distribution of alternative motor fuels - and availability thereof - are analysed. The impacts of key parameters on the achievement of the RED 10% target are analysed in sensitivity cases."

Michiel Nijboer, The contribution of natural gas vehicles to sustainable transport. (Working paper). International Energy Agency, Paris, 2010, 84 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. "This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development."

European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels, Future Transport Fuels. Report of the European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels. . January 2011, 81 p. [formato PDF, 3,30 MB]. "Transport fuel supply today, in particular to the road sector, is dominated by oil [1], which has proven reserves that are expected to last around 40 years [2]. The combustion of mineral oil derived fuels gives rise to CO2 emissions and, despite the fact the fuel efficiency of new vehicles has been improving, so that these emit significantly less CO2 , total CO2 emissions from transport have increased by 24% from 1990 to 2008, representing 19.5% of total European Union (EU) greenhouse gas emissions. The EU objective is an overall reduction of CO2 emissions of 80-95% by the year 2050, with respect to the 1990 level [3]. Decarbonisation of transport and the substitution of oil as transport fuel therefore have both the same time horizon of 2050. Improvement of transport efficiency and management of transport volumes are necessary to support the reduction of CO2 emissions while fossil fuels still dominate, and to enable finite renewable resources to meet the full energy demand from transport in the long term. Alternative fuel options for substituting oil as energy source for propulsion in transport are: Electricity/hydrogen, and biofuels (liquids) as the main options; Synthetic fuels as a technology bridge from fossil to biomass based fuels; Methane (natural gas and biomethane) as complementary fuels; LPG as supplement. Single-fuel solutions covering all transport modes would be technically possible with liquid biofuels and synthetic fuels. But feedstock availability and sustainability considerations constrain their supply potential. Thus the expected future energy demand in transport can most likely not be met by one single fuel. Fuel demand and greenhouse gas challenges will require the use of a great variety of primary energies. There is rather widespread agreement that all sustainable fuels will be needed to resolve the expected supply-demand tensions. The main alternative fuels should be available EU-wide with harmonised standards, to ensure EU-wide free circulation of all vehicles. Incentives for the main alternative fuels and the corresponding vehicles should be harmonised EU-wide to prevent market distortions and to ensure economies of scale supporting rapid and broad market introduction of alternative fuels. The main alternative fuels considered should be produced from low-carbon, and finally from carbon-free sources. Substitution of oil in transport by these main alternative fuels leads then inherently to a decarbonisation of transport if the energy system is decarbonised. Decarbonisation of transport and decarbonisation of energy should be considered as two complementary strategic lines, closely related, but decoupled and requiring different technical approaches, to be developed in a consistent manner. The different transport modes require different options of alternative fuels: Road transport could be powered by electricity for short distances, hydrogen and methane up to medium distance, and biofuels/synthetic fuels, LNG and LPG up to long distance; Railways should be electrified wherever feasible, otherwise use biofuels ; Aviation should be supplied from biomass derived kerosene; Waterborne transport could be supplied by biofuels (all vessels), hydrogen (inland waterways and small boats), LPG (short sea shipping), LNG and nuclear (maritime).

Anselm Eisentraut (IEA), Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries. Information paper. International Energy Agency, Paris, February 2010, 221 p. [formato PDF, 5,22 MB]. "This study aims to identify opportunities and constraints related to the potential future production of second-generation biofuels in major economies and developing countries, and to examine under which conditions the new fuels could be produced sustainably in these countries. The paper identifies global drivers for second-generation biofuel development, discusses projections on biomass potentials and assesses the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for the sustainable production of lignocellulosic biofuels."

Biofuels barometer / Baromètre biocarburants. (Systèmes solaires N.192/2009) EurObserv'ER, July / Juillet 2009, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,72 MB]. "With almost 10 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe), biofuel consumption in 2008 represented a 3.3% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport in the European Union. The rate of progression of the sector marked time however with growth of 28.5% between 2007 and 2008 compared to 45.7% between 2006 and 2007. Certain EU countries will have to redouble efforts in the next two years to come into line with the European biofuels directive which aims for an incorporation rate of 5.75% by 2010."

Chi paga il prezzo dei carburanti verdi. La corsa ai biocarburanti si scontra con la scarsità di terre arabili. I paesi industrializzati vanno alla ricerca del suolo nei paesi del Sud del mondo. Cosa succede in Italia. Ricerca a cura di Nicola Borello. ActionAid, Milano, 2010, 32 p. [formato PDF, 3,48 MB]. "Il rapporto prende in considerazione studi e ricerche svolte negli ultimi anni da rilevanti istituzioni internazionali come la FAO, l’OCSE e la Banca Mondiale. Ma anche rilevanti studi e ricerche già condotti da Actionaid e da altre associazioni non governative quali l’Unione Petrolifera Italiana, Nomisma, Bird Life International, FERN, Friend of the Earth Europe e Oxfam."

Mirco Federici, D. Spinelli, S. Jez, Riccardo Basosi (Univ. Siena), I vantaggi energetico/ambientali di una filiera Biodiesel su scala locale nel quadro della nuova direttiva Europea. Seminario "Presentazione risultati finali del Progetto Pilota per lo Sviluppo Integrato delle Energie Rinnovabili dal Settore Agricolo – Progetto S.I.En.A. - sottoprogetto Filiera Biodiesel", Firenze, 11/06/2009, 27 slides [formato PDF, 1,50 MB].

Biofuels: Handle with Care. An analysis of EU biofuel policy with recommendations for action. BirdLife European Division, European Environmental Bureau, FERN, Friends of the Earth Europe, Oxfam International, Transport and Environment, November 2009, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,28 MB]. "The report’s key conclusions are as follows: The estimated global impact of the increased use of biofuels, resulting from this EU policy, on land use change and biodiversity are very significant. Meeting the 10% transport target using predominantly biofuels would require the combination of a large increase in the area of land devoted to biofuel crops and an unprecedented increase in the intensity of farming. Together this would adversely affect carbon stock and biodiversity, through habitat conversion and intensification of farming methods. Such additional pressure on ecosystems and biodiversity would come at a time when the world is already facing an unprecedented collapse in the numbers of species. While the ‘sustainability criteria’ in the renewable energy law were ostensibly put in place to ensure, inter alia, that only biofuels that reduce GHG emissions by at least 35% compared to fossil fuels would qualify for government support, in practice the Directive is more likely to increase transport emissions than reduce them. That is due to the failure to address indirect land use change (ILUC) mentioned above and because of weak and opaque verification mechanisms that are intended to prevent direct land use change. As the main justification for public policies supporting biofuels is reduced GHG emissions, it is essential that this issue is properly addressed by EU policymakers and that ILUC factor is included in the GHG emissions calculation associated with biofuels. The sustainability criteria also fail to effectively mitigate against the risk of widespread impacts on biodiversity, and on vulnerable communities in some of the poorest regions of the world. The process of monitoring and verifying the sustainability of biofuels that are sold on the European market is dependent on good governance in producer countries and robust enforcement and monitoring of standards. Even if the law’s certification schemes are implemented correctly (and there are many doubts over enforcement), they will not resolve the numerous sustainability concerns, most notably indirect impacts on land use change and biodiversity. The current process for calculating GHG emissions from biofuels and, in particular, the default GHG savings values assigned to different types and production pathways of biofuels, is opaque and raises questions about the independence, credibility and validity of the process." Summary in English, French and German.

Karl M. Jonasson, Roald A. A. Suurs, Marko P. Hekkert, Assessing the Development of Biofuels in the Netherlands and Sweden: A Critical Comparison of (Strategic) Energy Policies. Conference paper, Workshop on Sustainable Innovation Journeys, Utrecht, October 2006, 40 p. [formato PDF, 176 kB].

Colin J. Cockroft, Anthony D. Owen, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses: an Economic Assessment. [conference at the] British Institute of Energy Economics (BIEE) in association with UK Energy Research Centre, St John's College Oxford, 2005, 10 p. [formato PDF, 128 kB]. "A Cost Benefit Analysis of Perth's Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses."

David L. Greene, Paul N. Leiby, Brian James, Julie Perez, Margo Melendez, Anelia Milbrandt, Stefan Unnasch, Daniel Rutherford, Matthew Hooks, Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. (ORNL/TM-2008/30). Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 2008, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,43 MB] "Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives."

Daniel M. Kammen, Alexander E. Farrell, Richard J. Plevin, Andrew D. Jones, Gregory F. Nemet, and Mark A. Delucchi, Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis. (UCB-ITS-TSRC-RR-2008-1). UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, March 2008, 31 p. [formato PDF, 765 kB] "In this paper, we review some of the basic energy balance and climate change impact issues associated with biofuels. For both the basic energy and greenhouse gas balances of producing and using a range of fuels, and for the increasingly debated and important issues of nongreenhouse gas impacts such as land, fertilizer, and water use, we conclude that an improved framework for the analysis and evaluation of biofuels is needed. These new methodologies and data sets are needed on both physical and socioeconomic aspects of the life-cycle of biofuels. We detail some of components that could be used to build this methodology and highlight key areas for future research. We look at the history and potential impacts of building the resource base for biofuel research, as well as at some of the land-use and socioeconomic impacts of different feedstock-to-fuel pathways."

Anders Christian Hansen (Roskilde University), Where in Europe will hydrogen become competitive first?. (EECG Research Paper 07/07). Department of Environment, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde, 2007, 15 p. [formato PDF, 0,98 MB]. "The hydrogen and fuel cell (HFC) technology is expected to be commercially available at some point of time in the period 2015-25. It will, however, not be equally competitive in all regions and countries of Europe at the same time. The paper identifies the regions and countries where the conditions are most favourable for using HFC technology in automotive transport. These conditions include high fuel taxes, significant vehicle tax reductions for HFC vehicles, high car and population density, and a high level of disposable income. Other more local incentives such as road tolls, congestion taxes, and parking fees could be expected to be used in areas where the HFC technology can give a significant contribution to reduction of local air pollution. These regions are shown too."

Benefici ambientali del metano per autotrazione. Euromobility, Roma, 2007, 53 p. [formato PDF, 3,09 MB].

Leaping Before They Looked: Lessons from Europe’s Experience with the 2003 Biofuels Directive. Clean Air Task Force, Boston MA, October 2007, 32 p. [formato PDF, 5,73 MB]. "After a thorough review of the European Union's biofuels directive mandating use of biofuels in part to reduce greenhouse gases, this report finds that Congress should slow down and consider the potential adverse consequences before it rushes ahead with a plan to dramatically increase mandated use of biofuels. The report finds that the E.U. strategy backfired, leading to increased greenhouse gases, tropical deforestation, and biodiversity loss as well as increased competition for food, water, land, and other resources in developed and developing countries. It notes that while tropical deforestation is occurring at a staggering rate in many countries seeking to produce biofuels for the new and growing markets, the destruction of boggy peat lands in Southeast Asia now represents one of the leading sources of global warming emissions worldwide. The conversion from peat lands to palm oil plantations releases the equivalent of 8% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use, making Indonesia the 3rd ranking emitter of CO2, behind only the US and China. These unintended consequences - though not all unanticipated - highlight the need for updated, comprehensive tools to analyze the true net impacts of policies that increase biofuels use, the report concludes. The report notes that current life-cycle analyses do not account for greenhouse gas emissions and other global warming impacts that may be caused by changes in land use; food, fuel, and materials markets; and impacts and demand for natural resources such as water."

Richard Doornbosch and Ronald Steenblik, Biofuels: is the cure worse than the disease?. (20th) Round Table on Sustainable Development, Paris, 11-12 September 2007. (SG/SD/RT(2007)3/REV1). Paris, OECD, 2007, 57 p. [formato PDF, 605 KB]. "Biofuels have been championed as an energy source that can increase security of supply, reduce vehicle emissions and provide a new income stream for farmers. These claims are contested, however. Critics assert that biofuels will increase energy-price volatility, food prices and even life-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper presents salient facts and figures to shed light on these controversial issues and asks whether biofuels offer a cure that is worse than the disease they seek to heal."

Mark A. Delucchi, Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels. Draft Report. (UCD-ITS-RR-06-08) Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, May 2006, 80 p. [formato PDF, 2,30 MB]. "This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels."

Geert Bergsma, Bettina Kampman, Harry Croezen, Maartje Sevenster, Biofuels and their global influence on land availability for agriculture and nature. A first evaluation and a proposal for further fact finding. Report. Delft, CE, February 2007, 88 p. [formato PDF, 650 KB]. "At the request of Unilever International, CE Delft has carried out a pilot study on biomass-based transport fuels and their impact on global land use. Not only in the Netherlands and the EU but elsewhere, too, demand for biofuels has risen sharply in recent years, in response to (new) government policy rewarding use of these fuels or making it compulsory. It is anticipated that policies in this area will be further intensified in the years ahead, implying to a continuation of this trend. Production of these biofuels requires immense quantities of raw materials. At the moment these are the same agricultural crops as those used by the food industry, which has led to direct competition between biofuel companies and food producers. To meet this added demand for raw materials, moreover, the amount of land being cropped worldwide is being extended ever further, threatening biodiversity at both the regional and global scale. One way to reduce both competition with the food industry and impacts on nature and biodiversity is to opt for biofuels embodying high CO2 cuts per hectare. This will require innovation in both agriculture and biofuel technology, as detailed in this report along with several other conclusions."

International Energy Agency, Biofuels for transport : an international perspective. Paris, OECD, 2004, 216 p. [formato PDF, 1,44 MB]. "Biofuels for transport, including ethanol, biodiesel, and several other liquid and gaseous fuels, have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum around the world over the next few decades, and a clear trend in that direction has begun. This book looks both at recent trends and at the outlook for the future, in terms of potential biofuels production. It also examines the benefits and costs of biofuels use to displace petroleum fuels. It takes an international perspective, assessing regional similarities and differences and recent activities around the world."

Andrey Zarucheyski (All Russian Railway Research Institute VNIIZhT), Les locomotives a gas en Russie. Third UIC Energy Efficiency Conference, September 19-21 2007, Portorož, Slovenia, 7 slides [formato PDF, 1,73 MB]. Locomotive diesel di manovra alimentate a gas naturale compresso.

Junji Kawasaki (East Japan Railway Company), Development of a fuel cell hybrid railcar. Third UIC Energy Efficiency Conference, September 19-21 2007, Portorož, Slovenia, 22 slides [formato PDF, 10,8 MB]. L'autore mette a confronto le prestazioni del treno diesel ibrido (in servizio) con quelle, migliori dal punto di vista del rendimento energetico, del treno sperimentale a celle a combustibile.

Biofuels Research Advisory Council (BIOFRAC), Biofuels in the European Union: a Vision for 2030 and beyond. Draft, 2006, 32 p. [formato PDF, 490 KB] "This report outlines the current situation of biofuels and presents a long-term view on how to overcome the technical and non-technical barriers for biofuel deployment in the European Union and worldwide."

Brian T. Turner, Richard J. Plevin, Michael O'Hare, and Alexander E. Farrell, Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center, April 2007, 71 p. [formato PDF, 2,10 MB]

Heather L. MacLean, Lester B. Lave, Rebecca Lankey, Satish Joshi, A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels, J. Air & Waste Manage. Associ. 50 (2000) 1769-1779 [formatp PDF, 645 kB]. Confronto sugli effetti ambientali complessivi (life-cycle assessment) di diversi combustibili tradizionali e alternativi (benzina, diesel, metano ed etanolo) come carburante per le automobili.


How clean are electric cars? T&E's analysis of electric car lifecycle CO2 emissions. Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, April 2020, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB].

Dolganova, I.; Rödl, A.; Bach, V.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Finkbeiner, M., A Review of Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Electric Vehicles with a Focus on Resource Use. Resources 2020, 9, 32 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 877 kB]. Open Access. "Changes in the mobility patterns have evoked concerns about the future availability of certain raw materials necessary to produce alternative drivetrains and related batteries. The goal of this article is to determine if resource use aspects are adequately reflected within life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of electric vehicles (EV). Overall, 103 LCA studies on electric vehicles from 2009 to 2018 are evaluated regarding their objective, scope, considered impact categories, and assessment methods - with a focus on resource depletion and criticality. The performed analysis shows that only 24 out of 76 EV LCA and 10 out of 27 battery LCA address the issue of resources. The majority of the studies apply one of these methods: CML-IA, ReCiPe, or Eco-Indicator 99. In most studies, EV show higher results for mineral and metal resource depletion than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The batteries analysis shows that lithium, manganese, copper, and nickel are responsible for the highest burdens. Only few publications approach resource criticality. Although this topic is a serious concern for future mobility, it is currently not comprehensively and consistently considered within LCA studies of electric vehicles. Criticality should be included in the analyses in order to derive results on the potential risks associated with certain resources."

Alexandre Santacreu (International Transport Forum), Safe Micromobility. Corporate Partnership Board Report. International Transport Forum, OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2020, 98 p. [formato PDF, 4,5 MB]. "This report examines the safety aspects associated with the increasing use of e-scooters and other forms of micromobility in cities. The rise of micromobility challenges existing regulations for urban traffic and forces policy makers to rethink them. The report considers a range of actions to make urban traffic with micromobility safe, including in street layout, vehicle design and vehicle operation, user education and enforcement of rules. It also asks whether a shift towards micromobility can have potential safety benefits."

International Transport Forum, Electrifying Postal Delivery Vehicles in Korea. International Transport Forum Policy Papers No. 73. OECD Publishing, Paris, March 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. "This report evaluates the costs and benefits of replacing postal delivery motorcycles with electric vehicles in eight Korean cities. It compares operating costs, safety performance, and environmental impacts based on data collected from a field trial with both vehicle types. In addition to the economic analysis, qualitative aspects are also discussed based on the findings of a focus group study. The results from the pilot programme provide an evidence base for policy initiatives in the delivery sector in Korea and beyond."

Scott Hardman, Dahlia Garas, Jeff Allen, Jonn Axsen, George Beard, Elisabeth Dütschke, Nicolò Daina, Erik Figenbaum, Patrick Jochem, Michael Nicholas, Patrick Plötz, Nazir Refa, Benjamin Sovacool, Daniel Sperling, Frances Sprei, and Gil Tal, Exploring the Role of Cities in Electrifying Passenger Transportation. UC Davis Research Report. UC Davis, January 2020, 9 p. [formato PDF, 289 kB]. "In this brief we focus on personal passenger vehicles, as in many cities they are (still) a dominant mode of transport. In the car-dependent United States, 85% of trips are completed by car and even in London, United Kingdom 36% of all journeys are by car. Electrifying cars will not solve all issues cities face (e.g. congestion, competition for space, etc.), but can contribute to addressing air quality concerns, reducing energy consumption from transport, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions".

Qi Sun, Tao Feng, Astrid Kemperman, Andreas Spahn (Eindhoven University of Technology), Modal shift implications of e-bike use in the Netherlands: Moving towards sustainability?. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 78 (2020) 102202 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 941 kB]. "This paper investigates the modal shift patterns of e-bike users in the Dutch context. We focus on the change in e-bikers' travel behavior to assess whether this change benefits sustainability. Our study provides direct ecologically valid evidence on modal shift by using a longitudinal dataset from the Netherlands Mobility Panel survey. We examine e-bikers' modal shift patterns before and after acquiring an e-bike. The findings indicate that after e-bike adoptions, conventional bike use reduces significantly, while car use reduces less strongly. Nonetheless, the share of car kilometers is much larger than that of conventional bikes at the baseline. Besides, the emission rate per passenger kilometer of an e-bike is several times lower than that of a car. These imply a net environmental gain after e-bike adoptions. The present study also sheds light on modal shifts at a disaggregated level by investigating those e-bikers who are more likely to drive less after e-bike adoption. The findings suggest that e-bikers younger than 50 and those around retirement age (60-69) seem more likely to step out of their cars. Additionally, people living in rural areas tend to be more likely to reduce their car use than their counterparts in highly urbanized areas. Based on our findings, we present policy recommendations for achieving a greener shift in mobility systems."

Claudio Carlini, Diana Moneta, Preliminary Economic Assessment for Electric Buses Adoption in the Italian Framework. AEIT International Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 18-20 September 2019. Presentation, 12 slides [formato PDF, 3,00 MB]. E-buses in the Italian framework & case studies.

Carey Newson and Lynn Sloman, The Case for a UK Incentive for E-bikes. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 25 p. [formato PDF, 676 kB]. "Numerous evaluations demonstrate that e-bikes support physical activity. They have broader appeal than conventional bikes, including to older people, women, and those who are less active, as well as to the young, men and the physically active. Sales of e-bikes in Belgium and the Netherlands are 20 times greater, per head of population, than they are in Britain. Sales in Sweden, Germany and Austria are between 7 and 14 times higher per head of population than in Britain. A main reason for the greater popularity of e-bikes in these countries is that national and regional or local governments have offered grants to incentivise purchase of e-bikes. These grants have raised awareness of e-bikes as an option. Evaluation of e-bike grant schemes in various countries found that typically, around half (40-60%) of e-bike trips replaced car trips, although the proportion can be as low as 16% or as high as 70% depending on local conditions and previous travel patterns. Results from individual countries showed that: About 40% of those who received a grant to buy an e-bike subsequently reduced their car use for commuting, shopping and leisure trips (Austria); People who received a grant increased the distance they cycled from an average of 200km per year before buying an e-bike to 1,400km per year afterwards, and reduced the distance they travelled by car by 660km per year (France); Sales of e-bikes in Sweden jumped from 12% to 19% of all bike sales in a single year (from 2016/17 to 2017/18), and this was attributed to the national grants programme. E-bikes are used for longer journeys than conventional bikes, and therefore have significant potential to reduce carbon emissions from transport. An e-bike grant scheme would be more than twice as effective, per pound spent, as the current grants offered to buyers of some electric cars: for example, over five years the cost per kg of CO2 saved by an e-bike grant scheme would be 42 pence, compared to 88 pence per kg of CO2 saved by an electric car grant used to buy a Tesla Model S."

Element Energy, Batteries on wheels: the role of battery electric cars in the EU power system and beyond. Element Energy, June 2019, 56 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. This report is produced under the Study on EV Batteries project, commissioned and funded by Transport & Environment, in collaboration with Renault-Nissan, ENEL, and Iberdrola. "European carmakers have jointly committed more than €130 billion to electrification in the coming years. This is a positive development, but if the rollout of electric vehicles is not properly managed - via uncontrolled grid connections or unsustainable use and sourcing of materials - challenges will arise, reducing the environmental benefits and creating new problems. The report, published alongside T&E's briefing: estimates the expected uptake of EVs and the volumes of batteries available for grid services during the vehicle life, as well as second-life applications and recycling at the end of vehicle life; studies the impact of EV integration on EU grids and renewables penetration, with case studies of France, Spain, Italy and the UK; analyses the economics around innovative second-life applications of batteries and presents a number of promising case studies; and assesses challenges and opportunities around battery recycling, as well as what is needed to spur circular economy markets in Europe. T&E's short briefing accompanies the Element Energy report; it provides additional analysis and policy recommendations in view of the new European Commission and upcoming legislative opportunities."

Tessa Kate Anderson, Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility. vehicles 2019, 1(1), 57-68 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and use. This study used a combination of in-depth surveys and interviews with all 61 Danish municipalities on their fleet PEV experience and use. By building on the literature, the paper offers a deeper understanding of decision-making pathways for the procurement of PEVs. PEVs were found to be most suited to certain departments and the acceptance and uptake of PEVs was found to be complex and not straightforward."

Liridona Sopjani, Jenny Janhager Stier, Sofia Ritzén, Mia Hesselgren, Peter Georén, Involving users and user roles in the transition to sustainable mobility systems: The case of light electric vehicle sharing in Sweden. Transportation Research Part D, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.12.011, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "Low-carbon mobility alternatives, such as shared services integrating light electric vehicles, support transitions to sustainable transport systems. However, new products and services are not enough, as changes must also incorporate the practices of travelling, infrastructure, and mobility cultures in which users of mobility solutions are core stakeholders. This paper argues that user involvement is necessary in sustainable innovation processes but that the expected diversity of user roles and their involvement can also lead to contrasting outcomes for sustainable innovation transitions. Guided by theory in user involvement, this study investigated users and nonusers of light electric vehicles in a sharing mobility service system set up as living lab in two large workplaces in Sweden. Fifty-one interviews with employees at the workplaces were conducted during the implementation process and analysed combined with a questionnaire and data from system tracking through sensor technology. The paper finds that both users and non-users are co-creators in building momentum for sustainable mobility alternatives and provides a spectrum of user roles with defined characteristics. Four roles are distinguished within this spectrum: vigilant users, passive collaborators, active decision makers and ambassadors. We suggest that a convergent activation strategy is deployed for involving a full spectrum of users in order to capture their insights in ways that positively affect transition. Such a strategy addresses users and non-users as part of decision-making concerning alternatives and cultivates a culture of user collaboration, while also enabling a plurality of contributions in order to challenge existing regimes and established practices among individuals."

Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives. TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report. EEA Report No 13/2018. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2018, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The aims of this report are to: bring together existing evidence on the environmental impact of BEVs across the stages of their life cycle, undertaking where possible comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs); consider how a move to a circular economy could reduce these impacts."

Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders and Karst Geurs (University of Twente), An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 540 kB]. Open Access. "Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called 'solar-powered e-bike'. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes' and solar-powered e-bikes' users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than ¤2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, The continued transition to electric vehicles in U.S. cities. White Paper. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), Washington DC, July 2018, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "This paper analyzes electric vehicle market development in the U.S. and the actions that are driving it. The report catalogues forty unique city, state, and utility electric vehicle promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2017. The work identifies exemplary practices and discerns connections between various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are plug-in electric."

Francesco Asdrubali, Stefano Carrese, Sergio Maria Patella, Leonardo Sabatini (Roma Tre University), Development of Electric Urban Mobility: Comparative Research and Preliminary Survey. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 9 p. [formato PDF, 422 kB]. Open Access. "The growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions at the international level have shifted American and European policies to invest in sustainable mobility. Although substantial steps have been made in recent years, electric mobility is still not an integral part of today's transport systems. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative overview of the Italian approach to electric mobility and to define future approaches that could be used. Our research used a web-based survey, applying standard statistical methods to data processing. From these results we defined the playing field of the current results, and the variables for the future development of electric urban mobility. This analysis has shown a gap in the knowledge of the results reached in recent years by consumers and displayed an interest in new types of ecological fuels. Regarding Italian policies, it is clear that major efforts in economic and infrastructural facilitations are needed. In addition, this analysis can be used in the future to check for any developments and to generate a larger dataset with other partners."

Nic Lutsey, California's continued electric vehicle market development. Briefing. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), May 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "This briefing provides an update on the growth in electric vehicle sales in California through 2017. It quantifies electric vehicle market growth across California local markets, provides broader U.S. market comparisons, and describes these developments in the context of California's 2025-2030 goals."

Heejung Jung, Chengguo Li (University of California at Riverside), Emissions from Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions. A Research Report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The study found that the frequency and duration of re-ignition events vary depending on the type of HEV. Prius showed more frequent re-ignition events compared to Sonata for both city and highway driving conditions. Prius re-ignited almost every one minute while Sonata re-ignited every two minutes on average during the city driving condition. Re-ignition events affected emissions profiles significantly during the city driving condition. As a result, the Prius showed higher NOx emissions during the city driving condition while the Sonata showed higher NOx emissions during the cold-cold start and highway driving condition. Future studies should include more vehicles to understand whether the re-ignition events are vehicle specific or technology specific."

Min Xu, Qiang Meng, Yisi Liu (National University of Singapore), Public's Perception of Adopting Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Singapore. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Volume 12 (2017) Pages 285-298 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 524 kB]. Open Access. "This study aims to investigate public's perception towards electric vehicles (EVs) in the context of Singapore by means of survey. Specifically, some unique characteristics such as public's awareness of national incentives, e.g., carbon emission-based vehicle scheme (CEVS), are identified as potential influential factors. The stepwise regression analysis is employed to select a best set of factors for the estimation of respondents' purchasing intention of EVs by a multiple linear regression model. Unlike other countries, we find that the two most influential attributes are the high cost of Certificate of Entitlement (COE) and purchase price of EV, whereas only a minority of respondents list the driving range as their major concern. The resale value of EV is an important consideration for majority of respondents. Moreover, compared with normal charging at public stations, Singaporeans are likely to preform fast charging and home charging. Finally, several recommendations are provided to facilitate EVs' deployment."

Lew Fulton, Jacob Mason, Dominique Meroux, Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation. How to achieve the full potential of vehicle electrification, automation and shared mobility in urban transportation systems around the world by 2050. Report. UC Davis, ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, 2017, 41 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "The new report was produced by the University of California, Davis, and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. It compares the environmental and fiscal impacts of three scenarios involving new transportation technology: 1) Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario-Through 2050, we continue to use vehicles with internal combustion engines at an increased rate, and use transit and shared vehicles at the current rate, as population and income grow over time. 2) Revolutions (2R) scenario-We embrace more technology. Electric vehicles become common by 2030, and automated electric vehicles become dominant by 2040. However, we continue our current embrace of single-occupancy vehicles, with even more car travel than in the BAU. 3) Revolutions (3R) scenario-We take the embrace of technology in the 2R scenario and then maximize the use of shared vehicle trips. By 2050, cities have ubiquitous private car sharing, increased transit performance-with on-demand availability-and strengthened infrastructure for walking and cycling, allowing maximum shared trip efficiency."

Lingzhi Jin, Peter Slowik, Literature review of electric vehicle consumer awareness and outreach activities. Working Paper 2017-03. International Council on Clean Transportation, 2017, 23 p. [formato PDF, 343 kB]. "This paper reviews current practices by national and subnational governments around the world that aim to increase consumer awareness, understanding, and exposure to electric vehicles. It summarizes the literature that identifies and examines the importance of consumer awareness, including the role of consumer awareness in supporting the transition to electric drive. The paper includes an overview of exemplary consumer awareness actions in leading electric vehicle markets, as well as additional discussion of five case studies to provide deeper detail and insight on some of the more mature consumer-oriented awareness and outreach campaigns."

Dirk Lauinger, Francois Vuille, Daniel Kuhn (EPFL), A review of the state of research on vehicle-to-grid (V2G): Progress and barriers to deployment. Conference paper, European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress, Geneva, 14th-16th March 2017, 8 p. [formato PDF, 471 kB]. "A bi-directional power transfer between electric vehicles and the electricity grid, commonly referred to as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), offers the possibility to pair fluctuating electricity production with the fluctuating availability of electric vehicles parked at charging stations. V2G is envisaged as an option for grid balancing, in particular in regions aiming at a high penetration of renewable energy or a high penetration of electric vehicles. V2G could lower the need for stationary distributed storage by capitalizing on the existing batteries of EVs that are parked most of the time. Given this apparent benefit, it may appear surprising that the V2G technology has not yet been deployed in a wider scale. To investigate this discrepancy, we review the status of research on V2G and the status of technical development and deployment. Our aim is to assess the barriers to V2G deployment by identifying the main open research questions from a technical and economic point of view. Based on this assessment, we point to R&D needed to overcome the current barriers."

Holger Haubold (ECF), Electromobility for all: Financial incentives for e-bikes help to realise enormous extra cycling potential. ECF European Cyclists' Federation, Brussels, December 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 508 kB]. "E-bikes offer numerous benefits: They allow for longer distances to be cycled, make it easier to overcome natural obstacles, make it possible to transport heavier goods and open up cycling for groups that have not cycled previously. For all of these reasons, electric bikes offer an enormous potential to replace car trips in Europe. ECF therefore recommends to adopt balanced policies and promotion strategies for electromobility that help to realise the potential of electrifying the transport system as a whole instead of only focusing on one mode. We suggest introducing subsidy schemes for e-bikes based on market conditions: - In markets with low sales figures, a purchase subsidy of 500 Euros (around 10% of the current purchase subsidies of electric cars in many European countries) could help to bridge the price gap to conventional bikes and facilitate market uptake of electric bikes (including low-powered as well as speed pedelecs), which in its turn have a high potential to achieve modal shift from car trips to cycling. - In more mature markets, more targeted subsidy schemes e.g. for speed pedelecs and electric cargobikes due to their higher price or for charging infrastructure in small businesses can be an option. Subsidies for electric bikes could also be given as a reward for cancelling a car's registration. Besides these targeted purchase subsidies, which are at the centre of this report, other, more general, funding schemes for research and development or infrastructure like charging points and secure parking can also contribute to the promotion of electric cycling. In these areas, the EU could play a more active role in the promotion of electric cycling by including it in its e-mobility policies."

ZeEUS eBus Report. An overview of electric buses in Europe. UITP, Brussels, 2016, 118 p. [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. "The report gives an extensive overview of the electric buses in operation in Europe today, along with the different solutions available on the markets today. It is obvious that the electrification of public transport is high on the priority list of cities and public transport agencies and operators. A wide range of technological solutions exist for the electrification of public transport, but every choice is dependent on the local situation and can result in a different total cost of ownership. Therefore, this report aims to provide the reader with an overview of experiences from various cities, and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing ebuses in an urban context. ZeEUS eBus Report features 61 cities around Europe that operate or test high capacity electric buses (at least 12m long or with capacity for at least 55 passengers). The publication also lists 27 manufacturers that offer this type of vehicles for the European market."

Kaarina Hyvönen, Petteri Repo, Minna Lammi (University of Helsinki), Light electric vehicles: substitution and future uses. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 258-268 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 282 kB]. Open Access. "Light electric vehicles may challenge established forms of transport in the near future. This paper looks at how different kinds of consumers assess the future uses of light electric vehicles. Such uses are further characterized by examining how they could replace the current uses of existing modes of transport such as cycling, cars and public transport. The paper approaches the take-up of light electric vehicles from the vantage point of technological niches which have the potential to transit to sociotechnical regimes (Schot and Geels, 2008 and Geels, 2002). It considers insights from recent user studies on light electric transport and broadens their scope to include a wider range of vehicles. Data from a representative survey of 1030 Finns are used to analyse and characterize future uses of light electric vehicles. Currently, light electric vehicles remain technological niches, but consumers show interest in them, and the paper addresses the match between different kinds of consumers and these vehicles, building opportunities for large scale use."

Gaele Lesteven, Fabien Leurent (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech), Electromobility for tourists: testing business modeleuse in the Paris region. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 164-175 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. "Electric vehicles (EV) bring benefits for the urban environment but represent an additional cost for households. That is why the spread of electromobility starts with niche markets appropriate to their territorial context. On this principle, we design a business model for an EV sharing scheme based on assumptions about sites attractive to tourists to the technical means of production passing by the estimate of potential demand. To address the challenge of profitability, several scenarios are tested, with different fleet sizes and financing costs. In the model, investment costs represent 26 to 34% of total costs and variable costs account for 50 to 62% of operating costs. The project can be undertaken regardless of fleet size, provided that its financing cost is 8% or less. It raises questions about the distribution of the value generated."

Adam Ekström, Robert Regula, Identifying barriers in a technological shift: The introduction of battery-electric buses in Swedish public transport. Master of Science Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2016, 78 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Concern regarding sustainability and climate change is increasing, which is forcing countries world-wide to take action. The Swedish government has set a goal of fossil-free traffic until 2030. Battery Electric Buses (BEB) might be one of the solutions needed in order to reach this goal. However, currently its prevalence is at an early stage. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden affects the public transport operators (PTOs). Moreover, to investigate how a third party service provider of Fleet Management System (FMS) services can support the PTOs in this transition. The research has been carried out in co-operation with a PTO and a FMS service provider. The research contributes to their current understanding of how they will be affected by the emerging tech- nological transition. This thesis also contributes with new empirical data of the technological transition towards electric vehicles within public bus transport, seen as a Large Technical System. Conceptually it contributes, by exploring how external companies can support the technological transition towards BEBs, with the application of Technological Transitions theory and the Multi Layer Perspective framework. The methodology used is a case study of the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden. Data was collected through twelve semi-structured interviews with researchers, PTOs, public transport au- thorities (PTA), a BEB manufacturer and a FMS-service company. Parallel to this a questionnaire was distributed to the twenty largest PTOs in Sweden. Moreover data was collected from company visits, pilot-project results and internal documentation. Our findings show that there are thirteen perceived barriers present among the PTOs, in the process of BEB adoption. Six of these barriers relate to component aspects of BEBs, and seven relate to managerial aspects. Perceived barriers linked to component aspects of BEBs are; Variation in solutions and lack of technical standards, the Charging infrastructure, Shorter range or decreased load capacity, Unknown functionality in cold climate, Reliability and Durability. Perceived barriers linked to managerial aspects of BEBs are; Lack of knowledge and experience, Behavioral change, Economy, Maintenance, Ownership of infrastructure and buses, Business models and Varying requirements from PTAs. The barriers FMS-service providers can address are primarily, due to the technological nature of the services, present at niche level. PTOs together with FMS-service providers are encouraged to together strive towards gaining deeper knowledge about the new emerging technologies. Through this, PTOs could be enabled to overcome the aforementioned barriers. Three reverse salients were also identified, linked to the aforementioned barriers. If the reverse salients are assessed, BEB acceptance among PTOs could be increased. The three identified reverse salients are; the battery technology, the charging infrastructure and the contracts/ownership. The co-operation with the commissioning PTO and FMS-service provider has led to valuable access to Swedish public transport actors, and has aided in a deeper understanding of the phenomena. Although, this co-operation might have exposed us to a risk of being influenced."

Myriam Neaimeh, Graeme Hill, Weihong Guo, Josey Wardle, Anya Bramich, Phil Blythe, Understanding the role of a rapid charging infrastructure on urban and interurban mobility patterns. Conference Paper, Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS29), 19-23 June 2016, Montréal, Québec (Canada), 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "Rapid Charge Network (RCN) is a 7 Million Euros project co-financed by the European Commission with the collaboration of Nissan, BMW, Renault, VW, ESB, ZCF and Newcastle University. The aim of this work is to share some of the insights from RCN on the use of rapid charging posts in the UK and illustrate how they could be extending the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and enabling the use of EVs by highmileage drivers. The findings from this work would be used to inform the deployment of rapid charge networks in Europe and beyond."

Paul Wolfram, Nic Lutsey, Electric vehicles: Literature review of technology costs and carbon emissions. Working Paper 2016-14. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, July 2016, 23 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This paper aims to inform the debate over how electric vehicle technology could fit into a lower-carbon 2020-2030 new vehicle fleet in Europe by collecting, analyzing, and aggregating the available research literature on the underlying technology costs and carbon emissions. It concentrates on the three electric propulsion systems: battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (HFCEVs). The authors project that the costs of all will decrease significantly between 2015 and 2030: PHEVs will achieve about a 50% cost reduction, compared with approximate cost reductions of 60% for BEVs and 70% for HFCEVs. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand for electric and conventional vehicles are presented on a well-to-wheel (WTW) basis, capturing all direct and indirect emissions of fuel and electricity production and vehicle operation. The authors find that carbon emissions of BEVs using European grid-mix electricity are about half of average European vehicle emissions, with HFCEVs and PHEVs having a lower emissions reduction potential. A lower-carbon grid and higher power train efficiency by 2020 could cut average electric vehicle emissions by another third. However, reductions in costs and CO2 emission will not be achieved without targeted policy intervention. More stringent CO2 standards, as well as fiscal and non-fiscal incentives for electric vehicles, can help the electric vehicle market grow and costs fall. Such efforts should also be combined with efforts to decarbonize the grid, or emission reductions will not be as great as they could be. Although the analysis is focused on Europe, similar technology, policy, and market dynamics can be observed in electric-vehicle markets throughout North America and Asia."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, Evolution of incentives to sustain the transition to a global electric vehicle fleet. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, November 2016, 36 p. [formato PDF, 734 kB]. "This report assesses near-term electric vehicle market trends to inform on how governments might optimally evolve their electric vehicle incentive programs to sustain market growth. We analyze prevailing per-vehicle purchasing incentives and how government outlays increase to maintain these incentives as the market grows. Then we assess how electric vehicle costs-for varying electric range-are reduced in the approximate time frame of 2020-2025 due to increased battery production. From these cost reductions, we analyze when the consumer proposition might tip in favor of electric vehicles, based on the first-owner cost of operation for seven major electric vehicle markets in North America, Europe, and Asia. Based on the analysis, the authors conclude: - The electric vehicle range and cost improvements will greatly expand the electric vehicle market and reduce the need for incentives. Due largely to battery innovation and manufacturing scale, higher-range electric vehicle costs will be reduced by greater than $10,000 in the 2017-2022 time period. - Incentives would ideally shift to target vehicles with the greatest mainstream consumer attractiveness. Namely incentive programs could shift eligibility criteria to lower cost and higher range electric vehicles. - Incentive instruments would ideally be adopted for greater financial durability. Shifting to progressive tax exemption, polluter-pay systems (e.g., Norway), or "feebate" systems (e.g., France) could better lock in a revenue source for the electric vehicle incentives. - As fiscal incentives phase down, more policy action is still needed for electric drive. Charging infrastructure, consumer education and awareness campaigns, fuel efficiency regulations will become keys to drive the transition to mass-market electric vehicles."

Patrick Plötz, Simon Funke, Patrick Jochem, Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Working Paper Sustainability and Innovation, No. S 1/2015. Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer ISI), Karlsruhe, 2015, 30 p. [formato PDF, 573 kB] "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related greenhouse gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mileage is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised."

Marco Dozza, Giulio Francesco Bianchi Piccinini, Julia Werneke (Chalmers University of Technology), Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior. Transportation Research Part F 41 (2016) 217-226 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "In Europe, the use of electric bicycles is rapidly increasing. This trend raises important safety concerns: Is their use compatible with existing infrastructure and regulations? Do they present novel safety issues? How do they impact other traffic? This study sought to address these concerns, using instrumented electric bicycles to monitor e-cyclists' behavior in a naturalistic fashion. Data was collected from 12 bicyclists, each of whom rode an instrumented bicycle for two weeks. In total, 1500 km worth of data were collected, including 88 critical events (crashes and near-crashes). Analysis of these critical events identified pedestrians, light vehicles and other bicycles as main threats to a safe ride. Other factors also contributed to crash causation, such as being in proximity to a crossing or encountering a vehicle parked in the bicycle lane. A comparison between electric and traditional bicycles was enabled by the availability of data from a previous study a year earlier, which collected naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicycles using the same instrumentation as in this study. Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this study also suggest that countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. Finally, increasing electric bicycle conspicuity appears to be the easiest, most obvious way to increase their safety."

Björn Hildebrandt, Gerrit Remané, Benjamin Brauer, Lutz M. Kolbe (University of Göttingen), Facilitating e-mobility through digital technologies - development and evaluation of a dynamic battery-leasing business model. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 Proceedings. Paper 217. 14 p. [formato PDF, 574 kB]. "The electric mobility sector - an important pillar for counteracting climate change - is facing a sluggish market development. In this paper, we present a new dynamic battery-leasing business model that can play a key role in promoting the market introduction of electric mobility. Unlike medium- to long-term approaches for creating additional value from electric vehicles (e.g., demand response or vehicle-to-grid), the business model we propose can be applied in the short run as all necessary prerequisites are already fulfilled. To demonstrate, we proceed in two major steps. First, we design the digital technology-enabled business model that breaks with current business logics by actively involving users in the value generation process. The concept contributes to reducing battery degradation effects and thus increases the residual value of the batteries. Second, we test the underlying hypothesis of our business model - the user's willingness to follow a certain charging guideline in order to extend battery lifetime - using a comprehensive conjoint analysis. Thus, our research demonstrates how information systems can be used to encourage green choices by consumers."

Philippe Lebeau, Towards the electrification of city logistics?. Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Business Economics / Doctor in Toegepaste Economische Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, 21 March 2016, 193 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "City logistics is facing an important challenge. It is one of the most polluting segments of the transport sector but policy makers want it to become one of the cleanest in the future. The European Commission, for example, has set the goal of reaching CO 2 free city logistics by 2030. Battery electric vehicles represent in that context a potential solution. They can indeed reduce CO 2 emissions, especially if electricity is generated from renewables. Moreover, they can improve air quality and reduce noise generated by traffic in cities. However their adoption by freight transport operators remains limited despite the recent development of electric vans and trucks on the market. The objective of this thesis is therefore to investigate the feasibility of introducing battery electric vehicles in city logistics. The PhD is structured around three main research questions that address (1) the potential adoption of battery electric vehicles in city logistics, (2) the strategies to reduce or solve their economic and operational constraints and (3) the stakeholders' support regarding a shift from conventional to battery electric vehicles. By tackling these three aspects, the thesis demon- strates that an electrification of city logistics is possible. The different stakeholders of city lo- gistics are indeed found to support that transition. But the adoption of battery electric vehicles remains limited because of their economic and operational constraints. The thesis identifies therefore the different conditions where battery electric vehicles can become profitable for freight transport operators. It recommends also a range of policies that can further stimulate the adoption of battery electric vehicles."

Seoin Baek, Heetae Kim and Hyun Joon Chang (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea. Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 964 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 861 kB]. Open Access. "For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle) is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed."

Climate Action Tracker, The road ahead: How do we move to cleaner car fleets? (CAT Decarbonisation Series). August 26, 2016, 7 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "Our analysis brings insights into the extent of change that is necessary in the transport sector to achieve decarbonisation. While a number of major emitting countries have set ambitious fuel economy and/or emission standards that can substantially reduce emissions (especially the EU and USA), 2°C trajectories can only be reached by a massive scale-up of EVs, to around 50% by 2050. More action is needed to ensure compatibility with the 1.5°C limit agreed upon in Paris, especially considering the current practices in conscious misreporting of emission standards by car manufacturers. Getting anywhere close to a 1.5°C compatible pathway would thus require changes on a different scale, with sales of zero-emission vehicles reaching 100% of new sales in the next two decades, combined with a completely decarbonised power sector. Some countries have made pledges in this direction, but more sustained action is needed on a global scale. Lastly, increasing EV sales is no silver bullet for the entire transport sector. For example, in heavy freight transport over long distances, EVs currently offer no feasible alternative to standard trucks, not to mention aviation, maritime transport, and train travel, which is still often powered by diesel fuel. Here, the focus on increasing fuel efficiency and emission standards is all the more important in the near term, although zero-emission technologies are still required sector-wide in the long-term."

Centro Studi Fondazione Magna Carta, Mobilità sostenibile in ambito urbano. Policy Paper in preparazione della tavola rotonda "La Mobilità elettrica e il futuro dell'Italia" martedì 27 Settembre 2016. Fondazione Magna Carta, Roma, settembre 2016, 31 p. [formato PDF, 757 kB]. "La mobilità elettrica può garantire sostanziali benefici ambientali ed energetici rispetto alle altre tecnologie nel settore dei trasporti, e può costituire nel medio periodo un'importante leva per il conseguimento degli obiettivi che l'Italia intende darsi attraverso la sottoscrizione degli accordi di Parigi sul cambiamento climatico (COP21), nonché per essere pienamente allineata alla direttiva europea "Alternative Fuel" (direttiva 2014/94/UE). Un'efficace politica di sviluppo in tale ambito ha bisogno di programmazione oltre che di progetti dimostrativi, e le amministrazioni pubbliche, centrali e locali, hanno un ruolo chiave nella diffusione di politiche di mobilità sostenibile in ambito urbano e per il successo delle stesse. Il seguente documento è rivolto a tutti gli stakeholder, pubblici e privati, coinvolti a livello normativo ed industriale in tale argomento e vuole rappresentare uno spunto "operativo" per definire una efficace politica per la mobilità urbana sostenibile, cercando di contribuire in modo importante alla qualità della vita, della salute, allo sviluppo economico ed urbano, alla competitività, all'efficienza energetica."

Sofie Erlandsson, Olivia Hägglöf, Electric Bicycles in Bike-Share Systems. An Investigation of the Potential for Electric Bicycles in Gothenburg's Bike-Share System Styr & Ställ. Master's Thesis in the Master's Programme Infrastructure and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2016, 107 p. [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. "Gothenburg is growing geographically as well as population-wise and experiences a densification. Solutions for sustainable transportation are needed, and a way to promote this is by having a bike-share system (BSS). Today Gothenburg has a BSS with conventional bicycles, Styr & Ställ, located in the city centre. Due to the growing city the system might need to develop and expand. This thesis investigates the potential of e-bikes in Styr & Ställ and the possibilities to expand the system due to e-bikes. This both include an extensive literature review on BSS, interviews and case studies with European cities with electric BSS, and analysis of where to develop the system geographically. It is found that there are some topographic limitations in the current system in Gothenburg, which can be approached by e-bikes. It is also possible to go further with an e-bike and therefore include more areas in the system. With e-bikes more and other groups of users can be reached, for instance older people, physically limited people, or people in context that do not want to arrive sweaty. Analyses were done in order to find suitable areas for an expanded BSS. The expansion areas that were found for the system are mainly the sub-districts Majorna, Masthugget, Frölunda Torg, Krokslätt, Lunden Olskroken, Gamlestaden, Lindholmen and Rambergsstaden. This is an overall radial expansion except from a corridor towards Frölunda Torg and Gamlestaden. Furthermore, stations based on destinations of interests such as public transport nodes, parks, squares, universities, and working places were suggested and located. The conclusion is that there is a potential for electric bicycles in Styr & Ställ and that the system should be combined with both conventional and electric bicycles, in order to approach a broader user group. The system is also recommended to expand to the areas mentioned above. People that already use the BSS will be able to continue to use it in the same way, and people that prefer an e-bike in order to cycle, will them too have a socially, economic, and environmentally sustainable transport alternative that also improves the public health."

Uwe Tietge, Peter Mock, Nic Lutsey, Alex Campestrini, Comparison of leading electric vehicle policy and deployment in Europe. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation Europe, Berlin, May 2016, 88 p. [formato PDF, 10,7 MB]. "This study investigates consumer incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), in the five largest EV markets in Europe: Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Norway. These markets together account for more than 80% of all European EV registrations in 2014. The paper looks at incentives at the national level, and uses 10 case studies of European cities/regions to examine how local governments can complement national incentives. The focus is on fiscal incentives, charging infrastructure density, and EV market shares as key indicators of countries' readiness to transition to electric mobility. The study analyzes the diffusion of EVs at the regional level, including maps of EV market shares and charging infrastructure for each market. In addition to providing a snapshot of the largest European EV markets, the study identifies effective incentives for driving the uptake of electric vehicles: Direct consumer incentives: Substantial fiscal incentives are the most important driver of EV uptake. Countries and cities with high fiscal incentives have been more successful at transitioning to electric mobility. Indirect consumer incentives: Fiscal incentives alone are not sufficient to ensure uptake. Promotional activities are needed to create consumer awareness. Preferential access to low-emission zones or high-occupancy vehicle lanes, electric car-sharing platforms, introducing EVs into public fleets, and consumer outreach events are common and effective measures to raise awareness of electric mobility. Charging infrastructure: Another prerequisite for electric mobility, because it helps overcome range anxiety. Countries with dense public charging infrastructure have higher EV market shares, though other factors (such as availability of fast charging infrastructure and opportunities to charge at home) should also be considered. Policy design: Information on incentives and electric mobility should be transparent and easily accessible, because consumer awareness is a prerequisite for electric mobility. Financial sustainability is also key: stable incentives and secure funding ensure planning security and signal long-term support for EVs. National-level strategies and incentives can ensure a cohesive approach, while regional and city-level policies can complement national policies and tailor incentives to local needs."

Leif Jacobs, Karolyn Laurenz, Stephan Keuchel, Christoph Thiel, Willingness to pay for electromobility: an investigation among owners of energy-efficient houses. Transportation Research Procedia 13 (2016) 40-48 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 217 kB]. Open Access. European Transport Conference 2015, Frankfurt, 28-30 September. "This paper adds to the body of knowledge about house owners in Germany as potential early adopters of electric cars. With the help of energy efficiency standards for new constructions, interviewees were divided into two groups: owners of energy-efficient houses and owners of conventional houses. Both groups were asked to take part in a choice experiment and to choose between a conventional car, a plug-in hybrid electric car and a battery electric car in different hypothetical choice situations. Results show that facing the situation to replace their present car house owners of both groups tend to choose a larger and more powerful car. Further, there is a tendency within both groups to choose a car with less fuel consumption. The results of the discrete choice experiment indicate that owners of energy-efficient houses have a statistically significant higher willingness to pay for plug-in hybrid electric cars and for battery electric cars with or without a range extender."

Mauro Andriollo, Andrea Tortella (University of Padua), Sustainability evaluation of an electric bus fleet for the urban public transport system of Padova, Italy. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 13 p. [formato PDF, 769 kB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The paper analyses the potential benefits deriving from the introduction of an electric battery-supplied bus (EBB) fleet in the urban transportation context of the city of Padova, Italy. Such analysis is carried out in the frame of a business plan focused on the development of recharge/replacement stations located at suitable bus terminals, adopting an optimized strategy to replace and recharge the on-board batteries running low. After an extensive analysis of the actual urban bus fleet, equivalent bus configurations are defined for both diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles, by means of an analytical elaboration of reference driving cycles. Such elaboration also includes the performance deterioration over the vehicle life by applying a derating function to the propulsion system and catalyser efficiencies. Then, the EBBs characteristics and operation are determined by an algorithm aiming at the minimization of the battery investment and operating costs on ten years' service. Finally, the equivalent buses with different length are compared in terms of energy consumptions and pollutant emissions on the same reference routes. Such comparison is carried out by numerical simulations, taking into account both the engine practical behaviour and the battery charge/discharge operation."

Joyce McLaren, John Miller, Eric O'Shaughnessy, Eric Wood, and Evan Shapiro (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type. (Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64852). NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Golden, CO, April 2016, 34 p. [formato PDF, 4,60 MB]. "With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policymakers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual amount of emissions reduction electric vehicles provide is dependent on when and where drivers charge the vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, the vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of anticipated emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios."

Patrick Jochem, Claus Doll, Wolf Fichtner, External costs of electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D 42 (2016) 60-76 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "Electric vehicles (EV) are often considered a promising technology to decrease external costs of road transport. Therefore, main external cost components are estimated for EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). These include costs of accidents, air pollution, climate change, noise, and congestion. All components are estimated over the product lifetime and, where appropriate, differentiated according to fuel type, vehicle size as well as emission location and time. The advantage of this differentiation is, however, compensated by high uncertainties of most cost estimates. Overall, the external costs of EV and ICEV do not differ significantly. Only for climate change, local air pollutants in congested inner-cities, and noise some advantageous effects can be observed for EV. The advantages depend strongly on the national electricity power plant portfolio and potentially also on the charging strategy. Controlled charging might allow for higher emission reductions than uncontrolled charging of EV."

Jacob Mason, Lew Fulton, Zane McDonald, A Global High Shift Cycling Scenario. The Potential for Dramatically Increasing Bicycle and E-bike Use in Cities Around the World, with Estimated Energy, CO2, and Cost Impacts. ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy) and University of California, Davis, 12 November 2015, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,50 MB]. Research commissioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF), and the Bicycle Product Suppliers Association (BPSA). "This report presents a new look at the future of cycling for urban transportation (rather than recreation), and the potential contribution it could make to mobility as well as sustainability. The results show that a world with a dramatic increase in cycling could save society US$24 trillion cumulatively between 2015 and 2050, and cut CO2 emissions from urban passenger transport by nearly 11 percent in 2050 compared to a High Shift scenario without a strong cycling emphasis."

Prithvi Vijaya Simha, Disruptive Innovation on Two Wheels: Electrification of the Humble Bike. The case of E-Bikes in China. 2015, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,83 MB].

Martin Weiss, Peter Dekker, Alberto Moro, Harald Scholz, Martin K. Patel, On the electrification of road transportation. A review of the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, Transportation Research Part D 41 (2015) 348–366 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 758 kB]. Open Access. "Electrification is widely considered as a viable strategy for reducing the oil dependency and environmental impacts of road transportation. In pursuit of this strategy, most attention has been paid to electric cars. However, substantial, yet untapped, potentials could be realized in urban areas through the large-scale introduction of electric two-wheelers. Here, we review the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, demonstrating that these are generally more energy efficient and less polluting than conventionallypowered motor vehicles. Electric two-wheelers tend to decrease exposure to pollution as their environmental impacts largely result from vehicle production and electricity generation outside of urban areas. Our analysis suggests that the price of e-bikes has been decreasing at a learning rate of 8%. Despite price differentials of 5000 ± 1800 EUR2012 kW h-1 in Europe, e-bikes are penetrating themarket because they appear to offer an apparent additional use value relative to bicycles. Mid-size and large electric two-wheelers do not offer such an additional use value compared to their conventional counterparts and constitute niche products at price differentials of 700 ± 360 EUR2012 kW h-1 and 160 ± 90 EUR2012 kW h-1, respectively. The large-scale adoption of electric two-wheelers can reduce traffic noise and road congestion but may necessitate adaptations of urban infrastructure and safety regulations. A case-specific assessment as part of an integrated urban mobility planning that accounts, e.g., for the local electricity mix, infrastructure characteristics, and mode-shift behavior, should be conducted before drawing conclusions about the sustainability impacts of electric two-wheelers."

Julien Brunet, Alena Kotelnikova, Jean-Pierre Ponssard, The deployment of BEV and FCEV in 2015. California, Germany, France, Japan, Denmark. [Research Report]. Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, September 2015, 56 p. [formato PDF, 3,26 MB]. "In Europe the transport sector contributes about 25% of total GHG emissions, 75% of which come from road transport. Contrarily to industrial emissions road emissions have increased over the period 1990-2015 in OECD countries: California (+26%), Germany (0%), France (+12%), Japan (+2%), Denmark (+30%). The number of registered vehicles on road in these countries amounts respectively to: California (33 million), Germany (61.5 million), France (38 million), Japan (77 million), Denmark (4 million). Even if these numbers are not expected to grow in the future this calls for major programs to reduce the corresponding GHG emissions in order to achieve the global GHG targets for 2050. The benefits from these programs will spread out to non OECD countries in which road emissions are bound to increase. Programs to promote zero emissions vehicles (ZEV) effectively started in the 2000’s through public private partnerships involving government agencies, manufacturers, utilities and fuel companies. These partnerships provided subsidies for R&D, pilot programs and infrastructure. Moreover, technical norms for emissions, global requirements for the portfolio of sales for manufacturers, rebates on the purchasing price for customers as well as various perks (driving bus lanes, free parking, etc.) are now in place. These multiple policy instruments constitute powerful incentives to orient the strategies of manufacturers and to stimulate the demand for ZEV. The carbon tax on the distribution of fossil fuels, whenever it exists, remains low and, at this stage, cannot be considered as an important driving force. The cases studies reveal important differences for the deployment of battery electric vehicle (BEV) versus fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). BEV is leading the game with a cheaper infrastructure investment cost and a lower cost for vehicle. The relatively low autonomy makes BEV mostly suited for urban use, which is a large segment of the road market. The current level of BEV vehicles on roads starts to be significant with California (70,000), Germany (25,000), France (31,000), Japan (608,000) Denmark (3,000), but they remain very low relative to the targets for 2020: California (1.5 million), Germany (1 million), France (2 million), Japan (0.8-1.1 million for ZEV new registrations), Denmark (0.25 million). The developments and efficiency gains in battery technology along with subsidies for battery charging public stations are expected to facilitate the achievement of the growth. The relative rates of equipment (number of publicly available stations / number of BEV) provide indirect evidence on the effort made in the different countries: California (3%), Germany (12%), France (28%), Japan (11%), and Denmark (61%). In some countries public procurement plays a significant role. In France Autolib (publicly available cars in towns) represents a large share of the overall BEV deployment (12%), and the government recently announced a 50% target for low emissions in all public vehicles new equipment. FCEV is still in an early deployment stage due to a higher infrastructure investment cost and a higher cost for vehicle. The relatively high autonomy combined with speed refueling make FCEV mostly suited for long distance and interurban usage. At present there are only a very limited numbers of HRS deployed: California (28), Germany (15), France (6), Japan (31), Japan (7), Denmark (7), and only a few units of H2 vehicles on road: California (300), Germany (125), France (60), Japan (7), Denmark (21). However, a detailed analysis of the current road maps suggests that FCEV has a large potential. Targets for the 2025-2030 horizons are significant in particular in Germany (4% in 2030), Denmark (4.5% in 2025) and Japan (15-20% for ZEV new registrations in 2020). The California ARB has recently redefined its program (subsidies and mandates) to provide higher incentives for FCEV. France appears to focus on specialized regional submarkets to promote FCEV (such as the use of H2 range extending light utility vehicles). The financing of the H2 infrastructure appears as a bottleneck for FCEV deployment. Roadmaps address this issue through progressive geographical expansion (clusters) and a high level of public subsidies hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in particular in all countries except France. At this stage of BEV and FCEV do not appear as direct competitors; they address distinct market segments. Unexpected delays in the development of infrastructure in FCEV, possible breakthroughs in battery technology, and the promotion of national champions may change the nature of this competition, making it more intense in the future."

Anna Creti, Alena Kotelnikova, Guy Meunier, Jean-Pierre Ponssard, A cost benefit analysis of fuel cell electric vehicles. [Research Report]. Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, February 2015, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,33 MB]. "This study develops a consistent framework to compare FCEV with gasoline ICE (ignition combustion engine) and applies this framework to the German market over the period 2015-2050. As such it provides for: - The formulation of a proper cost benefit analysis, including the definition of the abatement cost for the hydrogen technology; - The simulation of the results under various technological and cost assumptions; - The identification of the major conceptual issues to facilitate analytical developments. The sources used in the analysis are based on an update of previous industry studies. The main conclusion is that FCEV could be a socially beneficial alternative for decarbonizing part of the projected German car park at the horizon 2050. The corresponding abatement cost would fall in the range of 50 €/t CO2 to 60 €/t CO2. This range is higher than the current estimate for the normative cost of carbon as expressed in Quinet (2009 and 2013), which is around 30€/t in 2015. Still the gap is not out of hand. We identify the market and cost conditions that would shorten the gap. The methodology used in this study could be expanded to integrate two pending issues noted in the literature for the successful deployment of FCEV: - Making the deployment for FCEV endogenous and depending on the public and private instruments that could induce the decreasing of costs and the acceptance of the FCEV technology by consumers. - Designing an appropriate institutional framework to promote cooperation for manufacturing FCEV, producing carbon free H2 and investing in the distribution of H2. The initial sunk costs necessary for investment cannot be recouped through pure market equilibrium behavior. This study already provides an order of magnitude to quantify these issues."

Susan Shaheen, Lauren Cano, Madonna Camel (University of California at Berkeley), Exploring Electric Vehicle Carsharing as a Mobility Option for Older Adults: A Case Study of a Senior Adult Community in the San Francisco Bay Area International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2015 (44 p.) [formato PDF, 688 kB]. [Researchgate]. "By the year 2030, 57 million people will be over the age of 65 in the United States. Baby Boomers drive approximately 17% more than other age groups and are active well past retirement. This paper examines electric vehicle (EV) carsharing (short-term vehicle access) as a future alternative to vehicle ownership for older adults living on fixed incomes in a gated community to provide reduced cost mobility and eliminate vehicle maintenance hassles. The authors conducted a study of the response to the EV carsharing concept in a senior community in Northern California, between Winter 2009 and Spring 2011, to gauge early adoption potential. The study consisted of in-depth interviews (n = 7), four focus groups (n = 31), and survey data collection (n = 443) with residents of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community in Walnut Creek, California. Eighty-three percent of survey respondents drive short distances often (eight kilometers (km) five times/month); 100% of interview participants plan their trips in advance; and 77% of focus group subjects made changes to their driving behavior due to high fuel prices. These findings are indicators that an EV carsharing program could potentially complement travel patterns and price sensitivity. Finally, the survey results indicate that 30% of all respondents were interested in participating in an EV carsharing program, while 36% were “maybe” interested. If the carsharing fleet also contained non-EVs, 71% of community-wide survey participants were interested or “maybe” interested in participation. Inclusion of EVs and non-EVs in the carsharing fleet would likely increase interest and participation overall."

Erik Figenbaum, Marika Kolbenstvedt, Competitive Electric Town Transport. Main results from COMPETT – an Electromobility+ project. (TØI Report 1422/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 142 p. [formato PDF, 6,27 MB]. "The main research question of the Electromobility+ project COMPETT was: “How can e-vehicles come into use to a greater degree?”. The project investigated the e-vehicle market, travel behaviour of drivers, cost of vehicles, the effectiveness of incentives, did case studies in Norway and Austria, measured noise of these vehicles and developed the SERAPIS model. Factors influencing e-vehicle sales are: Customers values and attitudes, knowledge, the vehicles practicality and relative advantage, policies and incentives. Barrier are cost, range, awareness, infrastructure availability and charge time. Most daily travel can be done with BEVs and multi vehicle households and fleets adopt them easily. Most owners charge at home. Awareness raising is essential in the initial phase of deployment. Incentives can be effective in increasing sales when implemented as a stable framework, but can also burden government budgets. Smart policies can reduce that burden."

Erik Figenbaum, Marika Kolbenstvedt, Pathways to electromobility - perspectives based on Norwegian experiences. (TØI Report 1420/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 82 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "The report presents two analyses of the Norwegian Electric Vehicle (EV) story. The first one is using the multi-level perspective (MLP) framework to investigate how the interaction of events in and between the niche, regime and landscape levels, shaped the Norwegian EV policies that led to the world’s fastest diffusion of EVs. The second one looks at user adoption from a socio-technical perspective. A long-term evolving political framework built up piece by piece by many actors and with an ability to maintain stability and focus over long time periods, seem to be ways to success. EVs qualities, incentives giving relative advantages and increased availability of vehicles were effective diffusion mechanisms. The process started in urban regions but is now covering other locations as well. Technology development leading to longer range and lower prices should make it easier for other countries to choose between the many incentives tested in Norway and develop their own packages."

Nils Fearnley, Paul Pfaffenbichler, Erik Figenbaum and Reinhard Jellinek, E-vehicle policies and incentives - assessment and recommendations. (TØI Report 1421/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 122 p. [formato PDF, 4,14 MB]. "The report describes incentives for electromobility across Europe. A dynamic car fleet and propulsion technology model, SERAPIS, is built and used as basis for economic assessments of different e-vehicle incentives in Norway and Austria. A scenario analysis illustrates the importance of the supply side and technological development."

Reinhard Haas, Amela Ajanovic (Vienna University of Technology), On the prospects of increasing energy efficiency in car transport by promoting electric and hydrogen vehicles. eceee Summer Study on energy efficiency, 1-6 June 2015, 8 p. [formato PDF, 2,16 MB]. "Transport is still the end use sector with highest increasing emissions and lowest energy efficiency. Alternative powertrains like electric motors and fuel cells based on electricity and hydrogen are considered as important means to cope with environmental problems in transport. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the market prospects increasing energy efficiency in car transport by promoting battery electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles from a technical energetic and an economic point-of-view in a dynamic framework in an optimistic scenario up to 2050 in comparison to conventional passenger cars. Our method of approach is based on life-cycle-analyses, dynamic economic assessments (incl. technological learning) and price as well as policy scenarios e.g. for taxes. The most important results are: (i) The by far most energy efficient solutions are battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) yet only if the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES) as wind, hydro or PV are used; (ii) energy losses in the Well-to-Wheel chain for providing the energy service mobility will be reduced due to technological progress by 30 % to 50 % up to 2050 with respect to all technologies; (iii) Despite the efficiency gap to conventional cars will become smaller because higher technical improvement potentials for especially hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) exist, also in the long run BEV and FCV will remain the most efficient options; (iv) the major uncertainty regarding BEV and FCV is how fast cost reduction due to Technological Learning will take place especially for batteries and fuel cells; (v) Hybrid electric vehicles are currently the most efficient and most effective fossil fuels-based vehicles; Yet they are not considered as Zero-emission cars proper for driving in cities; (vi) Finally, CO2 costs (e.g. taxation ) will play a crucial role for the final future fuel mix. E.g. Oslo in Norway is a city with one of the highest penetrations of BEVs in the world. One major reason is that – among other incentives – the driving costs of conventional cars are very high compared to rather cheap electricity costs for BEV drivers. This leads to the final conclusion that the most efficient types of vehicles will in future only play a significant role if the proper mix of CO2-taxes, intensified R&D, and corresponding riding down the Learning Curve (e.g. batteries for EVs and fuel cells) as well as non-monetary incentives is implemented timely."

Gunnar Lindberg, Lasse Fridstrøm (Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway), Policy strategies for vehicle electrification. (Discussion Paper 2015-16). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB]. "Vehicle electrification is an effective strategy to combat CO2 emissions from road transport. An electric vehicle may consume only 1/3 of the energy of the conventional car. The final climate effect depends on the source of the electricity used. Hence the effect will differ between geographic regions and depend on whether a nation is a part of a bigger market for electric power. It also depends on whether there is a cap-and-trade system at work and on whether or not the cap is effective. This report focuses on what type of incentives can be used to help introduce electric vehicles into the market, and on the financial cost to governments of such a policy. We conclude that a consumer-based policy for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) introduction needs to address: the higher manufacturing cost of BEVs; range anxiety and range limitations; the role of local incentives. In addition, the consumer should become familiar with the concept of BEVs, which suggests: high visibility (recognisable number plates, communication with the media and, NGOs); a reasonable share of the market securing support and a second hand car market. One lesson from the Norwegian market is that even with constant incentives market expansion may depend ultimately on the number and variety of BEV models on offer: The economic cost of the policy consists basically of the extra resource cost of manufacturing, of any inefficiency created by local incentives, and of implementing a network of charging stations. The policy is probably not cost efficient based on current CO2 valuations and it is necessary to apply a long term innovation perspective, where the current policy is seen as an investment into lower manufacturing and operating costs in a global market. When asked about their motivation for buying a BEV, Norwegian owners attach the highest importance to - in this order - low operating cost, toll free road use and that a BEV is "the best car for my need". That BEVs are environmentally friendly with a competitive purchase price is also taken into account. Based on the Norwegian experience we would expect the BEV market to show the following characteristics: BEVs will be owned predominantly by multicar households but also with a growing market in single car households; the majority of the buyers will replace their second ICE vehicle by a BEV; the annual mileage of the latest BEV models will be at least as high as for ICE vehicles; in a two-car household, the BEV will be the car for everyday use. The key parameter in policy design is the pre-tax price difference between a BEV and an ICE vehicle. We estimate this difference at € 12 000 today. However, the difference is expected to diminish rather quickly even if we take into account increased efficiency in ICE technology. We use an assumption that the prices are equalized in 2025, and that the price difference reduces linearly until then. This may seem fast, but taken into account that we ignore the lower running cost of BEVs the assumption is deemed reasonable. The policy needs to bridge this diminishing gap. In addition, we estimate that for each new BEV we need to invest in new charging infrastructure at a cost of approximately € 1500 per vehicle. The aim of the high Norwegian purchase tax policy as with the French feebate system is to reduce the difference in purchase price (or lifecycle cost) between BEVs and ICE vehicles. We focus on year 2020 and assume that 10% of the car fleet is renewed during that year and that 10% of this market is electric cars. With a feebate on new car registrations the fiscal effect can be made neutral. For the year 2020 the necessary tax difference is about € 5 455, which is divided into a subsidy on BEVs and a tax on ICE vehicles. Even if the system is revenue neutral, we may expect increased administrative costs. We estimate the magnitude of the resulting vehicle tax increase on ICE vehicles in OECD countries to be somewhere between 1% and 32% depending on the current tax scheme in each country. The consumer price of ICE vehicles may rise between 0.7% and 2%. In an alternative approach with a high initial registration tax (the Norwegian system) we assume zero tax on BEVs, and the ICE vehicles become the sole target to ensure an equalized purchase price. This means significant increases in taxation on ICE vehicles from 25% to over 300%. This means an increased consumer price of cars somewhere between 7% and 20% in the other OECD countries. Such a tax, without taking any demand effects into account, would generate revenue of € 366 billion in 2020 in the OECD region. The charging infrastructure needed is in both alternatives estimated to cost about € 11 billion across the OECD. We have noted that the policy will generate rather high costs per avoided tonne of CO2. Crist (2012) estimates a cost between €500 and €700 per tonne CO2. Fridstrøm and Østli (2015) note that the per tonne abatement cost depends crucially on the time horizon, since the extra cost of vehicle acquisition occurs early, while the energy savings materialize only as fast as BEVs penetrate the car fleet. They conclude a net resource cost in the range € 42-138 per tonne CO2 at the 2050 horizon in Norway, but € 670 to € 825 per tonne CO2 based on accumulated costs and benefits at the 2025 horizon. Finally, since BEVs are three times as energy efficient as ICE vehicles, complete electrification will reduce the energy tax base to one-third. In addition, the tax on electricity use is only about one-tenth of the fossil fuel tax, as reckoned per energy unit. The loss in tax revenues from fossil fuel taxation in the EU is estimated at € 800 billion as a consequence of the vehicles that could enter the car fleet by 2020. This calls for new market correction mechanisms for road transport in the future, if the external costs of transport in the form of road wear, congestion, local pollution and accidents are somehow be to internalised."

Francesco Cellina, Giorgio Corani, Andrea Emilio Rizzoli, Claudio Bonesana, Albedo Bettini, Andrea Baldassari, Pasqualina Cavadini, Emiliano Soldini, Roman Rudel (SUPSI), Using living labs to investigate the transition towards electric mobility: the e-mobiliTI experiment in Southern Switzerland. 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference, April 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 30,2 MB]. "The diffusion of electric vehicles is one of the most promising opportunities to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and to pave the way for the transition to a more sustainable mobility. However, apart for the main barrier still represented by the purchase cost, the adoption of electric vehicles is still hindered by other barriers, such as autonomy, recharge time any general performance. Therefore, fostering a change in the present mobility patterns requires to go beyond the traditional technological approach and to explicitly address consumers perceptions and behaviour. In 2012 we launched the e-mobiliTI project to get a deeper understanding of the factors favouring or opposing the transition to e-mobility. This project builds upon the living lab approach, focusing on a small sample of families located in Southern Switzerland. Family members accepted to be monitored in all their trips, in exchange for the availability, for a period of three months, of electric cars and bicycles, public transport seasonal tickets and car and bike-sharing subscriptions. In Spring 2013 a first three-months monitoring phase allowed us to identify their present mobility patterns and styles, while in Spring 2014, during a second three-months monitoring phase, the participants experienced the new mobility options in real-world settings. In order to monitor travel behaviour, we relied on both quantitative automatic data-gathering techniques and on qualitative focus groups and interviews. Automatic data-gathering was performed thanks to a specifically developed smartphone application that relied on GPS tracks. To identify the significant variations of mobility patterns between the two monitoring phases, we developed a data mining approach based on regression trees. In this paper we present the results of the e-mobiliTI project and conclude with a critical analysis of our approach, especially regarding the problems in automatic data gathering and mobility profiling and the limited representativeness of our results, due to the small size of our sample and the short duration of the testing period."

David L. Greene, Sangsoo Park, Changzheng Liu, Transitioning to Electric Drive Vehicles: Public Policy Implications of Uncertainty, Network Externalities, Tipping Points and Imperfect Markets. (White Paper 1:14). Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, January 2014, 74 p. [formato PDF, 6,87 MB]. "This report builds on a previous analysis of the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles in California and the Section 177 states that have adopted California’s Zero Emission Vehicle standards. (Both reports were funded by the ICCT.) That study estimated the costs and benefits of a transition to electric drive vehicles under six alternative scenarios using the same model and technology and market assumptions as a recent National Research Council study. It concluded that, given the NRC assumptions, benefits would like exceed costs by roughly an order of magnitude. Targeted, temporary transitions policies would be required however; internalizing external costs alone would likely be inadequate to accomplish the transition. This study estimates the effects of the timing and intensity of policies and adds uncertainty about technological progress to the previous study’s analysis of uncertainty about the market’s response. The analyses presented in this report are based on Scenario 2 of the previous report, in which the ZEV standards are enforced through 2025 and continued at the 2025 level through 2030 and then ended. The rest of the U.S. is assumed to follow California’s lead, adopting similar policies and deploying refueling infrastructure but five years later than California and the Section 177 states. The new model runs indicate that, given the assumptions of Scenario 2, starting the ZEV standards 5 years earlier or doubling their intensity increases upfront costs but increases benefits by a greater amount. Similarly, delaying the ZEV mandate is estimated to reduce upfront costs but cause an even greater reduction in the present value of benefits. Network effects and other positive feedbacks were measured to illustrate the dynamics of the transition. The impacts of mandates or subsidies was strongly dependent on their timing and context. The simulations again showed the important synergies between California and U.S. transition policies. The effects of technological and market uncertainty were simulated assuming policies that forced the achievement of the market shares of PHEVs, BEVs and FCVs of Scenario 2. This assumption should overestimate the costs of the transition relative to policies that adapt to circumstances. Nevertheless, the frequency of negative net present values was less than 10%."

Francisco J. Bahamonde-Birke, Tibor Hanappi, The Potential of Electromobility in Austria: An Analysis Based on Hybrid Choice Models. (Discussion Papers, 1472). DIW Berlin (German Institute for Economic Research), Berlin, 2015, 19 p. [formato PDF, 463 kB]. "This paper analyses the impact of the introduction of electromobility in Austria, focusing specifically on the potential demand for electric vehicles in the automotive market. We estimate discrete choice behavioral mixture models considering latent variables; these allows us to deal with this potential demand as well as to analyze the effect of different attributes of the alternatives over the potential market penetration. We find out that some usual assumptions regarding electromobility also hold for the Austrian market (e.g. proclivity of green-minded people and reluctance of older individuals), while others are only partially valid (e.g. the power of the engine is not relevant for purely electric vehicles). Along the same line, it was possible to establish that some policy incentives would have a positive effect over the demand for electrical cars, while others - such as an annual Park and Ride subscription or a one-year-ticket for public transportation - would not increase the willingness-to-pay for electromobility. Our work suggests the existence of reliability thresholds, concerning the availability of charging stations. Finally this paper enunciates and successfully tests an alternative approach to address unreported information regarding income in presence of endogeneity and multiple information sources."

Ioannis G. Damousis, Angelos Amditis, Denis Naberezhnykh, Electromobility: a market readiness study. Preliminary findings. Paper presented at IEEE IEVC (International Electric Vehicle Conference), Florence, December 16-19, 2014, 7 p. [formato PDF, 658 kB]. "In recent years there has been a significant turn towards the research and development of electric vehicles. There are several government incentives towards decarbonizing the transport sector which is a major atmospheric pollutant via greenhouse gases that conventional ICE gasoline and petrolfueled vehicles produce during their operation. In parallel, major vehicle manufacturers have introduced hybrid and fully electric vehicles to the market trying to reach the critical mass of buyers that will result to large penetration of electromobility in the transportation sector. The efforts above can be categorized in several ways: the funding source (governments and the European Commission or the industry and vehicle manufacturers), the focus of the research ((R&D that is aimed at the actual electric vehicles, R&D focusing on the electric vehicle charging infrastructure and the grid) and finally there can be a categorization based on the charging mode i.e. static, stationary and dynamic charging. Further categorization is possible based on the technologies used for each charging mode (conductive or inductive). The present study attempts to provide an assessment of the current electromobility status from the above mentioned viewpoints and present preliminary results of a market readiness survey for charging systems that was carried out within FABRIC IP."

DEFINE Consortium, DEFINE Synthesis Report. Project report/Research Report (Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Introduction of Electromobility). Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS) und the DEFINE Consortium, Vienna, December 2014, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,32 MB] "The main results of the project are the economic costs of an increased penetration of electric vehicles under different incentive regimes and tax measures, the effects on the electricity system and the relat-ed emission reduction potential. The core of the project consists in the development of a model-based evaluation framework that systematically combines the relevant dimensions of electromobility: the economy in sectoral disaggregation, consumption and mobility preferences of private households re-garding electric vehicles, and the electricity system for several countries in Europe (Austria, Germany, Poland). Emissions and environmental effects associated to electromobility are quantified in a case study."

Andrea Rusich, Romeo Danielis (Univ. Trieste), The private and social costs of a car. An estimate for cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy. 14th CIRIAF National Congress, Perugia, April 4-5, 2014, 11 p. [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "The paper estimates the private and social costs of several cars, making use of the Italian data with reference to vehicles’ purchase and maintenance costs, fuel and electricity costs, energy mix, pollution and noise costs. Focusing on Italy, this paper: a) reviews the current literature; b) sets up a model able to assess the social and private costs of several car types fueled by gasoline, diesel, CNG-bifuel, LPG-bifuel, hybrid, fully electric and fully electric with leased battery with a specific brand and with reference to the current Italian car market; c) performs a scenario analysis to get an idea of future car market developments. A previous version of the model is described in Rusich e Danielis (2013) “The private and social monetary costs and the energy consumption of a car. An estimate for seven cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy”, Working Papers Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica."

Sergio Valero Verdú, Carolina Senabre Blanes, Demetrio López Sánchez (University of Elche), Feasibility of Recharging Electric Vehicles With Photovoltaic Solar Panels. Energy Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2013, pp. 24-30 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,40 MB] "There are many reasons for the development and the use of renewable energy sources, such as the public awareness in the fight against climate change, energy independence with the security of supply, national competitiveness, technological development and job creation in a sector that has a great future. In this line, and within the proposed electric vehicle sustainability, it is an alternative to achieve a reduction of pollutant emissions and to increase the efficiency of road transport. The article presents a study of the use of electric vehicles from different points of view. It has been compared combustion vehicles with the electric counterparts in terms of power and features appreciated by the user in the automobile market. The purpose of the study was to analyze the feasibility to recharge different electric vehicles by solar photovoltaic modules, so that energy generation would not contribute to any CO2 emissions, when the system would be installed and ready to supply these vehicles. The study also shows a comparative analysis of the cost of purchasing electricity to the distributor compared with the using of a photovoltaic system designed to recharge the vehicle, even it has also been calculated the depreciation. Finally, it has been analyzed comparatively the type of the solar photovoltaic system considered more economically viable for recharging a pure electric vehicle (EV) therefore it has been compared projects on houses and on a parking to recharge several vehicles."

Alyona Zubaryeva, Christian Thiel, Paving the way to electrified road transport. Publicly funded research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in vehicles in Europe. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten, 2013, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,84 MB] "The electrification of road transport or electro-mobility is seen by many as a potential game-changing technology that could have a significant influence on the future cost and environmental performance of personal individual mobility as well as short distance goods transport. While there is currently a great momentum vis-à-vis electro-mobility, it is yet unclear, if its deployment is economically viable in the medium to long term. Electro-mobility, in its early phase of deployment, still faces significant hurdles that need to be overcome in order to reach a greater market presence. Further progress is needed to overcome some of these hurdles. The importance of regulatory and financial support to emerging environmentally friendly transport technologies has been stressed in multiple occasions. The aim of our study was to collect the information on all on-going or recently concluded research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which received EU and national public funding with the budget >1mln Euro, in order to assess which of the EDV challenges are addressed by projects and to identify potential gaps in the R, D & D landscape in Europe. The data on research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in vehicles, which receive public funding, has been collected by means of (i) on-line research, (ii) validation of an inventory of projects at member state level through national contact points and (iii) validation of specific project information through distribution of project information templates among project coordinators. The validation process permitted the identification of additional projects which were not accounted for in the original online search. Statistical elaboration of the collected data was conducted. More than 200 R&D and 160 demonstration projects funded by EU and 14 Member states are listed and analyzed. Collected data allowed also the development of an e-mobility visualization interactive tool, called EVRadar, which portrays in an innovative way R&D and demonstration efforts for EDVs in Europe. It can be accessed under http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energy-systems-evaluation/ev-radar."

Marcello Contestabile, Gregory Offer, Robin North (Imperial College London), Electric Vehicles: A Synthesis of the Current Literature with a Focus on Economic and Environmental Viability. Technical Paper. LCAworks, London, June 2012, 17 p. [formato PDF, 674 kB] "LCAworks has carried out a study to evaluate the technological progress and economic viability of electric vehicles (EVs) as an alternative to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) using traditional fuels (including blends with biofuels). The study assesses the feasibility and cost effectiveness of EVs, to enable decarbonisation of road transportation, taking into account, where possible: lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the potential of EVs to be deployed at scale, including pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on the evidence we have reviewed, we conclude that the future level of uptake of EVs will depend heavily on progress in battery technology, to bring down costs and increase energy density, and on the provision of a suitable recharging infrastructure. Currently, and for the foreseeable future, BEVs will be characterised by higher purchase price and lower utility than ICEVs, which will affect their future market uptake unless breakthroughs in battery technology occur. We have explored a number of EV uptake scenarios based on the economic and technical evidence. From these, we conclude that the role of BEVs in the passenger car market is likely to be limited to smaller vehicle segments such as mini and super-mini, whereas in larger vehicle segments ICE PHEVs running on biofuels or hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs might be more suitable. Based on the literature we have reviewed, it appears that EVs have the potential to deliver significant GHG emission savings in road transport in a cost-effective way, particularly after 2030, provided that a number of measures are successfully implemented to: drive down GHG emissions associated with battery manufacture and disposal (including recycling of raw materials); significantly reduce the GHG intensity of grid electricity; and target recharging to times of day which will maximise utilisation of low GHG generating capacity (smart charging). Although EVs have higher GHG emissions associated with their manufacture and disposal than ICEVs, in future, given the conditions described above, this should be more than compensated by the lower in-use well-to-wheel (WtW) emissions. However, more work is needed in the area of life cycle assessment (LCA) of EVs, in particular, more accurately to assess GHGs associated with manufacture and disposal, and compare these with the manufacture and disposal emissions of ICEVs, which currently do not feature in most ICEV LCAs published in the literature and are not a part of EU government targets for vehicle GHG emissions. Also, currently, the GHGs associated with provision of recharging infrastructure and end of life disposal do not appear to be included in most LCA studies. In addition, other environmental impacts of battery manufacture, use and disposal, such as acidification, ozone depletion, photochemical smog and eutrophication will be important and need to be addressed fully. In the current study we do not address these impacts directly, although the level of GHG emissions associated with any given product is often a useful proxy for other environmental impacts. The evidence we have reviewed strongly suggests that, even if the development of battery technology matches the optimistic scenarios described in the literature, EVs are unlikely to ever provide a complete solution to road transport decarbonisation. In fact, due to the very nature of batteries, pure BEVs are likely only to be competitive on a cost and performance basis in smaller vehicle segments such as mini and super-mini. As an additional decarbonisation option for road transport, biofuels will therefore have an important role to play in the larger vehicles segments, possibly used in ICE PHEVs with different degrees of electrification dictated by the size of the vehicle, its intended use and the cost and performance of the batteries. Even in the case of breakthroughs in battery technology, the degree of electrification of PHEVs will still be significantly limited by diminishing returns as the battery size increases, to the extent that future PHEVs will probably use biofuels for 60-80% of their total mileage. Based on this level of electricity utilisation by PHEVs, our analysis shows that, per kWh of battery deployment, PHEVs have a slightly greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than BEVs. In conclusion, biofuels and batteries are likely to be complementary rather than competing technologies in the timescale to 2030 – 2050. In terms of decarbonisation potential, it appears likely that biofuels contribution (and therefore its share of the passenger car market) will be limited by constraints in the supply of sustainable biofuels rather than by the competition with electricity, at least well beyond 2030 if not beyond 2050 as well."

Matthieu Glachant, Marie Laure Thibault, Laurent Faucheux, Le déploiement des infrastructures de charge de véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables : une approche économique. Projet de recherche pour le PREDIT, GO6, financé par l’ADEME. Rapport final. Armines, Paris, Décembre 2011, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,74 MB] "Ce document est le rapport final d’une recherche du CERNA, le laboratoire d’économie de MINES ParisTech, sur l’économie du déploiement des infrastructures de recharge réalisée dans le cadre du PREDIT et financée par l’ADEME. L’objectif de cette étude économique est d’analyser les politiques publiques et privées (dans le domaine de la standardisation notamment) qui permettraient de déployer rapidement les infrastructures de charge à un coût minimal pour la société. Notre analyse a permis de produire des résultats sur trois points que nous allons maintenant résumer: le calibrage de l’infrastructure de recharge, l’organisation de la recharge publique et la standardisation."

Philippe Crist (International Transport Forum), Electric Vehicles Revisited – Costs, Subsidies and Prospects. (Discussion Paper No 2012-03). International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2012, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,11 MB] "This paper compares the lifetime costs of like internal combustion and battery electric vehicle pairs on the market in France and finds that relative costs of electric vehicles remain elevated for consumers and even more so for society under current conditions and typical use scenarios. It also suggests that in those cases where electric vehicles do already compare favourably to internal combustion engine powered cars, subsidies may be superfluous. In the future, a number of simultaneous changes in battery electric vehicles (BEV) and ICE technology, fiscal regimes and prevailing energy prices might reduce and even eradicate the consumer cost differential in favour of ICEs. Reducing the social cost differential between BEVs and ICEs seems more challenging under most scenarios and, when successful, raises the question of how much should society seek to subsidise BEVs in instances where there begins to be a business case for them. Electric cars are often presented as zero-emission vehicles and are central to many long-term decarbonisation scenarios for the transport sector but battery electric vehicles face considerable cost and environmental hurdles before they can realise their potential. This study looks at a set of comparable battery electric and internal combustion engine cars for which commercial pricing data is available, in order to assess cost differences from first-order consumer and societal perspectives. We find that the cost of these BEVs (excluding the battery) is still higher than equivalent internal combustion vehicles, though it is conceivable that this gap may narrow as production volumes increase. Batteries still present a challenge as the costs for batteries providing a “useable” range (approximately 150 kms per charge) are still high. These costs may decline in years to come as the scale of production increases but ICEs will still provide superior range at lower costs under many scenarios. This study does not account for indirect impacts of BEC uptake (e.g. reduced oil dependence, resulting productivity benefits and employment effects). These may be important but may also result from improved ICE efficiency at a lower cost. It is also important to note that electric cars are “displaced emission” rather than zero emission vehicles since electricity production may generate both CO2 and conventional pollution. In almost all cases, BECs will generate fewer lifecycle CO2 emissions than comparable ICE counterparts. Exactly how much less depends on the carbon intensity of marginal electricity production used to charge electric vehicles, the full lifecycle emissions (including production) of comparable electric and fossil-fuel powered vehicles (and their fuels) and the relative energy efficiencies of those vehicles. In most scenarios studied here, the marginal CO2 abatement costs of replacing fossil fuel powered cars with electric vehicles remain elevated – the exception being for high vehicle travel scenarios."

Johannes Wirges, Susanne Linder and Alois Kessler, Modelling the Development of a Regional Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Time and Space. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research EJTIR 12(4), 2012, pp. 391-416 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,81 MB]. "This article presents a dynamic spatial model of the development of a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in the German metropolitan region of Stuttgart. The model consists of several sub-models whose functioning and interactions are explained in detail. The first sub-model simulates the time-spatial development of electric vehicle ownership. The output of this module is used by the second component that determines the resulting demand for charging stations. To quantify this demand, the necessary utilisation of charging stations to allow for the profitability of the infrastructure is calculated. A final processing step simulates the mobility of EVs throughout the Region Stuttgart, and thus allows allocating the need for charging stations in space. We used our model to generate several scenarios of the development of a charging infrastructure in the Region Stuttgart until 2020. The main finding of this work is that the number of public charging stations needed for the region in the long run is quite low. If too many charging stations are installed the infrastructure will be under-utilized and thus cannot be operated economically. The simulation runs show that the installation of public charging infrastructure should be focused on the few biggest urban centres of the region. The scenarios also show that publicly accessible charging stations form only a minor part of the overall number of charging stations. Additionally, it can be seen that the exponential growth of electric vehicle ownership, with very few vehicles at the beginning, but large gains after a few years, requires high flexibility from stakeholders involved in the implementation of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles."

John Moore, Jacob Rodriguez, Masayo Tokuhiro and Christopher Wang, Where Should the Public Sector Invest in Alternative Modes of Transport? A Comparative Study of Car Clubs and Electric Vehicles in London, The London School of Economics & Political Science in conjunction with Arup, March 2012, 70 p. [formato PDF, 0,98 MB]. "The objective of this report is to conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis to identify which of two alternatives – car clubs or electric vehicles (EVs) – might provide the greatest overall return through 2021, and therefore merits priority within London‘s strategic considerations. We ultimately conclude from our analysis that: 1. From the perspective of the public sector, car clubs provide a total social benefit that is four-times as great as that of EVs; 2. Much of this discrepancy in total social benefit stems from the reduction of CO2 and improved air quality, which car clubs contribute to significantly more than EVs; 3. From the perspective of the individual consumer, car clubs appeal to consumers across a wider spectrum of income levels than do EVs; 4. EVs still represent a highly positive social investment and significant opportunities to integrate EVs with car clubs. From these findings, we recommend that London‘s policymakers focus primarily on promoting car clubs over EVs in the short term. Specifically, they should: 1) increase their allocation of car club-designated parking spaces; 2) consider larger parking infrastructure projects for car club vehicles; 3) explore tax incentives for car club operators and consumers; and 4) help build consumer awareness of the benefits of car clubs outlined in this report by engaging in targeted marketing techniques, such as advertising throughout bus and tube networks. Since our analysis reveals a significantly positive net present value for EVs as well, policymakers should: 1) continue subsidising EV-related costs and investing in London‘s charging network; 2) focus on finding ways to enable vehicle manufactures to reduce the price of EVs, such as subsidies on R&D, battery research or direct tax incentives; and 3) promote the integration of EVs into car clubs."

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits. PNAS October 4, 2011, vol. 108 no. 40, 16554-16558 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 462 kB]. "We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent." Articolo a pagamento, accesso gratuito dopo 6 mesi dalla data di pubblicazione.

Unplugged: Electric vehicle realities versus consumer expectations. Deloitte, New York, September 2011, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,96 MB] "Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited's (DTTL) Global Manufacturing Industry group undertook an extensive global study designed to gauge consumer attitudes toward pure EVs. While the broad category of EVs available today include a variety of hybrid vehicles using some form of both electric motor propulsion and internal combustion engines, this study focused exclusively on the pure electric vehicle. In this way, the study serves to anchor the far end of today’s automotive product offerings and create clarity for all those either participating in the study or interested in the fi ndings. The study was based on a survey of over 13,000 individuals in 17 countries and, in addition to inquiring into willingness and intent to purchase, asked respondents a variety of questions related to the car’s major selling points, including price, range, and charge time. The survey, conducted between November 2010 and May 2011, revealed that the majority of consumers are either willing to consider the purchase of an electric vehicle or see themselves as potential fi rst movers when it comes to electric vehicle adoption. Potential fi rst movers were those respondents who indicated they were very interested in purchasing an electric vehicle and were likely to purchase or lease a new vehicle of some kind within the next 12 months. However, deeper questioning revealed a signifi cant gap between consumer expectations of electric vehicle capabilities and what an electric vehicle can deliver today. Consumers generally felt that EVs should be able to go farther, on less charge time, for a cheaper price than automakers are currently able to offer. This gap—and where it manifests itself most dramatically and where it might be most easily closed—will be of special interest to automakers operating in the electric vehicle space. This report looks closely at the results of the survey, with special attention to geographical differences and similarities in consumers’ responses. It also provides critical context by contrasting consumer perceptions and expectations with the current realities of electric vehicle technology."

Bettina Kampman, Cor Leguijt, Dorien Bennink, Lonneke Wielders, Xander Rijkee, Ab de Buck, Willem Braat, Green Power for Electric Cars. Development of policy recommendations to harvest the potential of electric vehicles. Delft, CE Delft, January 2010, 86 p. [formato PDF, 970 kB] "Contrary to the trends in most other sectors, greenhouse gas emissions of the transport sector are still increasing, and are predicted to grow further in the coming years, at current policies. As there is no simple solution to the challenge of achieving significant CO2 reductions in transport, it has become clear that a large range of efficient and effective CO2 reduction measures will have to be taken. In the coming decades, electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles could play a significant role in this move towards sustainable transport. If these vehicles run on renewable electricity, they could substantially cut CO2 emissions and improve local air quality. Electric vehicles might even help to make the electricity sector more sustainable, if the batteries in the vehicles could be used to manage the variable output of an increasing share of wind and solar-based power generation. However, the extent to which these advantages can be harvested under current policies is open to question. T&E, Friends of the Earth Europe and Greenpeace European Unit have therefore jointly commissioned this study to look into how the full potential of electric cars can be realised. The study aims to analyse the potential impact of the electrification of road transport on EU power production and to develop policy recommendations to ensure that this development will lead to the growth of renewable electricity in Europe."

How to avoid an electric shock. Electric cars: from hype to reality. Transport & Environment, Brussels, November 2009, 52 p. [formato PDF, 1,71 MB] "The report argues that industry and policymakers have relied in the past on distant ‘dream’ technologies to solve environmental problems rather than setting targets for CO2 emissions and fuel efficiency. Hydrogen, biofuels, and earlier interest in electric cars all came to nothing for different reasons but what they have in common is that they all distracted policymakers from forcing carmakers to improve fuel efficiency across the board."