Marco Buttazzoni, Andrea Rossi, Dennis Pamlin, Suzanne Pahlman, From Workplace to Anyplace. Assessing the global opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with virtual meetings and telecommuting. WWF, March 2009, 78 p. [formato PDF, 1,05 MB]. "This report focuses on the opportunities to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in work-related contexts, thanks to the deployment of IT solutions that enable one or more individuals to work or collaborate remotely. In particular the report analyzes the potential associated with teleworking and virtual meetings to reduce carbon emissions from daily commuting by car and business air travel, and the conditions under which such potential could be realized. The goal of the report is to gain an understanding of the scale of the opportunities available while identifying the key drivers that may enable or hinder the full achievement of such opportunities. By analyzing different trajectories of possible future developments, this report provides insight into a future in which maximum GHG emission reductions could be achieved. The premise for the analysis is that IT is best seen as a catalyst that can either be used in ways that reduce our environmental footprint or can be deployed within systems that ultimately result in an increased environmental footprint. Because the policy and economic environment in which IT technology is deployed largely determines its net impact on GHG emissions, this report outlines four scenarios for possible future developments, characterized by different roles and attitudes in policy makers and IT industry (see table below). The first part of the report provides a background on current trends in teleworking and virtual meetings in key regions around the world. This is followed by the description of four potential “future worlds” that would result in different outcomes for global GHG emissions. The final part of the report discusses the policies and strategies that can be deployed jointly, by policy makers and IT providers and users, to foster the adoption of solutions such as teleworking and virtual meetings and to maximize their benefits in terms of GHG emission reductions."

Pierre Morel-a-Lhuissier, Du télétravail au travail mobile. Un enjeu de modernisation de l'économie française. Rapport au Premier ministre. (Collection des rapports officiles). Paris, La Documentation française, 2007, 213 p. [formato PDF, 2,14 MB]. "7%, telle est la proportion de la population active concernée, en 2003, par le télétravail, pour une moyenne européenne de 13%. Selon le présent rapport, les principaux obstacles au développement du télétravail en France ne viennent pas d'un retard d'équipement ou d'infrastructures par rapport à ce qui se fait dans les grands pays comparables, mais tiennent davantage à l'évolution jugée trop lente des mentalités d'une part, et d'autre part à une organisation du travail qui tarde à capitaliser les avantages offerts par les TIC (technologies de l'information et de la communication). Compte tenu de ces observations, l'auteur du rapport émet plusieurs recommandations pour développer le télétravail en France, autour de deux idées centrales : faire sortir le télétravail de la "clandestinité" au sein de laquelle il est cantonné, dans les entreprises comme dans les administrations ; mettre en oeuvre tous les dispositifs permettant aux entreprises comme aux salariés ou fonctionnaires qui veulent en bénéficier d'y accéder."

eWork 2000 - Status Report on New Ways to Work in the Information Society . Annual Report from the European Commission, September 2000, 210 p. [formato PDF, 1,05 MB].

Telelavoro Italia, Bibliografia minima sul telelavoro (1986-1996)


Peter White, Georgina Christodoulou, Roger Mackett, Helena Titheridge, Roselle Thoreau, John Polak, The role of teleworking in Britain : its implications for the transport system and economic evaluation. European Transport Conference 2007, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, The Netherlands, 17–19 October 2007, 17 p. [formato PDF, 58 kB]. "The current extent of teleworking has been examined through interviews with a number of large organisations in the London area, and analysis of data from the National Travel Survey (NTS) for the whole of Britain (covering the period 2002-2004 inclusive), which provides extensive evidence on the extent of working at home and related travel patterns. In principle, teleworking can greatly reduce the need to travel by enabling people to work from home instead of commuting. However, basing work entirely at home is relatively rare (comprising about 3% of the working population), and a more common pattern is that of a mix of working from home on certain days (for example, about 5% of the working population work from home at least once a week), and continuing to commute on others. This mix of activities appears convenient both to staff and employers, enabling greater flexibility in working, while retaining face-to-face contact with colleagues. There is also a large number of staff who work from home, on a less frequent basis. The proportion who telework appears to be slightly higher in London and the South East than the national average. Where home to work trip length is unchanged, and teleworking occurs on some days of the week, then a pro rata reduction in weekly commuting distance occurs. The NTS data also enable all trip purposes, and total distances travelled, to be examined, in addition to home - work travel per se, indicating total volumes of travel by those who telework. Those who telework (especially on a part-week basis) tend to be from higher income groups, and of higher employment status, than the workforce as a whole. This is indicated both from the NTS data data and organisational interviews. Conversely, scope in other types of occupation may be more limited. There is some evidence of higher-than-average total travel distances by those who telework part-week from home, although this is also correlated with the social status of those concerned. Much teleworking appears to be of an informal nature. The technology required for its use at home is already widespread and the main constraints on its expansion appear to be social and managerial rather than technical. Employers gain through better staff morale, increased productivity, and in some cases savings in office space. The findings have interesting implications for economic evaluation. Where car travel is reduced as a consequence of teleworking, direct savings are made in energy consumption, emissions and possibly congestion. In the case of public transport, reduction in peak demand is of greater significance, enabling savings in peak-only capacity at high marginal costs. However, of potentially greater significance is the increased productivity per worker, especially when working time is valued at rates appropriate to the income levels of those concerned : this dominates the outcome of economic evaluation in illustrative cases shown. An extensive literature review was also undertaken. The findings reach in Britain appear broadly comparable with results from research into teleworking in the USA."

David Banister, Carey Newson and Matthew Ledbury, The cost of transport on the environment - the role of teleworking in reducing carbon emissions . (Working paper N° 1024). Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, June 2007, p. 51 [formato PDF, 572 KB].

Randi Hjorthol and Åse Nossum, Teleworking – reduction in travelling or just increased flexibility ? Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, 2007, 18 slides [formato PowerPoint, 0,98 MB]. (International Workshop on Telework, Lillehammer 28th-30th August 2007) "The main objective of this paper is to examine the relation between daily travel pattern and telework. About 2700 persons have answered questions about their use of ICT at home. Approximately 900 of these respondents answered questions about doing work at home, teleworking. The results show that 40 percent of the employees work whole days or parts of a day home during a month. Reasons related to work are the most important reasons to telework. The transport related reasons are mentioned by less than 10 percent. When comparing travel activity and transport mode for those who work at home with those who don’t, only minor differences are found."

Andrea Glogger, Georg Karg, Peter Kreilkamp, Isabelle Preissler, Kurt Vogler-Ludwig, Thomas W. Zangler, Telearbeit und Verkehr im Wirtschaftsraum München. Endbericht. TU München, 2003, 100 p. [formato PDF, 732 KB].

Margaret Walls and Elena Safirova, A review of the literature on telecommuting and its implications for vehicle travel and emissions. Resources for the Future, Washington DC, 2004, 26 p. [formato PDF, 158 KB].

Wilhelm R. Glaser und Walter Vogt, Mehrt oder mindert Telearbeit Verkehr? Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung in Deutschland. Bern, 2000, 11 p. [formato Word, 530 KB]. (Tagung "Weniger Verkehr dank Telekommunikation: Chance oder Illusion?")

Manuela Pérez Pérez, Angel Martínez Sanchez, María Pilar de Luis Carnicer, Maria José Vela Jiménez (Universidad de Zaragoza), El impacto medioambiental del teletrabajo. Factores determinantes y estudio de un caso. Economía Industrial n. 351, 2003, p. 143-156 [formato PDF, 180 KB].

Flexibility, Travel reduction and teleworking: what we know and what we don't.


Sendy Farag, Martin Dijst, Martin Lanzendorf (Utrecht University), Exploring the use of e-shopping and its impact on personal travel behaviour in the Netherlands. Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Utrecht, 2003, 16 p. [formato PDF, 182 KB]. Paper prepared for presentation at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 12-16, 2003, Washington, D.C.


Peter James, Virtual meetings and Climate Innovation in the 21st Century. Can offsetting CO2 emissions from flights by investing in videoconferencing be a way to support transformative change? WWF, January 2009, 48 p. [formato PDF, 4,10 MB]. "Due to technological improvements, an increasing number of business trips can now be substituted by ‘virtual meetings’ and therefore help to minimise aviation-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. For example, an Australian study has estimated that videoconferencing could avoid 2.4 million tonnes of national CO2 emissions, equivalent to 0.43% of the country’s total. However, despite improved quality and reliability, and the qualitative change arising from new high definition technologies such as Cisco’s Telepresence and HP’s Halo, substitution from air travel to videoconferencing is happening relatively slowly. This is because of barriers such as: concerns about effectiveness of the technology; limited access to bandwidth and equipment; weak vendor incentives to push large-scale use; misalignment of user incentives and; a lack of strategic impetus in many organisations; and poor information about the benefits. These barriers mean that videoconferencing is expected to have little impact on air travel, which is projected to grow by 4% a year for the foreseeable future. Growth will be even greater in developing economies such as China and India, who currently have only 60 and 20 air trips per 1000 people respectively, compared to 2,300 in the USA. This paper argues that the current situation with marginal use of virtual meetings is not inevitable, and that the development of a global, open access, videoconferencing infrastructure could significantly reduce CO2 emissions, with many business benefits at the same time. An infrastructure which provided an open access site for every million inhabitants of the world’s urbanised areas would have an estimated $495 million capital cost, and $347 million of annual operating costs (total number of virtual meeting rooms 4620). Much, if not all of which, could be offset by income from those who fly, users of virtual meetings, and other sources. This compares to the estimated $22 billion capital cost of a third Heathrow runway, or the $320 million list price of a new Airbus A380 superjumbo. Key targets to use the infrastructure would include larger companies with many field activities in different countries; small-medium sized businesses; international Governmental and Non-Governmental organisations; organisers of small-medium sized events; and some distance learning and telemedicine discussions. Countries such as China or India would be especially important, with the aim of many people developing familiarity with videoconferencing before becoming attached to air travel for meetings. ‘Digital bridges’ could therefore supplement, and partially replace, the ‘air bridges’ which would otherwise be constructed. Any scheme could be piloted through smaller scale demonstration pilots aimed at creating a dense infrastructure for key business communities and travelling routes. Three possible options for this would be top cities in China and India; top cities in selected medium sized European Union member states or in the US; and top financial centres in the world."


the Telework Association (UK).

CTA Canadian Telework Association, Ottawa (Canada).

European Telework Development (ETD). An Initiative supported by the European Commission (DGXIII) as part of the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) Programme. Grande portale finanziato dall'Unione Europea con tre sezioni: Telework, Teletrade or E-commerce, Telecooperation, contiene migliaia di documenti e informazioni (Il sito non viene più aggiornato dal 2000, "the web site has closed down").

ICT: Mobilizing Persons, Places and Spaces. an international thematic network on Information and Communication Technologies, Everyday Life and Urban Change.

JALA International. The telework, telecommuting, and applied futures research experts.

Telecommunications and Travel Behavior Research Program. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis.

Patrizio Di Nicola (a cura di), Telelavoro Italia Web. Portale italiano dedicato al telelavoro, ricco di documenti e informazioni (non aggiornato dal 2004).

Victoria Transport Policy Institute, TDM Encyclopedia: Telework: Using Telecommunications To Substitute Physical Travel.

The Virtual Mobility Knowledge Base. The impacts of ICT on travel behaviour and freight distribution patterns. This website shows the results of a project commissioned by the UK Department of Transport.