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OrariBus.com, il motore di ricerca del trasporto pubblico in tutta Italia. Trova gli orari autobus urbani ed extraurbani pubblicati dalle aziende di trasporto in tutta Italia, gli orari dei treni, dove sono situate le stazioni ferroviarie, gli orari delle autolinee interregionali ed a lunga percorrenza, quali sono, dove sono e come si contattano le biglietterie, con quali mezzi pubblici si raggiungono e dove sono situati aeroporti e stazioni ferroviarie, più tutte le informazioni su aziende di trasporto, aziende di autoservizi ed autonoleggi.

Der Nahverkehrswegweiser - The public transport guide - Указатель общественного транспорта (Europe)

citytransport.info. Pages on buses, light rail, guided light transport, transport integration, ...

CityRailways, rivista e sito dedicati al trasporto pubblico urbano su rotaia, filobus e "tram su gomma".

El Portal del Autobús es el primer y único portal dedicado al sector del autobús en España, y está dirigido a profesionales, aficionados y público en general.

LUAS, la nuova rete tranviaria di Dublino. Linee, mappe, progetti ed estensioni pianificate.

Light Rail Now, sponsored by Texas Association for Public Transportation. Informazioni, dibattiti, promozione del trasporto pubblico su rotaia, in particolare negli Stati Uniti.

Light Rapid Transit Forum (LRTF). The LRTF represents the private sector and is a centre of excellence. Its members design, build, supply, support and operate rapid transit systems at home and throughout the world. The Forum¹s primary aim is to promote LRT, and it has unique access to both Government decision makers and its public sector partner UK Tram. As well as lobbying, it supports the industry¹s annual conference, which will be held in Manchester in 2011.

Asociación Latinoamericana de Sistemas Integrados y BRT - SIBRT. Para calificar, estandarizar y diseminar los modelos de Sistemas Integrados de Transporte y BRT (Bus Rapid Transit), 21 de las agencias de transporte público urbano más influyentes en América Latina se han unido a la Asociación Latinoamericana de Sistemas Integrados y BRT.

metrogenova.com, sito dell'Associazione Metrogenova, "politicamente indipendente, senza fini di lucro e aperta a tutti, costituita da semplici cittadini, appassionati del trasporto pubblico e della loro città, per studiare e promuovere una nuova mobilità, sostenibile dal punto di vista ambientale, sociale ed economico per Genova". L'Associazione Metrogenova, sorta nel 2007 sulla base dell'omonimo sito, persegue lo scopo di studiare, valorizzare e promuovere le reti di trasporto pubblico in Genova e nella sua area metropolitana, con particolare riferimento alla metropolitana, alla ferrovia urbana e suburbana e, in generale, ai sistemi in sede propria e/o riservata che garantiscano un elevato livello di mobilità sostenibile.

TCRP (Transit Cooperative Research Program) (USA). TCRP is funded by the public, through the Federal Transit Administration and is governed by an independent board – the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. The TOPS Committee sets priorities to decide what research studies will be undertaken. Original TCRP study projects and the publications that result fall into principal fields of transit interest. This includes opportunities and problems in: A. Operations B. Service Configuration C. Engineering of vehicles and equipment D. Engineering of fixed facilities E. Maintenance F. Human Resources G. Administration H. Policy and Planning J. Special Projects

Mondo Tram Tram in Italia e nel mondo (portale)

Mondo Tram Forum. Il forum contiene messaggi e discussioni, con sezioni sulle città (italiane) tranviarie attuali e future, su autobus, filobus, metropolitane e ferrovie urbane in Italia.

PROCEED, the site for High Quality Local Bus Transport. "PROCEED is conducting research into public transport operations in small and medium sized cities and on how to improve its attractiveness to the users, its efficiency and effectiveness. Initially the project will map and analyse successful case cities, and this will lead to a tool for planning and delivering successful public transport. The project will give a better understanding of the key factors that influence public transport, as well as how the position of public transport in the transport system can be strengthened so its market share can increase." (Progetto iniziato nell'ottobre 2006, la durata prevista è di tre anni).

pteg (Passenger Transport Executive Group) brings together and promotes the interests of the six Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) in England. Leicester City Council, Nottingham City Council, Strathclyde Partnership for Transport and Transport for London are associate members. pteg has two main tasks: * promoting efficiencies and the exchange of knowledge and good practice within the PTE network, and * raising awareness nationally about the key transport challenges which face the city regions, and the public transport solutions which PTEs are implementing.

PTP - Associació per a la Promoció del Transport Públic, è un portale ed un'associazione ONG nata nel 1993 che opera per promuovere il trasporto pubblico e una mobilità sostenibile in Catalogna. Sito in lingua catalana, inglese, francese.

Un tram per Genova / di Fiorenzo Pampolini. Sintesi dello studio che propone 2 linee tranviarie a Genova: Sampierdarena – Molassana e Sampierdarena – Nervi. Lo studio comprende una previsione dei costi d'investimento e una breve storia del tram a Genova. "L’attuazione del progetto “Un tram per Genova” porta ad una ridefinizione del sistema di trasporto pubblico nella nostra città. Le due nuove linee di tram, insieme alla metropolitana e al sistema ferroviario urbano, costituirebbero una vera e propria cura del ferro per la nostra città." Documento elaborato da Fiorenzo Pampolini di UTP – Associazione Utenti Trasporto Pubblico.

TrolleyMotion An international action group to promote modern Trolleybus Systems. Sito in inglese, tedesco e russo.

TRAMvia.org Web no oficial i reivindicativa del tramvia a Catalunya. Web informativa de los tranvías espanoles y europeos

HERMES (Higher Education and Research on Mobility Regulation and the Economics of Local Services) Centro di ricerca sull'economia ed il diritto dei trasporti pubblici locali e dei servizi regolamentati, costituito nel 2000 da Compagnia di San Paolo, ASSTRA (Associazione Trasporti) e Università degli Studi di Torino. Sede : Moncalieri (TO).

TRANS'BUS. Le site des transports urbains. "Ce site est consacré aux autobus et aux réseaux de transports en commun qui les exploitent pour vous transporter quotidiennement." Sito ricco di notizie e dati tecnici sulla gestione del TPL, le reti (in Francia), i veicoli (soprattutto bus, copre anche la rinascita del tram in Francia).

ASSTRA, Associazione delle Società ed enti del trasporto pubblico locale

EMTA, The Association of European Metropolitan Transport Authorities was created in 1998 so as to form a venue for exchange of information and best practices between the public authorities responsible for planning, integrating and financing public transport services in the large European Cities. Ten years after its creation, it now brings together 29 such authorities, responsible for improving the mobility conditions of some 70 million European city dwellers.

Trasporti Pubblici.org, portale italiano sui trasporti pubblici

GART, Groupement des Autorites Responsables de Transport (F): dedicato al tema dei trasporti pubblici (in francese)

LITRA, Informationsdienst für den öffentlichen Verkehr / Service d'information pour les transports publics, Bern (CH)

public-transport net, sito austriaco sul trasporto pubblico in Europa (tram, autobus)

UITP, International Association of Public Transport

UTP, Union des Transports Publics (Francia) (portale della associazione delle aziende di trasporto pubblico locale)

UrbanRail.Net, Il sito comprende informazioni, mappe e foto di metro, light rail e tram di tutto il mondo. "A complete guide to metro, subway, U-Bahn, underground networks".

CIVITAS (City-VITAlity-Sustainability), cleaner and better transport in cities: progetto europeo per aiutare le città ad ottenere un sistema di trasporto urbano più sostenibile, più pulito e più efficiente sotto l’aspetto energetico

COST Action "TU1103": Operation and Safety of tramways in interaction with public space. Action planned to work from end of 2011 till 2015. "Regarding tramways and Light Rail Transit, our Action will look at urban fully guided public transport systems which shares public space with road, bike and pedestrian traffic. We will look at accidents and near-misses when they are registered, and the whole tram system, including infrastructure design and equipment management, is important."


MOBILITA' INTERMODALE

Astrid Karl, Christian Maertins, Intermodales Angebotsdesign: Die Schließung der Angebotslücken zwischen öffentlichem Verkehr und privater Mobilität (Il disegno dell'offerta intermodale: colmare i vuoti dell'offerta tra trasporto pubblico e mobilità privata). (InnoZ-Bausteine Nr. 5). Innovationszentrum für Mobilität und gesellschaftlichen Wandel (InnoZ) GmbH, Berlin, 2009, 26 p. [formato PDF, 901 kB]. "The ever rising mobility requirements, especially in metropolitan areas, are constantly being confronted with the limited urban transport capacities. Spatial and financial restrictions often prohibit the building of new or the enhancement of existing infrastructure. Therefore, it is concluded that a better spatialarchitectural, organisational, and informational linkage of the different means of transport to form an „intermodal transportation system“ could provide a solution to this dilemma. Such an intermodal transportation system would encourage multiple mode travel. To implement such an intermodal transportation system, the main flaws of the existing public transport system would have to be eliminated: Traditional public transportation offers only a very low degree of individual availability and flexibility, measured by standards of modern lifestyles. A successful transfer of the now common standard qualities of private mobility to public transport would greatly increase their attractiveness. This paper describes the development of three exemplary product innovations which should help to bridge the described supply and quality gap: on the one hand, there are individualised public means of transport such as public bike rental or car rental schemes. And on the other hand, there is mobile ticketing as a means to offer simple, standardised and flexible access to public transport. The conceptualisation of these innovations took theoretically and empirically plausible assumptions about necessary product features into account. These features make it possible and easier for users to incorporate new transport services into their existing mobile routines. The implementation of the three product innovations was accompanied by research on their acceptance. Based on the results, the product features which decide the successful conceptualisation of individualised public means of transport are identified. The paper concludes with an outlook for a future form of intermodal auto-mobility."


TPL E MOBILITA' URBANA: DATI E ANALISI

ISFORT, Il trasporto urbano su rotaia in Italia. Situazione e linee di sviluppo all'avvio del nuovo decennio. (Rapporto OPMUS 14). Roma, gennaio 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,46 MB]. Ricerca realizzata da un gruppo di lavoro dell’ISFORT composto da Carlo Carminucci, Luca Trepiedi e Massimo Procopio. Il Quaderno sintetizza i risultati di un’ampia indagine sul trasporto urbano su rotaia condotta da Isfort nel corso del 2010.

Lindon Henry and Todd A. Litman, Evaluating New Start Transit Program Performance. Comparing Rail and Bus. Victoria Transport Policy Institute (Canada), September 2006, 22 p. [formato PDF, 164 kB]. Analisi dei dati relativi all’andamento del TPL nelle città USA che hanno integrato il TPL su gomma con nuove linee di Light Rail (tram e altro) e hanno registrato una notevole crescita dell’utenza, molto superiore all’andamento nelle città che invece hanno mantenuto il solo TPL basato sui bus. Il report contiene numerose tabelle di dati.

Regione Emilia-Romagna, Agenzia Trasporti Pubblici, Rapporto annuale di monitoraggio del trasporto pubblico locale, Bologna, luglio 2005, 160 p. [formato PDF, 2,25 MB]. Ampio rapporto sul TPL su gomma e su ferro fino all’anno 2003 compreso.

ISFORT, “Dove vanno a finire i passeggeri?” 3. rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Roma, 2 marzo 2006, 71 p. [formato PDF, 595 kB]. Studio realizzato da un gruppo di lavoro dell’ISFORT diretto da Carlo Carminucci. E’stato recentemente presentato a Venezia nell’ambito del convegno organizzato da ASSTRA. Presentazione del rapporto, Venezia, 2 marzo 2006, 28 slides [formato Powerpoint, 509 kB]. Slides della presentazione di Carlo Carminucci.

ISFORT e ASSTRA, "Avanti c’è posto?": report annuale ASSTRA-ISFORT sulla mobilità urbana: i bisogni dei cittadini, le risposte delle città. Roma, (13 aprile) 2005, 70 p. [formato PDF, 681 kB]. (Secondo rapporto sulla mobilità in Italia, realizzato da ISFORT) ; Presentazione del rapporto del 13 aprile (26 slides) [formato PDF, 525 kB].


ORGANIZZAZIONE DEL TPL

Steve Wright (University of Aberdeen), A European Model for Public Transport Authorities in Small and Medium Urban Areas. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2015, 45-60 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "Public Transport Authorities (PTAs) are well-established in large urban areas. These dedicated authorities act in the public interest to ensure that a well-functioning, integrated transport system operates within their territory. Within Europe, economic pressures and changes in regulation to encourage more competition are providing the catalyst for municipalities/authorities of all sizes to review the structure under which transport is managed and provided in their jurisdictions and to consider the suitability of establishing a PTA. Based on findings from case studies in eight small and medium urban areas across seven European countries, it is clear that although user needs remain at the center of the actions of a PTA, the level of functionality provided by metropolitan PTAs would not be suitable or possible for a PTA in a small- or medium-size urban area. This paper presents a summary model of the functions/responsibilities and guidelines on the organizational structure that are most suitable for PTAs in small and medium urban areas in Europe."

Carlo Carminucci e Massimo Procopio (ISFORT), Nuove regole per il TPL, dal decreto 422/97 alla "riforma della riforma". Relazione al convegno "Il trasporto collettivo tra declino e sfide per la qualità", Politecnico di Milano, 25 giugno 2008, 26 slides [formato PDF, 238 kB].

Patrizia Malgieri (TRT Trasporti e Territorio), I modelli di TPL in Europa e la formazione dei grandi operatori. Relazione al convegno "Il trasporto collettivo tra declino e sfide per la qualità", Politecnico di Milano, 25 giugno 2008, 17 slides [formato PDF, 255 kB].

Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), Il trasporto pubblico locale in Italia. Le regole, i soggetti, i confronti con l'Europa. Relazione al convegno "TPL al capolinea? Ripartire con nuove regole...", Filt-Cgil, Fit-Cisl, Uiltrasporti, Chianciano, 5 luglio 2007, 43 slides [formato PDF, 701 KB]. Ampia relazione sull'attuazione della riforma del TPL in Italia da parte delle regioni, con riferimenti al regolamento europeo e un confronto del TPL italiano con i principali paesi europei.


TRASPORTO LOCALE: TRAM, TRAM-TRENO, LIGHT RAIL, METROPOLITANA, MONOROTAIA, METRO SU GOMMA, BUS E FILOBUS

Legambiente, Nuovi treni per città più vivibili. Come una cura del ferro può rendere più moderne e sostenibili le città italiane. Studio realizzato da Legambiente con il contributo di Ansaldo Breda. Roma, 2015, 38 p. [formato PDF, 3,05 MB]. Studio sulla situazione di treni regionali, metropolitane e tram nelle città italiane.

Évaluation a posteriori des transports collectifs en site propre. Note méthodologique. Cerema, Lyon, janvier 2015, 110 p. [file PDF, 8,42 MB]. "Légalement, un bilan des résultats économiques et sociaux des grands projets d’infrastructure de transport réalisés avec le concours de financements publics doit être élaboré par le maître d’ouvrage de l’opération, en application de l’article L. 1511- 6 du Code des transports et de ses décrets d’application. Pour les Transports collectifs en site propre (TCSP), une première note méthodologique est venue préciser les modalités d’élaboration de ces bilans a posteriori, en s’appuyant sur les évaluations réalisées par les collectivités locales et sur les travaux du Certu en matière d’évaluation des TCSP. Cette nouvelle note méthodologique vient actualiser la précédente sur la base d’évaluations menées depuis cette date. Elle se veut applicable à l’ensemble des TCSP, quel que soit leur montant d’investissement. À destination de tous les acteurs locaux, techniciens et décideurs, elle a pour objet non seulement d’être une note technique mais aussi de rappeler les enjeux de l’évaluation a posteriori. En ce sens, elle prend en compte les travaux les plus récents de l’État sur l’évaluation."

Ennio Cascetta (Univ. Napoli Federico II), La metropolitana di Napoli per la mobilità e la riqualificazione urbana. Presentazione al convegno "La città metropolitane e le sue competenze", Napoli, 6.2.2014, 43 slides [formato PDF, 5,82 MB].

Ennio Cascetta (Univ. Napoli Federico II), Il Sistema dei Trasporti su ferro e la città metropolitana di Napoli. Presentazione al convegno MetroBrescia, Brescia, 28.2.2014, 34 slides [formato PDF, 9,84 MB].

Marcin Wołek and Olgierd Wyszomirski (edited by), The Trolleybus as an Urban Means of Transport in the Light of the Trolley Project. [e-book]. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 2013, 167 p. [formato PDF, 5,60 MB]. "The aim of the study is to present the factors, scale of action, as well as the determinants of the development of trolleybus transport, with particular emphasis on the cities participating both directly and indirectly, through their transport companies, in the Trolley project. The study was organised according to the above aim. The first part is dedicated to those factors which play a part in urban transport development within the European Union. It then focuses on the development and scope of utilization of the trolleybus transport within a city, particularly with regards to the cities involved in the Trolley project. The following part of the study discusses the technical and exploitation elements of trolleybus transport. The organisation and management of the trolleybus transport constitute the object of further deliberations, focusing especially, again, on those cities participating in the Trolley project. Later on, the study takes a close look at the costs of trolleybus transport paying close attention to the cities participating in the Trolley project. It also presents a model view on the economical efficiency of the transport trolleybus research. The acquired method is then implemented in the estimation of the economical effectiveness of this mode of transport in the cities participating in the Trolley project. The next part of the work presents the issues connected with the image of trolleybus transport shaped by marketing techniques – important considering the aim of the Trolley project. The final part of the work is dedicated to the directions and determinants of the development of trolleybus transport. It sets out to determine its potential role in the future, taking into consideration the cities participating in the Trolley project. Psychological factors were considered important amongst the determinants of the future development of the trolleybus transport."

Robert Regué, Abigail L. Bristow, Appraising Freight Tram Schemes: A Case Study of Barcelona. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 13 (2013) 56-78 [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "Urban goods distribution has gained in importance in recent years since its optimization not only has the potential to increase productivity and operational efficiency but also to achieve broader goals related to the reduction of externalities including congestion, accidents, noise, air pollution and CO2 emissions. The focus of this paper is to explore the costs and benefits related to freight trams and appraise, by means of a cost benefit analysis a hypothetical freight tram scheme in the centre of Barcelona, to identify the factors that critically influence the potential success or failure of such schemes and to examine through sensitivity testing ways of improving performance. Thus, this paper aims to enhance our understanding of the potential for freight trams to contribute to mitigating a range of transport externalities. Two freight tram scenarios were developed for detailed investigation: the first for retail deliveries and the second for domestic waste collection. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was carried out based on the best available public domain information and with clearly specified assumptions. The waste tram scenario yields a high Net Present Value (NPV) and rapid return on investment due to the low set up costs and significant operating cost savings. On the other hand, in the initial specification, the retail delivery tram has a very negative NPV due to high initial investment costs and annual costs exceeding annual benefits. Sensitivity tests indicate that both the initial infrastructure costs and the costs and efficiency levels of the consolidation centres are critical to the performance of a freight tram."

Elena Molinaro (Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti), Le linee guida per i sistemi tram-treno. [presentazione al] 5° convegno nazionale sistema tram, Roma, 31 gennaio-1 febbraio 2013, 15 slides [file PDF, 1,32 MB].

Gruppo di lavoro Tram-Treno, Linee guida sui sistemi tram-treno. 2013, 34 p. [file PDF, 519 kB]. [sito ASSTRA, necessaria la registrazione gratuita]. "Scopo delle Linee Guida è quello di fornire indicazioni per la progettazione e l’esercizio di un sistema tram-treno attraverso l’individuazione di requisiti fondamentali che il sistema deve soddisfare per garantire le necessarie condizioni di sicurezza. La grande novità del documento è quella di considerare il “tram treno” come “sistema tram treno” e non come semplice veicolo, e di convalidare le soluzioni progettuali proposte in base ad una specifica analisi di sicurezza globale del sistema che tenga conto del contesto applicativo dello stesso quale, ad esempio, lo scenario infrastrutturale e le tipologie di veicoli utilizzati."

Green light for light rail. (Report). Department for Transport, London, September 2011, 61 p. [file PDF, 560 kB]. "The terms of reference for this review were: what are the key cost drivers for light rail?; and what steps could be taken to help make this mode more cost effective in the future? In the latest light rail and tram statistics published in August 2011, passenger journeys in England for light rail and tram systems have shown to have increased by 5.5 per cent between 2009/10 and 2010/11 with 196.5 million passenger journeys in 2010/11. This represents the highest number of passenger journeys to date. There are eight tramway/light rail systems currently in operation in England. These are in Croydon, London's Docklands, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield, Tyne and Wear, Nottingham and Blackpool. There are currently a number of extensions to the Manchester Metrolink system under construction, funded with Central Government support and which will see Metrolink extended to Oldham and Rochdale, as well as Ashton-Under-Lyne and East Didsbury. Further extensions to the system are under active consideration by Transport for Greater Manchester, the local transport authority, using local sources of funding. In addition, the upgrade to the Blackpool and Fleetwood tramway is well underway and is nearing completion, as well as work commencing on the modernisation of the Tyne and Wear Metro. Further extensions to existing networks are also close to final approval. These include extensions to the Midland Metro Line One into Birmingham city centre and to the Nottingham Express Transit system. In addition a new tram system in Edinburgh is being developed. Today’s report builds on action already taken since May 2010 in support of light rail, including: - removing the requirement for light rail schemes to have a higher proportion of local contributions compared to other modes; - providing funding support to a number of light rail schemes; and - supporting a tram train pilot in South Yorkshire and working with Hertfordshire County Council/Network Rail on the possibility of converting the St Albans Abbey Line to light rail. The review has considered evidence from the various inquiries that have taken place previously. This includes findings from the reports published by the National Audit Office, the Transport Select Committee and the All Party Parliamentary Light Rail Group. Further evidence was also provided by other organisations such as UKTram and scheme promoters, as well as research on costs of major infrastructure projects undertaken overseas for which the Department is very grateful." "Light rail has a future in this country if capital costs can be reduced Local Transport Minister Norman Baker said today as he published a review looking at how trams can be more cost effective in the future. Despite tram passenger numbers being at record levels, high building costs have meant that even where passenger forecasts may justify its consideration, light rail has often not been seen as an affordable option for local transport authorities. Recommendations from the review for local authorities and industry include: - to implement a new project design of light rail systems which is uniform across the industry; - to look at lower cost schemes overseas to see whether they could be adopted in this country; and - to set up a ‘centre of procurement excellence’ to advise on the best procurement options." "Findings show that light rail has the potential to provide high capacity transport into and around major conurbations which reduces congestion, supports growth and improves regeneration opportunities. The Department will therefore hold a summit of the light rail sector to agree a sector-led implementation plan for getting light rail on the right track. The report found that one of the main reasons for high construction costs is the need to divert and locate utilities which lie under the road where the tram is to be built e.g. water and gas main pipes. The Department for Transport will now launch a consultation to seek views on how this system can be simplified and ultimately how costs can be reduced."

Giovanni Mantovani, Il sistema tramviario di Firenze. Benefici non solo per la mobilità ma anche per la qualità dell'aria (La cura del ferro nell'area metropolitana fiorentina). Presentazione al convegno "Esperienze avanzate di riduzione delle polveri sottili", Firenze, 2 ottobre 2009, 47 slides [formato PPT, 13,6 MB].

Bibliographie sur l’émission acoustique des tramways. Modélisation des véhicules étendus par des sources sonores ponctuelles. (Rapports d’étude du Certu). CERTU, Lyon, 2009, 117 p. [formato PDF, 3,84 MB]. "Cet ouvrage se propose donc de rassembler toutes les connaissances actuelles sur le bruit des tramways. Ce rapport traite en priorité de la modélisation des différentes sources d'émission acoustique de ce type de véhicule. La partie propagation est, quant à elle, traitée par les logiciels développés pour le bruit ferroviaire (par exemple, le logiciel MITHRA, validé par la SNCF) ou par des modèles d'ingénierie basés sur des abaques. La collecte des documents et références s'est étalée sur les années 2007 et 2008. Les références utilisées proviennent d’horizons variés, aussi bien sur le fond avec des articles scientifiques publiés dans des revues internationales et des rapports d'études, que sur la forme avec des textes en langue française ou étrangère, même si les documents en français sont les plus nombreux. De nombreuses références émanent du Réseau Scientifique et Technique (RST) du Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du Développement Durable et de l'Aménagement du Territoire (MEEDDAT). Ce travail est divisé en quatre grandes parties: les principales sources sonores émises par un tramway ainsi que les différentes modélisations existantes; les paramètres principaux de l'émission sonore (vitesse, type de plate-forme, entretien des voies; la réglementation française applicable aux tramways et quelques recommandations pour mener à bien une étude d'impact; quelques réflexions sur la recherche d'un nouvel indicateur acoustique autre que le LAeq et spécifique au tramway. Cette réflexion est d’ailleurs générale dans le domaine du bruit des transports.Le lectorat visé par ce document est relativement large : bureaux d'études acoustiques, maîtres d’ouvrage et gestionnaires d'infrastructures et même riverains désireux de mieux connaître le bruit des tramways et ses facteurs d'émissions." [Download gratuito, registrazione necessaria].

Andrea Spinosa, Metropolitane: ferro o gomma? Analisi dei sistemi di metropolitana su gomma. 2008, 105 p. [file PDF, 9,93 MB]. Dossier sulle esperienze di metropolitana su gomma nel mondo, con molte immagini e informazioni tecniche, pubblicato sul sito http://www.cityrailways.net/. Tavole (schede tecniche, immagini e foto), 64 p. [file PDF, 16,6 MB].

Andrea Spinosa, Muoversi naturalmente. Il trasporto filoviario, la situazione in Italia, la tecnologia, gli sviluppi futuri. 2008, 199 p. [file PDF, 15 MB]. Dossier sulla situazione dei sistemi filoviari in Italia, con molte schede, immagini e informazioni tecniche, pubblicato sul sito http://www.cityrailways.net/.

Balazs Acs (University of Tsukuba), Interoperability between urban railways - the highest level of intermodal integration. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, p. 239-254, 2005 [file PDF, 896 kB]. "Nowadays the most often used concept in urban planning is the integration. The formerly strict borders within and between the heavy and light rail networks are disappearing. Many interoperable systems emerge to provide passengers with door-to-door services, knowing that seamless mobility is the key of attractive public transportation. This paper briefly introduces the current and planned integrated, interoperable urban rail systems, including the best practices: StadtBahn, S-Bahn, RER, Crossrail, Passante, Cercanias, the Karlsruhe model, and the Japanese-style “through operation”. Many examples prove that there are no unbridgeable barriers between railway types. The main focus of the paper is on interoperability between metro and railway lines. This is a cost-effective method of extending the urban rail network, and integrating the conventional suburban railways into the urban railway system. As a case study, the ambivalent railway development plans for Budapest are discussed."

Graham Crampton (University of Reading), Sustainable transport policy in Europe: the role of Light Rail and its rivals. Paper prepared for ERSA Conference, Barcelona, 30th August – 2nd September, 2000. 19 p. [file PDF, 56 kB]. "The paper reports on a British research project focusing on the role of modern light rail in urban development, and its relative advantages and disavantages compared to rival forms of modern public transport investment. Most European Member States and the Commission itself has stressed the need for further progress in developing sustainable transport policies especially for major urban areas. However, financial constraints in most countries have led to the full metro railway form of mass transit being rejected as too expensive a form of infrastructure. Cheaper alternatives normally involve a choice between modern tram (light rail) and various forms of bus priority. Although Britain has a small number of recently constructed urban light rail systems, the current British government seems to favour bus as the cheaper and more flexible mode. Guided forms of bus, or separated busways have been used successfully in cities as varied as Leeds, Essen, Pittsburgh, and Ottawa. In addition to questions of comparative infrastructure and operating cost, the paper discusses whether a `rail factor’ gives the light rail form a built-in popularity, which can simultaneously enhance quality of life, labour market access, and the city’s image."

Maria Capezzuoli (ATAF Firenze), Introduzione al convegno "Cogito Ergo Bus", Firenze, 24-25 gennaio 2008. 22 slides [file PowerPoint, 18,3 MB]. Descrizione sintetica del progetto della nuova rete tramviaria di Firenze, con stime della potenziale utenza.

Luigi Maffei (Seconda Univ. Napoli), La tramvia di Firenze, relazione al convegno "Cogito Ergo Bus"Firenze, 24-25 gennaio 2008. 10 slides [file PDF, 2,65 MB]. Valutazione della rumorosità esistente lungo i tracciati delle linee 2 e 3, livelli di rumorosità previsti col tram.

Tram di Firenze S.p.A., Studio sulle misurazioni di rumore e vibrazioni. (2007 ?). 35 slides [file PDF, 1,98 MB]. (lo studio è stato effettuato dalla Seconda Università di Napoli).

Paolo Carbone (Railway Procurement Agency, Dublin), La rete metro tramviaria di Dublino: la costruzione delle prime linee, i successi e le sfide future. Relazione al convegno "Cogito Ergo Bus", Firenze, 24-25 gennaio 2008. 53 slides [file PDF, 5,55 MB].

Riccardo Genova, Alessandro Sasso, Il modello europeo di "ferrovia cittadina". Relazione a MobilityTech, Bologna, 29-30 ottobre 2007, 24 slides [file PDF, 11,2 MB].

Axel Huysmans (Van Hool), New systems for Italy. Relazione al convegno UITP "1st International Workshop to Push Forward Your Trolleybus System", Salzburg, April 20th, 2006, 19 slides [formato PDF, 2,56 MB]. (caratteristiche dei filobus Van Hool utilizzati a Lecce e a Genova).

Margarita Novales Ordax, De la ciudad a la región: el tranvitrén. Ingeniería y territorio, n. 76, 2006 (Transporte ferroviario metropolitano y regional), p.62-69 [formato PDF, 825 KB]. Analisi delle caratteristiche e dei problemi tecnici del tram-treno nei percorsi su rete ferroviaria e su rete tramviaria, con cosiderazioni sulla possibilità di istituire questo sistema anche in Spagna.

Rocío Cascajo Jiménez, Efectos sobre la movilidad de metros y tranvías. Ingeniería y territorio, n. 76, 2006 (Transporte ferroviario metropolitano y regional), p.40-47 [formato PDF, 472 KB]. Analisi di alcuni esempi di metro, light rail, ferrovie metropolitane e tram (Lione, Madrid, Manchester, Stuttgart, Tyne and Wear, Valencia, Vienna) e dei loro effetti sulla mobilità urbana.

TRANS'BUS : Le retour du tramway en France. "Le tramway fait son retour en France. Afin de garder une vision globale des projets et des lignes déjà en service, TRANS'BUS vous propose de faire le point avec des dossiers qui évoluent au fur et à mesure de l'avancement des différents projets." Rassegna aggiornata sui tram in servizio, in costruzione e in progetto in Francia, con dettagli sulle singole linee.

Legambiente, Pendolaria: Primo rapporto sul trasporto pendolare ferroviario nelle città italiane , Roma, novembre 2006, 19 p. [formato PDF, 336 kB].

ISFORT, Il trasporto urbano su rotaia in Italia. L’offerta di reti e servizi, il confronto in Europa, gli scenari futuri delle principali città italiane. Rapporto finale . Roma, ottobre 2006, 181 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. Ampia ricerca ISFORT-ASSTRA sul trasporto urbano e metropolitano su ferro in Italia.

ISFORT, Il trasporto urbano su rotaia in Italia. L’offerta di reti e servizi, il confronto in Europa, gli scenari futuri delle principali città italiane. Sintesi. Roma, ottobre 2006, 17 slides [formato PDF, 356 kB].

Luca Trepiedi, Il trasporto urbano su rotaia in Italia. Una selezione di aspetti emersa dall’indagine , ISFORT, Roma, 19 ottobre 2006, 32 slides [formato PDF, 452 kB].

Benjamin Puccio, Présentation du projet tram-train de Strasbourg , décembre 2001, 8 slides [formato PDF, 616 kB].

Bjorn Gunnarson, Andreas Lofgren, Light Rail – experiences from Germany, France and Switzerland. Master’s Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, January 2001, 104 p. [formato PDF, 4,00 MB].

Benjamin Puccio, Progetto preliminare del tram a Prato : documenti relativi al progetto di realizzazione della tramvia nell'area Pratese (presentazione del progetto preliminare, relazione sulla mobilità, relazione di fattibilità economica, inserimento urbano del sistema tram, relazione fotografica) in formato PDF e Powerpoint.

lightrail.nl portale olandese dedicato al Light Rail, “combines knowledge from different professional domains, such as transportation, urban planning, management and economics”

Railway Technology : schede sui progetti di Light Rail Systems (tram, tram-treno, metrò leggero, tram su gomma, Rapid Transit System).

Light Rail Transit Association - LRTA Information and campaigning about better public transport through trams, tramways, streetcars and light rail transit systems (portale che promuove il Light Rail, questo termine comprende sia tram che metropolitana leggera.

LibeRTiN , Light Rail Thematic Network: progetto europeo per la standardizzazione del Light Rail (compreso il tram-treno)

Progetto Città Elettriche Iniziative coordinate volte al rilancio del trasporto pubblico a trazione elettrica in Italia (contiene informazioni, documenti, links).

Treni e tram Sito sulla Mantova-Peschiera e la Merano-Malles; inoltre diversi links a siti di ferrovie & tranvie, industrie, musei, riviste, mailing list ( http://www.trenietram.it/fmp1.htm ).

Railway Technology : schede sui progetti di metropolitane.


BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) - SISTEMI DI AUTOBUS VELOCE IN SEDE PROPRIA

Alexandros Nikitas, MariAnne Karlsson (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, A Worldwide State-of-the-Art Analysis for Bus Rapid Transit: Looking for the Success Formula. Journal of Public Transportation, 18 (1) 2015, p. 1-33 [formato PDF, 619 KB]. "This paper’s intended contribution, in terms of providing an additional angle in the existing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) state-of-the-art knowledge spectrum, is a dual one. On the one hand, it provides a detailed description of the mode, re-defining BRT as an overall concept by identifying, discussing, and categorizing in a systematic way its strengths and its weaknesses in comparison with rail-based solutions and conventional bus services. On the other hand, it presents in detail a number of selected scheme-oriented applications from around the world, looking into some of the basic ingredients behind BRT’s success (or failure) stories. This is a scientific effort that could inform the reader about the current status of BRT internationally and about the challenges and opportunities that exist when trying to materialize BRT’s potential as an effective urban passenger solution that could challenge the merits of more conventional mass-transit options."

Hiroyuki Takeshita, Hirokazu Kato, Yoshitsugu Hayashi, Kazuhiro Shimizu (Nagoya Univ.), Evaluating Bus Rapid Transit System in Nagoya City, 89th Transportation Reserch Board annual meeting, 2009, 13 p. [formato PDF, 2,64 MB]. "This paper empirically explores the impacts and discusses the advantages of the two BRT systems “Key Route Bus System”, operating on exclusive median bus lane system and “Guideway Bus System”, operated on elevated mechanical track guidance system. These systems have been introduced (Key Route Bus: 1985, Guideway Bus 2001) in Nagoya which is the third largest city in Japan. The analysis for the Key Route Bus System suggests that: 1) Median bus lane and longer distances between bus stops improve the operational speed and punctuality, and therefore this higher service enables to minimize the decrease of passengers compared to the other bus routes; 2) It increases the road capacity and decreases the environmental load; 3) It does not have any notable impacts on urban development. For the Guideway Bus System the three important conclusions are: 1) High operational speed and punctuality is attained through elevated alignment which is completely elevated from the car traffic and signalizations on the roads; 2) Rate of increase in passenger demand is higher than that of population because of higher level of service; 3) Current legislation system in Japan requires complex operation system and elevated track lane for Guideway Bus System and this makes the operational cost higher compared to the other applications in other countries."

Leroy W. Demery, Jr., Bus Rapid Transit in Curitiba, Brazil - an Information Summary. (publictransit.us Special Report No. 1) Publictransit.us, Vallejo, CA., 2004, 43 p. [formato PDF, 1,92 MB].

Lloyd Wright (University College London), Bus Rapid Transit: a Global Review, ITDP, 29 slides [formato PDF, 1,71 MB]. (necessaria la registrazione gratuita).

EMBARQ, Center for Sustainable Transport in Mexico, Metrobus, welcome aboard, Sustainable Mobility, October 2006, 48 p. [formato PDF, 4,22 MB]. Pubblicazione sul sistema del Bus Rapid Transit a Mexico City.

Bus Rapid Transit, Wikipedia.

OC Transpo, Public Transit in Ottawa. L'azienda di trasporto pubblico di Ottawa gestisce uno dei più estesi ed efficienti sistemi di Bus Rapid Transit ("Transitway").

TransLink, IBI Group, 98 B-Line Bus Rapid Transit Evaluation Study, Vancouver, Transport Canada, 2003, 74 p. [formato PDF, 7,71 MB]. Valutazione della linea BRT tra Vancouver e Richmond, una delle applicazioni del BRT di maggior successo nell'America del Nord. Lo studio analizza i costi e i benefici del sistema, con particolare attenzione alle applicazioni di ITS (intelligent transportation systems).

Sheila Hartmann, Keenan Kitasaka (TransLink), Vancouver, British Columbia's High Tech Bus Rapid Transit achieves mode shift from private vehicles surpassing rapid rail transit, Vancouver, TransLink (2003), 14 p. [formato PDF, 462 KB]. L'articolo esamina i motivi del successo della linea 98 B-Line.

Fastrack, Kent Thameside's innovative and highly successful Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system. "Fastrack is the new part of the public transport system in Kent Thameside that will make a real difference. Positioned in the hierarchy of public transport between the railway service and current bus services, Fastrack will ultimately connect nearly all of the major existing and new developments in Dartford and Gravesham with core express routes on which only Fastrack services will be allowed to run. Alongside enhanced bus services, Fastrack will provide the frequent, reliable high quality service that will ensure people can ‘get around’ – to work, to school, to play – even to London and the continent!" Sistema di trasporto su bus in una zona di nuova edificazione, dotato di corsie e accessi riservati e di informazioni in tempo reale agli utenti e ai residenti di tutti i nuovi edifici; funziona dal marzo 2006 con notevole successo.

David George, Fastrack project update. Eurotransport, 4 (2007), p. 41-45. [formato PDF, 556 KB].


TRASPORTO LOCALE: AUTOBUS ELETTRICI, A METANO, A IDROGENO

Armando Carteni (University of Naples Federico II), A Cost-Benefit Analysis Based on the Carbon Footprint Derived from plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses for Urban Public Transport Services. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, v.14, 2018, 125-135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "Sustainable mobility and green developmenon are based on the achievement of three goals: environment, society and economy. This means that a sustainable plan/project must be, at the same time, equitable, viable, and bearable. In urban areas, the transport sector significantly impacts with respect to both fuel consumption and environmental emissions. At this aim, planning policies aimed at reducing these negative impacts are very important. Many researches cover the problem of perform rational decisions to improve the transportation sector. One of the most useful quantitative methods to evaluate rational project solution is the cost benefit analysis. In literature the 'traditional' cost benefit analysis not always take into account the overall carbon footprint of a transport project/policy. The carbon footprint is the total (direct and indirect) amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by a project/policy/service expressed as the overall amount of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted. Moreover, the recent economic crisis has made necessary also to generate a 'profit' from transport services/infrastructures, as well as positive impacts for users and for environment. Starting from these considerations the aims of this paper were: i) to evaluate if the use of hybrid electric buses for a new urban public transport services could produce profit for a private/public transport operator; ii) to develop a cost benefit analysis explicitly considering the overall carbon footprint (and not only the local impacts) produced by this vehicle technology. The case study was a new urban bus line designed in a medium size city, Salerno, in Italy. The results of the study underline that the use of hybrid electric buses could produce a profit for private/public transport operators and the analysis based on the overall carbon footprint allow to better estimate the (positive) impacts deriving from the use of this vehicle technology. Since the hybrid electric buses have a carbon footprint 12/18% lower than a traditional bus, an urban transportation service based on this type of technology allows to obtain grater benefits up to +82% against a traditional one."

ZeEUS eBus Report. An overview of electric buses in Europe. UITP, Brussels, 2016, 118 p. [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. "The report gives an extensive overview of the electric buses in operation in Europe today, along with the different solutions available on the markets today. It is obvious that the electrification of public transport is high on the priority list of cities and public transport agencies and operators. A wide range of technological solutions exist for the electrification of public transport, but every choice is dependent on the local situation and can result in a different total cost of ownership. Therefore, this report aims to provide the reader with an overview of experiences from various cities, and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing ebuses in an urban context. ZeEUS eBus Report features 61 cities around Europe that operate or test high capacity electric buses (at least 12m long or with capacity for at least 55 passengers). The publication also lists 27 manufacturers that offer this type of vehicles for the European market."

Adam Ekström, Robert Regula, Identifying barriers in a technological shift: The introduction of battery-electric buses in Swedish public transport. Master of Science Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2016, 78 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Concern regarding sustainability and climate change is increasing, which is forcing countries world-wide to take action. The Swedish government has set a goal of fossil-free traffic until 2030. Battery Electric Buses (BEB) might be one of the solutions needed in order to reach this goal. However, currently its prevalence is at an early stage. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden affects the public transport operators (PTOs). Moreover, to investigate how a third party service provider of Fleet Management System (FMS) services can support the PTOs in this transition. The research has been carried out in co-operation with a PTO and a FMS service provider. The research contributes to their current understanding of how they will be affected by the emerging tech- nological transition. This thesis also contributes with new empirical data of the technological transition towards electric vehicles within public bus transport, seen as a Large Technical System. Conceptually it contributes, by exploring how external companies can support the technological transition towards BEBs, with the application of Technological Transitions theory and the Multi Layer Perspective framework. The methodology used is a case study of the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden. Data was collected through twelve semi-structured interviews with researchers, PTOs, public transport au- thorities (PTA), a BEB manufacturer and a FMS-service company. Parallel to this a questionnaire was distributed to the twenty largest PTOs in Sweden. Moreover data was collected from company visits, pilot-project results and internal documentation. Our findings show that there are thirteen perceived barriers present among the PTOs, in the process of BEB adoption. Six of these barriers relate to component aspects of BEBs, and seven relate to managerial aspects. Perceived barriers linked to component aspects of BEBs are; Variation in solutions and lack of technical standards, the Charging infrastructure, Shorter range or decreased load capacity, Unknown functionality in cold climate, Reliability and Durability. Perceived barriers linked to managerial aspects of BEBs are; Lack of knowledge and experience, Behavioral change, Economy, Maintenance, Ownership of infrastructure and buses, Business models and Varying requirements from PTAs. The barriers FMS-service providers can address are primarily, due to the technological nature of the services, present at niche level. PTOs together with FMS-service providers are encouraged to together strive towards gaining deeper knowledge about the new emerging technologies. Through this, PTOs could be enabled to overcome the aforementioned barriers. Three reverse salients were also identified, linked to the aforementioned barriers. If the reverse salients are assessed, BEB acceptance among PTOs could be increased. The three identified reverse salients are; the battery technology, the charging infrastructure and the contracts/ownership. The co-operation with the commissioning PTO and FMS-service provider has led to valuable access to Swedish public transport actors, and has aided in a deeper understanding of the phenomena. Although, this co-operation might have exposed us to a risk of being influenced."

Mauro Andriollo, Andrea Tortella (University of Padua), Sustainability evaluation of an electric bus fleet for the urban public transport system of Padova, Italy. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 13 p. [formato PDF, 769 kB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The paper analyses the potential benefits deriving from the introduction of an electric battery-supplied bus (EBB) fleet in the urban transportation context of the city of Padova, Italy. Such analysis is carried out in the frame of a business plan focused on the development of recharge/replacement stations located at suitable bus terminals, adopting an optimized strategy to replace and recharge the on-board batteries running low. After an extensive analysis of the actual urban bus fleet, equivalent bus configurations are defined for both diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles, by means of an analytical elaboration of reference driving cycles. Such elaboration also includes the performance deterioration over the vehicle life by applying a derating function to the propulsion system and catalyser efficiencies. Then, the EBBs characteristics and operation are determined by an algorithm aiming at the minimization of the battery investment and operating costs on ten years' service. Finally, the equivalent buses with different length are compared in terms of energy consumptions and pollutant emissions on the same reference routes. Such comparison is carried out by numerical simulations, taking into account both the engine practical behaviour and the battery charge/discharge operation."

Fuel Cell Buses (sperimentazione a Londra di bus a celle a combustibile)

Fuel Cell Bus Club portale dedicato ai bus dotati di celle a combustibile.

CUTE – Clean Urban Transport for Europe progetto europeo per la sperimentazione di bus a celle a combustibile in 9 città europee.


BUS A GUIDA AUTOMATICA O VINCOLATA ("TRAM SU GOMMA")

The Cambridgeshire Guided Busway (Wikipedia) is a public transport scheme connecting the population centres of Cambridge, Huntingdon and St Ives in the English county of Cambridgeshire.

Cambridgeshire County Council, The Busway (Cambridgeshire Guided Busway) (2011).

Misguided & Bust - the unfolding story of the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway (2011).

Francesco Filippi, Adriano Alessandrini (Università di Roma "La Sapienza"), Nuovi sistemi di trasporto in Europa. L'automazione al servizio della mobilità. Presentazione al convegno CIFI e SIDT "I nuovi sistemi leggeri per il trasporto pubblico nelle aree urbane", Roma, 11 maggio 2007. Roma, 2007, 32 slides [formato PDF, 1,69 MB].

Antonio Conte (APS Holding, Padova), Translohr: la linea SIR 1 a Padova. Presentazione al convegno CIFI e SIDT "I nuovi sistemi leggeri per il trasporto pubblico nelle aree urbane", Roma, 11 maggio 2007. Roma, 2007, 12 slides [formato PDF, 1,56 MB].

APS Holding (Padova), Tram di Padova. Sito informativo sul "tram su gomma" Translohr funzionante a Padova.


PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT (PRT), AUTOMATED PEOPLE MOVER (APM)

Il People Mover di Venezia. (pagine a cura del sito Funivie.org).

Progetto di People Mover Stazione Aeroporto-Stazione FS. Sistema automatico di collegamento tra l'aeroporto G. Marconi e la stazione centrale FS di Bologna. Bologna, 17 febbraio 2006, 16 slides [formato PDF, 2,86 MB].

Giannino Praitoni, Alfonso Micucci, Joerg Schweizer, Stima dell'utenza della linea “People Mover” Stazione FS – Aeroporto a Bologna. Bologna, 2008, 12 p. [formato PDF, 677 kB]. "L’iniziativa della Amministrazione Comunale per la realizzazione di un sistema a guida vincolata in sede propria – il People Mover – collegante la Stazione Centrale di Bologna, il nuovo Campus Universitario del Lazzaretto e l'aeroporto G. Marconi (vedi fig.1) ha suscitato un acceso dibattito - largamente riportato dalla stampa - fra le varie componenti politiche ed istituzionali, relativo alla utilità ed alla fattibilità dell’opera, soprattutto per quanto riguarda l’aspetto economico, e la conseguente reperibilità dei fondi, tema questo di grande attualità, considerato il difficile quadro generale nazionale di finanziamento delle grandi opere. Gli scriventi hanno effettuato una stima della domanda di trasporto per il collegamento tra la Stazione Centrale e l' Aeroporto, prevedendo un valore minimo ed un valore massimo della stessa, confrontando poi tali stime con quelle pubblicate dal Comune di Bologna. E’ stata poi calcolata la capacità del sistema, per un necessario confronto con la domanda di punta, ed infine si è verificato se gli obiettivi raggiungibili con la linea del People Mover giustificano gli investimenti da parte di privati ed Enti Pubblici in questo “high risk business”.

Luca Gasparini, Personal Rapid Transit. Descrizione e potenzialità dei Sistemi di Trasporto tipo AGT/PRT - HCPRT. 2005, 117 p. [formato PDF, 3,02 MB]. Storia, costi e caratteristiche tecniche dei progetti di PRT fino al 2005. [Il testo costituisce parte della tesi di laurea dell'autore in Ingegneria Meccanica presso l'Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia].


SISTEMI ETTOMETRICI (SISTEMI VIA CAVO, FUNICOLARI, ASCENSORI)

Cécile Clément-Werny (Certu), Yves Schneider (STRMTG), Transport par câble aérien en milieu urbain. (Collection Références, n.125). Certu, Lyon, juin 2012, 148 p. [formato PDF, 5,25 MB]. "Plusieurs collectivités territoriales françaises sont engagées actuellement dans l’étude de projets concrets de transport par câble aérien à l’intérieur de leurs agglomérations. Afin n d’aider les autorités organisatrices de transports dans leurs prises de décision, cet ouvrage propose des éléments techniques et réglementaires, ainsi que des informations pratiques quant à la mise en œuvre de ces systèmes. Il s’appuie sur les expériences issues des installations étrangères en milieu urbain (New-York, Portland, Medellín, Bolzano, Constantine...) et sur des données recueillies auprès des constructeurs et d’exploitants européens."


TARIFFE, GRATUITA', BIGLIETTAZIONE, E-TICKETING

Nils Fearnley (Institute of Transport Economics, Norway), Free Fares Policies: Impact on Public Transport Mode Share and Other Transport Policy Goals. International Journal of Transportation, Vol 1, No 1 (2013), 75-90 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 357 kB]. "This article investigates the merits of free public transport as a means to achieve a number of transport policy objectives, including mode shift towards public transport. It outlines some political and societal motivations behind proposals for free and low fare schemes, and presents key economic principles for public transport pricing. Examples of free fare schemes mainly from Europe are summarised and their impacts synthesised. Although free public transport at a first glance may seem attractive both from economic, social and environmental perspectives, the message learnt from a number of schemes is that free public transport offers poor goal achievement in all these respects, and at a high cost. The main effect is a huge growth in patronage, up to 13-fold increase is reported, of which the larger brunt is shifted from walk/cycle, or induced. The effects on car traffic levels are marginal and typically they are offset already after a few years’ traffic growth. Successful free public transport schemes are those whose goal is mainly to grow patronage. Congestion relief, social and environmental benefits are best achieved with more targeted measures, or in combination with such measures."

Transportation Research Board, Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. A Synthesis of Transit Practice. (TCRP Synthesis 101). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2012, 105 p. [formato PDF, 2,28 MB]. "Fare-free public transit is currently provided in more than three dozen communities in the United States. Not included in this number are fare-free zones in downtown districts, exclusive university campus transit services, or other limited subsystem modes that might be offered on a fare-free basis such as automated guideways or other local circulators. This report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or sub-recipients of federal transit grants and provide fare-free service to everyone in their service area on every mode they provide. Identifying the public transit agencies providing fare-free service required Internet searches, communications through listservs, and other forms of personal contact through committees of APTA and TRB. This synthesis provides the first comprehensive listing of public transit agencies that provide fare-free service in the United States. Thirty-two of the 39 agencies that were identified responded to the survey that was sent to them either electronically or by means of an interview with the Principal Investigator, representing a response rate of 82%. This report focused on policy and administrative issues although survey responses and reports from the literature search provide statistics on changes in ridership increases associated with fare-free service."

Study on Public Transport Smartcards – Final Report. AECOM, European Commission DG MOVE, Birmingham / Bruxelles, 2011, 98 p. [formato PDF, 944 kB]. "The report summarises the results of a study undertaken on behalf of the European Commission by the EC Smartcards Study consortium including AECOM, the lead consultant, The Transport Operations Group (TORG) of Newcastle University, PJohnson Associates, AustriaTech and NEA. It presents recommendations regarding possible actions at the EU level to encourage and support interoperability between current and future public transport schemes, through the use of Smartcards. Recommended actions have been assessed, in terms of their possible costs to the EC and the possible benefits that might accrue to scheme owners, public transport operators, public transport users and the public in general, through the bringing forward of more schemes and in a more integrated way than might otherwise be the case. In addition to consultations with selected scheme owners, worldwide, a Practitioners Panel including 40+ members, representative of key players in the Smart Ticketing value chain has been established to review and comment on the merit of the actions proposed."

Mohamed Mezghani, Study on electronic ticketing in public transport. Final Report. EMTA, Paris, May 2008, 56 p. [formato PDF, 899 kB]. "EMTA has established a working group to work on the issue of electronic ticketing. This group is mandated to generate knowledge, exchange/compile information and learn from the experience of its members in the field of electronic ticketing. In this framework, EMTA has launched a study on electronic ticketing in public transport under the supervision of the working group and with the assistance of Mohamed Mezghani, public transport consultant. The study has the following objectives: - To collect and analyse the relevant information related to the state-of-the-art of e-ticketing (in particular related to the group member’s networks); - To discuss the different components related to the development and implementation of e-ticketing systems; - To understand the key aspects supporting the decision-making process when developing and implementing e-ticketing systems at all levels: political, organisational and operational. - To analyse the business model of e-ticketing"

Emanuele Proia, Roberta Lupidi, Elisa Meko, Livello delle tariffe e le strutture tariffarie nel trasporto pubblico locale. ASSTRA, HERMES, Roma, 18 novembre 2010, 142 p. [formato PDF, 2,07 MB]. Studio realizzato da un gruppo di lavoro misto HERMES-ASSTRA. Analisi delle tariffe, integrazione tariffaria, normative regionali.

Christian Maertins, Kerstin Schäfer, Digitalisierung und Hybridisierung von Raum und Infrastruktur: Mobiles Ticketing im öffentlichen Verkehr. (WZB Discussion Paper SP III 2008-105). Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin, 2008, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,31 MB]. "In today’s world, digital information and communication technologies permeate space in the form of wireless networks. Independent of time and place, mobile media such as laptops and cell phones enable us to access virtually available information. In this article, the mobile ticketing service ‘Ring&Ride’ is used to illustrate how innovation as an assemblage, in the sense of Latour, can be implemented through new ways of linking existing technologies, infrastructures and their usage. The implications and characteristics of digital mobile media networks are analyzed on the basis of infrastructure and mediatheory approaches. Digitisation and mobilisation present multiple hybridization effects. In mobility research, the changes in the accessibility of infrastructures are of special interest. Digitalization leads to an increasingly ubiquitous availability of infra- and supply structures. Together with the widespread use of mobile devices, this provides new possibilities for individual acquisition and flexibility in the use of public transport. Public and private, stationary and mobile infrastructure elements are simultaneously linked with a new range and combination of areas of control and responsibility. The use of mobile media interconnects virtual and physical space and changes the way space is constructed, perceived and appropriated. A broader theoretical concept of mobility reflecting the way in which digital media have infiltrated everyday life is required. Future challenges for mobility research in the social sciences lie in a deeper analysis of the relationship between social practices of mobility and mobile communication."

The benefits and costs of a national smart ticketing infrastructure. Department for Transport and Detica, London, July 2009, 86 p. [formato PDF, 864 kB]. "The report is an initial high level review of the capital and operating costs, and tangible and intangible benefits of a national smart ticketing scheme, based on experience with existing local schemes. The report shows that there is potential for significant benefits to passengers and public transport operators. There are also significant up-front costs and some on-going costs, but assuming full take-up of the scheme it represents high value for money."

Bruno Cordier (directeur de la recherche), La gratuité totale des transports collectifs urbains: effets sur la fréquentation et intérêts. Rapport final. ADETEC, Clermont-Ferrand, Janvier 2007, 180 p. [formato PDF, 6,75 MB]. "La présente étude a pour objectif de déterminer les effets sur la fréquentation de la gratuité totale par rapport à d’autres mesures telles que la mise en place de tarifs très attractifs, l’augmentation de l’offre ou l’amélioration de la vitesse commerciale. Au-delà des effets sur la fréquentation des transports collectifs urbains, sont analysés les effets en terme de reports modaux. L’étude a porté principalement sur les agglomérations de 50 000 à 100 000 habitants, qui forment la classe médiane des PTU et qui comptent en leur sein le plus grand réseau totalement gratuit."

Teik-Soon Looi and Kim-Hong Tan, Striking A Fare Deal. Singapore’s Experience in Introducing a Fare Review Mechanism. World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR) 2007, 24-28 June 2007, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 22 p. [formato PDF, 175 kB]. "In Singapore, public transport fares were regulated by the Public Transport Council (PTC). In 2005, a new fare review mechanism, which provided for greater clarity and was more responsive to prevailing economic conditions, was adopted and successfully implemented in 2005 and 2006. The new mechanism allowed the PTC to adjust fares depending on economic dynamics, and was designed to strike a fare deal that balanced the need to safeguard commuters’ interests and for operators to remain financially viable. The experience demonstrated that a fare review mechanism could be designed to effectively combine the merits of an economic way of thinking and the demands of sociopolitical considerations."

Massimiliano Piacenza, Chiara Carpani, Esperienze di integrazione tariffaria nel trasporto pubblico locale in Italia. Documento di ricerca, Moncalieri, HERMES, Novembre 2003, 121 p. [formato PDF, 1,64 MB]. Ampio studio sui Sistemi Tariffari Integrati in Italia (in quasi tutte le regioni).


SERVIZI FLESSIBILI, SERVIZI A CHIAMATA, SERVIZI NON CONVENZIONALI, BÜRGERBUS

Paulo Ribeiro, Vasco Rocha (University of Minho), Flexible public transport in low density urban areas, Recent Advances in Engineering Mechanics, Structures and Urban Planning, Cambridge, UK, February 20-22, 2013, p. 169-174 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 461 kB]. "A public transport system is of crucial importance to ensure an equitable and more sustainable mobility to all citizens of a region, since it allows the possibility to travel long distances instead of the use of private cars. However, conventional public transport systems have a rigid framework with routes where specific locations are predefined in order to have a regular service that serves as much population as possible. Well designed regular bus services are usually economically viable, but in low density areas the demand is not sufficient to ensure viability and the same service of central urban areas. Thus, it is necessary to introduce some flexibility in public transport service, to allow coverage of the entire population, without destroying the viability of the bus operator of low density areas. This approach is now being applied in a case study in low density areas of the municipality of Braga, where the bus service is poor and inadequate to ensure the mobility needs of its population. In this study, the implementation of a flexible public transport is preliminarily analysed, as a possible solution to this problem."

Pro Bürgerbus NRW. Portale dell'associazione regionale tedesca Pro Bürgerbus NRW e.V., dedicato al servizio di trasporto pubblico locale non convenzionale detto "Bürgerbus" (bus civico o bus dei cittadini), gestito in piccoli centri urbani e in zone rurali grazie al lavoro di autisti volontari e furgoni finanziati con contributi degli enti locali. Per il trasporto valgono i biglietti delle aziende di trasporto locale. Sito in lingua tedesca.

Bürger fahren für Bürger. Bürgerbusse in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Leitfaden für die Einrichtung und den Betrieb von Bürgerbussen (Manuale per l'istituzione e la gestione di "autobus dei cittadini"). Pro Bürgerbus NRW e.V., Kevelaer, Oktober 2010, 63 p. [formato PDF, 1,26 MB]. "Der Leitfaden soll eine Hilfestellung sein für diejenigen, die sich vor Ort um ein neues Bürgerbusprojekt bemühen wollen."

Ein Bus für alle Fälle. 20 Jahre Bürgerbus in NRW. Pro Bürgerbus NRW e.V., Kevelaer, 2005, 52 p. [formato PDF, 2,98 MB]. "Diese Broschüre bildet eine Dokumentation der bisher geleisteten Arbeit, bietet eine Kurzübersicht aller Bürgerbusprojekte in Nordrhein-Westfalen, stellt einige Arbeitsbereiche (finanzielle Seite, Öffentlichkeitsarbeit) vor, wirft einen Blick über die Grenzen Nordrhein-Westfalens hinaus, gibt Arbeitshilfen für neue Projekte und stellt die unterstützende Arbeit seitens des Dachverbandes „Pro Bürgerbus NRW“ vor."

Handbuch zur Planung flexibler Bedienungsformen im ÖPNV. Ein Beitrag zur Sicherung der Daseinsvorsorge in nachfrageschwachen Räumen. (Manuale per la pianificazione di forme flessibili di servizio nel trasporto pubblico locale). Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung (BBSR) im Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung (BBR), Bonn, 2009, 139 p. [formato PDF, 3,42 MB].

DATAR / DTT / ADEME, Services à la demande et transports innovants en milieu rural : de l’inventaire à la valorisation des expériences. Rapport final. ADETEC, Clermont-Ferrand, Novembre 2004, 267 p. [formato PDF, 5,61 MB].

Giorgio Ambrosino, Maurizio Romanazzo (a cura di), I servizi flessibili di trasporto per una mobilità sostenibile. ENEA, Roma, 2002, 284 p. [pubblicazione gratuita, da richiedere a ENEA]. "I vantaggi del taxi e quelli del bus, al costo di una telefonata. Potrebbe esser lo slogan pubblicitario dei servizi flessibili di trasporto, i quali tendono a occupare lo spazio lasciato libero tra il taxi, flessibile e riservato ma costoso, e il bus, economico e affidabile ma rigido e promiscuo. Il volume affronta la problematica da molti punti di vista, partendo da sperimentazioni effettuate in alcuni paesi europei, tra cui il nostro. Viene presentata una panoramica dell'approccio tecnico di base, sottolineando le architetture di sistema e le tecnologie di supporto. La definizione di un nuovo servizio, sia esso dedicato al trasporto di persone o a soddisfare altri obiettivi, deve necessariamente passare attraverso un'attenta analisi, presente nel volume, dei bisogni e delle preferenze dell'utenza. Si affrontano inoltre gli aspetti istituzionali, normativi e organizzativi che stanno alla base di un efficace studio di fattibilità, accanto alle questioni economiche, fondamentali per una corretta gestione del servizio. L'opera fornisce inoltre indicazioni pratiche su aspetti quali i termini contrattuali, la promozione dei servizi, i sistemi di pagamento e i vincoli tariffari. A conclusione del volume viene delineato un possibile scenario evolutivo di questo tipo di servizi, rappresentato dall'istituzione di una futura agenzia dei servizi flessibili, per il coordinamento di flotte locali e la loro integrazione a livello territoriale."


RIVISTE:

Blickpunkt Straßenbahn. Berichte aus dem Nahverkehr, Berlin (D). Bereits seit 1979 erscheint unsere Zeitschrift Blickpunkt Straßenbahn (das BS-Magazin). Alle 2 Monate berichten unsere ehrenamtlichen Redakteure und ständigen Mitarbeiter über den ÖPNV in Deutschland und in aller Welt.

Transit Australia Journal. The journal follows developments in the urban passenger transport industry across Australia and New Zealand. Published monthly by Transit Australia Publishing.


PUBBLICAZIONI, DOCUMENTI:

Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. Research Analysis. Shared-Use Mobility Center (SUMC), Chicago, IL, March 2016, 39 p. [formato PDF, 14,4 MB]. Prepared for the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). "Technology is transforming transportation. The ability to conveniently request, track, and pay for trips via mobile devices is changing the way people get around and interact with cities. This report examines the relationship of public transportation to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. This research shows that the more people use shared modes, the more likely they are to use public transit, own fewer cars, and spend less on transportation overall."

Alexander Sandau, Jorge Marx Gómez, Daniel Stamer, Benjamin Wagner vom Berg, Jantje Halberstadt, Model of mobility demands for future short distance public transport systems. CONF-IRM 2016 Proceedings. Paper 32. 14 p. [formato PDF, 883 kB]. "Short distance public transport faces huge challenges, although it is very important within a sustainable transport system to reduce traffic emissions. Revenues and subsidization are decreasing and especially in rural regions the offer is constantly diminishing. New approaches for public transport systems are strongly needed to avoid traffic infarcts in urban and rural areas to grant a basic offer of mobility services for everyone. In the proposed work a demand centered approach of dynamic public transport planning is introduced which relies on regional traffic data. The approach is based on a demand model which is represented as a dynamic undirected attributed graph. The demands are logged through traffic sensors and sustainability focused traveler information systems."

D. Göhlich, A. Kunith & T. Ly (Technische Universität Berlin), Technology assessment of an electric urban bus system for Berlin. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 138 (2014), 13 p. [formato PDF, 517 kB]. Urban Transport XX. Open Access. "Public transport authorities particularly in conurbations and mega-cities undertake growing endeavours to improve their CO2 footprint and become less dependent on fossil fuels. Electric buses are an obvious alternative to conventional diesel vehicles. However, public transport authorities face several different options of electric bus technologies and different system solutions to implement electric buses. These options have specific assets and drawbacks concerning technology, capital and operational cost. Despite the importance of this issue only very limited research has been published on that matter so far. This study presents a technology assessment of battery-electric public bus systems based on technical and economical key performance indicators. The methodology is applied to an electric bus project for the city of Berlin. To facilitate the selection of a suitable technology a step-wise approach is applied. Firstly, an energetic simulation model has been set up to forecast the needed energy for daily service based on bus operating profiles in Berlin. Secondly, a pre-selection of potential electric bus solutions is made by qualitative evaluation of different systems using defined technical and economic indicators. Thirdly, a detailed comparison is made between the remaining technological alternatives taking monetary-based aspects into account. The economic analysis is conducted by means of a total cost of ownership (TCO) approach. In conclusion the examination reveals that under Berlin conditions inductive opportunity charging technology fulfills the comprehensive system's requirements and shows relatively low TCO values."

Jari Kauppila, Publicly funded passenger transport services in Finland. (Discussion Paper 2015-10). International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2015, 15 p. [formato PDF, 1,01 MB].

Ennio Cascetta (Università di Napoli Federico II), Gli spread del trasporto pubblico locale. Presentazione al Convegno "Lo spread del trasporto pubblico locale: disegni di riforma e ruolo delle città metropolitane", Roma, 30 aprile 2015, 22 slides [formato PDF, 2,42 MB].

Veronica Usai, Il trasporto pubblico nelle capitali europee: un'analisi di benchmark. Hermes e ASSTRA, Moncalieri/Roma, giugno 2014, 69 p. [formato PDF, 760 kB]. "La presente ricerca è finalizzata ad analizzare l'assetto e le caratteristiche della mobilita ed in particolare del trasporto pubblico locale in alcune delle principali aree metropolitane nazionali ed europee, con l'obiettivo di descrivere le peculiarità di ciascun sistema di trasporto, di individuarne le differenze e di definire gli indirizzi e le linee di azione maggiormente funzionali ad un percorso di sviluppo del trasporto pubblico locale. La ricerca, infatti, si rivolge all'insieme degli stakeholder del settore (istituzioni, amministrazioni locali, imprese, associazioni di imprese, soggetti finanziatori, associazioni dei lavoratori, associazioni dei consumatori e cosi via) al fine di fornire loro un quadro organico e complessivo delle specificita dei sistemi trasportistici e delle scelte della mobilita adottate nei vari paesi europei, inspirato ad una logica di confronto e di selezione delle "buone pratiche". Più nel dettaglio, la prima parte dell'analisi è dedicata ad una disamina degli scenari istituzionali e normativi con particolare attenzione agli assetti di governance del sistema e alle forme di affidamento del servizio. Le città oggetto di analisi sono le seguenti: Berlino (Germania), Copenaghen (Danimarca), Londra (Regno Unito), Madrid (Spagna), Parigi (Francia), Roma (Italia), Vienna (Austria). La seconda parte, invece, esamina le caratteristiche del sistema di mobilita complessiva di ciascuna area metropolitana. In particolare, viene effettuato un confronto circa le quote modali, il grado di infrastrutturazione del bacino di traffico servito, il tasso di motorizzazione, i volumi dell'offerta per abitante, i chilometri di corsie preferenziali per il mezzo pubblico, le dinamiche complessive della mobilità. Specifica sezione sarà dedicata alle misure intraprese nel corso degli anni a sostegno della mobilità sostenibile. Nella terza ed ultima parte, infine, si entrerà nell'alveo dei risultati economico produttivi delle gestioni aziendali, facendo dei raffronti sul grado di copertura dei costi con i ricavi da traffico, sull'entità dei corrispettivi da contratti di servizio, sui principali indicatori di produttività e di efficienza economica e sulle tariffe praticate in ciascuna realtà. La rilevazione dati è stata costruita tramite la raccolta delle informazioni effettuata direttamente dai bilanci di esercizio delle aziende incaricate del servizio città per città, laddove possibile. Tale fonte è stata integrata con informazioni desunte dai siti web aziendali, o con documenti aziendali quali carte della mobilità e bilanci di sostenibilità, da pubblicazioni sul tema, dalle statistiche disponibili sui siti delle municipalità o agenzie della mobilità. I dati raccolti sono stati trasmessi in un secondo momento alle città interessate con il questionario in appendice, con la richiesta di confermare la veridicità di quanto raccolto nonché di integrare con i dati mancanti. Sono stati così interpellati: VDV-BVG (Berlino); MOVIATRAFIK-Comune di Copenaghen (Copenaghen); TRANSPORT FOR LONDON (Londra); CRTM (Madrid); RATP (Parigi); ATAC-Agenzia per la Mobilità (Roma); Wiener Linien (Vienna)."

Carlo Carminucci (Isfort), Giacomo Lozzi e Annita Serio (Federmobilità), a cura di, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, competenze, servizi. Presentazione al convegno, Roma, 5.2.2015, 28 slides [formato PDF, 693 kB].

Federmobilità e Isfort, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, offerta di servizi, meccanismi di finanziamento: un Rapporto introduttivo. Federmobilità e Isfort, Roma, gennaio 2015, 76 p. [formato PDF, 1,00 MB].

Ennio Cascetta (Univ. Napoli Federico II), Il Trasporto Ferroviario Regionale: confronti internazionali e ruolo nel Sistema di Trasporto Pubblico. Presentazione al convegno FerroVie, Roma, 14.1.2014, 10 slides [formato PDF, 909 kB].

Robert Hrelja, Lisa Hansson, Tim Richardson, Tomas Svensson, Enza Lissandrello, Petter Næss, Aud Tennøy, Frode Longva, Innovations for sustainable public transport: experiences and challenges in the Scandinavian countries. (VTI rapport 799A). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB] "In this report we have analysed institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers qualitative case-studies of public transport. Results show that, from an institutional perspective on roles and responsibilities, it is difficult to speak of a unified Scandinavian public transport model. However, there are common challenges in all the Scandinavian countries. There is a need for new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas in a number of crucial areas. For example, municipal land use planning and regional public transport planning could be better coordinated. Public transport in Trondheim, Aarhus, and Skåne is consciously and strategically promoted as a driving force in sustainable cities and regional development. It is clear that public transport cannot be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system. On a long-term planning level, public transport organizations in all countries, regardless of the regulatory and legal conditions, should try to reach agreement on the question of what they want to achieve with public transport. Such agreements are one prerequisite for the successful coordination of land use and transport planning in contexts where there are no formal coordination mechanisms between municipal land use planning and regional public transport planning. The long term development of public transport also depends on whether or not the land use and infrastructure planning measures that municipalities choose to use will actually improve conditions for public transport."

Jian Wang (Southern Cross University), Commuter costs and potential savings: Public transport versus car commuting in Australia. November 2013, 25 p. [formato PDF, 797 kB] "This report identifies the potential annual savings that commuters working in the Central Business Districts (CBDs) of major Australian cities can achieve by commuting to work via public transport rather than by car. Focusing on commuters travelling to the CBDs in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Canberra and Hobart, commuter costs are first identified for the following three scenarios. Scenario 1: Own and commute to work by car five days a week. Scenario 2: Own a car but choose (or are able) to commute to work five days a week by public transport. Scenario 3: Do not own a car or choose not to buy a second car and commute to work five days a week by public transport."

Rhonda Daniels, Corinne Mulley (University of Sydney), Explaining walking distance to public transport: The dominance of public transport supply. Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol 6, No 2 (2013), 5-20 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 810 kB]. "Potential influences on explaining walking distance from home to access public transport are investigated, including trip and demographic characteristics and public transport supply. In Sydney, Australia, people walk farther to the train than to the bus, the distributions of walking distances are different for each mode, and the trip and demographic characteristics of train and bus users are different. Given the decision to walk to public transport, demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, and labor force status and trip characteristics such as trip purpose, time of day and week, fare and ticket type, and trip duration are not significant in explaining walking distance to each mode of public transport. The mode of the public transport trip is the most important determinant of walking distance, reflecting the different supply and spacing of each mode. For instance, there are many more bus stops than train stations. The differences between train and bus users suggest that accessibility initiatives for public transport might not be the same for each mode."

CERTU, Recommandations pour l’évaluation socio-économique des projets de TCSP [transports en commun en site propre]. Guide méthodologique. CERTU, La Défense, 2002, 147 p. [formato PDF, 857 kB].

Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Il Trasporto Pubblico Locale in Italia: stato, prospettive e confronti internazionali. Roma, 2012, 96 p. [formato PDF, 5,20 MB]. "Questo studio si pone l'obiettivo di analizzare lo stato del trasporto pubblico locale in Italia a tutto campo (domanda, offerta, investimenti in atto e programmati, risorse, regole, confronti internazionali) in modo da poterne individuare le criticità e proporre, coerentemente, delle possibili soluzioni."

Yves Krattinger (Sénateur), Les transports publics locaux en France: mettre les collectivités territoriales sur la bonne voie. Rapport d'information n° 319 (2011-2012) fait au nom de la délégation aux collectivités territoriales, déposé le 31 janvier 2012. Sénat, Paris, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 746 kB]. "Les transports publics locaux sont aujourd'hui au coeur d'une véritable révolution en marche dans nos territoires, celle de la « mobilité durable ». Les usagers, toujours plus nombreux, veulent désormais plus de mobilité, une offre plus diversifiée prenant en compte le développement durable, une plus grande accessibilité, une plus grande fiabilité et davantage d'informations en temps réel. Nos concitoyens veulent plus que jamais être des acteurs de leur propre mobilité. Le succès des parkings relais, des vélos en libre-service ou encore du covoiturage démontre, s'il en est besoin, l'importance de l'intermodalité comme il traduit l'évolution des comportements en matière de transport. De la coordination des interventions de chaque acteur à l'avenir de leur financement, en passant par l'impact des nouvelles technologies, le rapport d'Yves Krattinger, établi au nom de la délégation sénatoriale aux collectivités territoriales et à la décentralisation, dresse un large panorama de la situation et des perspectives des transports publics locaux pour contribuer à «mettre les collectivités territoriales sur la bonne voie»."

Transport public durabil în Bucuresti. Raport final al projectului. Fundatia TERRA Mileniul III, Bucuresti, Octombrie 2009, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,33 MB]. "In raportul de fata, noi, partenerii în proiect - Fundatia TERRA Mileniul III si Sindicatul Transportatorilor Bucuresti - ne-am propus sa realizam o prezentare a activitatilor si rezultatelor noastre pe parcursul ultimelor 10 luni. Credem si speram ca abordarea noastra privind informarea si participarea la procesul de luare a deciziilor pe plan local in privinta transportului public va fi preluata si imbunatatitã si de alte organizatii cu activitati în domeniu."

Danièle Navarre, Les performances des transports en commun à Londres et à Paris. Offre de transport et régularité. Institut d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme d’Île-de-France, Paris, Avril 2009, 42 p. [formato PDF, 4,85 MB]. "Depuis plusieurs années, Londres et Paris font l’objet de comparaisons dans le domaine des transports, car ce sont des métropoles de même importance, dotées de réseaux de transports diversifiés, dont des réseaux de transports en commun exploités par des modes lourds comme les chemins de fer et le métro et des modes plus légers comme le tramway et le bus. Dans cette étude, la comparaison porte sur deux éléments à la base de l’attractivité des transports collectifs, à savoir l’offre de transport et la régularité des réseaux. À Londres comme à Paris, ces deux points font d’ailleurs l’objet de contrats d’objectifs de qualité de service entre les exploitants et les autorités publiques responsables de l’exploitation des réseaux."

Sophie Laurent, Stefan Vorberg, La place des bus dans les transports collectifs de Berlin et du Brandenburg. Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme d'Île-de-France, Paris, Juillet 2009, 76 p. [formato PDF, 7,41 MB]. "La coupure présente à Paris entre un réseau de bus central et un réseau de bus périphérique en petite couronne n'existe pas à Berlin, où le réseau est unifié et les lignes desservant l'hyper centre le relient à l'ensemble des quartiers. Fin 2004, puis mi-2006, la mise en place du programme BVG 2005 Plus a modifié la structure du réseau de bus à Berlin. Cela a donné naissance aux lignes Metrotram et Metrobus, qui font partie du réseau principal au même titre que le métro ou le S-Bahn. L'offre de bus se décline en treize lignes express, une centaine de lignes classiques, les lignes de nuit (dix-sept lignes Metrobus, qui circulent 24h/24, et trente-huit autres lignes), avec des familles de fréquences et des caractéristiques associées, ainsi que quelques lignes de quartier et lignes à la demande. Pendant la guerre froide, la division de la ville a occasionné une répartition spécifique entre ces deux modes (qui perdure aujourd'hui), avec une présence majoritaire du tramway dans le quart nord-est, et une prépondérance du bus dans le reste de la ville (ouest et sud). Dans ces secteurs, le bus remplit des fonctions variées, de la desserte des axes structurants à la desserte locale des quartiers, alors que, dans le quart nord-est, il joue essentiellement un rôle de desserte locale, la desserte des axes structurants étant réalisée par le tramway. Le bus est principalement utilisé pour un usage scolaire en rabattement vers les pôles locaux, à l'exception des villes autonomes et notamment Potsdam, où le réseau est un peu plus important. On peut distinguer des lignes régionales et des lignes urbaines locales, mais l'offre sur l'ensemble du territoire du Brandenburg est équivalente à l'offre bus berlinoise, alors que le territoire est plus de trente fois plus étendu en superficie. En Allemagne, toute l'organisation des transports publics de voyageurs régionaux et locaux repose sur une distinction entre les modes ferroviaires et les autres modes. Le VBB, dont les actionnaires sont les deux Länder de Berlin et du Brandenburg, ainsi que les 14 districts et villes autonomes du Brandenburg, n’a donc pas les compétences d'une autorité organisatrice de transport au sens français du terme : elle n'exerce des compétences en matière de planification et de coordination de l'offre que pour les transports ferroviaires. En revanche, le VBB est en charge de la tarification et de la redistribution des recettes, ainsi que de la coordination horaire, de l'information voyageurs et de la qualité de service pour l’ensemble des transports collectifs régionaux. La définition de l'offre sur les réseaux de bus se fait à travers un document, le Nahverkehrsplan, qui constitue une obligation pour l'exploitant en charge de réaliser le service. Il définit le niveau d'offre minimum global en véhicules-kilomètres ainsi que le niveau et le mode d'attribution des compensations. Par ailleurs, il intègre une obligation d'application des tarifs VBB et de coopération avec celui-ci. Par rapport au territoire de Paris + petite couronne, l'offre brute est inférieure, mais, ramenée à la population ou au kilométrage de lignes, elle est équivalente et même légèrement supérieure à Berlin. L'offre de bus à Berlin est par ailleurs plus proche de l'offre métro. Le mode ferroviaire métro domine très clairement en Île-de-France avec une fréquentation totale en nombre de voyages supérieure à celle de Berlin, alors que les usages sont plus équilibrés entre ces deux modes, à Berlin."

Robert Allio, La place des bus dans les transports collectifs de Londres. Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme d'Île-de-France, Paris, avril 2009, 70 p. [formato PDF, 2,00 MB]. "Avec 6,5 millions de voyages effectués quotidiennement, l'autobus est le mode de transport collectif le plus utilisé dans le Grand Londres. Depuis 1996, sa fréquentation a augmenté de 50%, tout particulièrement depuis la création de TfL en 2000 et les mesures incitatives introduites en 2001. L'autobus occupe une place importante dans la mobilité des Londoniens. La moitié des déplacements en transport collectif à Londres sont faits en autobus alors que c'est à peine le tiers à Berlin, Madrid ou en Ile-de-France ; les distances parcourues en autobus (exprimées en voyageurs x km) y sont presque aussi élevées que celles faites en métro, alors qu'elles sont plus de deux fois plus faibles en Ile-de-France et à Madrid, 40% plus faibles à Berlin. Cette utilisation particulièrement forte résulte à la fois de la présence de réseaux ferrés (métro et trains de banlieue) moins étoffés dans le centre de Londres mais surtout d'une volonté politique forte et des plans d’action associés successifs qui ont focalisé les investissements sur ce mode de transport dont la consistance peut évoluer plus rapidement que celle des réseaux lourds. Le réseau d'autobus de Londres a été privatisé à la fin des années quatre-vingt. Alors que depuis plus de vingt ans, l'activité de transport par autobus est dérégulée dans le reste de l'Angleterre, elle est restée régulée à Londres sous l'égide l'autorité organisatrice Transport for London (TfL) qui, pour chaque ligne, définit les services à assurer et en confie l'exécution, après appel d'offres, à un exploitant privé. Elle passe alors avec cet exploitant un contrat à durée déterminé du type contrat à prix forfaitaire comportant un dispositif de primes-pénalités, comme en Ile-de-France, pour tenir compte de la qualité du service offert et en particulier de la régularité. Rapportée à la population, l'offre de transport par autobus proposée aux Londoniens est plus étoffée que celle que l'on rencontre à Berlin, Madrid ou en Ile-de-France : deux fois à deux fois et demi plus de kilomètres parcourus par les autobus. En pratique, cela se traduit par un nombre de lignes et un parc d'autobus deux fois plus importants qu'en Ile-de-France sur un périmètre équivalent à celui de TfL, c'est à dire celui des zones 1 à 4 de carte orange. En journée, 368 lignes dites « à haute fréquence » ont une amplitude de desserte et une fréquence moyennes supérieures aux 352 lignes de la RATP ; s'y ajoutent 181 lignes dites « à basse fréquence ». La nuit, 128 lignes fonctionnent encore : 60 sont des lignes en service 24h sur 24 et 68 sont des lignes particulières analogues à nos Noctiliens. La différence la plus remarquable avec le réseau de banlieue de la RATP porte sur les fréquences offertes qui varient peu au cours de la journée et assurent, pour les lignes à haute fréquence, le maintien d'une offre importante (voire continue) jusqu'à la fin des services. L'attractivité des services se trouve ainsi préservée même en heure creuse. Ces éléments à l'avantage du réseau londonien ne doivent cependant pas faire oublier que l'Ile-de-France dispose de réseaux de métro, de chemin de fer de banlieue et surtout de RER qui présentent certes des imperfections, mais sont beaucoup plus consistants que ceux de Londres."

Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, Andrew Little, The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. ICF International, February 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 150 kB]. "This study began with the hypothesis that public transportation interacts with land use patterns, changing travel patterns in neighborhoods served by transit. Importantly, this effect would apply not just to transit riders, who make an exchange of automobile use for transit, but also for people who do not use transit. These people, who live in places shaped by transit, would tend to drive less, reducing their overall petroleum use and their carbon footprint. In order to test this hypothesis, we began with a survey of the literature on the interaction of land use and travel patterns. The literature focuses on three major categories of influences on travel: land use/urban environment, socio-demographic factors, and cost of travel. For the purposes of this study, land use/urban environment variables were further broken down to include a separate category for transportation infrastructure. Many past studies have found a significant correlation between land use variables and travel behavior, though results vary depending on how the problem and the variables are defined. Boarnet and Crane (2001) emphasized that without accounting for social characteristics, like age and education, land use-transportation models are incomplete. They also discussed the importance of economic measures, such as household or personal income, as a measure of the cost of travel time. Other studies evaluated the relative importance of these and other variables, informing this model. After evaluating possible variables for this model, we formed a statistical model that would allow us to tease apart the relationship between land use, transit availability, and travel behavior."

Alessia Marzano, Elisa Meko, Emanuele Proia, I benefici del trasporto pubblico. Ricerca a cura di ASSTRA e HERMES. Ottobre 2008, 99 p. [formato PDF, 2,39 MB]. "Il presente lavoro, nato grazie alla fertile e proficua collaborazione tra l’HERMES e l’ASSTRA, si prefigge l’obiettivo di individuare i benefici che direttamente e indirettamente i singoli individui, la collettività, le imprese e le pubbliche amministrazioni possono trarre dallo sviluppo del trasporto pubblico." Comprende una fotografia complessiva del settore del trasporto pubblico locale e analizza i benefici ambientali, sociali ed economici.

Lorenzo Frasconi, L'esperienza delle LAM a Prato e la Prospettiva del Tram. Relazione al convegno "Mobilità sostenibile per le città medio-piccole. Scelte logiche e non ideologiche", Forlimpopoli, 7 novembre 2008, 27 slides [file PDF, 3,41 MB]. Le strategie di intervento del Comune di Prato tramite il PUM 2004-2006 e i progetti di potenziamento del trasporto pubblico con nuove linee ad alta mobilità (autobus) e una nuova rete tranviaria urbana.

Ministero dei Trasporti, CENSIS, Pendolari d'Italia: scenari e strategie. Sintesi della ricerca. CENSIS, Roma, 14 marzo 2008, 20 p. [formato PDF, 153 KB]. "Negli ultimi anni la mobilità pendolare ha avuto un forte ciclo espansivo, legato soprattutto ai processi di diffusione abitativa che hanno cambiato profondamente le concentrazioni urbane in molte aree del Paese. Si tratta di un fenomeno complesso, in cui interagiscono fattori sociali, economici, ma anche aspetti urbanistici, infrastrutturali e relativi alla regolamentazione del trasporto pubblico e privato. L’analisi ha consentito di approfondire le motivazioni individuali, i modelli di mobilità, le opinioni e le propensioni, i disagi e le aspettative dei viaggiatori pendolari, combinando gli aspetti quantitativi del fenomeno con i profili qualitativi e comportamentali. Attraverso l’ascolto dei pendolari e con un quadro conoscitivo più puntuale e accurato si possono ricavare informazioni preziose per orientare le decisioni politiche." (necessaria registrazione gratuita sul sito del CENSIS)

Giuseppe Roma (CENSIS), Pendolari d'Italia: scenari e strategie. Intervento alla presentazione della ricerca. CENSIS, Roma, 14 marzo 2008, 23 slides [formato PDF, 218 KB]. (necessaria registrazione gratuita sul sito del CENSIS)

Carlo Dell'Aringa (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano), Costo del lavoro e tariffe nel trasporto pubblico locale. Documento di ricerca, Moncalieri, HERMES, Febbraio 2006, 75 p. [formato PDF, 608 kB]. Comprende i dati ASSTRA su ricavi e passeggeri delle aziende TPL in Italia.

Normativa del governo belga che, dal 1. gennaio 2005, stabilisce un contributo del 20% ai dipendenti di aziende private per l’acquisto di abbonamenti ferroviari per il percorso casa-lavoro (e per il trasporto pubblico integrato con la ferrovia), se l'azienda paga il restante 80%. I dipendenti dello Stato e delle aziende pubbliche ricevono gli abbonamenti gratuiti già dal marzo 2004. Vedi anche il sito delle ferrovie belghe SNCB e il sito dell' Institut bruxellois pour la gestion de l'environnement.

TRL (Transport Research Laboratory) : The Demand for Public Transport : a Practical Guide nuova edizione della guida prodotta dalle Università di Leeds, Oxford, Westminster, University College London e TRL, 2004, 238 p. [scaricabile gratuitamente] [formato pdf, 1,35 MB].

CEMT / UITP, Améliorer l'accès aux transports publics , OCDE, 2004, 98 p., 24 Euro (come migliorare l'accessibilità dei trasporti pubblici, esempi urbani - versione francese - la versione online si può leggere gratuitamente, ma non si può stampare).

CEMT / UITP, Improving Access to Public Transport, idem (versione inglese).


BUS A LUNGA PERCORRENZA (COACHES)

Alan Storkey, A motorway-based national coach system. 2007, 34 p. [formato PDF, 250 kB]. "We face two long-term crises in road passenger transport, both created by cars. The first is global warming. Anyone seeing thousands of cars daily, in and out of traffic jams, emitting fumes and CO2 knows that climate damage is being done on a long term crisis of road congestion largely created by the expansion of car traffic. The only policy discussed at present to address this crisis is road charging which has an implementation process of fifteen years, costs billions and does not add capacity to our roads. The constraint in the present system is road space. It is forty or fifty metres per passenger in cars moving at reasonable speeds. Coaches cut this by a factor of fifteen or more, simply by grouping people. They take up less road space per passenger at sixty mph than people in stationary cars. Each one hoovers up a mile of car lane traffic. They offer the opportunity used on a large scale to eliminate most congestion. They are also the most efficient form of powered transport, five times more fuel efficient than cars. At present, coach transport is atrociously organized, moving a relatively small number of people at 20-30mph. Yet, coaches, properly organized, could provide a fast, comfortable, and efficient transport system which would radically cut congestion, pollution, energy use and transport costs. They just use existing capital - motorways - far more efficiently. The system needs reorganisation. The Government has focussed on rail and ignored coaches. The key to a new system is a motorway-based transfer system which allows swift off-on movement and high frequency services, rather than the present city-centre based one surrounded by congestion. This in turn requires an orbital coach system with a necklace of transfer points round the M25, Birmingham, Manchester and other cities to allow coach movement where most people use their cars. The system is described in detail in the following document. This way millions of car journeys can become coach and public transport accessible. Coaches expand the good speed passenger capacity of the M25 from 15,000 to a quarter of a million and can drastically address congestion. Properly organized, they could be fast. They offer cheaper travel. They increase vehicle capital efficiency (in say journeys per week) a hundredfold. They reduce fuel consumption and pollution by a factor of five or more, cut driving time by a factor of twenty, improve safety and offer a frequency of service in excess of the underground. Properly used, they are the only viable form of orbital and inter-city transport to replace the car. They could rapidly transfer traffic from cars, making more room for the remaining ones. With good organization, some coach priority and the kind of system suggested in this paper, they could create a national transport system based on the motorways which would eat up much of our car traffic, obviate the need for road charging and provide the best ecological form of transport available. The overall capital cost of the system would be, say, a billion pounds, far less than other transport projects and the system could be running and commercial within a few years as people transferred expenditure from cars to coaches. It is possible for a quarter or more of car journeys to transfer to coach. It would be the right policy for an oil scarce age and cut greenhouse gases substantially. It is the right policy now for the era of oil scarcity."


RITORNA ALLA HOMEPAGE