DOCUMENTI SU TRASPORTI E AMBIENTE 2000-2017

VEDI ANCHE: RECENSIONI, BIBLIOGRAFIE, GLOSSARI, CARTOGRAFIA

VAI A: DOCUMENTI 2018

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2017

Min Xu, Qiang Meng, Yisi Liu (National University of Singapore), Public's Perception of Adopting Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Singapore. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Volume 12 (2017) Pages 285-298 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 524 kB]. Open Access. "This study aims to investigate public's perception towards electric vehicles (EVs) in the context of Singapore by means of survey. Specifically, some unique characteristics such as public's awareness of national incentives, e.g., carbon emission-based vehicle scheme (CEVS), are identified as potential influential factors. The stepwise regression analysis is employed to select a best set of factors for the estimation of respondents' purchasing intention of EVs by a multiple linear regression model. Unlike other countries, we find that the two most influential attributes are the high cost of Certificate of Entitlement (COE) and purchase price of EV, whereas only a minority of respondents list the driving range as their major concern. The resale value of EV is an important consideration for majority of respondents. Moreover, compared with normal charging at public stations, Singaporeans are likely to preform fast charging and home charging. Finally, several recommendations are provided to facilitate EVs' deployment."

Alessio Marabucci (Università Roma Tre), Le Analisi Costi Benefici applicate alle infrastrutture di trasporto: il problema della sovrastima dei benefici. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti, n. 2, art. 1 (2017), 24 p. [formato PDF, 755 kB]. "E' noto che la metodologia dell'Analisi Costi Benefici (ACB) riveste un ruolo fondamentale per la valutazione dei progetti di investimento, e tale ruolo nel tempo è diventato sempre più rilevante. La normativa recente, primo tra tutti il DPCM 3 agosto 2012, ha introdotto una riforma fondamentale per utilizzare al meglio le risorse pubbliche, per cui solo i progetti attentamente valutati mediante l'ACB e che dimostrino la loro convenienza per la collettività e la loro sostenibilità sociale ed ambientale, potranno essere finanziati con le risorse statali. Anche il D.lgs 50/2016, il Nuovo codice degli appalti, ha introdotto importanti novità, in quanto tale documento pone l'ACB come la base del Documento di programmazione del Ministero Infrastrutture e Trasporti (MIT). In questo contesto appare ancora più importante l'attenzione che deve essere posta nella valutazione dei costi, ma soprattutto dei benefici connessi ad un investimento; in particolare nel caso della valutazione di nuove linee metropolitane si rischia di sovrastimare i benefici, soprattutto quelli legati ai risparmi dei tempi e dei km di percorrenza sui mezzi privati a seguito della diversione modale dopo l'apertura al pubblico della nuova infrastruttura. Spesso però i risultati dei modelli di simulazione trasportistica tesi a valutare l'effetto sull'utenza di una nuova infrastruttura di trasporto sovrastimano questi effetti, come probabilmente si è verificato nel caso delle valutazioni dei progetti riguardanti la linea C, la linea B1 e la linea D della metropolitana di Roma. Questo lavoro intende proporre alcuni accorgimenti che potrebbero aiutare l'analista impegnato in queste valutazioni, al fine di evitare di attribuire un beneficio eccessivo a queste opere e ridimensionarne l'impatto sulla congestione stradale."

ICoMaaS, 1st International Conference of Mobility as a Service, Tampere (Finland), 28.-29.11.2017. Conference Proceedings, 396 p. [formato PDF, 20,6 MB].

Marissa Moultak, Nic Lutsey, Dale Hall, Transitioning to zero-emission heavy-duty freight vehicles. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, September 2017, 59 p. [formato PDF, 586 kB]. "In this report, we assess zero-emission heavy-duty vehicle technology to support decarbonization of the freight sector. We compare the evolution of heavy-duty diesel, diesel hybrid, natural gas, fuel cell, and battery electric technologies in the 2025-2030 timeframe. We synthesize data from the research literature, demonstrations, and low-volume commercial trucks regarding their potential to deliver freight with zero tailpipe emissions. We analyze the emerging technologies by their cost of ownership and life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for the three vehicle markets of China, Europe, and the United States."

Camille Aneris, Daniela Cancelli, Luisella Ciancarella (ENEA), Massimo Ciuffini, Ilaria D'Elia (ENEA), Valeria Gentili, Delia Milioni, Raimondo Orsini, Luca Refrigeri, Gabriele Zanini (ENEA), La sfida della qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane. Dieci proposte di Green Economy. Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, 2017, 90 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. Ricerca realizzata dalla Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, in collaborazione con ENEA e in partneship con Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Coordinamento: Andrea Barbabella. "L'inquinamento atmosferico in Europa causa ogni anno la morte di oltre 500.000 persone e ha costi esterni stimati da 330 a 940 miliardi di euro, tra il 2% e il 6% del Pil comunitario. Per quanto riguarda i due inquinanti più critici a livello sanitario, particolato (PM10) e biossido di azoto (NO2), più della metà degli Stai membri, Italia compresa, è in procedura di infrazione. La qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane, nonostante i miglioramenti dovuti alle tecnologie, alle nuove regolamentazioni, a un mix energetico migliore e a carburanti più verdi, resta sempre critica soprattutto in alcuni hot spot. Non solo il bacino padano - da Torino a Venezia - ma anche l'area metropolitana di Roma, quella di Napoli, l'area del frusinate, la Puglia, la costa sud est della Sicilia. L'Italia, con oltre 90.000 morti premature e 1.500 decessi per milione di abitanti (1.116 solo per il particolato PM2,5) è maglia nera tra i grandi paesi europei per l'inquinamento atmosferico (1.100 in Germania, 800 in Francia e Regno unito, 600 in Spagna). I responsabili? Il traffico stradale, ma anche l'agricoltura e il riscaldamento a biomasse legnose. Dieci proposte che toccano temi di carattere generale e altri di tipo più specifico relativi ai singoli settori. Eccoli in sintesi: Gli amministratori locali sono diventati una specie di capro espiatorio e devono essere aiutati: per questo serve una Strategia nazionale per la qualità dell'aria, che rinnovi la governance migliorando l'integrazione e centralizzando alcune responsabilità per incidere sulle politiche nazionali dei trasporti, sull'energia, sull'edilizia etc. e individuare misure strutturali ed eccezionali valide su tutto il territorio nazionale; La combustione energetica è il principale responsabile dell'inquinamento atmosferico ma fino a oggi l'orientamento ambientale è stato quello di puntare a ridurre le emissioni di gas serra, anche a scapito della qualità dell'aria (come la promozione dei veicoli diesel o dell'utilizzo di combustibili legnosi in impianti inefficienti). Le politiche energetiche, a cominciare dalla nuova Strategia Energetica Nazionale, devono invece includere una valutazione degli impatti non solo sulla CO2 ma anche sui principali inquinanti atmosferici; Agire con misure straordinarie e divieti nelle città solo dopo che sono stati raggiunti livelli critici di inquinamento non consente di risolvere l'emergenza: è necessario passare a un "approccio preventivo all'emergenza" mettendo in campo le misure prima che vengano raggiunti livelli di inquinamento critico. Disponiamo oggi degli strumenti per poterlo fare ma dobbiamo puntare ancora di più su ricerca e conoscenza; Un sistema di mobilità basato sull'auto di proprietà è il primo ostacolo al miglioramento della qualità dell'aria nelle città: bisogna mettere in campo interventi e soluzioni per portare il parco circolante italiano a meno di 1 vettura ogni 2 abitanti (come oggi in Francia): si può fare scoraggiandone l'uso (low emission zone, aree pedonali e ciclabili, limitazione alla sosta, etc.) e sviluppando la mobilità condivisa (trasporto su ferro, bike sharing, car sharing, integrazione con il trasporto pubblico, etc.); Gli investimenti pubblici sulle infrastrutture per i trasporti seguono ancora vecchie logiche: solo il 10% va sulla mobilità urbana che invece è il primo settore su cui bisogna agire, e di questi meno della metà su modalità sostenibili: bisogna invertire questo rapporto e liberare ingenti investimenti pubblici in favore del trasporto rapido di massa, delle infrastrutture ciclo-pedonali, di sistemi di logistica intelligente; Le politiche incentrate sugli standard Euro non hanno funzionato come oramai diventato di pubblico dominio dopo lo scandalo del "dieselgate": servono nuovi strumenti fiscali, economici, regolatori per ridurre velocemente il numero dei veicoli diesel e benzina facendo crescere quelli ibridi plug-in, quelli full-electric e quelli a gas (in particolare su trasporto navale e merci) sul breve termine; Il settore residenziale è il primo responsabile dell'inquinamento da particolato atmosferico e negli ultimi anni, nonostante le politiche e misure messe in campo, non ha visto migliorare in modo significativo la propria efficienza energetica: serve un cambio di passo, con strumenti e sistemi di finanziamento innovativi capaci di promuovere interventi di deep renovation intervenendo su interi edifici o gruppi di edifici esistenti e raggiungendo riduzioni dei consumi nell'ordine del 60-80%; Nonostante siano spesso percepite come favorevoli all'ambiente e diano un contributo importante in termini di riduzione delle emissioni di CO2, le biomasse legnose contribuiscono in modo significativo all'inquinamento da particolato atmosferico nelle città: servono delle linee guida nazionali sull'utilizzo delle biomasse che forniscano chiare indicazioni circa le tecnologie da adottare e le modalità di utilizzo, incluse possibili interdizioni per impianti inquinanti in aree critiche; L'ammoniaca è un importante precursore del particolato atmosferico e l'agricoltura è responsabile del 96% delle emissioni nazionali di questo inquinante (principalmente da fertilizzanti e allevamenti) che secondo i risultati di alcune indagini a Milano contribuisce per il 35% dell'inquinamento dal PM10: il comparto agricolo deve quindi promuovere nuovi interventi volti a ridurre l'azoto in eccesso nei terreni (ad esempio con agricoltura di precisione e copertura dei suoli), a mitigare l'impatto degli allevamenti (ad esempio attraverso mangimi speciali e la produzione di biometano) e a sviluppare l'agricoltura biologica meno impattante; Nonostante i miglioramenti, l'ndustria è ancora il principale settore in Italia per emissioni di SOX e COVNM, che sono importanti precursori del particolato atmosferico: è possibile migliorare adottando per i grandi impianti (come impianti petrolchimici, cementifici, centrali elettriche, etc.) i limiti più stringenti previsti per le migliori tecnologie disponibili (le c.d. BAT), definendo nuovi limiti alle emissioni e istituendo un inventario delle emissioni per i piccoli impianti, promuovendo l'elettrificazione e l'utilizzo di combustibili a basso impatto ambientale in impianti ad altissima efficienza."

Andrea Barbabella (Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile), La sfida della qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane. Dieci proposte di Green Economy. Presentazione del Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, 2017, 28 slides [formato PDF, 1,5 MB].

J E Jonson, J Borken-Kleefeld, D Simpson, A Nyiri, M Posch and C Heyes, Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe. Environ. Res. Lett. 12 (2017) 094017 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB] Open Access [+ Supplementary Data]. "Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These 'excess emissions' are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle's after-treatment system, as investigations during the 'Dieselgate' scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants and employ the EMEP MSC-W Chemistry Transport Model and the GAINS Integrated Assessment Model to determine atmospheric concentrations and resulting impacts. We compare with impacts from hypothetical emissions where light duty diesel vehicles are assumed to emit only as much as their respective type approval limit value or as little as petrol cars of the same age. Excess NO2 concentrations can also have direct health impacts, but these overlap with the impacts from particulate matter (PM) and are not included here. We estimate that almost 10000 premature deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in the adult population (age >30 years) can be attributed to the NOx emissions from diesel cars and light commercial vehicles in EU28 plus Norway and Switzerland in 2013. About 50% of these could have been avoided if diesel limits had been achieved also in on-road driving; and had diesel cars emitted as little NOx as petrol cars, 80% of these premature deaths could have been avoided. Ecosystem eutrophication impacts (critical load exceedances) from the same diesel vehicles would also have been reduced at similar rates as for the health effects."

Anna Pernestål Brenden, Ida Kristoffersson, Lars-Göran Mattsson Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles in Sweden. Report. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2017, 35 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. "The development of Self-Driving Vehicles (SDVs) is fast, and new pilots and tests are released every week. SDVs are predicted to have the potential to change mobility, human life and society. In literature, both negative and positive effects of SDVs are listed (Litman 2015; Fagnant and Kockelman 2015). Among the positive effects are increased traffic throughput leading to less congestion, improved mobility for people without a driver's license, decreased need for parking spaces, and SDV as an enabler for shared mobility. On the other hand, SDVs are expected to increase the consumption of transport which leads to an increase in total vehicle kilometers travelled. This effect is further reinforced by empty vehicles driving around. This will increase the number of vehicles on the streets and lead to more congestion and increased energy usage. Since the SDV technology is expensive, segregation may be a consequence of the development. In addition there are several challenges related to for example legislation, standardization, infrastructure investments, privacy and security. The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how? As we are in a potential mobility shift, and decisions made today will affect the future development, understanding possibilities and challenges for the future is important for many stakeholders. To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden. This study will also be used in the ongoing governmental investigation about future regulations for SDVs on Swedish roads (Bjelfvenstam 2016). A third motivation for the study is to shed light on how demography, geography and political landscape can affect the development of new mobility services. Since there are many different forces that drive the development, often uncertain and sometimes in conflict with each other, a scenario planning approach was chosen. In previous studies, different types of predictions have been derived. Most of them are made by US scholars and are therefore naturally focused on the development in the US. The culture, both with respect to urban planning and public transport is different in Europe compared to the US. The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team. The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme: trend analysis, defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and consequence analysis. The analysis team, consisting of the present three authors and two future strategists, has analyzed, refined and condensed the material from the expert group. During the project certain trends and strategic uncertainties were identified by the expert group. The uncertainties that were identified as most important for the development of SDVs in Sweden are: whether the sharing economy becomes a new norm or not, and whether city planners, authorities and politicians will be proactive in the development of cities and societies or not, especially regarding the transportation system. This led to four scenarios: "Same, same but all the difference" - a green, individualistic society; "Sharing is the new black" - a governmentally driven innovation society based on sharing; "Follow the path" - an individualistic society based on development in the same direction as today, and "What you need is what you get" - a commercially driven innovation society where sharing is a key. In the paper, we describe the scenarios and the process to derive them in more detail. We also present an analysis of the consequences for the development of SDVs in the four scenarios, including predictions concerning pace of development, level of self-driving, fleet size, travel demand and vehicle kilometers travelled. The paper also includes a discussion and comparison with other studies on the development of SDVs in the US, Europe and Asia."

Elementi per una roadmap della mobilità sostenibile. Inquadramento generale e focus sul trasporto stradale. RSE (Ricerca Sistema Energetico), Milano, maggio 2017, 160 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "La primissima parte del documento riporta un inquadramento generale del lavoro, evidenziando le contingenze del settore dei trasporti che spingono verso la necessaria adozione di misure a sostegno della mobilità sostenibile nel settore del trasporto su strada. Il contesto normativo, sia internazionale che nazionale, conferma tale necessità, con l'identificazione di obiettivi particolarmente impegnativi e una forte attenzione alla pianificazione strategica della mobilità e allo sviluppo dei cosiddetti "combustibili alternativi". Il Capitolo 3, immediatamente seguente, indaga le caratteristiche del sistema attuale di trasporti nazionale in termini di "domanda di mobilità". La rappresentazione della ripartizione modale degli spostamenti, possibile grazie ai dati aggiornati del Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti (CNIT), fornisce le basi per comprendere le criticità e le opportunità di miglioramento del settore. La forte prevalenza del trasporto individuale (circa l'80% della percorrenza complessiva totale) rispetto al collettivo, e la ancora mag- giore prevalenza (oltre il 90%) del trasporto stradale rispetto alle altre forme (ferroviario, navale, aereo), evidenziano chiaramente la configurazione attuale del settore e le criticità connesse. L'analisi dei consumi energetici della mobilità, riportata nel seguito del Ca- pitolo, conferma l'importanza di intervenire sul traporto stradale, responsabile di circa l'85% dei consumi totali del settore. Sulla base di tale quadro, il Capitolo 4 punta l'attenzione proprio sul trasporto stradale, analizzando le diverse fonti energetiche ed opzioni tecnologiche disponibili e dettagliando lo stato attuale anche in termini di reti di distribuzione e di caratteristiche principali ed entità delle filiere industriali connesse. La presenza al Tavolo di stakeholder rappresentativi delle diverse opzioni tecnologiche ha permesso di raccogliere una descrizione sintetica dello stato tecnologico attuale e del livello di diffusione delle tecnologie esami- nate. Il Capitolo prende in esame sia i combustibili tradizionali - benzina e gasolio - sia i combustibili o fonti di energia che la Com- missione europea ha definito come "combustibili alternativi": elettricità, idrogeno, biocarburanti, combustibili sintetici e paraffinici, gas naturale (compreso il biometano) in forma compressa (GNC) e in forma liquefatta (GNL) e gas di petrolio liquefatti (GPL). Una volta identificate le caratteristiche della domanda di mobilità in Italia e delle opzioni tecnologiche disponibili, risulta fondamen- tale chiarire quali siano le ripercussioni negative generate dal settore dei trasporti, che rendono così necessaria una transizione sostenibile del settore. Il Capitolo 5 analizza dunque le cosiddette "esternalità" della mobilità, riconducibili a tre macro-aree: impatto sulla salute umana, impatto sul clima e impatto sulla qualità della vita. Particolare rilevanza viene data agli effetti sulla salute umana e al contributo delle varie tecnologie del trasporto su strada ai principali inquinanti atmosferici, analizzati nel dettaglio grazie ai fattori di emissione stimati da ISPRA per l'inventario nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera. L'impatto sul clima del trasporto stradale è stu- diato mediante un approccio "well-to-wheel", che confronta le emissioni climalteranti delle diverse tecnologie a partire dalla pro- duzione del combustibile (o fonte energetica), sino al suo utilizzo durante il moto del veicolo. Il documento prosegue con tre capitoli dedicati alle prospettive evolutive del settore, rispettivamente in termini di "trend socio-economici", tecnologie di trazione per il trasporto su strada e filiere industriali. L'obiettivo è cercare di cogliere le tendenze in atto nel mondo della mobilità stradale, in modo da proiettarle in un futuro prossimo e poter indicare al decisore politico quali saranno le dinamiche con cui si andrebbe ad interagire con un potenziale piano di interventi ed una rispettiva roadmap per una mobilità sostenibile, in particolare nel settore del trasporto su strada. I Capitoli 9 e 10 chiudono il corpo principale del documento e si rivolgono direttamente al decisore politico. In particolare, il Capitolo 9 prende in analisi le possibili policy e strategie per guidare un'evoluzione sostenibile del trasporto stradale, cercando di strutturarle in un quadro ragionato di relazioni tra i tre macro obiettivi della decarbonizzazione, della qualità dell'aria e impatti economici approcci strategici e misure da implementare. L'articolazione del capitolo, realizzato grazie a un forte contributo di CERTeT Bocconi, prevede dei focus sugli incentivi economici, sugli interventi di "traffic management" e supporto al trasporto collettivo e, infine, sul supporto alla logistica sostenibile. L'ultima parte del capitolo evidenzia infine la necessità che le scelte di policy siano effettuate solo a valle di una attenta valutazione della loro efficacia e dei loro effetti su molteplici aspetti. L'adozione di strumenti e metodologie di analisi integrata, deve dunque essere alla base dell'azione politica. Per il settore dei trasporti, vista la sua complessità, non è ancora disponibile uno strumento di questo tipo, che potrà però essere oggetto di sviluppo, sulla base di alcune prime proposte metodologiche qui presentate. Gli scenari, di cui si tratta sinteticamente al Capitolo 10, fanno parte degli strumenti necessari per la scelta delle policy. Gli scenari "di riferimento", ad esempio, permettono di disegnare l'evoluzione del settore "business as usual", ossia a politiche vigenti, e costituiscono la base su cui costruire le politiche di supporto. Inoltre, nella fase finale dei lavori del Tavolo è stato richiesto agli stakeholder di elaborare delle Raccomandazioni rivolte al decisore politico in merito alle misure e le leve da utilizzare per supportare la mobilità sostenibile, con una particolare focalizzazione sul trasporto stradale. Si noti che le raccomandazioni sono pubblicate a parte rispetto al presente documento."

Raccomandazioni per una roadmap della mobilità sostenibile. Raccomandazioni degli Stakeholder del Tavolo Mobilità Sostenibile. RSE (Ricerca Sistema Energetico), Milano, maggio 2017, 12 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB].

Emily Riley, Patrick Harris, Jennifer Kent, Peter Sainsbury, Anna Lane, Fran Baum, Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis, Int J Health Policy Manag 2017, 6(x), 1-11 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 630 kB]. Open Access. Background: Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods: We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results: We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion: Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant limitation, and there is a need for health issues to be considered when earlier, fundamental decisions about the project are being made."

Lew Fulton, Jacob Mason, Dominique Meroux, Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation. How to achieve the full potential of vehicle electrification, automation and shared mobility in urban transportation systems around the world by 2050. Report. UC Davis, ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, 2017, 41 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "The new report was produced by the University of California, Davis, and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. It compares the environmental and fiscal impacts of three scenarios involving new transportation technology: 1) Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario-Through 2050, we continue to use vehicles with internal combustion engines at an increased rate, and use transit and shared vehicles at the current rate, as population and income grow over time. 2) Revolutions (2R) scenario-We embrace more technology. Electric vehicles become common by 2030, and automated electric vehicles become dominant by 2040. However, we continue our current embrace of single-occupancy vehicles, with even more car travel than in the BAU. 3) Revolutions (3R) scenario-We take the embrace of technology in the 2R scenario and then maximize the use of shared vehicle trips. By 2050, cities have ubiquitous private car sharing, increased transit performance-with on-demand availability-and strengthened infrastructure for walking and cycling, allowing maximum shared trip efficiency."

L'A Bi Ci. 1° Rapporto sull'economia della bici in Italia e sulla ciclabilità nelle città. Legambiente, Roma, maggio 2017, 28 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. Realizzato in collaborazione con VeloLove e GRAB+. "Benefit sanitari, riduzione di smog e rumore, abbattimento dei costi ambientali e sociali delle emissioni gas serra: pedalare è un buon affare. In Italia gli spostamenti in bici generano un fatturato di 6,2 miliardi l'anno. Pur se le città italiane bike friendly sono ancora una minoranza, il valore economico della ciclabilità in Italia si rivela particolarmente interessante. Lo studio di Legambiente sottolinea la necessità di realizzare percorsi ciclabili sicuri e di qualità, con una forte coerenza fisica e visiva. I tracciati per le bici devono essere fatti con criterio (i punti di origine e di destinazione non devono essere casuali ma coincidenti con forti attrattori di mobilità come università, quartieri ad alta densità abitativa, stazioni ferroviarie e della metropolitane), il fondo stradale delle piste deve essere privo di difetti e irregolarità con caratteristiche tecniche che lo rendano scorrevole, gradevole e percorribile tutto l'anno (anche in caso di forti piogge). Nel disegnare nuovi itinerari si deve dare priorità a quelli che favoriscono l'intermodalità con i servizi di trasporto su ferro e altri mezzi del Tpl che consentono di salire a bordo con la bici."

Houshmand E. Masoumi (Technische Universität Berlin), Active transport to school and children's body weight. A systematic review, Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 10 (1), 95-110 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 6 MB]. Open Access. "Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years) as a representative of body composition. Applying search terms such as active transport to school, body mass index, childhood obesity, and so on in four online databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, WorldCat, and Google Scholar. Peer-reviewed English journal papers published between 2005 and 2015 presenting empirical quantitative studies were eligible studies to be reviewed. 310 journal papers were screened, 27 of which were reviewed by studying the full text. The final 13 papers were limited to those that focused only on active commuting to school and body mass index of children and adolescents. Out of 13 final studies, 3 found conclusive associations, three indicate partial associations in subgroups or societal or geographical limitations, and seven show no correlations. The existing literature are still inconsistent, so this study suggests conducting surveys with larger samples on less-studied contexts and applying more complex statistical methods for adjusting some of the variables. It is also argued that this topic can be culturally and contextually specific."

Carlos A Celis-Morales, Donald M Lyall, Paul Welsh, Jana Anderson, Lewis Steell, Yibing Guo, Reno Maldonado, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill (University of Glasgow), Association between active commuting and incident cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality: prospective cohort study, BMJ 2017;357:j1456 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 441 kB]. Open Access. "Commuting by cycling was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality and adverse CVD and cancer outcomes, and walking commuting was associated with lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality, in a dose dependent manner and independent of a range of confounding factors Mixed mode commuting including a cycle component was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality and cancer outcomes Policies designed to affect a population level modal shift to more active modes of commuting, particularly by cycle (eg, cycle lanes, city bike hire, subsidised cycle purchase schemes, and increasing provision for cycles on public transport) may present major opportunities for the improvement of public health."

Lingzhi Jin, Peter Slow, Literature review of electric vehicle consumer awareness and outreach activities. Working Paper 2017-03. International Council on Clean Transportation, 2017, 23 p. [formato PDF, 343 kB]. "This paper reviews current practices by national and subnational governments around the world that aim to increase consumer awareness, understanding, and exposure to electric vehicles. It summarizes the literature that identifies and examines the importance of consumer awareness, including the role of consumer awareness in supporting the transition to electric drive. The paper includes an overview of exemplary consumer awareness actions in leading electric vehicle markets, as well as additional discussion of five case studies to provide deeper detail and insight on some of the more mature consumer-oriented awareness and outreach campaigns."

Paolo Beria1, Daniel Albalate, Raffaele Grimaldi, Germà Bel, Delusions of success: costs and demand of high speed rail in Italy and Spain. Open Access. Conference paper, World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. Transportation Research Procedia(2017), 20 p. [formato PDF, 655 kB]. "Mismatches between forecasted and actual costs and traffic figures are common in transport investments, especially in large scale ones, and so are delusions on future demand. High-speed rail project are often among the worst practices for cost overruns and demand overestimation, even where traffic figures may tell a history of apparent success. In the paper, we analyse two significant cases of delusion of success, namely Italian and Spanish HSR programmes. The Italian one shows excellent demand performances, but is among the continental worst cases for construction costs. The Spanish one, recognised worldwide as one of the most successful cases, is the one where potential demand estimations was systematically neglected and the planned network appears largely out-of-scale compared to actual traffic. The two cases show that the core of the problem does not lay in the wrong estimations of costs and demand, but on deliberate choices of overinvestment, overdesign and overquality."

Michiko Namazu, The evolution of carsharing : heterogeneity in adoption and impacts. Ph.D. Thesis, Resource Management and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, University of British Columbia, March 2017, 153 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. The focus of this thesis lies on understanding how heterogeneity in carsharing (CS) and members at different stages of its adoption in society shape its impacts on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and car ownership. Past studies have two shortcomings: they do not acknowledge the bias that could arise due to the keen interest of early adopters, and they did not tease out the role of service type in observing outcomes of interest. The serial studies in this thesis found the potential of CS to reduce GHGs and vehicle dependency. However, this does not mean that CS promises to always provide these benefits to everyone. The positive effects found among early adopters do not guarantee that the same effects would be realized among coming adopters especially because early adopters of CS are atypical of the general public in many individual and household characteristics. This is the one of the two primary findings from this thesis: the dynamics of CS service diffusion. As the adoption stage matures, the usage and roles of CS would be changing hence the effects. The second primary finding is the importance of heterogeneity between CS services. Two distinct CS services were found to have different impacts in vehicle ownership change, suggesting that the heterogeneities among CS services affect how the services are utilized; hence what kind of effects the CS services bring to society. Policy makers often generalize various CS services as CS; however, the heterogeneities will need a more careful attention and specifically tailored policies in order to ensure CS impacts continue to align with sound urban transport policy. These dynamic changes will affect how CS services should be maintained. Managing shared properties has been a challenging issue, and this may become even more difficult with more diverse users and CS service models. Active knowledge sharing and collaborations among stakeholders (policy makers, CS providers, and scholars) may be a kay factor to bring further benefits to all. As CS carries the word of "sharing", if these stakeholders could build a better collaborative "sharing" environment, a large part of the potential of CS may be feasible.

Jing Zhu and Yingling Fan, Daily Travel Behavior and Emotional Well-Being: A comprehensive assessment of travel-related emotions and the associated trip and personal factors. Working Paper. 2017, 23 p. [formato PDF, 323 kB]. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy, http://hdl.handle.net/11299/185433. "Emotional well-being has become an important societal goal given the rising evidence from psychology research that positive emotions have long-lasting benefits for human development. Although daily travel behavior has been found to influence emotional well-being, existing research in the field has focused on limited travel behavior dimensions such as travel mode and/or travel duration. Other dimensions such as travel purpose and travel companionship have received limited attention. Using data from the 2012-2013 American Time Use Survey, this paper offers a comprehensive assessment of how various trip- and personal-level factors relates to various positive and negative emotions."

Dirk Lauinger, Francois Vuille, Daniel Kuhn (EPFL), A review of the state of research on vehicle-to-grid (V2G): Progress and barriers to deployment. Conference paper, European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress, Geneva, 14th-16th March 2017, 8 p. [formato PDF, 471 kB]. "A bi-directional power transfer between electric vehicles and the electricity grid, commonly referred to as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), offers the possibility to pair fluctuating electricity production with the fluctuating availability of electric vehicles parked at charging stations. V2G is envisaged as an option for grid balancing, in particular in regions aiming at a high penetration of renewable energy or a high penetration of electric vehicles. V2G could lower the need for stationary distributed storage by capitalizing on the existing batteries of EVs that are parked most of the time. Given this apparent benefit, it may appear surprising that the V2G technology has not yet been deployed in a wider scale. To investigate this discrepancy, we review the status of research on V2G and the status of technical development and deployment. Our aim is to assess the barriers to V2G deployment by identifying the main open research questions from a technical and economic point of view. Based on this assessment, we point to R&D needed to overcome the current barriers."

Beth Savan, Emma Cohlmeyer, Trudy Ledsham, Integrated strategies to accelerate the adoption of cycling for transportation, Transportation Research Part F 46 (2017) 236-249 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 970 kB]. Open Access. "This study synthesizes academic social psychological behaviour change literature with reports on the practical, community-based application of cycling programs. We identify the combination of psychological tools demonstrated to lead to changes in behaviour in the target population. We compare these tools with reports demonstrating evidence for success from monitored programs to encourage cycling adoption. Based on the alignment between these two literatures, we developed an adaptable, evidenced-based strategy for program developers to most effectively accelerate the adoption of cycling for transportation in areas where physical barriers are few. A brief case study affirms the effectiveness of this approach."

Meltem Kutlar Joss (Schweizerisches Tropen- und Public Health Institut), Gesundheitsrisiken der NO2-Belastung für den Menschen. Kurzexpertise anhand neuerer Übersichtsarbeiten und Studien. Greenpeace e.V., Hamburg, 2017, 28 p. [formato PDF, 786 kB]. Der Bericht wurde im Auftrag von Greenpeace verfasst. "Insgesamt hat die Forschung in den letzten Jahren viele Studien hervorgebracht, welche überzeugend kurz- und langfristige Gesundheitsschäden in Zusammenhang mit der Belastung mit Stickstoffdioxid (NO2) oder Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) aufzeigen. Die US Umweltbehörde bleibt bei der kausalen Zuordnung der beobachteten Zusammenhänge mit NO2 vorsichtig, da andere verkehrsbedingte Schadstoffe dafür (mit-)verantwortlich sein könnten. Andererseits haben experimentelle und halbexperimentelle Studien deutliche Hinweise auf direkte Effekte von NO2 ergeben. Die Messungen von Greenpeace belegen erhöhte NO2-Werte, welche auf die überdurchschnittliche Belastung durch verkehrsbedingte Schadstoffe hinweist. Fär diese Belastungen gelten folgende Aussagen: • Langfristig ist die Sterblichkeit in Gebieten mit hoher NO2-Belastung höher. Dieses mit NO 2 verbundene Risiko ist in manchen Studien unabhängig von der Feinstaub- oder Verkehrsbelastung, in anderen kann es nicht separat nachgewiesen werden. Fär Deutschland rechnet die Europäische Umweltagentur mit über 10.000 vorzeitigen Todesfällen allein durch NO2. • Die Belastung mit Verkehrsemissionen, gemessen mit NO2, ist wahrscheinlich mit einem höheren Risiko für Lungenkrebs verbunden. Welchen Bestandteilen des Aerosols diese Folge zuzuschreiben ist, ist noch nicht erforscht. • NO2 oder Schadstoffe aus dem Verkehr beeinträchtigen das Lungenwachstum bei Kindern. Diese Beziehung wurde mindestens teilweise unabhängig von der Feinstaubmasse beobachtet. In Gegenden mit hoher NO2-Belastung ist auch bei Erwachsenen die Lungenfunktion schlechter. • Kinder entwickeln häufiger Asthma, wenn sie in Verkehrsnähe wohnen: Das Asthmarisiko steigt bei einer um 10 ug/m3 höheren NO2-Belastung um 15 Prozent. • Bei weiteren Krankheiten ist die Datenlage noch offen, am deutlichsten sind die Hinweise auf ein niedrigeres Geburtsgewicht bei hoher NO2- oder Verkehrsbelastung. • Bei kurzfristig erhöhter Belastung ist neben einer erhöhten Sterblichkeit mit mehr Notfallkonsultationen und Krankenhauseintritten zu rechnen, insbesondere für solche die mit der Atemwegsgesundheit zusammenhängen. An Asthma erkrankte Kinder scheinen empfindlicher zu reagieren als Erwachsene mit Asthma, sie kommen bis zu 3 Mal häufiger wegen Atemwegsnotfällen ins Krankenhaus als Erwachsene. Diese Wirkungen werden auch unterhalb der heute in Deutschland gültigen Grenzwerte gefunden. Wie weiter oben dargestellt, können viele der beobachteten Folgen nicht einfach NO2 allein zugeschrieben werden. Andere Verkehrsschadstoffe zeigen dieselbe oder eine ähnliche rüumliche Verteilung wie NO2, werden aber nicht immer oder nicht in den gleichen Studien gemessen. Dieser Vorbehalt kann allerdings auch bei der Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von PM10 oder PM2.5 geltend gemacht werden, da auch hier Mehrschadstoffmodelle - beispielsweise unter Einbezug der Ultrafeinen Partikel - meist fehlen. Es ist daher aus gesundheitlicher Sicht sinnvoll, die NO2-Belastung auf die in den WHO Guidelines genannten Konzentrationen zu limitieren und somit Massnahmen zu verstärken, um die Grenzwerte, welche auch in der deutschen Technischen Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft festgesetzt sind, einzuhalten und damit auch in den übermässig mit NO2 belasteten Wohngebieten eine gute Luftqualität zu erreichen."

Yanying Li, Tom Voege, Mobility as a Service (MaaS): Challenges of Implementation and Policy Required, Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2017, 7, 95-106 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 827 kB]. "Mobility as a service (MaaS) is a relatively new concept, which holds the promise for a paradigm shift in the provision of urban mobility. The concept of MaaS is to use a single app to access and pay for various transport modes within a city or beyond; and the app will give options to allow a traveller to select the most suitable transport mode. The concept of MaaS is enabled by the current mass uptake of smartphones and social media as well ubiquitous internet connection. By studying current applications of MaaS in Europe and US conditions of operation of MaaS have been summarised. Based on the necessary conditions, a checklist has been developed for potential developers of MaaS to assess if they can implement MaaS in a city. This paper also discusses challenges of implementation of MaaS and their potential impacts on urban mobility and societal changes".

Clemence Cavoli, Brian Phillips, Tom Cohen, Peter Jones (UCL Transport Institute), Social and behavioural questions associated with Automated Vehicles. A Literature Review. Department for Transport, London, January 2017, 124 p. [formato PDF, 5,6 MB]. "This literature review is part of a wider scoping study commissioned by the UK Department for Transport that aims "to identify the key social and behavioural questions associated with AVs". This literature review has informed the formulation of the research questions and recommendations which can be found in the main report. This review summarises the various themes and topics that have been addressed or discussed in the academic and in the grey literature relating to the behavioural, social and societal aspects of automated vehicles (AVs). The study also highlights the gaps in the literature linked to these topics."

Tom Cohen, Peter Jones and Clémence Cavoli (UCL Transport Institute), Social and behavioural questions associated with automated vehicles. Scoping study by UCL Transport Institute. Final report. Department for Transport, London, January 2017, 91 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. "The UCL Transport Institute (UCLTI) was commissioned by the Department for Transport to conduct a scoping study to identify the key social and behavioural questions that should be addressed relating to automated vehicles (AVs). The study consisted of: a literature review; a series of group events and interviews with stakeholders; and a workshop with representatives of the government-funded "four cities driverless vehicles" trials 1 in the UK, which was followed up by visits to these trials. The research recommendations include: A scenarios exercise. Drawing on best practice in 'futures' work and embracing a wide range of themes, this would produce a manageable number of plausible scenarios of future technologies and usage patterns that could then act as a reference for a range of other research, including into consequences/wider impacts. Deliberative exercise with citizens and organisations to investigate attitudes and likely behavioural responses to the technology. This project could serve four purposes: to assess the value of work done to date on attitudes; to test the validity of the scenarios developed in the project described above, including the behavioural responses component; to gauge general attitudes to those scenarios and their likely social impacts; and to provide a foundation for detailed research concerning wider impacts. Scoping work on the interaction between AVs and road users (including AV users themselves). This project would explore in greater detail than has been possible in this project the state of knowledge in this area and the nature and quality of research work currently being undertaken. This would enable the identification of a number of research projects that would complement existing work and inform, amongst other things, vehicle standards and a Highway Code of the future. Exploration and appraisal of the potential role of the public sector. Reflecting the prominence of the role of the public sector amongst the research questions generated, this rigorous exercise would be designed to map out the range of paths available to government at all levels to influence positively the development of the technology and its impacts. Transport network simulation exercise. Ideally drawing upon the scenarios exercise to provide a set of well-rounded and plausible combinations of technology and behavioural responses to it, this simulation would assist in identifying likely first-order network effects of the advent and use of AV technology."

Legambiente, Rapporto Pendolaria 2016. La situazione e gli scenari del trasporto ferroviario pendolare in Italia. Roma, gennaio 2017, 110 p. [formato PDF, 4,5 MB]. "Ogni giorno in Italia quasi 5,5 milioni di persone prendono il treno per spostarsi per ragioni di lavoro o di studio, un numero solo leggermente superiore al 2015 (+0,2%), quando i pendolari del treno erano 5,43 milioni (e 5,1 nel 2014). A crescere in maniera evidente sono, invece, le diseguaglianze tra le Regioni rispetto al numero di viaggiatori e alle condizioni del servizio offerto. È questo il dato saliente del rapporto Pendolaria 2016 di Legambiente: la sistuazione e gli scenari del trasporto pendolare ferroviario in Italia."

European Environment Agency, Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016. An indicator-based report. EEA Report n.1/2017, Copenhagen, 2017, 424 p. [formato PDF, 67,4 MB]. "This report is an indicator-based assessment of past and projected climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society. It also looks at society's vulnerability to these impacts and at the development of adaptation policies and the underlying knowledge base. This is the fourth 'limate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe' report, which is published every four years. This edition aims to support the implementation and review process of the 2013 EU Adaptation Strategy, which is foreseen for 2018, and the development of national and transnational adaptation strategies and plans."

David Gray, Richard Laing, Iain Docherty, Delivering lower carbon urban transport choices: European ambition meets the reality of institutional (mis)alignment. Environment and Planning A, Vol 49, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 226-242 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector has become a critical imperative for public policy as our understanding of the impacts of the mobility system on the environment has developed. This paper contrasts policy development in three cities (Aberdeen, Bremen and Malmö) that collaborated as part of a European Union knowledge exchange programme designed to share innovative approaches to carbon reduction in the transport sector. We identify a number of critical aspects of governance, including the approach to policy formulation and implementation, and the status of consensus and cohesion, as key determinants of transport outcomes. We conclude that the degree of institutional alignment evident in each city's governance network is crucial in explaining their appetite for the pursuit of low carbon policies, and in turn the real potential for policy transfer to occur as envisaged by European Union collaboration frameworks."

2016

Regina R. Clewlow, Carsharing and sustainable travel behavior: Results from the San Francisco Bay Area, Transport Policy 51 (2016) 158-164 (20 p.) [formato PDF, 233 kB]. "Over the past decade, carsharing has grown considerably in the United States, particularly in major metropolitan areas. This innovative business model offers individuals the opportunity to rent cars by the hour, providing them with greater flexibility for their mobility. Previous work on carsharing suggests that its adoption leads to a decline in household vehicle ownership, vehicle miles traveled, and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Utilizing representative data from the 2010-2012 California Household Travel Survey, this paper presents an analysis of travel behavior and vehicle ownership among carshare members versus non-members in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on a subsample of the population with access to carsharing at the U.S. census tract level. Consistent with previous findings on vehicle reduction, these results show that carsharing members own significantly fewer vehicles than non-members. However, lower levels of vehicle ownership are only found among households living in urban areas. In dense, urban neighborhoods, households with carsharing membership own 0.58 vehicles per household as compared with 0.96 vehicles of a control group. Suburban carshare members drive less than their non-carshare member counterparts - although the extent to which this difference can be attributed to self-selection it is unknown. This study also finds that among carsharing households that do own vehicles, a greater share of those vehicles are alternative vehicles (e.g., hybrid, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric). Among vehicles owned by the subsample examined in this study, electric drive vehicles represent 18.3% of those owned by carshare member households, as compared with 10.2% of the vehicles owned by non-carsharing households. This analysis finds that not only are urban carshare members likely to own fewer vehicles than the rest of the population, if they do own vehicles, they are more likely to own a vehicle with a smaller environmental footprint."

Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Sharing Mobility, La Sharing mobility in Italia: numeri, fatti e potenzialità. 1° rapporto nazionale 2016. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, 2016, 276 p. [formato PDF, 18,4 MB].

Holger Haubold (ECF), Electromobility for all: Financial incentives for e-bikes help to realise enormous extra cycling potential. ECF European Cyclists' Federation, Brussels, December 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 508 kB]. "E-bikes offer numerous benefits: They allow for longer distances to be cycled, make it easier to overcome natural obstacles, make it possible to transport heavier goods and open up cycling for groups that have not cycled previously. For all of these reasons, electric bikes offer an enormous potential to replace car trips in Europe. ECF therefore recommends to adopt balanced policies and promotion strategies for electromobility that help to realise the potential of electrifying the transport system as a whole instead of only focusing on one mode. We suggest introducing subsidy schemes for e-bikes based on market conditions: - In markets with low sales figures, a purchase subsidy of 500 Euros (around 10% of the current purchase subsidies of electric cars in many European countries) could help to bridge the price gap to conventional bikes and facilitate market uptake of electric bikes (including low-powered as well as speed pedelecs), which in its turn have a high potential to achieve modal shift from car trips to cycling. - In more mature markets, more targeted subsidy schemes e.g. for speed pedelecs and electric cargobikes due to their higher price or for charging infrastructure in small businesses can be an option. Subsidies for electric bikes could also be given as a reward for cancelling a car's registration. Besides these targeted purchase subsidies, which are at the centre of this report, other, more general, funding schemes for research and development or infrastructure like charging points and secure parking can also contribute to the promotion of electric cycling. In these areas, the EU could play a more active role in the promotion of electric cycling by including it in its e-mobility policies."

Alexandros Nikitas, Erel Avineri and Graham Parkhurst, Road Pricing and Older People: An In-depth Study of Attitudes, Pro-Social Values and Social Norms. In: 48th Annual Universities' Transport Study Group Conference, 6-8, January 2016, Bristol. 13 p. [formato PDF, 677 kB]. "Understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms that determine the public acceptability of road pricing could be a key for its implementation in urban environments where this is a viable scenario. Studying the attitudes of older people is of particular importance due to the ageing of the populations in the industrialised democracies, the high political engagement of older people, and their vulnerability to transport-related social exclusion. Research by the present authors had previously identified that older people's beliefs about what is the normal, acceptable, or even expected choice in a particular social context ("social norms") and their tendency to favour, more than any other age group, what is positively valued by society ("pro-social value orientation") affect their attitudes to road pricing. The present paper aims to develop an in-depth understanding of these attitude-shaping determinants drawing on the findings of focus groups conducted in Bristol, UK. The findings suggest that there are three distinctive expressions of pro-sociality: pro-environmental values and generativity on the one hand, these two being drivers of support for road pricing, and pro-equity values on the other, which tend to drive opposition. Social norms have two particular expressions: subjective norms (i.e. norms reflecting people's immediate social environment) and norms referring to others and society in general. Furthermore, a theory-driven thematic analysis indicates that trust in the integrity of the concept and older age as a life stage associated with ageing, retirement, lower income, mobility barriers and deteriorating health are important in how attitudes reflecting and affecting public acceptability to road pricing form."

ZeEUS eBus Report. An overview of electric buses in Europe. UITP, Brussels, 2016, 118 p. [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. "The report gives an extensive overview of the electric buses in operation in Europe today, along with the different solutions available on the markets today. It is obvious that the electrification of public transport is high on the priority list of cities and public transport agencies and operators. A wide range of technological solutions exist for the electrification of public transport, but every choice is dependent on the local situation and can result in a different total cost of ownership. Therefore, this report aims to provide the reader with an overview of experiences from various cities, and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing ebuses in an urban context. ZeEUS eBus Report features 61 cities around Europe that operate or test high capacity electric buses (at least 12m long or with capacity for at least 55 passengers). The publication also lists 27 manufacturers that offer this type of vehicles for the European market."

Ann Ballinger, Tanzir Chowdhury, Chris Sherrington, George Cole, Air pollution: economic analysis. Main report. Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd, Bristol, November 2016, 87 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "This report commissioned by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) forms part of draft guidance which seeks to improve air quality across England. Eunomia worked with the University of the West of England (UWE) on this economic analysis, researching the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of measures local authorities have available to them to tackle air pollution from road transport."

Mieux accueillir les piétons âgés. Recommandations d'aménagement. Fiche Marche n° 02. Cerema, novembre 2016, 16 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. La fiche est téléchargeable gratuitement. "Dans 30 ans, la part des plus de 75 ans dans la population aura doublé. La santé et l'autonomie de ces seniors dépendent en partie de leur mobilité piétonne. Or, les seniors sont surreprésentés dans les accidents de piétons. Les accueillir dans un espace public où les déplacements à pied sont effectués avec le moins de risques possibles de chuter ou d'être accidenté est donc un enjeu de société. Les recommandations proposées dans cette fiche destinée aux aménageurs montrent que cet objectif est atteignable en appliquant les règles de l'art et les recommandations d'accessibilité, tout en les complétant par des aménagements utiles à tous mais répondant spécifiquement aux besoins de la population âgée en perte de mobilité. Grâce aux aménagements proposés dans cette fiche, les seniors peuvent se déplacer de manière plus confortable et plus sécurisée."

Thorsten Koska, Frederic Rudolph (Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie gGmbH), The role of walking and cycling in reducing congestion : a portfolio of measures. FLOW Project, July 2016, 71 p. [formato PDF, 8,8 MB]. "The Portfolio of Measures describes the actual effects of different types of measures on congestion by presenting case studies and drawing conclusions out of them. The portfolio presents information on the potential of walking and cycling measures to relieve urban congestion. Cities are actively seeking information and implementation experience from other cities. However, information available on websites, portals and good-practice guides is of mixed quality. In providing more information on the impact of walking and cycling measures, this portfolio aims at contributing to political agenda setting and measure selection. The first part of the portfolio provides some general findings about the role of walking and cycling measures in relieving congestion, based on literature review and an expert survey carried out within the FLOW project. It is then followed by 20 cases in which walking measures, cycling measures or combinations of measures have been successfully implemented in Europe and abroad. The case studies have been clustered in five big groups according to their topics: Cycling infrastructure (moving traffic); Walking and Cycling Infrastructure (moving traffic); Cycling infrastructure (parking and bike sharing); Traffic management strategies; Mobility management and Measures for more than one mode. The final chapter summarises the effects of the 20 cases and elaborates some general lessons learned. On general finding is - the measures described have helped reduce congestion or at least have increased walking and/or cycling levels without increasing congestion."

Paolo Beria, Alberto Bertolin, Il Carpooling in Italia: Analisi dell'Offerta. TRASPOL Report 2/2016. TRASPOL, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, settembre 2016, 35 p. [formato PDF, 22,5 MB]. "In questo report viene presentato e studiato un primo campione di dati raccolto dalla più conosciuta piattaforma web per il carpooling : BlaBlaCar.it. Il duplice fine che ci si propone è quello di poter, da un lato, comprendere meglio quali siano le dinamiche e la diffusione del servizio a scala nazionale e, dall'altro, di ottenere alcune informazioni sul segmento della mobilità occasionale di lunga percorrenza, in assoluto il meno noto alle statistiche. I primi risultati ottenuti danno utili indicazioni sulle attuali pratiche di mobilità nella nostra penisola. I viaggi offerti, ad esempio, si svolgono su distanze medie nell'ordine dei 300 km e sono maggiori a nord rispetto al resto della penisola. Inoltre, presentano diversi pattern di distribuzione settimanale a seconda del luogo di origine, così come una diversa diffusione geografica. Le grandi città, Milano in primo luogo, generano viaggi su aree molto ampie, mentre i capoluoghi di provincia presentano catchment area generalmente più limitate e polarizzate. Questo rapporto è il primo studio a carattere geografico sul tema della mobilità condivisa di lunga distanza in Italia e si propone come utile strumento di monitoraggio del settore, sia per le aziende che per il settore pubblico. Il rapporto è disponibile gratuitamente su www.traspol.polimi.it ed è basato sul campione di spostamenti, pubblicamente accessibili, raccolti dalla piattaforma in un periodo di 81 giorni non continui tra Marzo e Novembre 2015. In totale sono stati raccolti dati su circa 5.000 viaggi al giorno, che hanno interessato la penisola Italiana, e su circa 71.000 utenti. Grazie a questa base dati è possibile studiare il profilo degli utenti (conducenti) del carpooling, la penetrazione del servizio, le relazioni maggiormente servite e simulare la distribuzione degli utenti sulla rete stradale."

Pierre L. Ibisch, Monika T. Hoffmann, Stefan Kreft, Guy Pe'er, Vassiliki Kati, Lisa Biber-Freudenberger, Dominick A. DellaSala, Mariana M. Vale, Peter R. Hobson, Nuria Selva, A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status. Science 16 Dec 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6318, pp. 1423-1427 (6 p.), [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Roads fragment landscapes and trigger human colonization and degradation of ecosystems, to the detriment of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. The planet's remaining large and ecologically important tracts of roadless areas sustain key refugia for biodiversity and provide globally relevant ecosystem services. Applying a 1-kilometer buffer to all roads, we present a global map of roadless areas and an assessment of their status, quality, and extent of coverage by protected areas. About 80% of Earth's terrestrial surface remains roadless, but this area is fragmented into ~600,000 patches, more than half of which are <1 square kilometer and only 7% of which are larger than 100 square kilometers. Global protection of ecologically valuable roadless areas is inadequate. International recognition and protection of roadless areas is urgently needed to halt their continued loss."

Fernando Lobo Pimentel, Improving carpool flexibility without compromising trust or guaranteed rides. European Transport \ Trasporti Europei (2016) Issue 62, Paper n° 7 (30 p.), [formato PDF, 230 kB]. "Aiming at the same transport with less car usage, carpool systems are a more economical and ecological way to travel when compared to drive-alone behaviour. However, carpooling is difficult to promote. People do not carpool for schedule flexibility and trust concerns, and when addressing the first issue by bringing more people to the carpools to increase schedule options, one loses on the trust side because prior acquaintance is no longer guaranteed, or one looses a guaranteed ride. We tried to address this problem. We used operations research (OR) methodology to formulate the problem, then we relaxed a carpool system's restriction: the schedule coincidence requirement. This allowed the design of a several departure time carpool. Next we optimized the system using LP (linear programming) for a sub problem. Finally two preliminary surveys were conducted. The first in Oeiras municipality (Portugal), to test potential carpoolers adherence to the model, and the second through an email chain, to anticipate effective enrolment in a carpool with a specific several departure time schedule. We found that a small group of people with different but compatible schedules, and who meet each other previously, can join the same carpool and benefit from it, provided that the system operates under the optimised configurations presented, so that the increase in the number of departure times available does not decrease vehicle occupancy rates more than necessary. Surveys revealed the likely readiness and schedule compatibility of about 10% of car commuters to enrol in such system. By designing the carpool system around the idea of several guaranteed departures available, groups can be smaller and steadier because they self-contain wider schedule options. Scale increases are no longer mandatory and riding with strangers or unpredictable ride availability can be prevented. Therefore our model is a contribution to improve carpool flexibility without compromising trust concerns or guaranteed rides."

Kaarina Hyvönen, Petteri Repo, Minna Lammi (University of Helsinki), Light electric vehicles: substitution and future uses. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 258-268 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 282 kB]. Open Access. "Light electric vehicles may challenge established forms of transport in the near future. This paper looks at how different kinds of consumers assess the future uses of light electric vehicles. Such uses are further characterized by examining how they could replace the current uses of existing modes of transport such as cycling, cars and public transport. The paper approaches the take-up of light electric vehicles from the vantage point of technological niches which have the potential to transit to sociotechnical regimes (Schot and Geels, 2008 and Geels, 2002). It considers insights from recent user studies on light electric transport and broadens their scope to include a wider range of vehicles. Data from a representative survey of 1030 Finns are used to analyse and characterize future uses of light electric vehicles. Currently, light electric vehicles remain technological niches, but consumers show interest in them, and the paper addresses the match between different kinds of consumers and these vehicles, building opportunities for large scale use."

Flemming Giesel, Claudia Nobis (German Aerospace Center (DLR), The Impact of Carsharing on Car Ownership in German Cities. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 215-224 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 190 kB]. Open Access. "Carsharing, currently growing strongly in Germany, is an important instrument for sustainable urban mobility. The present boom is mainly due to so-called "free-floating carsharing". Whilst the environmental effects of station-based carsharing have been intensively studied in the German-speaking context, to date there have been hardly any empirical findings on the effect of free-floating carsharing. Using the example of DriveNow and Flinkster in Berlin and Munich, this article examines to what extent free-floating carsharing leads to a reduction of car ownership compared to station-based carsharing. Based on online surveys (n=819/227) carried out within the "WiMobil" project (9/2012 - 10/2015), descriptive analyses and two binary logistic regressions were performed. The findings show that station-based and free-floating carsharing leads to a reduction of private cars but to different degrees (DriveNow 7%; Flinkster 15%). The shedding of cars is influenced by the frequency of use of carsharing and the increasing membership of station-based carsharing providers. Furthermore, for many people of both systems carsharing is an important reason not to buy a car. But there is also a significant proportion of people planning a car purchase. This is true especially for car-savvy persons for whom car ownership is very important. Thus, carsharing can be an important factor for sustainable urban mobility. In order to maximize the positive effects of carsharing, it is of central importance to reach additional user groups such as women and elderly people with private car ownership."

Gaele Lesteven, Fabien Leurent (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech), Electromobility for tourists: testing business modeleuse in the Paris region. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 164-175 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Electric vehicles (EV) bring benefits for the urban environment but represent an additional cost for households. That is why the spread of electromobility starts with niche markets appropriate to their territorial context. On this principle, we design a business model for an EV sharing scheme based on assumptions about sites attractive to tourists to the technical means of production passing by the estimate of potential demand. To address the challenge of profitability, several scenarios are tested, with different fleet sizes and financing costs. In the model, investment costs represent 26 to 34% of total costs and variable costs account for 50 to 62% of operating costs. The project can be undertaken regardless of fleet size, provided that its financing cost is 8% or less. It raises questions about the distribution of the value generated."

Katherine Kortum, Robert Schönduwe, Benjamin Stolte, Benno Bock, Free-Floating Carsharing: City-Specific Growth Rates and Success Factors. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 328-340 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 991 kB]. Open Access. "Free-floating carsharing, a relatively new market segment within carsharing, is expanding through Europe and North America. This type of system allows users to book a car at any point and any time within a specified area. This type of carsharing currently exists in about 34 cities across nine countries, in cities of highly varied demographics and urban form. Shared vehicles could be part of new mobility services that foster inter- and multimodal travel and serve as an essential part of energy and climate strategies in the transport sectors. However, empirical data on use of free-floating carsharing is usually unavailable for research purposes. New data collection methods have to be developed to evaluate the effects of carsharing systems. For five years, InnoZ (Innovationszentrum für Mobilität und gesellschaftlichen Wandel) has been using web mining to acquire a robust set of data about free-floating carsharing vehicles and movements. Since 2011, about 50 million movements have been recorded by using a web-mining script. This paper provides a first look at this dataset, showing that use of the services is generally increasing over time. It also confirms previous research that household size and residential density are key drivers of free-floating carsharing use."

Adam Ekström, Robert Regula, Identifying barriers in a technological shift: The introduction of battery-electric buses in Swedish public transport. Master of Science Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2016, 78 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Concern regarding sustainability and climate change is increasing, which is forcing countries world-wide to take action. The Swedish government has set a goal of fossil-free traffic until 2030. Battery Electric Buses (BEB) might be one of the solutions needed in order to reach this goal. However, currently its prevalence is at an early stage. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden affects the public transport operators (PTOs). Moreover, to investigate how a third party service provider of Fleet Management System (FMS) services can support the PTOs in this transition. The research has been carried out in co-operation with a PTO and a FMS service provider. The research contributes to their current understanding of how they will be affected by the emerging tech- nological transition. This thesis also contributes with new empirical data of the technological transition towards electric vehicles within public bus transport, seen as a Large Technical System. Conceptually it contributes, by exploring how external companies can support the technological transition towards BEBs, with the application of Technological Transitions theory and the Multi Layer Perspective framework. The methodology used is a case study of the technological transition towards BEBs in Sweden. Data was collected through twelve semi-structured interviews with researchers, PTOs, public transport au- thorities (PTA), a BEB manufacturer and a FMS-service company. Parallel to this a questionnaire was distributed to the twenty largest PTOs in Sweden. Moreover data was collected from company visits, pilot-project results and internal documentation. Our findings show that there are thirteen perceived barriers present among the PTOs, in the process of BEB adoption. Six of these barriers relate to component aspects of BEBs, and seven relate to managerial aspects. Perceived barriers linked to component aspects of BEBs are; Variation in solutions and lack of technical standards, the Charging infrastructure, Shorter range or decreased load capacity, Unknown functionality in cold climate, Reliability and Durability. Perceived barriers linked to managerial aspects of BEBs are; Lack of knowledge and experience, Behavioral change, Economy, Maintenance, Ownership of infrastructure and buses, Business models and Varying requirements from PTAs. The barriers FMS-service providers can address are primarily, due to the technological nature of the services, present at niche level. PTOs together with FMS-service providers are encouraged to together strive towards gaining deeper knowledge about the new emerging technologies. Through this, PTOs could be enabled to overcome the aforementioned barriers. Three reverse salients were also identified, linked to the aforementioned barriers. If the reverse salients are assessed, BEB acceptance among PTOs could be increased. The three identified reverse salients are; the battery technology, the charging infrastructure and the contracts/ownership. The co-operation with the commissioning PTO and FMS-service provider has led to valuable access to Swedish public transport actors, and has aided in a deeper understanding of the phenomena. Although, this co-operation might have exposed us to a risk of being influenced."

Izabela Kotowska (Maritime University of Szczecin), Policies applied by seaport authorities to create sustainable development in port cities. 2nd International Conference "Green Cities - Green Logistics for Greener Cities", 2-3 March 2016, Szczecin, Poland. Transportation Research Procedia 16 (2016) 236-243 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Policies for sustainable development of transport rely on three pillars: striving for stable social and economic growth, while reducing the pollution and protecting the natural resources. Seaports play a significant role in economic growth of port cities. In each such a city the port generates even several thousand jobs directly connected with the port operation. Unfortunately, the port activities also affect the natural environment. Both sea vessels and means of transport used in the hinterland are a major source of pollution. The purpose of this article is to present the role of port authorities in creating sustainable growth of transport through striving for reduction of transport externalities."

Hannah Verhoeven, Dorien Simons, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Delfien Van Dyck, Corneel Vandelanotte, Bas de Geus, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Peter Clarys, Benedicte Deforche, Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168594 (2016) (20 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Background. Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. Methods. A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. Results. A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.043) compared to a decrease in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement within the control group. Conclusions. Overall, the intervention was not effective to increase psychosocial correlates of active transport. Future intervention studies should search for alternative strategies to motivate and involve this hard to reach target group."

Peter Kasten, Moritz Mottschall, Wolfgang Köppel, Charlotte Degünther, Martin Schmied, Philipp Wüthrich, Erarbeitung einer fachlichen Strategie zur Energieversorgung des Verkehrs bis zum Jahr 2050 [A long-term energy strategy of the transport sector until 2050]. Endbericht. (Texte 72/2016). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, November 2016, 127 p. [formato PDF, 3,6 MB]. "The objective of this project is to compare different energy scenarios and options for a greenhouse-gas-neutral transport sector in 2050. This comparison will be used to provide recommendations for a long-term energy strategy of the transport sector. Energy supply costs, infrastructure costs and vehicle production costs will be compared in four different energy supply scenarios. Interactions with other energy sectors are not included in the analysis. Electrification of road transport in which the use of electricity is technologically possible is the most cost-efficient energy supply option; but systemic obstacles and low acceptance might impede broad market penetration of this technology. This study concludes that PtG-CH4 and PtL have similar costs in road transport. PtG-H2 and fuel cell vehicles appear to have higher costs, in particular with applications with low mileage per vehicle. Liquefied PtG-CH4 seems to be the most cost-efficient energy supply option in shipping and PtL fuels are the favored option in aviation due to a lack of alternative technologies. Additional electrification is a reasonable option in rail transport. The cost analysis in this report indicates that the cost for energy supply and the production of vehicles dominate the total cost of transforming the transport sector. The costs of energy supply gain relevance in long-distance transport applications (e.g. long-distance trucking or shipping). The cost for the adaption of the energy infrastructure is rather small compared to other cost factors. Public support for the adaption of infrastructure seems reasonable since the operation of the infrastructure is economically unprofitable with few vehicles during the market introduction phase. The case is similar for the market introduction of new drive technologies and alternative fuels. They are expensive to introduce on the market and might require regulative and market stimulation. International coordination of the energy supply strategies in the transport sector is required to reduce the risk of sunk costs."

Susan Shaheen, Rachel Finson, Abhinav Bhattacharyya, Mark Jaffee (UC Berkeley), Moving Toward a Sustainable California: Exploring Livability, Accessibility & Prosperity. White Paper. TSRC, University of California, Berkeley, October 2016, 39 p. [formato PDF, 719 KB]. "The Transportation Sustainability Research Center at UC Berkeley conducted a series of tasks to assist the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) with an understanding of prosperity, accessibility, and livability metrics. Research findings were collected through a combination of literature reviews and expert interviews. Researchers found that prosperity, accessibility, and livability metrics all involve a component of cooperation with partner jurisdictions. A flexible approach that accounts for local and corridor considerations and evolves over time is emphasized. The white paper highlights the importance of equity considerations, data availability, and the scale of measurement. Prosperity emphasizes long-term or short-term strategies to improve quality of life, focusing on economic indicators, such as income, business, and property values. Prosperity metrics can be used to prioritize transportation projects based on social, environmental, or equity concerns. Accessibility metrics reflect the ability for transportation systems to provide people with access to opportunities. Metrics are centered on travel time and length, land use, mobility, and the availability of public transit. Livability focuses on quality of life improvements with community outcomes and impacts at the local level. Metrics - such as affordability, public health, quality of accessibility, environment, aesthetics, and public participation - all pertain to livability."

Johanna Yliskylä-Peuralahti (University of Turku), Sustainable Energy Transitions in Maritime Transport. The Case of Biofuels. The Journal of Sustainable Mobility, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 67-93, December 2016 (27 p.) [formato PDF, 837 kB]. "In maritime transport, progress towards a reduction in the environmental impacts, and responses to more recent calls for corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been slow and geographically highly uneven. In this paper the multi-level perspective of transition studies is used as an analytical setting to understand the drivers and barriers for the environmental upgrading of maritime transport in the Baltic Sea region. The specific focus of the analysis is on energy questions in the shipping industry. A case study methodology is followed in gathering and analysis of the data. With a company case, a possible path to biofuel use in maritime transport is illustrated; and, in the light of the sustainability transition framework, the potential barriers that new renewable energy niches are currently facing-before they can become mainstream technologies-are discussed. The results show that at a landscape level, low fossil fuel prices reduce the economic profitability of using non-fossil energy sources in maritime transport, and inhibit the development of related infrastructure. At a regime-level, the limited demand for low-emission, non-fossil fuel-based maritime transport from the side of the cargo-owners, lack of interest, and maritime regulations that do not currently support greenhouse gas reduction or energy efficiency strongly enough, hinder the transition. The paper ends with a discussion and conclusions section, summarizing the research and highlighting policy implications."

Myriam Neaimeh, Graeme Hill, Weihong Guo, Josey Wardle, Anya Bramich, Phil Blythe, Understanding the role of a rapid charging infrastructure on urban and interurban mobility patterns. Conference Paper, Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS29), 19-23 June 2016, Montréal, Québec (Canada), 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "Rapid Charge Network (RCN) is a 7 Million Euros project co-financed by the European Commission with the collaboration of Nissan, BMW, Renault, VW, ESB, ZCF and Newcastle University. The aim of this work is to share some of the insights from RCN on the use of rapid charging posts in the UK and illustrate how they could be extending the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and enabling the use of EVs by highmileage drivers. The findings from this work would be used to inform the deployment of rapid charge networks in Europe and beyond."

Christian Gudbrandsen Sivertsen, Jonas Lunden, Mobility 2.0: Sustainable Business Models for the Automotive Industry : Identifying sustainable sale-of-service mobility business models, utilizing alternative powertrains and autonomous technology. Master's thesis in Business Administration, University of Agder, 2016, 117 p. [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. "The aim of this study is to identify and develop sustainable mobility business models (BMs) for the automotive industry. This is a response to an analysis of the opportunities and limitations of new technology and carsharing BMs occurring alongside emerging industry challenges. The traditional automotive industry BM has remained, thereabouts, unchanged for more than a century. Exploration in this paper determinesAth to enable future sustainability, industry changes must occur. The current traditional BM is struggling with changing market characteristics and appears inadequate to adopt new environmental technologies (e.g. electric vehicle, autonomous and hydrogen powered cars). The utilization of a literature analysis approach enables the execution of a highly up-to-date and comprehensive investigation. Literature is used to help identify current industry challenges and present emerging technologies that new BMs need to successfully resolve and utilize respectively. This thesis paper further presents and explores the essential BM theories used in analysis and BM generation. Moreover, there is focus on solving the unsustainability of car ownership, such as by equipping a sale-of-service approach used by carsharing services in order to develop sustainable mobility BMs. The main focus of this thesis is the analysis of opportunities and limitations that identify features necessary for sustainable mobility BMs. The main findings are two different mobility BMs, which we argue are adequate in concern to the adoption of new technologies and are advantageous in relation to the industry challenges. This thesis presents an autonomous BM that is applicable for urban, densely populated areas, and operates like today's free-floating carsharing services. The second sustainable BM found in this study utilized the sale-of-service characteristics of carsharing, operating in a similar fashion as regular ownership. The analysis is thereby used to develop one BM for autonomous, urban carsharing and one BM for a sustainable ownership-substitute. Both models adopt electric or hydrogen fuel-cell power train technology and utilize the industry challenges as opportunities for growth."

Eric Petersen, Yunfei Zhang, Ali Darwiche, Modeling Car Sharing and Its Impact on Auto Ownership: Evidence from Vancouver and Seattle. Conference Paper, TAC 2016 Annual Conference and Exhibition "Efficient Transportation - Managing the Demand", September 25-28, 2016, Toronto, Ontario (Canada), 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "Car sharing is a relatively recent phenomenon but an increasingly important phenomenon in understanding urban household travel behavior. TransLink, the agency responsible for carrying out regional transportation planning for metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) the MPO for metropolitan Seattle, have started investigating this issue. Their recent travel surveys asked the question of all households whether anyone in the household was a member of a car sharing service (not merely using a ride sharing app such as Uber or Lyft). In addition to investigating the impact of car sharing membership on household auto ownership, these surveys provide insight into whether car sharing services lead to a net increase or decrease in motorized travel at the household level. Two models are investigated in this paper. First, a conventional model of household auto ownership is estimated with car sharing treated as an exogenous input, along with a stand-alone model of car sharing membership. This is followed by a more complex household mobility model that is outlined in the paper (a simultaneous model of household car sharing and auto ownership), which only would make sense in the context of an activity-based model or at least a model with a population synthesizer. In terms of model results, income is a major predictor of car sharing membership and auto ownership. As expected, the presence of seniors in household and proximity to car sharing lot have the biggest impact on car sharing membership. These variables also impact auto ownership directly, though we find number of workers in the household to play an even larger direct role in auto ownership. As far as the overall implications emerging from these models, we recommend that auto ownership models be refined to take car sharing membership and ideally transit pass holding into account. In most cases, a series of sequential models will be more feasible than estimating and implementing the simultaneous household mobility model outlined in this paper. Given the strong growth of car sharing in the Pacific Northwest, as well as across North America, we recommend that further research into car sharing membership be carried out, and this of course also means monitoring the growth in usage of traditional car sharing services, as well as the car ride services, which have been transforming the urban transportation system in recent years."

Takayoshi Kato, Jane Ellis (OECD), Communicating progress in national and global adaptation to climate change. Climate Change Expert Group: Paper No. 2016(1). OECD, IEA, Paris, May 2016, 47 p. [formato PDF, 719 KB]. "The Paris Agreement, adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reinforces the international framework for adaptation action by establishing a global adaptation goal. Under the Paris Agreement, countries have also agreed to an enhanced transparency framework for action, which includes adaptation. The Agreement also requests each Party to submit and update an "adaptation communication" as appropriate. This paper explores what elements of countries' adaptation responses and progress could be reported under the Paris Agreement so as to better communicate efforts towards enhanced adaptation and resilience. The paper also highlights the potential benefits both at a national and an international level from identifying and collating adaptation-related information. Finally the paper outlines a possible structure of an adaptation communication, and identifies options and associated information needs for the adaptation- related components of the global stocktake agreed to in the Paris Agreement."

International Transport Forum, Adapting Transport to Climate Change and Extreme Weather. Implications for Infrastructure Owners and Network Managers. ITF Research Report. OECD, Paris, 2016, 144 p. [formato PDF]. Click to read online and share. "This report addresses the fundamental challenges that climate change poses to infrastructure owners, who face two major challenges. First, they must ensure continued asset performance under sometimes significantly modified climate conditions that may decrease the present value of their networks or increase maintenance and refurbishment costs. Second, they must build new assets in the context of changing and uncertain climate variables. This creates a risk of over- or under-specification of infrastructure design standards, potentially resulting in non-productive investments or network service degradation. This report investigates strategies that can help transport authorities contain network performance risks inherent in changing patterns of extreme weather."

Ufficio federale dell'ambiente UFAM, Impatto ambientale del traffico merci attraverso le Alpi. Risultati del progetto MMA-A, stato 2015. Ufficio federale dell'ambiente UFAM, Berna, 14.12.2016, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "La sostenibilità del traffico transalpino delle merci è uno degli obiettivi principali della politica dei trasporti della Svizzera. I rilevamenti effettuati dal 2003 sulla qua­lità dell'aria e sull'inquinamento fonico lungo gli assi di transito transalpino nord-sud dipingono uno scenario eterogeneo: nonostante i progressi tecnici e le direttive poli­tiche abbiano contribuito alla notevole diminuzione dei valori di singoli inquinanti atmosferici e, in particolare, del rumore prodotto dalla ferrovia, le ripercussioni del traffico merci transalpino sull'uomo e sull'ambiente permangono elevate. Gli scenari fino al 2020 mostrano che occorrono sforzi maggiori affinché i corridoi di transito tornino a essere spazi vitali adeguati per la popolazione locale."

Paolo Beria, Raffaele Grimaldi (Politecnico di Milano), An ex-post cost benefit analysis of Italian High Speed train, five years after. (Working papers SIET 2016), SIET, 2016, 19 p. [formato PDF, 735 kB]. "The core of Italian HS rail plan is the Turin-Salerno line, in operation since 2009. The central segment Milan - Rome has been working well since the opening, with good demand figures quite in line with the later forecasts. The extremes of the line, namely the extensions to Turin and to Naples/Salerno has remained for long far less used. In 2012, unique case in Europe, a newcomer entered in the market and pushed a radical change in Trenitalia marketing, quality and pricing. This positive fact has fostered the market, with supply and demand dramatically increased, reduced fares and distributed benefits to the users, also in terms of new mobility practices. The paper aims at revising a former Cost Benefit Analysis exercise, produced just two years after line opening, in the light of the changed conditions. In particular, applying a similar methodology and estimating on the basis of third-party sources the current Origin-Destination demand matrix, we will recalculate the economic feasibility indicators. The cost-benefit analysis gives a marginally positive result in the most-likely case. To the contrary, extrapolating pre-competition trends without competition, gives a very negative result. In fact, we show that travel time benefits are a fraction of the cost. The largest benefits comes from the new demand, which in turn comes from increased frequency, from the introduction of mixed traditional/high-speed services and from the fall in prices due to the entrance of NTV."

European Environmental Agency, Transitions towards a more sustainable mobility system. TERM 2016: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (EEA Report n.34/2016), EEA, Copenhagen, 2016, 88 p. [formato PDF, 10,5 MB]. "This year's 'Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM)' report (released on an annual basis since 2000) reflects on the prospects for significant future 'systemic' changes towards sustainability for the mobility system. Technological developments will largely determine the future environmental performance of the transport sector. However, many past technological advances in the transport sector have historically been offset by the ever increasing demand for transport. Previous TERM reports have addressed this issue and have concluded that technical solutions alone are not enough to ensure that environmental impacts from transport will be reduced. Other measures, such as demand optimisation in the form of better vehicle utilisation, avoidance of unnecessary trips and modal shift, will therefore be indispensable. 'Ultimately, we should not be afraid of asking whether we actually need all this transport... ...and reconsider our consumption patterns and lifestyle choices' (EEA, 2016a). The understanding of 'long-term sustainability' in this context is largely based on the aims of the 7EAP and the 2011 Transport White Paper's quantitative target of a 60 % reduction in transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050."

Mario Contaldi, Paola Sestili (ISPRA), Annuario dei dati ambientali 2016. Sezione B, capitolo 4: Trasporti, ISPRA, Roma, Dicembre 2016, 96 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB].

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2014-2015, Roma, 2016, IPZS, 490 p. [formato PDF, 5,4 MB].

Paul Wolfram, Nic Lutsey, Electric vehicles: Literature review of technology costs and carbon emissions. Working Paper 2016-14. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, July 2016, 23 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This paper aims to inform the debate over how electric vehicle technology could fit into a lower-carbon 2020-2030 new vehicle fleet in Europe by collecting, analyzing, and aggregating the available research literature on the underlying technology costs and carbon emissions. It concentrates on the three electric propulsion systems: battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (HFCEVs). The authors project that the costs of all will decrease significantly between 2015 and 2030: PHEVs will achieve about a 50% cost reduction, compared with approximate cost reductions of 60% for BEVs and 70% for HFCEVs. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand for electric and conventional vehicles are presented on a well-to-wheel (WTW) basis, capturing all direct and indirect emissions of fuel and electricity production and vehicle operation. The authors find that carbon emissions of BEVs using European grid-mix electricity are about half of average European vehicle emissions, with HFCEVs and PHEVs having a lower emissions reduction potential. A lower-carbon grid and higher power train efficiency by 2020 could cut average electric vehicle emissions by another third. However, reductions in costs and CO2 emission will not be achieved without targeted policy intervention. More stringent CO2 standards, as well as fiscal and non-fiscal incentives for electric vehicles, can help the electric vehicle market grow and costs fall. Such efforts should also be combined with efforts to decarbonize the grid, or emission reductions will not be as great as they could be. Although the analysis is focused on Europe, similar technology, policy, and market dynamics can be observed in electric-vehicle markets throughout North America and Asia."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, Evolution of incentives to sustain the transition to a global electric vehicle fleet. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, November 2016, 36 p. [formato PDF, 734 kB]. "This report assesses near-term electric vehicle market trends to inform on how governments might optimally evolve their electric vehicle incentive programs to sustain market growth. We analyze prevailing per-vehicle purchasing incentives and how government outlays increase to maintain these incentives as the market grows. Then we assess how electric vehicle costs-for varying electric range-are reduced in the approximate time frame of 2020-2025 due to increased battery production. From these cost reductions, we analyze when the consumer proposition might tip in favor of electric vehicles, based on the first-owner cost of operation for seven major electric vehicle markets in North America, Europe, and Asia. Based on the analysis, the authors conclude: - The electric vehicle range and cost improvements will greatly expand the electric vehicle market and reduce the need for incentives. Due largely to battery innovation and manufacturing scale, higher-range electric vehicle costs will be reduced by greater than $10,000 in the 2017-2022 time period. - Incentives would ideally shift to target vehicles with the greatest mainstream consumer attractiveness. Namely incentive programs could shift eligibility criteria to lower cost and higher range electric vehicles. - Incentive instruments would ideally be adopted for greater financial durability. Shifting to progressive tax exemption, polluter-pay systems (e.g., Norway), or "feebate" systems (e.g., France) could better lock in a revenue source for the electric vehicle incentives. - As fiscal incentives phase down, more policy action is still needed for electric drive. Charging infrastructure, consumer education and awareness campaigns, fuel efficiency regulations will become keys to drive the transition to mass-market electric vehicles."

Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. Research Analysis. Shared-Use Mobility Center (SUMC), Chicago, IL, March 2016, 39 p. [formato PDF, 14,4 MB]. Prepared for the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). "Technology is transforming transportation. The ability to conveniently request, track, and pay for trips via mobile devices is changing the way people get around and interact with cities. This report examines the relationship of public transportation to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. This research shows that the more people use shared modes, the more likely they are to use public transit, own fewer cars, and spend less on transportation overall."

Bruno Aguiar, Rosário Macário (Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa), The need for an Elderly centred mobility policy. Paper presented at the World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. Transportation Research Procedia (2017) 15 p. [formato PDF, 446 kB]. Open Access. "This paper reflects the ageing process as a normal and universal transformation, their physical and cognitive limitations when faced with a mobility system that is not adapted to the reality of the elders and which facts must be considered in a possible restructuring of the system in order to promote the quality of life of the elderly, access to goods, opportunities and social groups providing them with the necessary empowerment to independently fulfil their needs. Improve mobility is not just a set-directive, but rather a process of multidisciplinary collaboration and coordination with other urban policies and projects, such as health, infrastructure and land use, so that it serves the objectives and needs of the population, promote security for all citizens, reflect community values, and support the activities already under development and foster community sustainability. The objectives described, will have a positive impact on economic vitality, stimulates the development of land use, and promotes a healthier lifestyle and improved interconnectivity between activities. For an approach to these issues, we need to get a better understanding about the individual needs on the public space, the transportation system in social and political context. To satisfy elderly mobility a strategy is needed covering political, educational initiatives towards empowered mobility for elderly people."

Transport & Environment, Europe keeps burning more palm oil in its diesel cars and trucks. (Briefing). Transport & Environment, Brussels, November 2016, 4 p. [formato PDF, 254 kB]. "The use of palm oil for biodiesel has been increasing in the EU; 3.35 million tonnes of it was used in 2015. Currently 46% of palm oil imported to the EU is used for biodiesel, requiring around 1 million hectares of tropical land. The three largest producers of palm oil biodiesel are Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, accounting for 80% of production. Italy and Spain are also large users, while the Netherlands exports most of its palm biodiesel. The three countries consume 38% of what they produce, while the remaining 62% is used in the rest of the EU member states - thus making palm oil use a European issue. Despite earlier promises by the European Commission to phase out food-based biofuels, a recently leaked draft proposal on renewable energy proposes to have them account for a maximum 3.8% of Europe's transport fuel; only 1.1 percentage points down from the current 4.9% level. The Commission needs to stick to its promise and propose a phase-out of palm oil and other vegetable biodiesel by 2025, and land-based ethanol by 2030. This gives enough time for the industry to recover investments made and transition to production of second-generation biofuels."

European Environment Agency, Air quality in Europe - 2016 report. EEA report n. 28/2016. EEA, Copenhagen, 2016, 88 p. [formato PDF, 11,4 MB]. "This report presents an updated overview and analysis of air quality in Europe. It is focused in the state in 2015 and the development from 2004 to 2015. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems is also given."

Johan Wahlström, Isaac Skog, Peter Händel (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), Smartphone-based Vehicle Telematics - A Ten-Year Anniversary. Paper/preprint, 2016, 23 p. [formato PDF, 4,0 MB]. "Just like it has irrevocably reshaped social life, the fast growth of smartphone ownership is now beginning to revolutionize the driving experience and change how we think about automotive insurance, vehicle safety systems, and traffic research. This paper summarizes the first ten years of research in smartphone-based vehicle telematics, with a focus on user-friendly implementations and the challenges that arise due to the mobility of the smartphone. Notable academic and industrial projects are reviewed, and system aspects related to sensors, energy consumption, cloud computing, vehicular ad hoc networks, and human-machine interfaces are examined. Moreover, we highlight the differences between traditional and smartphonebased automotive navigation, and survey the state-of-the-art in smartphone-based transportation mode classification, driver classification, and road condition monitoring. Future advances are expected to be driven by improvements in sensor technology, evidence of the societal benefits of current implementations, and the establishment of industry standards for sensor fusion and driver assessment."

Barry Brown, Moira McGregor, Mareike Glöss, Airi Lampinen, On-Demand Taxi Driving: Labour Conditions, Surveillance, and Exclusion. Internet, Politics, and Policy (IPP) Conference, Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, 22-23 September 2016, 11 p. [formato PDF, 411 kB]. "Our empirical findings focus on the everyday experiences of both traditional taxi driver and Uber driver. From our interviews, we document how the Uber app changes work practices and effectively produces a new form of taxi driving. For Uber drivers, the work has become more flexible but also more demanding: the functions of the Uber app replaces the traditional work of hunting for fares and navigation, while introducing increasing demands of emotional labour, body labour, and temporal labour (Raval and Dourish, 2016). Further, the new economic opportunities presented by lowering barriers to entry are nevertheless tempered by additional financial risks. In an effort to look beyond the changing everyday practices, we conclude the paper with a discussion of labour conditions, surveillance, and exclusion: On-demand services have implications beyond the experiences of those directly involved, and as such, they are not solely a matter of private consumption."

Marco Dozza, Giulio Francesco Bianchi Piccinini, Julia Werneke (Chalmers University of Technology), Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior. Transportation Research Part F 41 (2016) 217-226 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "In Europe, the use of electric bicycles is rapidly increasing. This trend raises important safety concerns: Is their use compatible with existing infrastructure and regulations? Do they present novel safety issues? How do they impact other traffic? This study sought to address these concerns, using instrumented electric bicycles to monitor e-cyclists' behavior in a naturalistic fashion. Data was collected from 12 bicyclists, each of whom rode an instrumented bicycle for two weeks. In total, 1500 km worth of data were collected, including 88 critical events (crashes and near-crashes). Analysis of these critical events identified pedestrians, light vehicles and other bicycles as main threats to a safe ride. Other factors also contributed to crash causation, such as being in proximity to a crossing or encountering a vehicle parked in the bicycle lane. A comparison between electric and traditional bicycles was enabled by the availability of data from a previous study a year earlier, which collected naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicycles using the same instrumentation as in this study. Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this study also suggest that countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. Finally, increasing electric bicycle conspicuity appears to be the easiest, most obvious way to increase their safety."

ADEME, Développement du covoiturage régulier de courte et moyenne distance. Guide méthodologique. ADEME, Angers, Septembre 2016, 114 p. [formato PDF, 6,4 MB]. "Dans de nombreux environnements, et en particulier dans les secteurs ruraux et périurbains où la densité est souvent trop faible pour mettre en place une offre de transports collectifs performante, le covoiturage apparaît comme une alternative efficace à l'autosolisme et une importante source d'économie pour les ménages. Ce guide constitue une base de référence pour les collectivités territoriales et les entreprises souhaitant développer la pratique du covoiturage sur leur territoire ou entre salariés. Pratique et concret, il offre de nombreux témoignages d'entreprises, de collectivités, d'opérateurs et de techniciens. Il délivre des résultats d'étude permettant de mieux comprendre les "usages" du covoiturage, les coûts, les leviers d'une politique de développement de ce nouveau mode de déplacement."

Sinead Flavin, Siobhan Hamilton (National Transport Authority), Using Physical Activity Challenges to Increase Sustainable Commuting. Proceedings of the ITRN2016, 1st-2nd September 2016, Grangegorman, 8 p. [formato PDF, 154 kB]. "Smarter Travel Workplaces and Smarter Travel Campus are voluntary programmes to promote more sustainable and active travel, as part of a travel plan. Over 120 of the largest employers in the state are engaged in the programme. This includes all of the Irish universities and Institutes of Technology, and a mix of public and private employers comprising hospitals, local authorities, Irish and multi-national enterprises. Partners of the programme sign a Charter at the most senior level within the organisation committing to undertaking baseline/ monitoring travel surveys, implementing actions topromote more sustainable travel, and allocating personnel and financial resources to their plan. The quantum of investment is not stated, as this will depend on the organisation's available resources, and the problem they are looking to solve. While some Partners come to the programme through the planning process, more and more employers are looking at sustainable travel as a way to help them achieve employee wellbeing targets - including stress management, team building, and increasing physical activity. One of the key tools of engagement of the STW/STC programme is the Partner Challenges - which are designed as fun events to engage employees in walking and cycling promotions within their workplaces. The Challenges draw on good practice in the areas of health promotion, community based social marketing and travel planning. This presentation will summarise: the impact of the Pedometer Challenge for workplaces in terms of walking for leisure and on the commute. Year on year the challenge has increased the number of people walking on the commute, and more importantly, the number of drivers switching from car to 'on foot' for the commute; the programme cycling challenges - which again converted other mode users to cycling on the commute, but which has recently evolved from a 'behaviour trial' approach to partaking in the European Cycling Challenge. This event will take place in May 2016 - feedback from the event will be presented".

Eileen O'Connell, Graham Parkhurst, Ian Shergold, The EVIDENCE: the Economic Benefits of Sustainable Mobility. Proceedings of the ITRN2016, 1st-2nd September 2016, Grangegorman, 12 p. [formato PDF, 462 kB]. "The Evidence project (www.evidence-project.eu) has reviewed 'evidence' on sustainable transport initiatives, to help politicians and transport practitioners understand the economic benefits that can be achieved from expenditure on sustainable transport. This knowledge will support greater integration of sustainable transport measures into urban mobility plans. The project was conceived in the context of the EU's obligations to reduce climate change gas emissions by 2050, which requires member states to move beyond mobility policies that emphasise car use. However, attempts to pursue carbon reductions in transport are often seen to conflict with the goals of economic development, and the view that ever-more (car- based) mobility is needed to support economic growth. The EVIDENCE team looked at how transport funding is allocated; often it is targeted at projects aimed at increasing road capacity which can then be 'appraised' to demonstrate a return on investment. This project appraisal usually involves some form of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) which is particularly useful for infrastructure projects but the EVIDENCE Project found it has drawbacks for smaller interventions, e.g., extensive data requirements, the dominance of the value of 'travel time', the difficulty of monetising some elements and the exclusion of wider socio-economic effects. The project team analysed a variety of sustainable urban mobility interventions (SUMI) which had been evaluated using different techniques (including Cost Benefit Analysis and Multi Criteria Analysis -MCA) and can now demonstrate the economic benefits of these initiatives. In total, 350 reports and case studies from around the world were studied covering 22 individual measures under seven themes as follows: Clean vehicles and fuels; Urban freight; Demand management strategies; Mobility Management; Collective passenger transport; Transport Telematics; Less car dependent mobility options. The economic benefits of the measures were examined according to strength and timescale; including factors such as increased economic activity and retail revenues, increased patronage and footfall, fuel savings, efficiency gains, savings on direct expenditure, improvements in air quality (health outcomes) and reductions in financial sanctions and casualties. There was strong evidence of benefit for six measure types, which means that local administrations can be confident in allocating resources and gaining economic benefits with these interventions. The review also identified gaps and weaknesses where there was limited evidence available or it was of poor quality; the project has identified steps to improve the evaluation of the economic benefits of SUMI, especially to widen the set of criteria currently used in CBA to encompass indirect effects on health, absenteeism, labour turnover, etc. and the wider evidence base of property values, and CO 2 performance. This paper will go on to look in-depth at two illustrative themes, Demand Management, and Collective Passenger Transport, showcasing some of the most successful measures and how they can best be implemented."

Harry Barber, Tony Arnold, Alex Blackett & Dick van den Dool, Bicycle Parking Facilities: Guidelines for Design and Installation. Research Report AP-R527-16. Austroads, Sydney, October 2016, 143 p. [formato PDF, 6,8 MB]. [Free download, free registration needed]. "This report provides information to assists in the design and installation of bicycle parking and end-of-trip facilities that are fit for purpose. The report provides recommendations, principles and examples of best-practice facility design. It also highlights common mistakes and suggests ways to improve flawed designs. The report expands on and complements information that is provided in the Australian Bicycle Parking Standard AS2980.3 and in the Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 11: Parking."

Matthew RJ Baldock, James P Thompson, Jeffrey Dutschke, Craig N Kloeden, VL Lindsay, JE Woolley, Older Road Users: Emerging Trends. Research Report AP-R530-16. Austroads, Sydney, October 2016, 142 p. [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. [Free download, free registration needed]. "This report identifies trends in crash involvement amongst older road users (aged 75+). The project incorporated a literature review; analysis of 10 years of crash data from every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand; analysis of three years of detailed hospital injury data for older road users in South Australia; analysis of the contributing factors in older road user crashes examined using the Centre for Automotive Safety Research in-depth investigation method; consultations with representatives of all jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand; and a summary of relevant sections of road safety strategies in a sample of international jurisdictions. The report provides policy recommendations and describes crash countermeasures relevant to older road users."

Philipp Späth, Harald Rohracher, Alanus von Radecki, Incumbent Actors as Niche Agents: The German Car Industry and the Taming of the "Stuttgart E-Mobility Region". Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 252 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "The system of mobility currently faces severe challenges. Particularly in cities, strategic interventions are made to support a transition towards sustainable mobility. Incumbent actors from the car industry are often invited to play a key role in such initiatives. The Stuttgart region is supported with public money to become a model region of sustainable mobility because it is base to key actors of the German car industry. This paper examines the locus of agency in such a "transition arena". How do key actors frame the challenge of sustainable mobility? What role is attributed to public policy at various governance levels and to the "local" industry, respectively? In the case of the Stuttgart region, we find a high ability of key industry actors to reframe transition initiatives for sustainable mobility and align public policy with their interests-particularly in local, i.e., place-bound contexts. This underlines the need for transition studies to pay more attention to the agency of incumbent actors and their capacity to absorb sustainable alternatives without changing dominant industry structures."

Parigi e oltre. Gli impegni nazionali sul cambiamento climatico al 2030. ENEA, Roma, ottobre 2016, 224 p. [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. "Questo rapporto racconta gli impegni nazionali sul cambiamento climatico al 2030. Il volume è nato dalla collaborazione tra Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare, ENEA, ed ISPRA. Il valore di questa pubblicazione sta nell'aver messo insieme analisi e proposte che, grazie ad un approccio globale non trascurano alcun aspetto delle innumerevoli variabili che entrano in gioco nella predisposizione di un programma di un'"Italia sostenibile" realmente credibile.2

Björn Hildebrandt, Gerrit Remané, Benjamin Brauer, Lutz M. Kolbe (University of Göttingen), Facilitating e-mobility through digital technologies - development and evaluation of a dynamic battery-leasing business model. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 Proceedings. Paper 217. 14 p. [formato PDF, 574 kB]. "The electric mobility sector - an important pillar for counteracting climate change - is facing a sluggish market development. In this paper, we present a new dynamic battery-leasing business model that can play a key role in promoting the market introduction of electric mobility. Unlike medium- to long-term approaches for creating additional value from electric vehicles (e.g., demand response or vehicle-to-grid), the business model we propose can be applied in the short run as all necessary prerequisites are already fulfilled. To demonstrate, we proceed in two major steps. First, we design the digital technology-enabled business model that breaks with current business logics by actively involving users in the value generation process. The concept contributes to reducing battery degradation effects and thus increases the residual value of the batteries. Second, we test the underlying hypothesis of our business model - the user's willingness to follow a certain charging guideline in order to extend battery lifetime - using a comprehensive conjoint analysis. Thus, our research demonstrates how information systems can be used to encourage green choices by consumers."

Fausto Galli, Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera, Marianna Marra, Does high speed railway impact airport efficiency? The Italian case. 57th Annual Conference of the Italian Economic Association, Milan, 20-22 October 2016, 32 p. [formato PDF, 532 kB]. "This paper investigates the impact of the development during the period 2003-2014 of High-Speed Railway (HSR) infrastru0cture on the efficiency of the overall airport system in Italy. The Italian case was selected for the peculiar characteristics of its travel infrastructure system. We employ a two stage estimation. Following Simar and Wilson (2007), in the first stage we implement data envelopment analysis (DEA) to obtain airport efficiency scores, which, in the second stage, are regressed with the variables of interest. We find evidence of a positive impact of HSR on airport efficiency, with airports located in the North of Italy and close to HSR performing better, while airports with no HSR are find to be inefficient. To support our argument, we provide robustness checks for the presence of international flights and low cost companies. The results of this study should help policy decisions about future investments to improve the efficiency of regional travel systems."

Mateus Porto Schettino, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in Spain. Assessment of walking promotion and its impact in the quality of public space. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 151-168 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 814 kB]. "In recent years, several Spanish cities have taken action against the growth of individual motorized displacements, promoting active and socially equitable modes of transportation. They are contributing to a new mobility's culture in which walking should have a leading role. However, this change depends on complex socio-economic issues and requires planning. For that, according to European guidelines, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) is the suitable instrument to address this challenge. The instrument arises in Spain in the middle of the last decade and nowadays the majority of mediums cities have a SUMP. Nevertheless, we still do not know much about its effectiveness, especially about its impact over pedestrians. Therefore, with the aim to contribute to the knowledge about the SUMP experience in Spain, a doctoral thesis is being prepared for the Urban Planning Department at the Polytechnic University of Madrid. The study characterizes the planning instrument in a mobility policies panorama and analyses in detail its relation with urban features and planning. The adoption of a mobility plan represents a political commitment, but its implementation is not always successful, as the instrument has little legal implications in Spain. That is why its coordination with urban plans is so important. There is a hypothesis that SUMPs address mainly traffic and public transport, compared with little attention to pedestrian and cycling promotion or the restriction of private cars use. The analysis' methodologies and actions proposed still have traditional traffic and essentially infrastructural approach, with not enough attention to urban aspects, other functions of public space beyond circulation or the social aspects related to the demand for mobility. Otherwise, the research revealed some good practices that should be shared and widespread between those (technicians, students, politicians and activists) interested in sustainable mobility with walking and cycling promotion and improvement of urban space quality."

Fergus Browne, David Jordan, Measuring the Pedestrian Experience in Dublin: The Role of Urban Design Theory in Understanding and Redesigning Public Space in Cities. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 9-20 (23 p.) [formato docx, 3,2 MB]. "This paper examines the pedestrian experience as a frequently overlooked factor in city planning and design and demonstrates how urban theories can be utilised to measure, understand and promote better quality and more responsive public spaces. Too often urban design theories remain in the realm of academic discourse and although contributing implicitly to the formulation of policy, are rarely explicitly invoked. By distilling and applying these theories, it has been illustrated that such an approach enables the complexities of the city to be represented and understood from the perspective of the pedestrian. This paper is divided into two distinctive areas: theory and practice. In discussing theory, the bifurcation of urban design discourse into two distinct strands of the psychological and physical cities, provided an enhanced awareness and appreciation of the plethora of urbanism fields to which human perception and experience relates. By reflecting on a number of urban design-based studies, as previously conducted by the authors in Dublin, a case is made that such an alternative approach lends a greater understanding of cognitive perceptions to urban environments. Individually, they were designed to give specific information required as part of evaluating an urban space, but collectively the studies provided a series of vital buildable layers offering an insight into how a person experiences and interacts with a city on a daily basis and providing an indicator of the physical catalysts which impact on this relationship. The research argues that a greater link between pedestrian experience and the design of the public realm needs to occur and will demonstrate how this connection is frequently missing, leading to the production of non-responsive public space which fails to engage the pedestrian user. This paper aims to deliver a universal lesson that successful urban spaces are the ones which are the most responsive to the needs of the pedestrian. Indeed the authors believe that only through the adoption of a pedestrian-centred approach to designing and managing the public realm will sustainable mobility be fully realised in European cities."

Graziano Di Gregorio, Simona Palmieri, Cycling in a Megacity. The Case of London. Published in: Urban Planning, Public Space and Mobility, Young Planners Workshop 2016, ECTP-CEU, Brussels, 2016, 129-150 (24 p.) [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "Today, cities around the world are pushing forward their political agenda for more urban cycling as an active mode of transportation. Cycling has been increasingly promoted as an active mode of transportation and Governments at every level have been implementing policies to increase cycle levels within urban centres, to improve the overall sustainability of the transportation system and the liveability of our cities. This paper adopts a wider focus and a deeper understanding of the role of cycling in megacities along with the opportunities and challenges of promoting cycle mobilities in such large urban areas. London is used as an empirical case study in order to investigate how this megacity has implemented its own 'cycling revolution'. Current and past policies are analysed and supported by examples-of completed and ongoing projects within the city-in order to illustrate how the city is addressing its long-term strategy. The main conclusions drawn from this paper can be delineated in three main factors as key elements in promoting cycling in a megacity."

European Environment Agency, EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. EEA report n. 21/2016. EEA, Copenhagen, 2016, 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. Contains Chapter 1: Guidebook introduction. For the following chapters, please see separate files available online: www.eea.europa.eu/emep-eea-guidebook " The Guidebook remains the most recognised set of emission inventory estimation methods used in air pollution studies in Europe and the wider UNECE geographical area. Importantly, it also continues to evolve over time, incorporating new information and science relevant for the purposes of air pollutant emission inventory compilation. The 2016 update of the Guidebook's set of methodologies will help ensure comparable and consistent emissions data are reported by countries, in turn helping inform policymakers, the scientific community and the broader public."

Gerrit Remane, Robert C. Nickerson, Andre Hanelt, Jan F. Tesch, Lutz M. Kolbe, A Taxonomy of Carsharing Business Models. Completed Research Paper. 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2016), Dublin, December 11-14, 2016, 19 p. [formato PDF, 643 kB]. "Carsharing clubs that grant members temporary access to vehicles have existed for more than half a century. Only recently, however, have advances in digital technologies such as the mobile Internet begun to foster new carsharing business models, thereby increasing the attractiveness of carsharing for both operators and users. Thus far, these new business models have typically been classified as roundtrip, point-to-point, nonprofit/cooperative, or P2P carsharing. However, not all operators fit neatly into these rather broad groups. Moreover, significant differences exist among the business models of operators within the same group. Therefore, we complement these archetypes by developing a taxonomy of carsharing business models. This classification scheme translates the aforementioned technological advances into the creation of economic value and can be used for a more accurate analysis of existing operators as well as the systematic discovery of new business models."

Philippe Lebeau, Towards the electrification of city logistics?. Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Business Economics / Doctor in Toegepaste Economische Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, 21 March 2016, 193 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "City logistics is facing an important challenge. It is one of the most polluting segments of the transport sector but policy makers want it to become one of the cleanest in the future. The European Commission, for example, has set the goal of reaching CO 2 free city logistics by 2030. Battery electric vehicles represent in that context a potential solution. They can indeed reduce CO 2 emissions, especially if electricity is generated from renewables. Moreover, they can improve air quality and reduce noise generated by traffic in cities. However their adoption by freight transport operators remains limited despite the recent development of electric vans and trucks on the market. The objective of this thesis is therefore to investigate the feasibility of introducing battery electric vehicles in city logistics. The PhD is structured around three main research questions that address (1) the potential adoption of battery electric vehicles in city logistics, (2) the strategies to reduce or solve their economic and operational constraints and (3) the stakeholders' support regarding a shift from conventional to battery electric vehicles. By tackling these three aspects, the thesis demon- strates that an electrification of city logistics is possible. The different stakeholders of city lo- gistics are indeed found to support that transition. But the adoption of battery electric vehicles remains limited because of their economic and operational constraints. The thesis identifies therefore the different conditions where battery electric vehicles can become profitable for freight transport operators. It recommends also a range of policies that can further stimulate the adoption of battery electric vehicles."

Dieselgate: Who? What? How?. Transport & Environment, Brussels, September 2016, 30 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. ""This report, released on the first anniversary of the Dieselgate scandal, exposes the shocking number of dirty diesel cars on the EU's roads and the feeble regulation of cars by national authorities that have focused on protecting their own commercial interests or those of domestic carmakers. In the US, following the disclosure that VW had cheated emissions tests, justice has been swiftly and effectively delivered. This is in stark contrast to Europe where VW claims it has not acted illegally, no penalties have been levied and no compensation has been provided to customers. But the failure to penalize VW in Europe is the tip of the Dieselgate iceberg with an estimated 29 million grossly polluting modern diesel cars now in use, a number that is still growing. Over four in five cars that meet the Euro 5 standard for NOx in the laboratory (180g/1000km), and were sold between 2010-14, actually produce more than three times this level when driven on the road. Two-thirds of Euro 6 cars (most on sale since 2015) still produce more than three times the 80g/1000km limit when driven on the road. 69% of the dirty diesel cars were sold in France, Germany, Italy and the UK. These member states also approved most of the polluting diesel cars for sale."

Urban design, transport, and health. Online/Series. The Lancet 2016 (42 p.) [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30068-X [free registration needed]. Part 1: City planning and population health: a global challenge; Part 2: Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities; Part 3: Use of science to guide city planning policy and practice: how to achieve healthy and sustainable future cities. "Worldwide, the majority of people already live in cities and by 2050, it is estimated that 75% of 10 billion people have cities as an important social determinant of health. Air pollution, physical inactivity, noise, social isolation, unhealthy diets, and exposure to crime play a very important part in the non-communicable disease burden. This 3-part Series explores how integrated multisector city planning, including urban design and transport planning, can be used as an important and currently underused force for health and wellbeing within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals in both high-income countries and low-income and middle-income countries."

Seoin Baek, Heetae Kim and Hyun Joon Chang (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea. Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 964 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 861 kB]. Open Access. "For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle) is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed."

Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen, The Impacts of Car2go on Vehicle Ownership, Modal Shift, Vehicle Miles Traveled, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Analysis of Five North American Cities. Working Paper. Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, July 2016, 26 p. [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "Carsharing is the shared use of a vehicle fleet by members for tripmaking on a per trip basis. There are four forms of carsharing in North America today: 1) roundtrip, 2) one-way, 3) peer-to-peer, and 4) fractional. In roundtrip carsharing, members begin and end a trip at the same vehicle location and typically pay for use by the hour, mile, or both. One-way carsharing enables members, who pay by the minute, to begin and end a trip at different locations - either throughout a free floating zone or station- based model with designated parking locations. Peer-to-peer carsharing functions much like roundtrip carsharing; however, the vehicle fleet is typically owned/leased by private individuals and facilitated by a third-party operator. Finally, the fractional ownership model enables users to co-own a vehicle and share its costs and use. Roundtrip carsharing has been operating in North America for over 20 years. In July 2015, there were 39 roundtrip carsharing operators in North America with a total membership of 1,005,893 and a collective fleet of 18,582 vehicles. In 2010, one-way carsharing launched in North America in Austin, Texas with the car2go service. As of July 2015, there were three one-way operators in North America, serving 511,000 members with a collective fleet of 6,870 vehicles (Shaheen and Cohen, 2016, forthcoming). Car2go is currently the largest carsharing operator in the world, with a presence in nine countries and nearly 30 cities. It operates as a one-way instant access carsharing system within a pre-defined urban zone. Members can find an unoccupied parked vehicle, access it immediately, and use it to meet their local travel needs. As long as the vehicle is parked within the operating zone, users only pay for the time that they drive. As a one-way system, car2go provides flexibility to the user. There are questions as to whether one-way carsharing increases overall vehicle miles traveled (VMT), by facilitating easier one- way travel (and automotive commuting) within urban environments. The results of this study suggest that access to ubiquitous shared automobiles allows some residents to get rid of a car or avoid acquiring one altogether. These actions taken by a minority of members have VMT-reducing effects that are estimated to exceed the additional driving that does take place within car2go vehicles. This study surveyed car2go members in five cities to determine the impacts on vehicle ownership, modal shift, VMT, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The cities surveyed were Calgary, San Diego, Seattle, Vancouver, and Washington, D.C. We asked questions that required respondents to attribute specific changes in their life as caused by the presence of and access to car2go. We also used vehicle activity data to evaluate the total driving that car2go vehicles travel in a city during a year, as well as a profile of the frequency of use by the broader car2go population."

Climate Action Tracker, The road ahead: How do we move to cleaner car fleets? (CAT Decarbonisation Series). August 26, 2016, 7 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "Our analysis brings insights into the extent of change that is necessary in the transport sector to achieve decarbonisation. While a number of major emitting countries have set ambitious fuel economy and/or emission standards that can substantially reduce emissions (especially the EU and USA), 2°C trajectories can only be reached by a massive scale-up of EVs, to around 50% by 2050. More action is needed to ensure compatibility with the 1.5°C limit agreed upon in Paris, especially considering the current practices in conscious misreporting of emission standards by car manufacturers. Getting anywhere close to a 1.5°C compatible pathway would thus require changes on a different scale, with sales of zero-emission vehicles reaching 100% of new sales in the next two decades, combined with a completely decarbonised power sector. Some countries have made pledges in this direction, but more sustained action is needed on a global scale. Lastly, increasing EV sales is no silver bullet for the entire transport sector. For example, in heavy freight transport over long distances, EVs currently offer no feasible alternative to standard trucks, not to mention aviation, maritime transport, and train travel, which is still often powered by diesel fuel. Here, the focus on increasing fuel efficiency and emission standards is all the more important in the near term, although zero-emission technologies are still required sector-wide in the long-term."

Centro Studi Fondazione Magna Carta, Mobilità sostenibile in ambito urbano. Policy Paper in preparazione della tavola rotonda "La Mobilità elettrica e il futuro dell'Italia" martedì 27 Settembre 2016. Fondazione Magna Carta, Roma, settembre 2016, 31 p. [formato PDF, 757 kB]. "La mobilità elettrica può garantire sostanziali benefici ambientali ed energetici rispetto alle altre tecnologie nel settore dei trasporti, e può costituire nel medio periodo un'importante leva per il conseguimento degli obiettivi che l'Italia intende darsi attraverso la sottoscrizione degli accordi di Parigi sul cambiamento climatico (COP21), nonché per essere pienamente allineata alla direttiva europea "Alternative Fuel" (direttiva 2014/94/UE). Un'efficace politica di sviluppo in tale ambito ha bisogno di programmazione oltre che di progetti dimostrativi, e le amministrazioni pubbliche, centrali e locali, hanno un ruolo chiave nella diffusione di politiche di mobilità sostenibile in ambito urbano e per il successo delle stesse. Il seguente documento è rivolto a tutti gli stakeholder, pubblici e privati, coinvolti a livello normativo ed industriale in tale argomento e vuole rappresentare uno spunto "operativo" per definire una efficace politica per la mobilità urbana sostenibile, cercando di contribuire in modo importante alla qualità della vita, della salute, allo sviluppo economico ed urbano, alla competitività, all'efficienza energetica."

Edo Ronchi, Andrea Barbabella, Raimondo Orsini e Toni Federico, La svolta dopo l'accordo di Parigi. Italy Climate Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, aprile 2016, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Dopo l'Accordo di Parigi, alla luce degli impegni più sfidanti sottoscritti anche dall'Italia e delle recenti difficoltà e rallentamenti, è necessario e urgente varare una nuova Strategia energetica nazionale (SEN). L'obiettivo per le emissioni di gas serra al 2030 potrebbe essere collocato in una posizione intermedia, fra i 1,5 °C e 2 °C, con una riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra del 50% rispetto al 1990. Per raggiungere questo risultato, gli impieghi finali di energia dovrebbero scendere dagli attuali 115 Mtep circa ai 90 Mtep nel 2030, contando su un contributo rilevate delle politiche di efficienza energetica. Rispetto allo scenario tendenziale al 2030 si tratterebbe di una riduzione dei consumi di circa il 40%. Parallelamente, nei prossimi 15 anni il contributo delle fonti rinnovabili sul consumo energetico finale dovrebbe raddioppiare, passando da 17,3% a 35%, e nel solo comparto elettrico, le rinnovabili dovrebbero soddisfare almeno 2/3 della domanda di elettricità: ciò significherebbe 1 Mtep di energia complessiva e 8 TWh di produzione elettrica in più ogni anno, in linea con le performance migliori degli ultimi quindici anni. La nuova SEN al 2030, per raggiungere i nuovi e più impegnativi target necessari per attuare l'Accordo di Parigi, dovrebbe indicare anche le politiche e le misure da adottare."

Alessandro Fantechi (a cura di), L'Alta Velocità e il "nodo" di Firenze: domande e risposte sulle nuove ipotesi. Associazione per gli studi sulla Mobilità ed i Trasporti in Toscana, Firenze, 22 agosto 2016, 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. " All'inizio di quest'estate importanti figure istituzionali hanno stimolato un vivace dibattito sui media riportando la notizia di un possibile ripensamento di Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane rispetto al progetto già in via di realizzazione di sotto attraversamento ferroviario della città di Firenze. La ristrutturazione del traffico ferroviario con la realizzazione del passante sotterraneo dei treni ad alta velocità e la stazione progettata da Foster & Arup aveva costituito la stella polare dell'idea di riorganizzazione della mobilità metropolitana per oltre un ventennio. La riunione del 21 luglio a cui hanno partecipato il Comune di Firenze, la Regione Toscana, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane ed altri importanti enti ha avuto un esito interlocutorio e si attende da Ferrovie per settembre la presentazione di un nuovo piano guida. Per far chiarezza in un momento in cui sembra che i fraintendimenti e le interpretazioni errate possano prender piede AMT offre un contributo tecnico."

Daniel Veryard (International Transport Forum), Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Transport: Roundtable Summary and Conclusions. (Discussion Paper 2016-06). OECD/ITF, Paris, April 2016, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Socio-economic cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a powerful framework that can be very useful to governments making investment decisions. However the standard application of transport CBA has room for improvement. This paper describes efforts to improve the quality of transport CBA and its applicability to decision making. Three areas are addressed in detail: strategies for making the most of CBA, valuing and forecasting reliability benefits, and capturing wider economic impacts. The report is based on the papers and discussions at a Roundtable meeting of 30 experts held in Paris in November 2015. Roundtable participants took the view that a multi-faceted approach is needed to address the shortfalls; CBA theory and practice need to be gradually expanded to incorporate more impacts in the rigorous valuation and forecasting framework; and CBA results need to be more effectively linked to other criteria in the broader decision-making framework, including by bringing in a more diverse evidence base."

Dominique Gillis, Ivana Semanjski, Dirk Lauwers (Ghent University), How to Monitor Sustainable Mobility in Cities? Literature Review in the Frame of Creating a Set of Sustainable Mobility Indicators. Sustainability 2016, 8(1), 29 (30 p.) [formato PDF, 842 kB]. Open Access. "The role of sustainable mobility and its impact on society and the environment is evident and recognized worldwide. Nevertheless, although there is a growing number of measures and projects that deal with sustainable mobility issues, it is not so easy to compare their results and, so far, there is no globally applicable set of tools and indicators that ensure holistic evaluation and facilitate replicability of the best practices. In this paper, based on the extensive literature review, we give a systematic overview of relevant and scientifically sound indicators that cover different aspects of sustainable mobility that are applicable in different social and economic contexts around the world. Overall, 22 sustainable mobility indicators have been selected and an overview of the applied measures described across the literature review has been presented."

Sofie Erlandsson, Olivia Hägglöf, Electric Bicycles in Bike-Share Systems. An Investigation of the Potential for Electric Bicycles in Gothenburg's Bike-Share System Styr & Ställ. Master's Thesis in the Master's Programme Infrastructure and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2016, 107 p. [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. "Gothenburg is growing geographically as well as population-wise and experiences a densification. Solutions for sustainable transportation are needed, and a way to promote this is by having a bike-share system (BSS). Today Gothenburg has a BSS with conventional bicycles, Styr & Ställ, located in the city centre. Due to the growing city the system might need to develop and expand. This thesis investigates the potential of e-bikes in Styr & Ställ and the possibilities to expand the system due to e-bikes. This both include an extensive literature review on BSS, interviews and case studies with European cities with electric BSS, and analysis of where to develop the system geographically. It is found that there are some topographic limitations in the current system in Gothenburg, which can be approached by e-bikes. It is also possible to go further with an e-bike and therefore include more areas in the system. With e-bikes more and other groups of users can be reached, for instance older people, physically limited people, or people in context that do not want to arrive sweaty. Analyses were done in order to find suitable areas for an expanded BSS. The expansion areas that were found for the system are mainly the sub-districts Majorna, Masthugget, Frölunda Torg, Krokslätt, Lunden Olskroken, Gamlestaden, Lindholmen and Rambergsstaden. This is an overall radial expansion except from a corridor towards Frölunda Torg and Gamlestaden. Furthermore, stations based on destinations of interests such as public transport nodes, parks, squares, universities, and working places were suggested and located. The conclusion is that there is a potential for electric bicycles in Styr & Ställ and that the system should be combined with both conventional and electric bicycles, in order to approach a broader user group. The system is also recommended to expand to the areas mentioned above. People that already use the BSS will be able to continue to use it in the same way, and people that prefer an e-bike in order to cycle, will them too have a socially, economic, and environmentally sustainable transport alternative that also improves the public health."

Alison Conway, Nathan Tavernier, Victor Leal-Tavares, Niloofar Gharamani, Lisa Chauvet, Medwin Chiu, and Xue Bing Yeap, Freight in a Bicycle-Friendly City: Exploratory Analysis with New York City Open Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2547 (2016) 91-101 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "This project employs a variety of open data sets to examine how New York City's growing bicycle infrastructure has had an impact on travel and parking conditions for commercial vehicles (CVs), and to investigate the interactions that occur between CVs and bicycles on multimodal urban streets. The project was conducted in three stages. First, a spatial analysis of the city's dedicated bicycle and local truck routes was performed to quantify the extent of network overlap and changes that have occurred since 2000. Next, a spatial and statistical analysis of bicycle collisions extracted from the New York Police Department's motor vehicle collision database was conducted to explore infrastructure and demand characteristics indicative of freight-bicycle conflicts. Finally, CV-bicycle lane parking violations were extracted from a New York City Department of Finance's parking violation database to examine parking challenges in bicycle-friendly areas; field data were also collection in three critical locations. The project identified several challenges for CV operations. Potential future research efforts to address emerging questions requiring further investigation are also discussed."

Alexander Sandau, Jorge Marx Gómez, Daniel Stamer, Benjamin Wagner vom Berg, Jantje Halberstadt, Model of mobility demands for future short distance public transport systems. CONF-IRM 2016 Proceedings. Paper 32. 14 p. [formato PDF, 883 kB]. "Short distance public transport faces huge challenges, although it is very important within a sustainable transport system to reduce traffic emissions. Revenues and subsidization are decreasing and especially in rural regions the offer is constantly diminishing. New approaches for public transport systems are strongly needed to avoid traffic infarcts in urban and rural areas to grant a basic offer of mobility services for everyone. In the proposed work a demand centered approach of dynamic public transport planning is introduced which relies on regional traffic data. The approach is based on a demand model which is represented as a dynamic undirected attributed graph. The demands are logged through traffic sensors and sustainability focused traveler information systems."

Xiaoxia Wang, Zhanqiang Li, Yanbo Cui (Beijing Jiaotong University), Urban Logistics under the Internet. WHICEB 2016 Proceedings. Paper 46. 9 p. [formato PDF, 318 kB]. "With the promotion of "Internet + efficient logistics" and refer Tomorrow's Elastic Mobility Adaptive(TEAM), this paper extends the framework of urban logistics based on the Internet and cloud computing environment, specifies the challenges and transitions experienced by the commodity market, transport market, infrastructure market, then discusses several key technologies of IT application in urban freight transportation including dynamic regulation of the transport market for administrator, "last mile" solutions, coding system and green vehicles. Now IT building blocks of digitally free open source software not only provide the IT infrastructure but also facilitate "Share more - Develop less" for mass innovation convenience of cities. It no doubts that an efficient, environmentally friendly and intelligent urban freight system will come true in the near future."

Elliot Martin, Adam Cohen, Jan L. Botha, Susan Shaheen, Bikesharing and Bicycle Safety. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, March 2016, 94 p. [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. "The growth of bikesharing in the United States has had a transformative impact on urban transportation. Major cities have established large bikesharing systems, including Boston, Chicago, Denver, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, New York City, Salt Lake City, the San Francisco Bay Area, Seattle, Washington DC, and others. These systems began operating as early as 2010, and no fatalities have occurred within the US as of this writing. However, three have happened in North America-two in Canada and one in Mexico. Bikesharing has some qualities that appear inherently unsafe for bicyclists. Most prominently, helmet usage is documented to be quite low in most regions. Bikesharing is also used by irregular bicyclists who are less familiar with the local terrain. In this study, researchers take a closer look at bikesharing safety from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Through a series of four focus groups, they discussed bikesharing usage and safety with bikesharing members and nonmembers in the Bay Area. They further engaged experts nationwide from a variety of fields to evaluate their opinions and perspectives on bikesharing and safety. Finally, researchers conducted an analysis of bicycle and bikesharing activity data, as well as bicycle and bikesharing collisions to evaluate injury rates associated with bikesharing when compared with benchmarks of personal bicycling. The data analysis found that collision and injury rates for bikesharing are lower than previously computed rates for personal bicycling. Experts and focus group participants independently pointed to bikesharing rider behavior and bikesharing bicycle design as possible factors. In particular, bikesharing bicycles are generally designed in ways that promote stability and limited speeds, which mitigate the conditions that contribute to collisions. Data analysis also explored whether there was evidence of a "safety in numbers benefit" that resulted from bikesharing activity. However, no significant impact from bikesharing activity on broader bicycle collisions could be found within the regions in which they operate. Discussion and recommendations are presented in the conclusion."

Matthew Holian, Ralph McLaughlin, Benefit-Cost Analysis for Transportation Planning and Public Policy: Towards Multimodal Demand Modeling. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, August 2016, 77 p. [formato PDF, 3,6 MB]. "This report examines existing methods of benefit-cost analysis (BCA) in two areas, transportation policy and transportation planning, and suggests ways of modifying these methods to account for travel within a multimodal system. Although the planning and policy contexts differ substantially, this report shows how important multimodal impacts can be incorporated into both by using basic econometric techniques and even simpler rule-of-thumb methods. Case studies in transportation planning focus on the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), but benchmark California's competencies by exploring methods used by other states and local governments. The report concludes with a list and discussion of recommendations for improving transportation planning models and methods. These will have immediate use to decision makers at Caltrans and other state DOTs as they consider directions for developing new planning capabilities. This project also identifies areas, and lays groundwork, for future research. Finally, by fitting the planning models into the broader context of transportation policy, this report will serve as a resource for students and others who wish to better understand BCA and its use in practice."

Uwe Tietge, Peter Mock, Nic Lutsey, Alex Campestrini, Comparison of leading electric vehicle policy and deployment in Europe. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation Europe, Berlin, May 2016, 88 p. [formato PDF, 10,7 MB]. "This study investigates consumer incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), in the five largest EV markets in Europe: Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Norway. These markets together account for more than 80% of all European EV registrations in 2014. The paper looks at incentives at the national level, and uses 10 case studies of European cities/regions to examine how local governments can complement national incentives. The focus is on fiscal incentives, charging infrastructure density, and EV market shares as key indicators of countries' readiness to transition to electric mobility. The study analyzes the diffusion of EVs at the regional level, including maps of EV market shares and charging infrastructure for each market. In addition to providing a snapshot of the largest European EV markets, the study identifies effective incentives for driving the uptake of electric vehicles: Direct consumer incentives: Substantial fiscal incentives are the most important driver of EV uptake. Countries and cities with high fiscal incentives have been more successful at transitioning to electric mobility. Indirect consumer incentives: Fiscal incentives alone are not sufficient to ensure uptake. Promotional activities are needed to create consumer awareness. Preferential access to low-emission zones or high-occupancy vehicle lanes, electric car-sharing platforms, introducing EVs into public fleets, and consumer outreach events are common and effective measures to raise awareness of electric mobility. Charging infrastructure: Another prerequisite for electric mobility, because it helps overcome range anxiety. Countries with dense public charging infrastructure have higher EV market shares, though other factors (such as availability of fast charging infrastructure and opportunities to charge at home) should also be considered. Policy design: Information on incentives and electric mobility should be transparent and easily accessible, because consumer awareness is a prerequisite for electric mobility. Financial sustainability is also key: stable incentives and secure funding ensure planning security and signal long-term support for EVs. National-level strategies and incentives can ensure a cohesive approach, while regional and city-level policies can complement national policies and tailor incentives to local needs."

Junhee Kang, Keeyeon Hwang and Sungjin Park (Hongik University), Finding Factors that Influence Carsharing Usage: Case Study in Seoul. Sustainability 2016, 8, 709 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. Open Access. "The goal of this research is to investigate the factors that affect carsharing demand. As a proxy for carsharing demand, the number of (booking) transactions made by carsharing users is counted based on the data from one of the two major carsharing operators in Seoul, Korea. In order to identify the factors influencing station-based carsharing usage, multiple linear regression modeling was performed with the number of carsharing transactions as a dependent variable and with the three groups of independent variables: Built environment, demographic, and transportation variables. Instead of using the locations of the pods, this study uses the residential locations of carsharing users who made transactions, and the final result analyzing 420 districts shows that six variables significantly influence carsharing usage. Carsharing demand is high in an area where a higher proportion of building floor area is used for business, and which has a higher proportion of young residents in their 20s and 30s. It can also be predicted that the area with more registered cars and less subway entrances will show higher carsharing demand. The analysis result also suggests that providing additional carsharing pods, especially pods that utilize city owned public parking facilities, will help promote carsharing usage. This research establishes a basis for future research efforts to forecast carsharing demand and to identify areas with high potential, especially in major Asian cities."

Alvaro Valera Sosa, Christine Nickl-Weller, Understanding walkability and walking rates in Berlin: an urban form and street pattern comparison. Die Psychiatrie (2016) V. 13 (Heft 2) 79-87 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 900 kB]. "This descriptive study provides information indicative of the interaction between physical features of neighbourhood environments with health behaviours such as walking and biking which consequently affect disease rates related to lifestyle. Aim: Through a summary of systematic observations at two urban scales, the macro and meso- levels, a neighbourhood comparisonol. was realized in Berlin, Germany, to explore how urban forms and street patterns can support walking or biking, or not, despite seasonal variations, socio-economic status, cultural backdrop or individual decisions to walk. For this study, a conceptual evaluation framework was conceived and structured to assess secondary data from public databases, conveniently decreasing time and costs. Result: The framework and preliminary results of the work aim to be a significant endeavour in promoting transdisciplinarity among researchers and practitioners mainly from public health, architecture, urban planning and design fields."

La sostenibilità nei trasporti e nella logistica. (Quaderno 25). Freight Leaders Council, Roma, giugno 2016, 196 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "Imporre per legge il calcolo delle emissioni prodotte attraverso il trasporto delle merci. Lanciare un piano nazionale per sostituire progressivamente i combustibili fossili con fonti a ridotto impatto ambientale: LNG e bio carburanti. Accelerare il rilancio dell'intermodalità ferroviaria e lo sviluppo della smart mobility, incidendo anche sulla cultura manageriale dei committenti fino a prevedere un sistema premiale per i trasporti più lenti e rendere visibile lo sforzo delle aziende verso una migliore sostenibilità dei servizi di trasporto delle merci. Sono questi i sei passi che il Freight Leaders Council, ha individuato nel Quaderno #25 sulla sostenibilità ambientale del trasporto e della logistica, curato dal Presidente, Antonio Malvestio, con i contributi di rappresentanti delle istituzioni, delle aziende e degli esperti del settore, pubblicato in occasione del 25° anniversario della fondazione dell'associazione che riunisce i maggiori operatori della logistica italiana. Il testo si pone come un "manuale al servizio del lettore per illustrare come è possibile ridurre l'impronta ambientale nei trasporti" dando indicazioni alle aziende e alle istituzioni su come agire nell'immediato per far fronte all'emergenza emissioni prodotte dal trasporto merci e raggiungere gli standard imposti dall'Ue. "I cambiamenti climatici sempre più rapidi stanno richiamando l'attenzione di tutti - spiega Antonio Malvestio, Presidente del FLC - La coscienza ecologica si sta velocemente diffondendo. Come spesso accade, siamo di fronte ad una accelerazione: la sostenibilità ambientale sta diventando una priorità, ma l'impreparazione media rischia di far compiere errori. Chi si occupa di trasporti e logistica sarà presto nell'occhio del ciclone. Mentre tutte le filiere hanno lavorato per il miglioramento dell'impronta ambientale riducendo la produzione di gas serra, i trasporti sono rimasti indietro. Con il trend attuale, saranno presto (tra il 2020 ed il 2030) responsabili per il 50% della produzione mondiale di CO2. Di questa, il 60% per il trasporto delle persone ed il 40% per il trasporto delle merci. Migliorare drasticamente l'impronta ambientale del trasporto e delle aree adiacenti alla logistica è possibile ed è a portata di mano. Costituisce anche un risparmio, in quanto diminuire la produzione di CO2 elimina gli sprechi. Occorre, però, decidere di non improvvisare e di seguire una pianificazione rigorosa". Vediamo quali sono i fronti sui quali intervenire. L'impegno delle aziende. Già oggi le aziende hanno diversi strumenti a disposizione per impegnarsi nella riduzione delle emissioni nocive. Il Quaderno #25 ne prende in considerazione alcune, tra cui il premio Lean&Green, nato in Olanda ed "importato in Italia" dal FLC, che prevede un riconoscimento alle aziende di trasporto che si impegnano a ridurre del 20% le emissioni nell'arco di un quinquennio, producendo un'adeguata certificazione. Da notare che oggi è possibile ottenere incentivi statali a fronte di risparmi energetici in termini di carburante, grazie all'estensione del meccanismo dei certificati bianchi anche al settore dei trasporti. Agire sui mezzi. Il passaggio imposto dalla normativa comunitaria, tra Euro 5 e Euro 6 ha drasticamente ridotto le emissioni e inciso positivamente sul consumo di carburante dei mezzi pesanti (-2/5%), ma è possibile anche lavorare sul fronte degli pneumatici, dell'aerodinamica dei mezzi e degli stili di guida che in tandem con le nuove tecnologie possono portare a risparmi di carburante fino a oltre il 10%. La scelta del carburante. Sono già 4 i produttori di veicoli pesanti che presentano in gamma modelli alimentati a GNL. Anche la rete di distribuzione è in via di sviluppo. Si tratta di un'alternativa già esistente ed ampiamente esplorata in altri paesi europei. Anche i biocarburanti, di cui l'Italia è uno dei maggiori produttori in Europa (e anche esportatore) è una tecnologia già pronta, adattabile alla maggior parte dei motori in circolazione. Si tratta di "incentivare" il salto verso queste scelte e lavorare sulla rete di distribuzione. La logistica urbana. Una visione più smart ed ottimizzata delle consegne in ambito urbano diventa uno dei temi fondamentali sul fronte dell'efficientamento delle emissioni: le aree metropolitane non sono più un semplice punto di destinazione delle merci (il 45% delle tonnellate km origina nelle città) ma anche di partenza (per il 25%) mentre il restante 30% è costruito da merci che si muovono all'interno delle città stesse. Per quanto riguarda la destinazione d'uso del territorio è importante osservare che una percentuale variabile fra il 3 ed il 5% del territorio urbano è dedicato ad uso esclusivo delle merci. L'intermodalità. Recuperare l'intermodalità ferroviaria significa tornare a "contare" sulla modalità treno per tutte le tipologie di merci. Ovvero rimettere in piedi un sistema di collegamenti cadenzati che offrano la possibilità agli imprenditori di accedere con facilità e convenienza a questa "alternativa".

Heather Ward, Progress in reducing deaths and seriously injured on Europe's roads. 10th Road Safety Performance Index Report. Presentation, 10th ETSC Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) Conference, Brussels, 20 June 2016. 15 slides [formato PDF, 698 kB].

Mario Zambrini, Il peso del settore dei trasporti sui cambiamenti climatici e le prospettive di contenimento delle emissioni: gli scenari internazionali ed europei. Relazione al convegno "Trasporti e cambiamenti climatici" organizzato da SIPoTra e Cattedra Jean Monnet "EU Environmental Law" a Genova, 20 maggio 2016. 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB].

Anna Donati, La mobilità urbana alla prova dei cambiamenti climatici. Relazione al convegno "Trasporti e cambiamenti climatici" organizzato da SIPoTra e Cattedra Jean Monnet "EU Environmental Law" a Genova, 20 maggio 2016. 18 slides [formato PDF, 1,6 MB].

EEA Signals 2016. Towards clean and smart mobility. Transport and environment in Europe. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, 2016, 35 p. [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. "The European Environment Agency (EEA) publishes Signals annually, providing a snapshot of issues of interest to the environmental debate and the wider public. Signals 2016 focuses on transport and mobility. Transport connects people, cultures, cities, countries and continents. It is one of the main pillars of the modern society and economy. At the same time, it is responsible for a quarter of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions, and causes air pollution, noise pollution and habitat fragmentation. Signals 2016 looks into how Europe's carbon-dependent transport sector can be turned into a clean and smart mobility system."

Susan Shaheen, Adam Stocker, Marie Mundler, Online and App-Based Carpooling in France: Analyzing Users and Practices - A Case Study of BlaBlaCar. Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, July 2016, 18 p. [formato PDF, 335 kB]. "This paper examines the characteristics and practices of ridesharing users in France. In May 2013 the authors surveyed members of BlaBlaCar, the largest online and app-based carpooling service in France, to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics and usage patterns of the respondents. The survey results identify correlations between socio-demographic characteristics and usage elements. Notably, users with a lower income level are more inclined to be passengers, while higher income users employ carpooling mainly as drivers. Students are shown to be more frequent users as well. These findings indicate some equity balancing effects, which may be unique to this shared mobility mode."

International Transport Forum, Shared Mobility. Innovation for Liveable Cities. (Corporate Partnership Board Report). OECD, Paris, 2016, 56 p. [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "The way in which people move has undergone several revolutions in the past: from walking on foot, to animal-powered mobility, to vehicles propelled by combustion engines using fossil fuels. Today the next mobility revolution is underway, based on the use of real-time streams of data that make it easier and more efficient to provide citizens with optimised access to their cities. This report investigates one particular scenario that evidence suggests could occur: the large-scale deployment of shared vehicle fleets that provide on-demand transport. Building on our 2015 report Urban Mobility System Upgrade: How Shared Self-driving Cars Could Change City Traffic, this study models the impact of replacing all car and bus trips in a city with mobility provided through fleets of shared vehicles. The simulation is, again, based on real mobility and network data from a mid-size European city, namely Lisbon, Portugal. In this follow-up study, we examine a different configuration where shared mobility is delivered by a fleet of six-seat vehicles ("Shared Taxis") that offer on-demand, door-to-door shared rides in conjunction with a fleet of eight-person and 16-person mini-buses ("Taxi-Buses") that serve pop-up stops on demand and provide transfer-free rides. Rail and subway services keep operating in the current pattern. The simulation looks at impacts on the number of vehicles required and the total kilometres driven, and the effects on congestions, CO 2 emissions and use of public space. Additionally - and crucially - it also examines how citizens experience the new shared services and how they affect social inclusion measured in the level of accessibility of jobs, schools and health services."

Vanda Bonardo e Francesco Pastorelli (a cura di), Trasporti nelle Alpi: a che punto siamo. Contributi di: Dario Ballotta, Alberto Collidà, Andrea Debernardi, Damiano Di Simine, Anna Donati, Lorenzo Frattini, Angelo Tartaglia, Andrea Wehrenfennig, Mario Zambrini. CIPRA Italia, Torino, maggio 2016, 54 p. [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. "In vista dell'inaugurazione del tunnel ferroviario del Gottardo ed ad oltre vent'anni dall'entrata in vigore della Convenzione delle Alpi CIPRA Italia fa il punto sulla situazione dei trasporti sul versante italiano dell'arco alpino, fra progetti di nuove grandi opere e ritardi cronici nell'attuazione di politiche trasportistiche."

Marianna Rotilio, Annalisa Taballione, Pierluigi De Berardinis (Università degli Studi di L'Aquila), La Ciclovia dell'alta valle dell'Aterno: tra eco turismo e mobilità sostenibile [The Cycle route of the upper Aterno valley: between ecotourism and sustainable mobility]. Techne (Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment) 11 (2016), 188-193 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 300 kB]. Open Access. "Nell'ottica della promozione della mobilità sostenibile e del rilancio e valorizzazione di territori ed alla luce del crescente interesse verso la specifica tematica, la Regione Abruzzo ha avviato uno studio di fattibilità per la realizzazione di una pista polifunzionale nell'Alta Valle dell'Aterno. Il contributo che si intende proporre ha come obiettivo quello di illustrare il percorso decisionale e i risultati che sono stati raggiunti già in tale studio che ha previsto la realizzazione di una dorsale principale e di un sistema di reti, a scopo sia turistico che amatoriale, oltre che come servizio alla mobilità locale. La finalità della ricerca è stata quella di individuare una strategia progettuale facilmente replicabile e di dotare le amministrazioni di uno strumento di programmazione."

International Transport Forum, Reducing Sulphur Emissions from Ships. The Impact of International Regulation. (International Transport Forum Policy Papers, No. 18). OECD, Paris, 2016, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "This study assesses the impact of international sulphur emission reduction regulations on global shipping. Ships emit a large amount of sulphur oxides that have significant health impacts. To mitigate these, international regulations cap the sulphur content of ship fuel. In certain parts of the world, emission control areas (ECAs) with even stricter standards have been established. In the emission control areas, new requirements introduced in 2015 limit the sulphur content of ship fuel to 0.10%. A new, lower global sulphur cap of 0.50% is planned for 2020. This report examines the 2015 cap effects on shipping and the potential effects of the new requirements foreseen for 2020. It assesses the cost increase for maritime transport associated with the sulphur caps, impacts on shipping operations as well as on other transport modes, and on the environment. The report also highlights policy gaps and challenges for the enforcement of sulphur emissions regulation for shipping."

Hans Quak, Nina Nesterova, Tariq van Rooijen (TNO), Possibilities and barriers for using electric-powered vehicles in city logistics practice. Transportation Research Procedia 12 (2016) 157-169 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 183 kB]. Open Access. The 9th International Conference on City Logistics, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain), 17-19 June 2015. "This paper discusses the current developments, as well as the barriers and opportunities for using electric freight vehicles in daily city logistics operations based on the experiences from a number of running demonstrations. This paper discusses results from other studies and demonstrations that were published on electro mobility in city logistics in the last three years, as an update of an earlier state of the art review. Next, we present recent narratives based on the more than 100 electric freight vehicles (EFVs) deployed in the European project FREVUE and the experiences of TransMission in using four battery electric Cargohoppers to perform their urban deliveries in Amsterdam. Over the years the attention shifted from a focus on the limitations of EFVs in comparison to conventional vehicles, such as the limited range, towards the question how to better adapt the operations to deal with the EFV characteristics. Although, the business case for using EFVs, in comparison to conventional vehicles, is still suffering from high vehicle purchase price and uncertainty about its residual value, the use of EFVs in daily operations shows that in the majority of cases the current generation of EFVs have a good technical performance. Companies using EFVs are generally satisfied with these vehicles. Obviously still a number of barriers has to be levelled, but large scale EFV usage seems more feasible than before."

Yoshikazu Imanishi, Eiichi Taniguchi, Framework of the Urban Road Freight Transport - Lessons Learned from Case Studies. Transportation Research Procedia 12 (2016) 627-633 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,81 MB]. Open Access. The 9th International Conference on City Logistics, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain), 17-19 June 2015. "This study focuses on overall city-wide Urban Road Freight Transport Management (URFTM) including plans and individual measures which are implemented in cities or metropolitan areas. The study attempted to understand the overall picture of URFTM using case studies collected by World Road Association, Technical Committee 2.3 (Freight Transport). The study has identified existence of plans of freight transport management, cooperation for development of plans and measures among municipality governments, related public bodies and private sectors, provision of legal system and structures of measures that have been introduced."

Leif Jacobs, Karolyn Laurenz, Stephan Keuchel, Christoph Thiel, Willingness to pay for electromobility: an investigation among owners of energy-efficient houses. Transportation Research Procedia 13 (2016) 40-48 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 217 kB]. Open Access. European Transport Conference 2015, Frankfurt, 28-30 September. "This paper adds to the body of knowledge about house owners in Germany as potential early adopters of electric cars. With the help of energy efficiency standards for new constructions, interviewees were divided into two groups: owners of energy-efficient houses and owners of conventional houses. Both groups were asked to take part in a choice experiment and to choose between a conventional car, a plug-in hybrid electric car and a battery electric car in different hypothetical choice situations. Results show that facing the situation to replace their present car house owners of both groups tend to choose a larger and more powerful car. Further, there is a tendency within both groups to choose a car with less fuel consumption. The results of the discrete choice experiment indicate that owners of energy-efficient houses have a statistically significant higher willingness to pay for plug-in hybrid electric cars and for battery electric cars with or without a range extender."

Lucia Martincigh, Marina Di Guida (Università Roma Tre), La mobilità sostenibile come strumento di riqualificazione delle infrastrutture stradali urbane: un approccio metodologico [Sustainable mobility as a way for upgrading urban street infrastructures: a methodological approach]. Techne (Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment) 11 (2016), 180-187 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Per migliorare la vivibilità dell'ambiente urbano e garantire un'accessibilità diffusa sembra utile affrontare il ridisegno delle strade e degli spazi pubblici in sinergia con la riorganizzazione della mobilità in chiave sostenibile. Questo contributo si riferisce a ricerche e sperimentazioni, svolte e in corso, che a tal fine hanno analizzato limiti e possibilità di applicazione dello strumento dell'Isola Ambientale e di uno specifico approccio progettuale, verificandolo poi in due quartieri universitari della città di Roma."

Trasporto marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle aree portuali italiane. (Rapporti 242/2016). ISPRA, Roma, Maggio 2016, 282 p. [formato PDF, 9,1 MB]. "Il Rapporto sul curato dal settore Progetti Aree Portuali dell'ISPRA presenta le ultime novità legislative in merito alla riforma del sistema portuale italiano, gli incentivi al trasporto intermodale, i vantaggi dell'uso di combustibili alternativi e dei sistemi di elettrificazione delle banchine per la riduzione delle emissioni da navi in porto ed infine la pianificazione in ambito portuale. Oltre ai contenuti già citati, il Rapporto presenta inoltre i dati di traffico (dal 2005 al 2014) di merci e passeggeri oltre ad informazioni relative alle buone pratiche ambientali messe in campo dalle 24 Autorità Portuali nazionali."

Inger Beate Hovi, Daniel Ruben Pinchasik, A CO2-fund for the transport industry: The case of Norway. Summary in English. TØI Report 1479/2016. TØI (Institute of Transport Economics), Oslo, 2016, 5 p. [formato PDF, 227 kB]. "A means to accelerate the phasing in of trucks with renewable propulsion technologies is to establish a CO2 fund for the private sector with the same principles as today's NOx Fund. The revenues of such a fund can be based on a percentage of the current CO2 tax on fuel. Using these revenues, the fund can provide subsidies towards the additional investment costs for vehicles with renewable propulsion technologies and towards partial coverage of investments in infrastructure, such as filling stations. The analysis in the present report shows that it is most cost effective to support investments in vehicles using biodiesel, but that the availability of sustainable fuel can pose a challenge. A fund should therefore also focus on providing subsidies towards vehicles using more expensive technologies, such as biogas, electricity and hydrogen. Technology for these latter two options is still immature for trucking. A CO2 fund may contribute to increasing demand for these technologies and to achieve a critical mass."

Inger Beate Hovi, Daniel Ruben Pinchasik, CO 2 -besparelser av forsert innfasing av lastebiler med fornybare fremdriftsløsninger [A CO2-fund for the transport industry: The case of Norway]. Language of report: Norwegian. TØI rapport 1479/2016. TØI, Oslo, mars 2016, 58 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB].

David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey de Nazelle, Zorana J. Andersen, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Jan Bruha, Hana Bruhova-Foltynova, Hélène Desqueyroux, Corinne Praznoczy, Martina S. Ragettli, Marko Tainio, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe. PLoS ONE 11(3) 2016 : e0149990 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. Open Access. "Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation."

Alistair Hunt, Julia Ferguson, Fintan Hurley, Alison Searl, Social Costs of Morbidity Impacts of Air Pollution. (OECD Environment Working Papers No 99). OECD, Paris, 2016, 77 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Outdoor air pollution is a major determinant of health worldwide. The greatest public health effects are from increased mortality in adults. However, both PM and O3 also cause a wide range of other, less serious, health outcomes; and there are effects on mortality and morbidity of other pollutants also, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). These adverse health effects have economic consequences; OECD (2014) suggests that the social costs of the health impact of outdoor air pollution in OECD countries, China and India was approximately USD 1.7 trillion and USD 1.9 trillion, respectively, in 2010. However, the study highlights that though the social costs of premature mortality account for the majority of these totals, the social costs of morbidity remain poorly estimated. The objective of this paper is to inform the development of improved estimates of the social costs of human morbidity impacts resulting from outdoor air pollution in two components; namely to develop a core set of pollutant-health end-points to be covered when estimating the costs of morbidity, and to review current estimates of the cost of morbidity from air pollution."

European Environment Agency, Urban sprawl in Europe. Joint EEA-FOEN report. [EEA Report No 11/2016]. European Environment Agency and Federal Office for the Environment, Copenhagen, Bern, 2016, 135 p. [formato PDF, 15,7 MB]. "This report provides a comparable measurement of urban sprawl for 32 European countries at three levels (the country level, the NUTS-2 region level and the 1-km2 cell level) and for two years (2006 and 2009). The analysis is based on the Copernicus system which monitors the Earth and collects data by different sources. This data provides information about a number of thematic areas, including land. Under land a pan-European component delivers information about various areas, including the level of sealed soil (imperviousness), through high resolution layers taken from satellite imagery. The analysis uses new urban sprawl metrics taking into account the way built-up areas are laid out and how they are used. It also looks at the factors which contribute to an increase or decrease in urban sprawl. The results confirm the conclusions of earlier EEA reports namely that in many parts of Europe current levels of urban sprawl have contributed to detrimental ecological, economic and social effects. This gives cause for concern and such effects may increase alongside planned urban development."

Milos Balac, Francesco Ciari, Rashid A. Waraich, Modeling the impact of parking price policy on free-floating carsharing: case study for Zurich, Switzerland. Transportation Research Procedia (2017)(13 p.) [formato PDF, 755 kB]. Conference Paper, World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR 2016), Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. "The research on carsharing has already shown that a substantial part of carsharing members give up a vehicle after joining a carsharing program, or avoid a vehicle purchase. This arguably reduces overall parking space needed. This might well be one of the most important impacts of a carsharing program on the transportation system but also one of the least researched. The rapid diffusion of free-floating carsharing, which for its very nature might have a stronger impact on parking, makes the relationship between carsharing and parking an appealing topic for new research. This work presents a method for the investigation of this relationship and explores the impacts of different parking prices on the demand for free-floating carsharing in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Three levels of free-floating diffusion in the city of Zurich coupled with three levels of parking prices were simulated. The obtained results show that free-floating vehicles are able to use parking spaces more efficiently than private vehicles. Moreover, the average parking occupancy tends to be more homogeneous with higher diffusion of free-floating carsharing and with the increase of parking prices, thus avoiding the spatial parking pressure peaks."

Joyce McLaren, John Miller, Eric O'Shaughnessy, Eric Wood, and Evan Shapiro (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type. (Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64852). NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Golden, CO, April 2016, 34 p. [formato PDF, 4,60 MB]. "With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policymakers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual amount of emissions reduction electric vehicles provide is dependent on when and where drivers charge the vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, the vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of anticipated emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios."

Patrick Jochem, Claus Doll, Wolf Fichtner, External costs of electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D 42 (2016) 60-76 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "Electric vehicles (EV) are often considered a promising technology to decrease external costs of road transport. Therefore, main external cost components are estimated for EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). These include costs of accidents, air pollution, climate change, noise, and congestion. All components are estimated over the product lifetime and, where appropriate, differentiated according to fuel type, vehicle size as well as emission location and time. The advantage of this differentiation is, however, compensated by high uncertainties of most cost estimates. Overall, the external costs of EV and ICEV do not differ significantly. Only for climate change, local air pollutants in congested inner-cities, and noise some advantageous effects can be observed for EV. The advantages depend strongly on the national electricity power plant portfolio and potentially also on the charging strategy. Controlled charging might allow for higher emission reductions than uncontrolled charging of EV."

Xiao Zhao, Anjali Mahendra, Nick Godfrey, Holger Dalkmann, Philipp Rode, Graham Floater, Unlocking the power of urban tranport systems for better growth and a better climate. Technical note. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2016, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,27 MB]. "Sustainable transport systems are crucial for underpinning the economic performance and prosperity of nations. They are also critical for tackling global climate change, improving road safety and reducing local air pollution. This is particularly the case in the world's urban areas, as the majority of transport trips take place in and between cities. Each week, 1.4 million people are being added to urban areas, and urban travel constitutes more than 60% of all the kilometres travelled globally, the largest single source of global transport-related carbon emissions. The business-as-usual pattern of urbanisation and transport mobility in many regions remains characterised by unplanned sprawl and inter-city and intra-city transport networks dominated by conventional motorisation. The complex interaction between urban development and transport connectivity has led to declining urban densities, a reduction in the share of non-motorised transport and public transport, and enormous growth in private vehicles. An area the size of Manhattan is being added to urban areas each and every day. A continuation of this pattern could lead to the global urban land area tripling and the number of motorised vehicles in the world doubling by 2030. These trends have already created a wide range of economic, social and environmental costs, which can significantly constrain improvements in quality of life. The total social cost of Beijing’s dependence on motorised transport, including congestion and air pollution, is estimated at 7.5–15.0% of GDP. China added 17 million new cars in 2014 alone. In the United States, work by the New Climate Economy (NCE) demonstrates that urban sprawl costs over US$1 trillion per annum, including US$400 billion in costs to the public purse and more than US$600 billion in costs related to private vehicle use."

James Lees with contributions from Cait Hewitt and Tim Johnson, Aircraft noise and public health: the evidence is loud and clear. [Report] commissioned by HACAN (Heathrow Association for the Control of Aircraft Noise) and the Aviation Environment Trust from the Aviation Environment Federation. Aviation Environment Federation, London, January 2016, 60 p. [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "Evidence that has accumulated over 20 years indicates that aircraft noise has pervasive impacts on public health around airports. At least one million people's health in the UK could be affected by aircraft noise. The health costs from aircraft noise across the UK have been conservatively estimated to be in the region of £540 million each year (See section 2.2.3). However, aviation noise policy does not reflect the evidence on health. We call on Government to update its overall aircraft noise policy to include specific long-term targets focussed on protecting the public from health impacts. The Government should review its policies to take account of the latest health based evidence and ensure that policy decision making takes health fully into account and is in line with a long-term goal to reduce the health burden from aircraft noise. Any new flightpath decisions must explicitly take health impacts into account and the Government should develop a new approach to understanding the ‘change effect’ of significant changes in noise exposure associated with new flightpaths. The decision to build a new runway should be assessed on whether it helps to deliver health-based aircraft noise objectives. A new runway, as currently planned, is estimated to have noise related health costs of £3.7 billion (see section 2.2.4). It is essential that the next night flights regime aims to reduce the severe health burden associated with sleep disturbance."

Regine Gerike, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Luc Int Panis, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Florinda Boschetti, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Evi Dons, Ulf Eriksson, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Francesca Racioppi, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Christian Schweizer, Arnout Standaert, Tina Uhlmann, Sandra Wegener, Thomas Götschi, on behalf of the PASTA consortium, Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project, BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 7;6(1):e009924 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,23 MB]. Open Access. "INTRODUCTION: Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14 000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website (http://www.pastaproject.eu) is at the core of all communication and dissemination activities."

2015

Libby Thomas, Paul Ryus, Conor Semler, Nathan J. Thirsk, Kevin Krizek, Charles Zegeer (University of North Carolina), Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks: A Review of International Practices. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, May 2015, 67 p. [formato PDF, 8,9 MB]. "The purpose of this study was to identify noteworthy and innovative international designs, treatments, and other practices that have potential to improve bicycle and pedestrian safety and access and increase walking and bicycling in the United States. This report covers treatments and practices from a total of 11 countries, covering six thematic areas: (1) network infrastructure, (2) limited auto traffic areas, (3) signalization, traffic control, and intelligent transport systems, (4) policy change, (5) criteria or methods for prioritizing improvements, and (6) goals and network performance measures. A number of treatments and practices appear to have significant potential to help improve bicycle and pedestrian network safety, comfort, and connectivity in the U.S."

Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni, The autonomous car - a blessing or a curse for the future of low carbon mobility? An exploration of likely vs. desirable outcomes. Eur J Futures Res (2015) 3:14 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "Certain developed countries have experienced the 'peak car' phenomenon. While this remains to be confirmed longitudinally, it looks certain that future mobility in Europe and elsewhere will be shaped by a particular technological development: driverless or autonomous transport. The 'autonomous car' ignites the imagination, yet the research and debate on this topic largely focus on the 'autonomous' and not adequately on the 'car' element. Like any new technological development, autonomous transport presents ample opportunities to better our mobility system, but similarly it carries risks and can lead into a future mobility that exacerbates, rather than relieves, current deficiencies of our mobility systems, including its high carbon and high cost characteristics. Now it is high time to explore these, before we lock ourselves into the autonomous car future. Using Low Carbon Mobility (LCM) as a guiding framework to assess mobility patterns and based on an extensive literature review, this paper aims to explore where there is a gap between the likely and desirable outcomes when developing the autonomous car and suggest how we might reduce it. Moreover, enhancing on global empirical evidence and forecasts about the opportunities and threats emerging from ICT deployment in transport and initial evidence on the development of the autonomous car, the paper concludes that a desirable outcome will only come if technological development will be accompanied by a social change. A change where public and sharing will be seen as superior to private and individual transport, could make the autonomous car a blessing."

Patrick Plötz, Simon Funke, Patrick Jochem, Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Working Paper Sustainability and Innovation, No. S 1/2015. Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer ISI), Karlsruhe, 2015, 30 p. [formato PDF, 573 kB] "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related greenhouse gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mileage is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised."

Juan Rosenzweig, Michael Bartl, A Review and Analysis of Literature on Autonomous Driving. The Making of Innovation, October 2015, 57 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]

Velokonferenz Schweiz, Velobahnen. Grundlagendokument [Testo di riferimento per la realizzazione di ciclovie veloci]. (Materialien zum Langsamverkehr Nr. 132). Bundesamt für Strassen (ASTRA), Bern; Velokonferenz Schweiz, Biel/Bienne, 2015, 20 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "Velofahrerinnen und -fahrer wollen zügig und sicher ihre Ziele erreichen. Mit der zunehmenden Verwendung von E-Bikes werden vermehrt längere Distanzen mit dem Velo zurückgelegt. Diesen Bedürfnissen kann mit sogenannten Velobahnen entgegengekommen werden. Im Ausland gibt es bereits gute Beispiele von Velobahnen. Zudem existieren Grundlagen und Planungsgrundsätze für die Planung solcher Verbindungen und Netze u. a. in Deutschland, Dänemark und den Niederlanden. Das vorliegende Grundlagendokument ordnet diese Grundlagen in den schweizerischen Kontext ein und gibt erste Hinweise zu der Ausgestaltung der Velobahnen in der Schweiz. Das Dokument stützt sich unter anderem auf Studien und Konzepte von Kantonen und Regionen sowie Erfahrungen aus anderen Ländern. Es zeigt den heutigen Wissensstand und enthält Hinweise auf offene Fragen und Forschungsbedarf."

Conférence Vélo Suisse, Voies Express Vélo. Document de base [Testo di riferimento per la realizzazione di ciclovie veloci]. (Documentation sur la mobilité douce n° 132). Office fédéral des routes (OFROU), Bern; Conférence Vélo Suisse, Biel/Bienne, 2015, 20 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Les cyclistes veulent tous arriver à bon port aussi rapidement que possible. Ils sont toujours plus nombreux à utiliser les vélos électriques pour parcourir des distances souvent plus longues. Les Voies Express Vélo sont à même de satisfaire leurs besoins. Elles existent déjà dans plusieurs pays, entre autres en Allemagne, au Danemark et aux Pays-Bas où les fondements et les principes de planification applicables à ces voies et à leurs réseaux ont été définis. Le présent document de base intègre ces éléments dans le contexte suisse et fournit les premières indications requises pour leur aménagement en Suisse. Il se fonde notamment sur des études et projets cantonaux et régionaux, ainsi que sur des expériences menées à l'étranger. Il présente l'état actuel des connaissances, les questions en suspens et les travaux de recherche qui restent à mener. La traduction française de ce document sera disponible courant 2016."

Karl Peet, Cornie Huizenga, and Sudhir Gota, Transport and Climate Change. EcoMobility Dialogues / Technical Paper. ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, Bonn, September 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 975 kB]. "Urban transport constitutes 40% of total transport energy consumption, which is poised to double by 2050, despite ongoing vehicle technology and fuel economy improvements. At the same time, cities offer immense potential to scale up sustainable low carbon transport solutions to contribute to climate change mitigation, to improve health outcomes through non-motorized transport, and to create more compact developments to increase access and improve mobility. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), transport has traditionally been viewed as a sub-sector of energy, which has led to a failure of governments to significantly scale up transport projects to reduce climate impacts. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) have the potential to drive progress on transport, and among INDCs submitted to date, nearly 30% make specific reference to urban transport improvements. It is necessary to continue to raise the profile of sustainable urban transport within the UNFCCC framework - and especially through the actions of non-state actors - to help to raise mitigation ambition within the transport sector before and beyond 2020. An important leap forward can be seen in the growing role of cities through the Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), with the voluntary commitments made during and since the 2014 Secretary General (SG) Climate Summit a key example of non-state actors taking concrete transport mitigation actions. To complement the LPAA-backed initiatives, many city governments are taking steps to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon transport. The combination of these commitment types creates a key opportunity for matchmaking among 'supply-side' and 'demand-side' commitments, which can create further momentum to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon urban transport in the coming decades."

Mauro Andriollo, Andrea Tortella (University of Padua), Sustainability evaluation of an electric bus fleet for the urban public transport system of Padova, Italy. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 13 p. [formato PDF, 769 kB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The paper analyses the potential benefits deriving from the introduction of an electric battery-supplied bus (EBB) fleet in the urban transportation context of the city of Padova, Italy. Such analysis is carried out in the frame of a business plan focused on the development of recharge/replacement stations located at suitable bus terminals, adopting an optimized strategy to replace and recharge the on-board batteries running low. After an extensive analysis of the actual urban bus fleet, equivalent bus configurations are defined for both diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles, by means of an analytical elaboration of reference driving cycles. Such elaboration also includes the performance deterioration over the vehicle life by applying a derating function to the propulsion system and catalyser efficiencies. Then, the EBBs characteristics and operation are determined by an algorithm aiming at the minimization of the battery investment and operating costs on ten years' service. Finally, the equivalent buses with different length are compared in terms of energy consumptions and pollutant emissions on the same reference routes. Such comparison is carried out by numerical simulations, taking into account both the engine practical behaviour and the battery charge/discharge operation."

Ricardo Marqués, Vicente Hernández-Herrador, Manuel Calvo-Salazar, Javier Herrera-Sánchez, Manuel López-Peña, When Cycle Paths Are Not Enough: Seville's Bicycle-PT Project. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 146 (2015), 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Urban Transport XXI. Open Access. "The city of Seville (Spain) has been named the fourth most "bicycle-friendly city" in the world, mainly due to the building of a segregated network of bicycle paths which, in a few years, substantially increased utilitarian cycling in the city. However, recent bicycle counts along the network have shown that the volume of cycling is now levelling off at around 6% of the city's mobility (9% of all mechanised trips); a meaningful level but still far from the figures that are usual in leading cycling cities. This stagnation suggests that new actions are needed in order to further develop urban cycling and overcome bottlenecks that prevent its growth, perhaps by integrating cycling policies into wider sustainable mobility and traffic calming policies. Among these actions, improving links between bicycles and public transport (PT) could play a significant role. This is the subject of the Bicycle-PT research project that is currently being developed by the authors at the University of Seville and founded by the Regional Government. The main aim ofXXI. this project is to diagnose present links and to evaluate the potential market for bicycle-PT intermodality in the entire metropolitan area, as well as to make specific proposals for its development. For this purpose, the authors use a geographic information system (GIS) based methodology, combined with information provided by mobility and opinion surveys."

Ricardo Marqués, Manuel Calvo-Salazar, Vicente Hernández-Herrador, Javier Herrera-Sánchez, Manuel López-Peña, Manual Metodológico para el desarrollo de la intermodalidad bicicleta-transporte público en áreas metropolitanas (Bicicleta-TP). Consejería de Fomento y Vivienda de la Junta de Andalucía, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, 2015, 120 p. [formato PDF, 17,5 MB]. "Este manual tiene como objetivo mostrar las diferentes posibilidades de intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP junto con sus principales características y potencialidades, así como desarrollar una metodología para la elaboración, desarrollo y seguimiento de planes de fomento de la intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP en las áreas metropolitanas de nuestro país, en las que tanto el uso de la bicicleta como modo de transporte como la propia la intermodalidad Bicicleta-TP presentan aún un grado de desarrollo incipiente."

Jože P. Damijan, Aleš Groznik, Bogdan Zgonc (Univ. Ljubljana), Analiza tveganj povezanih z neizgradnjo II. tira Koper – Divača in možnih alternativ. (Analysis of the risks associated with the construction of the II. track Koper - Divača and possible alternatives). Center poslovne odličnosti Ekonomske fakultete, Ljubljana, november 2015, 109 p. [formato PDF, 4,10 MB]. "The study provides answers to the key questions of risks of non-construction of a second track on the Koper - Divača line, alternatives and economic viability and appropriate funding models for the project." "Odmikanje začetka gradnje drugega tira Koper – Divača (DK2) prinaša za slovensko logistično panogo resna tveganja glede možnosti dolgoročnega razvoja. Obstoječi prvi tir (DK1), bo kljub pravkar končani modernizaciji in nadaljevanju modernizacije z izgradnjo izvlečnega tira v Kopru, ob nadaljevanju sedanje dinamike pretovora v Luki Koper popolnoma izkoriščen že do leta 2019 ali najkasneje leta 2022. Po doseženi točki saturacije obstoječega prvega tira se bo pretežni del (okrog 80%) tovora, ki bi bil sicer namenjen v Luko Koper, preusmeril v sosednja pristanišča (predvsem v Trst in Reko), preostali (manjši) del tovora, ki bo vseeno prišel v koprsko pristanišče, pa se bo preusmeril na ceste."

Masterplan Gehen. Strategie zur Förderung der FußgängerInnen in Österreich. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft,Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft; Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien, 2015, 60 p. [formato PDF, 8,42 MB]. "The Master Plan for Walking provides a new national strategic framework for the promotion of walking in Austria. Its aim is to increase the share of walking. The Master Plan for Walking makes important contributions to the Climate Change Act, the National Action Plan on Physical Activity and the Overall Transport Plan. With the Master Plan, Austria contributes to the implementation of important international agreements such as the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP, WHO, UNECE) and the Health and Environment Action Plan for Children. The aim of the Master Plan for Walking is to address all aspects of walking. Therefore, 10 fields of action have been defined: I. Increased cooperation and coordination: for pooling of forces with a view to motivation, information and the relevant activities. II. Promotion of mobility management to increase the amount of walking so as to create incentive systems for walking and provide increased support for walking. III. Infrastructure improvement and investment initiative to make the conditions for walking considerably more attractive and to reduce barriers. IV. Pedestrian-friendly transport, settlement and urban planning, to establish compact spatial structures and short distances, to promote mixed structures and to strengthen local economies and local shops. V. Pedestrian-friendly transport organisation and improved road safety, to create and ensure pedestrian-friendly framework conditions. VI. Optimisation of connections to other transport modes, to make use of synergy effects and to strengthen the entire eco-mobility system. VII. Information systems and awareness raising, to provide appropriate information for walking and raise awareness about the benefits of walking. VIII. Research, for innovations and intelligent technologies to support walking. IX. Education and training, to firmly establish long-term sustainability in pedestrian route planning and in the promotion of walking. X. Data and monitoring, for a realistic and comprehensive representation of walking in statistics."

Jacob Mason, Lew Fulton, Zane McDonald, A Global High Shift Cycling Scenario. The Potential for Dramatically Increasing Bicycle and E-bike Use in Cities Around the World, with Estimated Energy, CO2, and Cost Impacts. ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy) and University of California, Davis, 12 November 2015, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,50 MB]. Research commissioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF), and the Bicycle Product Suppliers Association (BPSA). "This report presents a new look at the future of cycling for urban transportation (rather than recreation), and the potential contribution it could make to mobility as well as sustainability. The results show that a world with a dramatic increase in cycling could save society US$24 trillion cumulatively between 2015 and 2050, and cut CO2 emissions from urban passenger transport by nearly 11 percent in 2050 compared to a High Shift scenario without a strong cycling emphasis."

Felix Creutzig, Patrick Jochem, Oreane Y. Edelenbosch, Linus Mattauch, Detlef P. van Vuuren, David McCollum, Jan Minx, Transport: A roadblock to climate change mitigation? Urban mobility solutions foster climate mitigation. Science, 20 November 2015, Vol. 350 no. 6263 pp. 911-912 (2 p.) + Supplementary Materials [formato PDF, 182+351 kB]. "Global emissions scenarios studies, such as those informing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), highlight the importance of the transport sector for climate change mitigation—along with the difficulties of achieving deep reductions therein (1) [supplementary materials (SM)]. Transport is responsible for about 23% of total energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide (2). The sector is growing more rapidly than most others, with emissions projected to double by 2050. Global scenario studies, specifically those produced by integrated assessment models (IAMs), communicate aggregate mitigation potentials by sectors in IPCC reports. Yet recent evidence indicates that emissions may be reduced further than these global scenario studies suggest—if policy-makers use the full suite of policies at their disposal."

Prithvi Vijaya Simha, Disruptive Innovation on Two Wheels: Electrification of the Humble Bike. The case of E-Bikes in China. 2015, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,83 MB].

Martin Weiss, Peter Dekker, Alberto Moro, Harald Scholz, Martin K. Patel, On the electrification of road transportation. A review of the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, Transportation Research Part D 41 (2015) 348–366 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 758 kB]. Open Access. "Electrification is widely considered as a viable strategy for reducing the oil dependency and environmental impacts of road transportation. In pursuit of this strategy, most attention has been paid to electric cars. However, substantial, yet untapped, potentials could be realized in urban areas through the large-scale introduction of electric two-wheelers. Here, we review the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, demonstrating that these are generally more energy efficient and less polluting than conventionallypowered motor vehicles. Electric two-wheelers tend to decrease exposure to pollution as their environmental impacts largely result from vehicle production and electricity generation outside of urban areas. Our analysis suggests that the price of e-bikes has been decreasing at a learning rate of 8%. Despite price differentials of 5000 ± 1800 EUR2012 kW h-1 in Europe, e-bikes are penetrating themarket because they appear to offer an apparent additional use value relative to bicycles. Mid-size and large electric two-wheelers do not offer such an additional use value compared to their conventional counterparts and constitute niche products at price differentials of 700 ± 360 EUR2012 kW h-1 and 160 ± 90 EUR2012 kW h-1, respectively. The large-scale adoption of electric two-wheelers can reduce traffic noise and road congestion but may necessitate adaptations of urban infrastructure and safety regulations. A case-specific assessment as part of an integrated urban mobility planning that accounts, e.g., for the local electricity mix, infrastructure characteristics, and mode-shift behavior, should be conducted before drawing conclusions about the sustainability impacts of electric two-wheelers."

Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Apaar Bansal, Adam Cohen (UC Berkeley), Shared Mobility: Definitions, Industry Developments, and Early Understanding. [White paper]. Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, November 2015, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]. "Shared mobility – the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other mode – is an innovative transportation strategy that enables users to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an “as-needed” basis. The term shared mobility includes various forms of carsharing, bikesharing, ridesharing (carpooling and vanpooling), and on-demand ride services. It can also include alternative transit services, such as paratransit, shuttles, and private transit services, called microtransit, which can supplement fixed-route bus and rail services. With many new options for mobility emerging, so have the smartphone “apps” that aggregate these options and optimize routes for travelers. In addition to innovative travel modes, new ways of transporting and delivering goods have emerged. These “courier network services” have the potential to change the nature of the package and food delivery industry. Shared mobility has had a transformative impact on many global cities by enhancing transportation accessibility, while simultaneously reducing driving and personal vehicle ownership. A number of environmental, social, and transportation-related benefits have been reported due to the use of various shared mobility modes. Several studies have documented the reduction of vehicle usage, ownership, and vehicle miles or kilometers traveled (VMT/VKT). More research is needed, nevertheless, to further understand impacts on a city and regional level and across the wide range of shared mobility modes. Shared mobility could also extend the catchment area of public transit, potentially playing a pivotal role in bridging gaps in existing transportation networks and encouraging multi-modality by addressing the first-and-last mile issue related to public transit access. Furthermore, shared mobility could also provide economic benefits in the form of household cost savings, increased economic activity near public transit stations and multi-modal hubs, and increased access. This white paper includes an introduction and background to different types of shared modes, as well as smartphone-based trip planning apps that can facilitate access to public transit and shared mobility services. This paper also notes where potential benefits of shared mobility could align with the new mission of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), which is to “Provide a safe, sustainable, integrated, and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability” (Caltrans, 2015a). We conclude the paper with a summary and provide an appendix with a glossary of terms and a list of the shared mobility models, including a range of companies in each sector."

José I. Castillo-Manzano, Mercedes Castro-Nuño, Lourdes López Valpuesta (University of Seville, Spain) The relationship between public and private bicycle use: the case of Seville, RSAI/ERSA 2015 Barcelona Workshop on Regional and Urban Economics, 26th-27th November 2015, University of Barcelona, 21 p. [formato PDF, 503 kB] "Despite the success achieved by Public Bicycle Sharing Systems (PBSS) across the world, several researchers provide evidence on their limitations and constraints in a medium-long term, and bicycle ownership may be considered as a complementary tool to promote a 'bicycle-culture'. This paper aims to cover the gap about the interaction between both systems (public bicycle / private bicycle) and which are the key aspects to explain the bicycle-buying decision. After a fieldwork based on surveys conducted in Seville (Spain), one of the cities currently acknowledged worldwide for its successful policy of promoting cycling, we apply a Discrete Choice Model. Our findings show that among the socio-demographic factors that favor the move from the PBSS to the private bicycle are: having a higher level of education, being more progressive ideologically-speaking, and being a resident of the city itself; while age and gender do not appear to be conclusive. Experienced users, for whom the bicycle is a part of his /her healthy lifestyle, state a greater willingness to buy a bicycle. And the main obstacles to make the jump from the PBSS to the private bicycle, and that any action plan to support private bicycle usage should take into account, are: the lack of proper parking at the origin/destination, and fear of theft."

Helen Sampson, Michael Bloor, Susan Baker and Katrin Dahlgren, Greener shipping? A consideration of the issues associated with the introduction of emission control areas. Maritime Policy and Management, 2015 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 366 kB]. Open Access. "This paper draws upon original research undertaken in the United Kingdom and Sweden. It considers the enforcement of regulations associated with the limitation of air emissions from shipping. Specifically, it considers the enforcement of regulations pertaining to the Baltic and North Sea emission control areas (ECAs). The paper outlines the steps that have been taken to ensure vessel compliance in these ECAs. It describes the effectiveness of such enforcement as well as current limitations and gives specific emphasis to the views of vessel operators. The paper ends with a series of recommendations that have been arrived at following discussion of the research findings with a select group of industry experts."

Julien Brunet, Alena Kotelnikova, Jean-Pierre Ponssard, The deployment of BEV and FCEV in 2015. California, Germany, France, Japan, Denmark. [Research Report]. Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, September 2015, 56 p. [formato PDF, 3,26 MB]. "In Europe the transport sector contributes about 25% of total GHG emissions, 75% of which come from road transport. Contrarily to industrial emissions road emissions have increased over the period 1990-2015 in OECD countries: California (+26%), Germany (0%), France (+12%), Japan (+2%), Denmark (+30%). The number of registered vehicles on road in these countries amounts respectively to: California (33 million), Germany (61.5 million), France (38 million), Japan (77 million), Denmark (4 million). Even if these numbers are not expected to grow in the future this calls for major programs to reduce the corresponding GHG emissions in order to achieve the global GHG targets for 2050. The benefits from these programs will spread out to non OECD countries in which road emissions are bound to increase. Programs to promote zero emissions vehicles (ZEV) effectively started in the 2000’s through public private partnerships involving government agencies, manufacturers, utilities and fuel companies. These partnerships provided subsidies for R&D, pilot programs and infrastructure. Moreover, technical norms for emissions, global requirements for the portfolio of sales for manufacturers, rebates on the purchasing price for customers as well as various perks (driving bus lanes, free parking, etc.) are now in place. These multiple policy instruments constitute powerful incentives to orient the strategies of manufacturers and to stimulate the demand for ZEV. The carbon tax on the distribution of fossil fuels, whenever it exists, remains low and, at this stage, cannot be considered as an important driving force. The cases studies reveal important differences for the deployment of battery electric vehicle (BEV) versus fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). BEV is leading the game with a cheaper infrastructure investment cost and a lower cost for vehicle. The relatively low autonomy makes BEV mostly suited for urban use, which is a large segment of the road market. The current level of BEV vehicles on roads starts to be significant with California (70,000), Germany (25,000), France (31,000), Japan (608,000) Denmark (3,000), but they remain very low relative to the targets for 2020: California (1.5 million), Germany (1 million), France (2 million), Japan (0.8-1.1 million for ZEV new registrations), Denmark (0.25 million). The developments and efficiency gains in battery technology along with subsidies for battery charging public stations are expected to facilitate the achievement of the growth. The relative rates of equipment (number of publicly available stations / number of BEV) provide indirect evidence on the effort made in the different countries: California (3%), Germany (12%), France (28%), Japan (11%), and Denmark (61%). In some countries public procurement plays a significant role. In France Autolib (publicly available cars in towns) represents a large share of the overall BEV deployment (12%), and the government recently announced a 50% target for low emissions in all public vehicles new equipment. FCEV is still in an early deployment stage due to a higher infrastructure investment cost and a higher cost for vehicle. The relatively high autonomy combined with speed refueling make FCEV mostly suited for long distance and interurban usage. At present there are only a very limited numbers of HRS deployed: California (28), Germany (15), France (6), Japan (31), Japan (7), Denmark (7), and only a few units of H2 vehicles on road: California (300), Germany (125), France (60), Japan (7), Denmark (21). However, a detailed analysis of the current road maps suggests that FCEV has a large potential. Targets for the 2025-2030 horizons are significant in particular in Germany (4% in 2030), Denmark (4.5% in 2025) and Japan (15-20% for ZEV new registrations in 2020). The California ARB has recently redefined its program (subsidies and mandates) to provide higher incentives for FCEV. France appears to focus on specialized regional submarkets to promote FCEV (such as the use of H2 range extending light utility vehicles). The financing of the H2 infrastructure appears as a bottleneck for FCEV deployment. Roadmaps address this issue through progressive geographical expansion (clusters) and a high level of public subsidies hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in particular in all countries except France. At this stage of BEV and FCEV do not appear as direct competitors; they address distinct market segments. Unexpected delays in the development of infrastructure in FCEV, possible breakthroughs in battery technology, and the promotion of national champions may change the nature of this competition, making it more intense in the future."

Anna Creti, Alena Kotelnikova, Guy Meunier, Jean-Pierre Ponssard, A cost benefit analysis of fuel cell electric vehicles. [Research Report]. Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, February 2015, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,33 MB]. "This study develops a consistent framework to compare FCEV with gasoline ICE (ignition combustion engine) and applies this framework to the German market over the period 2015-2050. As such it provides for: - The formulation of a proper cost benefit analysis, including the definition of the abatement cost for the hydrogen technology; - The simulation of the results under various technological and cost assumptions; - The identification of the major conceptual issues to facilitate analytical developments. The sources used in the analysis are based on an update of previous industry studies. The main conclusion is that FCEV could be a socially beneficial alternative for decarbonizing part of the projected German car park at the horizon 2050. The corresponding abatement cost would fall in the range of 50 €/t CO2 to 60 €/t CO2. This range is higher than the current estimate for the normative cost of carbon as expressed in Quinet (2009 and 2013), which is around 30€/t in 2015. Still the gap is not out of hand. We identify the market and cost conditions that would shorten the gap. The methodology used in this study could be expanded to integrate two pending issues noted in the literature for the successful deployment of FCEV: - Making the deployment for FCEV endogenous and depending on the public and private instruments that could induce the decreasing of costs and the acceptance of the FCEV technology by consumers. - Designing an appropriate institutional framework to promote cooperation for manufacturing FCEV, producing carbon free H2 and investing in the distribution of H2. The initial sunk costs necessary for investment cannot be recouped through pure market equilibrium behavior. This study already provides an order of magnitude to quantify these issues."

Francesco Ferrero, Guido Perboli, Andrea Vesco, Valeria Caiati, Luca Gobbato, Car-sharing services - part A, Taxonomy and annotated review. (Research papers CIRRELT-2015-47). CIRRELT, Montréal, Canada, September 2015, 44 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB].

Francesco Ferrero, Guido Perboli, Andrea Vesco, Stefano Musso, Andrea Pacifici, Car-sharing services - part B, Business and service models. (Research papers CIRRELT-2015-48). CIRRELT, Montréal, Canada, September 2015, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,40 MB].

Susan Shaheen, Lauren Cano, Madonna Camel (University of California at Berkeley), Exploring Electric Vehicle Carsharing as a Mobility Option for Older Adults: A Case Study of a Senior Adult Community in the San Francisco Bay Area International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2015 (44 p.) [formato PDF, 688 kB]. [Researchgate]. "By the year 2030, 57 million people will be over the age of 65 in the United States. Baby Boomers drive approximately 17% more than other age groups and are active well past retirement. This paper examines electric vehicle (EV) carsharing (short-term vehicle access) as a future alternative to vehicle ownership for older adults living on fixed incomes in a gated community to provide reduced cost mobility and eliminate vehicle maintenance hassles. The authors conducted a study of the response to the EV carsharing concept in a senior community in Northern California, between Winter 2009 and Spring 2011, to gauge early adoption potential. The study consisted of in-depth interviews (n = 7), four focus groups (n = 31), and survey data collection (n = 443) with residents of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community in Walnut Creek, California. Eighty-three percent of survey respondents drive short distances often (eight kilometers (km) five times/month); 100% of interview participants plan their trips in advance; and 77% of focus group subjects made changes to their driving behavior due to high fuel prices. These findings are indicators that an EV carsharing program could potentially complement travel patterns and price sensitivity. Finally, the survey results indicate that 30% of all respondents were interested in participating in an EV carsharing program, while 36% were “maybe” interested. If the carsharing fleet also contained non-EVs, 71% of community-wide survey participants were interested or “maybe” interested in participation. Inclusion of EVs and non-EVs in the carsharing fleet would likely increase interest and participation overall."

Philippe Lebeau, Cathy Macharis, Joeri Van Mierlo, Kenneth Lebeau (Vrije Universiteit Brussel), Electrifying light commercial vehicles for city logistics? A total cost of ownership analysis. EJTIR (European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research) Issue 15(4), 2015, pp. 551-569 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 693 kB]. Open Access. "Different measures are considered by the authorities to tackle the negative impacts of city logistics. Among them, battery electric vehicles are seen as a promising solution, but high purchase cost represents an important barrier to their adoption. However, these vehicles benefit also from low operational costs. This different cost structure between electric and conventional vehicles makes therefore a comprehensive cost analysis necessary for fleet managers who want to assess the real competitiveness of the vehicles. Hence, we developed a total cost of ownership model to assess the competitiveness of quadricycles and light commercial vehicles for freight transport companies. This paper presents the results for 7 battery electric vehicles, 5 diesel vehicles and 3 petrol vehicles. The results of a sensitivity analysis explored also the possible measures that can support their competitiveness. The model shows that battery electric vehicles have a better competitive position than petrol vehicles but they do not compete yet with diesel vehicles. A sensitivity analysis shows however that their total cost of ownership can become lower than diesel vehicles depending on their utilization, future market conditions or government support. Still, electric quadricycles appear to be currently an affordable solution for transport operators to adopt electric vehicles since their total costs of ownership is lower than diesel light commercial vehicles."

Tim Schwanen (Univ. of Oxford), Beyond instrument: smartphone app and sustainable mobility. EJTIR (European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research) 15(4), 2015, 675-690 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 352 kB] "The rise of smartphones and mobile applications (apps) is of major importance to multiple recent innovations in sustainable urban mobility, including car sharing schemes and real-time information provision in public transport, as well as the recent surge in urban cycling. Yet, exactly how apps feature in these innovations and trends remains largely unclear. This paper argues that this lack of understanding reflects not only the rapid pace of developments in apps and their technical functionalities but also gaps in academics’ conceptualization of the nature of apps and their effects. Too easily and often are apps seen as mere instruments for the realisation of human-centred goals and intentions, or are their capacities and effects assumed to emerge from the webs of relations in which apps and smartphones are enmeshed. An alternative conceptualisation is therefore proposed, one that is informed principally by the object-oriented approach developed by philosopher Graham Harman. After summarising some of Harman’s original concepts and developing his account of power, the paper elaborates a series of ideas and recommendations about how the developed conceptual framework can be deployed in empirical research on the interactions between apps and physical mobility in the city."

Philipp Aeschbach, Xiaojing Zhang, Angelos Georghiou, and John Lygeros (ETH Zurich), Balancing Bike Sharing Systems through Customer Cooperation – A Case Study on London’s Barclays Cycle Hire. Paper, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Osaka, Japan, Dec 15-18, 2015, 6 p. [formato PDF, 812 kB]. "A growing number of cities worldwide have been installing public bike sharing systems, offering citizens a flexible and green alternative of mobility. In most bike sharing systems, customers rent and return bikes at different stations, without prior notification of the system operator. As a consequence, bike systems often become unbalanced, leaving some stations either completely empty or full. In such a case, customers either cannot pick up or return their bikes, resulting in a low service level. Typically, system operators employ staff to manually relocate bikes using trucks, leading to considerable operational cost. In this paper, we describe various methods to balance bike sharing systems by actively engaging customers in the balancing process. In particular, we show that by appropriately sending "control signals" to customers requesting them to slightly change their intended journeys, bike sharing systems can be balanced without using staffed trucks. Our results can be used to determine the minimum fraction of cooperative customers required to generate a desired minimum service level. They can also be used as a benchmark when designing reward programs to incentivize customer cooperation. Using extensive simulations based on historical data from London’s Barclays Cycle Hire scheme, we show that simple control signals are sufficient to effectively balance the bike sharing system and offer service rates close to 100%."

Rolf Hagman, Christian Weber, Astrid Helene Amundsen, Utslipp fra nye kjøretøy – holder de hva de lover? Avgassmålinger Euro 6/VI - status 2015 (Emissions from new vehicles – trustworthy? Euro 6/VI vehicle technology – 2015 status). (TØI rapport 1407/2015). Transportøkonomisk Institutt/Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, 2015, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB]. Text in Norwegian, English summary. "The air quality in several Norwegian cities don’t comply with the limit values for NO2. The EFTA control body, ESA, has criticised Norway for allowing high concentrations of NO2 and for not doing enough to reduce the problems. On behalf of TØI, VTT in Finland performed exhaust emission tests in a certified laboratory. The tests show that buses and Heavy Duty Vehicles, HDV with new Euro VI certified engines have very low emissions of Nitrous Oxide, NOx and exhaust Particulate Matter, PM. The reductions are over 90 % compared with earlier generations of HDVs. New Euro 6 light vehicles with diesel engines still have a problem with high emissions of NOX. New knowledge make it possible to implement more accurate measures, when reducing emissions of NOX and PM from road traffic is needed."

Erik Figenbaum, Marika Kolbenstvedt, Competitive Electric Town Transport. Main results from COMPETT – an Electromobility+ project. (TØI Report 1422/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 142 p. [formato PDF, 6,27 MB]. "The main research question of the Electromobility+ project COMPETT was: “How can e-vehicles come into use to a greater degree?”. The project investigated the e-vehicle market, travel behaviour of drivers, cost of vehicles, the effectiveness of incentives, did case studies in Norway and Austria, measured noise of these vehicles and developed the SERAPIS model. Factors influencing e-vehicle sales are: Customers values and attitudes, knowledge, the vehicles practicality and relative advantage, policies and incentives. Barrier are cost, range, awareness, infrastructure availability and charge time. Most daily travel can be done with BEVs and multi vehicle households and fleets adopt them easily. Most owners charge at home. Awareness raising is essential in the initial phase of deployment. Incentives can be effective in increasing sales when implemented as a stable framework, but can also burden government budgets. Smart policies can reduce that burden."

Erik Figenbaum, Marika Kolbenstvedt, Pathways to electromobility - perspectives based on Norwegian experiences. (TØI Report 1420/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 82 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "The report presents two analyses of the Norwegian Electric Vehicle (EV) story. The first one is using the multi-level perspective (MLP) framework to investigate how the interaction of events in and between the niche, regime and landscape levels, shaped the Norwegian EV policies that led to the world’s fastest diffusion of EVs. The second one looks at user adoption from a socio-technical perspective. A long-term evolving political framework built up piece by piece by many actors and with an ability to maintain stability and focus over long time periods, seem to be ways to success. EVs qualities, incentives giving relative advantages and increased availability of vehicles were effective diffusion mechanisms. The process started in urban regions but is now covering other locations as well. Technology development leading to longer range and lower prices should make it easier for other countries to choose between the many incentives tested in Norway and develop their own packages."

Nils Fearnley, Paul Pfaffenbichler, Erik Figenbaum and Reinhard Jellinek, E-vehicle policies and incentives - assessment and recommendations. (TØI Report 1421/2015). Institute of Transport Economics/Transportøkonomisk Institutt, Oslo, August 2015, 122 p. [formato PDF, 4,14 MB]. "The report describes incentives for electromobility across Europe. A dynamic car fleet and propulsion technology model, SERAPIS, is built and used as basis for economic assessments of different e-vehicle incentives in Norway and Austria. A scenario analysis illustrates the importance of the supply side and technological development."

Rod Brown, Gustavo O. Collantes, Anthony R. Eggert, Susan L. Handy, Jeff Kessler, Chuck Shulock, Julie Witcover, Sonia Yeh, Achieving California’s Greenhouse Gas Goals: A Focus on Transportation. (Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-15-14). Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 2015, 114 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "This report focuses on the core suite of policies adopted by the State of California to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation as part of the AB 32 Scoping Plan."

Kerstin Robertson (VTI), Comparison of the EU’s Sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) and the Swedish planning support Transport for an attractive city (TRAST). (VTI rapport 844A). Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, 2015, 37 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. "The planning support developed in the EU’s Sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) and the Swedish planning support system Transport for an attractive city (TRAST) aims at developing sustainable transport in cities. Both systems include the formulation of one or more plans and support for the planning process. This analysis and comparison of SUMP and TRAST is based on the SUMP Guidelines, the two main TRAST Handbooks and the TRAST Guide. The comparison is structured in accordance with the SUMP Steps. This comparison showed that identical or similar areas and requirements are addressed in SUMP and TRAST regarding the planning process. Both SUMP and TRAST include instructions in the form of guidelines that must be interpreted and translated into a plan, practical planning and actions by cities. TRAST, however, also includes handbooks and guides with suggestions, discussions and examples of measures, actions and policies. TRAST is furthermore developed for integrated implementation with spatial planning. Implementation of both TRAST and SUMP is supported through projects and networking, e.g. for facilitating exchange of experiences between cities."

Fabian Gorke, Governing the Sharing. Sharing Economy on the Verge of Becoming a Public Policy Issue. Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster / University of Twente, Münster, 23.09.2015, 34 p. [formato PDF, 771 kB]. "The paper is structured as follows: First, the theoretical framework is outlined. It starts with a theoretical depiction of Sharing Economy thereby defining central characteristics. Subsequently, the analytical tool of the policy cycle is explained as well as the mechanisms and ideas of partisan theory. Second, the research design and method are introduced discussing the choice of cases, units of analysis and categories. It is further outlined how the empirical analysis is conducted. Third, the results of the content analysis are described and the status quo of the share of votes among the governmental parties is presented. Then, the results of Germany and the United Kingdom and the respective partisan situation are compared, discussed and put in relation to the theoretical framework. Last, the paper is completed with a concluding remark."

Shannon Sahlqvist, Anna Goodman, Tim Jones, Jane Powell, Yena Song, David Ogilvie and on behalf of the iConnect consortium, Mechanisms underpinning use of new walking and cycling infrastructure in different contexts: mixed-method analysis, Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. (2015) 12:24 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. Open Access. "BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effects of infrastructural improvements to promote walking and cycling. Even fewer have explored how the context and mechanisms of such interventions may interact to produce their outcomes. METHODS: This mixed-method analysis forms part of the UK iConnect study, which aims to evaluate new walking and cycling routes at three sites - Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton. Applying a complementary follow-up approach, we first identified differences in awareness and patterns of use of the infrastructure in survey data from a cohort of adult residents at baseline in spring 2010 (n?=?3516) and again one (n?=?1849) and two (n?=?1510) years later following completion of the infrastructural projects (Analysis 1). We subsequently analysed data from 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants to understand how the new schemes might influence walking and cycling (Analysis 2a). In parallel, we analysed cohort survey data on environmental perceptions (Analysis 2b). We integrated these two datasets to interpret differences across the sites consistent with a theoretical framework that hypothesised that the schemes would improve connectivity and the social environment. RESULTS: After two years, 52% of Cardiff respondents reported using the infrastructure compared with 37% in Kenilworth and 22% in Southampton. Patterns of use did not vary substantially between sites. 17% reported using the new infrastructure for transport, compared with 39% for recreation. Environmental perceptions at baseline were generally unfavourable, with the greatest improvements in Cardiff. Qualitative data revealed that all schemes had a recreational focus to varying extents, that the visibility of schemes to local people might be an important mechanism driving use and that the scale and design of the schemes and the contrast they presented with existing infrastructure may have influenced their use. CONCLUSIONS: The dominance of recreational uses may have reflected the specific local goals of some of the projects and the discontinuity of the new infrastructure from a satisfactory network of feeder routes. Greater use in Cardiff may have been driven by the mechanisms of greater visibility and superior design features within the context of an existing environment that was conducive neither to walking or cycling nor to car travel."

Dejan Makovšek, Richard Bullock, Jürgen Sorgenfrei, Divača – Koper 2nd track – risks and options. International Transport Forum, presentation, Ljubljana, 10 September 2015, 34 slides [formato PDF, 742 kB]. "ITF/OECD studied financial, technical, social and economic aspects of the investment and related risks, mostly from the aspect of demand, further development of port capacities and future throughput (considering current throughput, condition of infrastructure, international transport flows and forecasts, alternative corridors etc.). Their conclusion was that the project carries a high level of risk. In the study, ITF/OECD investigated in detail several possible models to alleviate some risk by involvement of the private sector as a PPP. To achieve this objective, they are seeking for a solution, which would enable private investors the recovery of financial costs in the long run and would not significantly influence the situation of public finances. Simulations of growth potential for the port in Koper show the need for additional connecting capacities for railway transport between the years 2018–2028 (depending on the actual growth of throughput in the following years). ITF/OECD suggests the construction of an off-port - inland terminal (e.g. in Divaca). The off-port terminal concept would enable undisturbed and accelerated throughput growth (particularly of containers) and thus accelerated the growth of the port. Also, this would buy time before the final solution on the section Divaca–Koper is found. With throughput growth in the following years, the demand risk would significantly decrease and the feasibility of construction of the second track would increase."

Ipek Gençsü and Miyuki Hino, Raising Ambition to Reduce International Aviation and Maritime Emissions. Working Paper. Contributing paper for Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2015, 24 p. [formato PDF, 849 kB]. "Global aviation and shipping together produce about 5% of global CO2 emissions, and by 2050 this is expected to rise to 10–32%. Yet these sectors offer some of the most costeffective emission reductions available today, particularly through improved fuel efficiency. There is a 27% difference in the fuel efficiency of the least and most fuel-efficient US airlines, and the most efficient crude oil tankers are about one-fifth as fuel-intensive as the least efficient. While domestic aviation and shipping are covered under national policies and emissions inventories, international aviation and shipping, which make up the majority of emissions, are not. Two specialised UN agencies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), govern international aviation and shipping activities, and are therefore best placed to drive further action. While ICAO has committed to introducing measures to cap net emissions at 2020 levels, and new IMO design efficiency standards for new ships are expected to lead to efficiency gains that will save an average of US$200 billion in annual fuel costs by 2030, progress in both sectors has been slow. The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate recommends that emissions from the international aviation and maritime sectors be reduced in line with a 2°C pathway through action under ICAO and the IMO. ICAO should take a decision in 2016 to start implementation of a market-based measure (MBM) from 2020, and should also introduce a stringent aircraft CO2 standard. The IMO should adopt a global emission reduction target, and promote fuel saving through strong operational efficiency standards and a supporting data-sharing system. These measures could help reduce annual GHG emissions by 0.6–0.9 Gt CO2e by 2030".

Iderlina Mateo-Babiano (The University of Queensland), Public Bicycle Sharing in Asian Cities. Paper, The 11th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, September 11-14, 2015, Cebu City, Philippines, 15 p. [formato PDF, 222 kB]. "Public bicycle sharing programs (PBSPs) is gaining worldwide attention as an important climate-smart, active transport alternative. Despite becoming permanent fixtures in the urban landscape of the West, PBSP implementation in Asia, except for China, has been relatively dismal. Many of the pilot models have been adaptation of Western examples that do not appropriately fit the distinct physical, cultural, economic and political context of Asia-Pacific cities (e.g. diverse set of land uses, the relatively dense urban centres and formal/informal transport interaction). This research explores the glocalisation of bikesharing schemes in five selected Asia cities. Drawing upon a systematic review of literature, this paper aims to building the evidence base to increase our understanding of PBSPs implementation as an important first step in planning for a low carbon society and advance the limited information to effectively inform low-carbon planning and policy especially from the perspective of active transport within the Asian context."

Jinn-Tsai Wong, Chun-Yen Cheng, Exploring Activity Patterns of The Taipei Public Bikesharing System. Paper, The 11th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, September 11-14, 2015, Cebu City, Philippines, 17 p. [formato PDF, 580 kB]. "This paper presents the insights of imbalanced public bicycle distributions, i.e. unable to pick up/return bikes due to empty/full stations through the analysis of spatio-temporal activity patterns of bike stations. YouBike, the public bikesharing system of Taipei City was examined. Taking advantage of Open Data policy, the changes of the number of available bikes across all stations were collected to identify station activity patterns. The relationship between spatial characteristics and station activity patterns were explored. The clustering results indicate that station activity patterns could be categorised into three groups and each reveals different activity patterns throughout the day. The visualisation of average temporal activity patterns and clustered groups are illustrated as well. Such results could provide better understanding of bikesharing usage and the underlying temporal and spatial dynamics of a city."

Ben Shaw, Martha Bicket, Bridget Elliott, Ben Fagan-Watson and Elisabetta Mocca, with Mayer Hillman, Children’s Independent Mobility: an international comparison and recommendations for action. Policy Studies Institute, University of Westminster, London, July 2015, 92 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "The study documents and compares children’s independent mobility in 16 countries across the world. It reviews the policy responses that have been made and how these could be developed to respond to the levels of independent mobility observed."

Charles Raux, Ayman Zoubir (LET, University of Lyon), Who are bike sharing schemes members and how they travel daily? The case of the Lyon's "Velo'v" scheme. (HAL Id: halshs-01193169). 2015, 17 p. [formato PDF, 602 kB]. "This paper analyzes the socio-demographic profile and travel behavior of the “Velov” bikesharing scheme members in Lyon (France). This scheme started in 2005 and has now around 350 stations and 4500 bikes in operation, with more than 50,000 annual members. Thanks to a specific Internet-based survey more than 3,000 respondents were described by their detailed socio-demographic profile, their travel means and habits, a one-day activity-travel diary and additionally a seven days activity-travel diary log by around 700 volunteers. By this way the survey covers all travel modes and day-to-day variations in travel behavior beyond the sole use of shared bike. We analyze with a discrete choice model the socio-demographic and spatial factors affecting the probability of being an annual member of the Velov scheme. Then we explore with descriptive statistics their daily travel behavior involving as well bike sharing as other traditional modes. When possible this behavior is compared with the latest Household Travel Survey available in the Lyon area (2006). Velov annual members are rather younger and hold higher social positions when compared with the Lyon’s reference population. An individual higher social position and the residential proximity to stations have both separate and positive effects on the probability of being an annual member of the service. Velov members are not captive from public transport, they have access to a car and they are fully multimodal in their day-to-day travel behavior. Velo’v bikes are used by them for any activity, not necessarily every day, like any other travel mode."

Eva Fraedrich, Sven Beiker, Barbara Lenz, Transition pathways to fully automated driving and its implications for the sociotechnical system of automobility. Review Article. Eur J Futures Res (2015) 3:11 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,30 MB]. Open Access. "The advent of fully automated road vehicles is a topic currently getting attention in the field of transport as well as futures research: the technology is assumed to radically change the way we move in the future as well as to expand and differentiate existing mobility concepts. Still, the implications of automated driving are first and foremost discussed from a technological point of view and uncertainty about how this transition might take place remains. The embedding in the system of automobility respectively the transport system as a whole, currently lacks analytical as well as empirical examination. In our paper, we will discuss the topic in relation to three possible sociotechnical transition scenarios: (1) evolution, (2) revolution and (3) transformation. We will extrapolate different scenarios of automated driving based on current technical, economic, infrastructural, spatial, and transport developments and discuss its consequences for the transport system and mobility concepts."

Marzia Simoni, Sandra Baldacci, Sara Maio, Sonia Cerrai, Giuseppe Sarno, Giovanni Viegi, Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly. Review Article. J Thorac Dis 2015;7(1):34-45 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 321 kB]. "With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Few studies have assessed long-term mortality in the elderly. It is still unclear what are the pollutants most damaging to the health of the elderly. It seems that elderly subjects are more vulnerable to particulate matter (PM) than to other pollutants, with particular effect on daily cardio-respiratory mortality and acute hospital admissions. Not many studies have targeted elderly people specifically, as well as specific respiratory morbidity. Most data have shown higher risks in the elderly compared to the rest of the population. Future epidemiological cohort studies need to keep investigating the health effects of air pollutants (mainly cardiopulmonary diseases) on the elderly."

Paul H. Fischer, Marten Marra, Caroline B. Ameling, Gerard Hoek, Rob Beelen, Kees de Hoogh, Oscar Breugelmans, Hanneke Kruize, Nicole A.H. Janssen, and Danny Houthuijs, Air pollution and mortality in seven million adults: the Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS). Environ Health Perspect 123:697–704, July 2015 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,38 MB]. "BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. METHODS: We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter = 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals = 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004-2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. RESULTS: After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-µg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of = 30 years of age."

Michael Sivak, Brandon Schoettle, Road Safety with Self-Driving Vehicles: General Limitations and Road Sharing with Conventional Vehicles. (Report No. UMTRI-2015-2). The University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan, January 2015, 13 p. [formato PDF, 223 kB]. "Self-driving vehicles are expected to improve road safety, improve the mobility of those who currently cannot use conventional vehicles, and reduce emissions. In this white paper we discuss issues related to road safety with self-driving vehicles. Safety is addressed from the following four perspectives: (1) Can self-driving vehicles compensate for contributions to crash causation by other traffic participants, as well as vehicular, roadway, and environmental factors? (2) Can all relevant inputs for computational decisions be supplied to a self-driving vehicle? (3) Can computational speed, constant vigilance, and lack of distractibility of selfdriving vehicles make predictive knowledge of an experienced driver irrelevant? (4) How would road safety be influenced during the expected long transition period during which conventional and self-driving vehicles would need to interact on the road? The presented arguments support the following conclusions: (1) The expectation of zero fatalities with self-driving vehicles is not realistic. (2) It is not a foregone conclusion that a self-driving vehicle would ever perform more safely than an experienced, middle-aged driver. (3) During the transition period when conventional and self-driving vehicles would share the road, safety might actually worsen, at least for the conventional vehicles."

Kyung-Hwan Kim, Yong-Seok Ko, Dong-Hyung Yook, Dong-Han Kim (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements), An analysis of expected effects of the autonomous vehicles on transport and land use in Korea. Working Paper. NYU, Marron Institute of Urban Management, August 17, 2015, 29 p. [formato PDF, 5,04 MB]. This paper was written for the Marron Institute Conference on Self-Driving Vehicles, which took place on May 28 & 29, 2015 and was convened with support from Google. "This paper aims to examine the existing studies to extract the expected effects of the autonomous vehicle system and quantify its impact on transport and land use through a spatial impact simulation based on South Korean data. The paper starts with a review of the literature with a specific focus on the expected effects of autonomous vehicle on traffic safety, travel demand, roadway capacity, and land use. Secondly, the development stage towards complete autonomous driving is examined with the reviews on projected timeframe as well as optimistic and pessimistic views. The third section specifies the expected effects by applying an analysis to the existing transportation network and the land use pattern in South Korea. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for further studies."

Cristina Di Lucente, Distrazioni fatali. Gli incidenti mortali risultano in vertiginoso aumento nel mese di luglio. Lo rivelano i dati della Stradale: calo dell’attenzione a causa della tecnologia e mancato uso delle cinture sono i motivi più frequenti. Polizia moderna, agosto/settembre 2015, 10-18 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 2,53 MB]. Articolo pubblicato con altri 4 contributi sull'ultimo numero di Poliziamoderna, la rivista ufficiale della Polizia di Stato.

Raffaella Niglio, Pier Paolo Comitale (University of Naples Federico II), Sustainable urban mobility towards smart mobility: the case study of Bari area, Italy. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 2015, 8(2), 219-243 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,18 MB]. Open Access. "In the last decades, sustainable mobility policies have seen a growing interest. Furthermore, in the international debate, this concept has increasingly been linked to the most innovative one of smart mobility, which is part of the more general paradigm of Smart City. This paper discusses primary findings of a Research Project conducted at University of Naples, DICEA, funded by EU (PON REC 04A2_00120 Asse II), “Smart Energy Master – Toward Energy-based approaches for Regional Planning”. The primary goal of the work is to make a review of policies, programs, projects for sustainable urban mobility and of smart mobility solutions in Bari area. The second goal is to make an assessment on trends of urban mobility in order to evaluate its sustainability and smartness. A comforting picture, focused on matching the local strategies to European programs, is shown. Finally, a consideration on how the framework “smart” may improve urban mobility planning is proposed."

Alex Dampier, Marin Marinov (Newcastle University), A Study of the Feasibility and Potential Implementation of Metro-Based Freight Transportation in Newcastle upon Tyne. Urban Rail Transit 2015-08-19 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,81 MB]. Open Access. "This paper discusses the concept of using a metropolitan railway network to transport freight directly to a city centre from the surrounding businesses. Specifically we look in depth at the Tyne and Wear Metro system, situated in Newcastle upon Tyne, to determine if such a scheme would be feasible. Through research into the modes of transport available, along with a review of literature and case studies, it was found that the current method of transporting the majority of freight by road is unsustainable and damaging to both the environment and local communities. Other options for the transportation of freight have been reviewed, and results showed that a modal shift will be necessary in the near future. The system was then modelled using software provided by the Department for Transport, which demonstrated that the implementation of such a scheme would provide vast accident savings, a reduction in the number of casualties on the road, and a monetary saving as a result of the lower casualty rate. The conclusion was reached that the scheme is viable; however, further research and study are necessary before implementation."

Chris Cherry (University of Tennessee), E-bike Safety Research. TRB Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Analysis, January 14, 2015, 17 slides [formato PDF, 3,37 MB].

Peter Viechnicki, Abhijit Khuperkar, Tiffany Dovey Fishman, William D. Eggers, Smart mobility. Reducing congestion and fostering faster, greener, and cheaper transportation options. Deloitte University Press, May 2015, 48 p. [formato PDF, 2,54 MB]. "New business models inspired by the sharing economy and disruptive technologies are ushering in an exciting new age in transportation: the era of smart mobility. The arrival of on-demand ride services like Uber and Lyft, real-time ridesharing services such as Carma and Zimride, carsharing programs such as Zipcar and car2go, bike sharing programs, and thousands of miles of new urban bike lanes are all changing how people get around. Commuters no longer need to own a car to have one at their disposal. They don’t have to pre-arrange carpools to share a ride with others headed in the same direction. They needn’t wait for a ride home when it’s pouring down rain and there’s not an empty cab in sight. For their part, automakers increasingly see themselves as both product manufacturers and mobility services companies. In addition to developing next-generation connected and autonomous vehicles that will improve traffic flows and safety, automakers are investing in a wide swath of new mobility services—everything from carsharing and rental services to multimodal trip-planning apps. There’s no question that consumers have been the primary beneficiaries of new mobility services. The question facing urban planners is how today’s expanded mobility ecosystem can help advance public policy goals such as encouraging higher productivity and reducing congestion, while bringing related benefits such as fewer traffic accidents, better air quality, and a smaller urban footprint for parking. Can alternative transportation modes help metropolitan areas reduce traffic congestion without spending tens of billions of dollars on new roads, tunnels, and light rail? And if so, what are the most promising strategies? Which approaches work best in which cities? How can automakers and transportation officials work together to address changing mobility needs? These are just a few of the questions our analysis attempts to answer. This study takes a data-driven look at what metropolitan areas can gain from expanded mobility ecosystems. We compare alternative approaches from ridesharing to biking, and explore how governments can focus scarce investment dollars on areas where they can do the most good."

Francesca Pirlone, Selena Candia, Cycling as best practice for urban renovation. Study case: The city of Genoa, CSE Journal - City Safety Energy, 1/2015, 79-88 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 2,99 MB]. Open Access. "This paper analysis urban cycling as a fundamental element of sustainable mobility. There are many International examples that clearly show how is possible to evolve modern cities into more livable spaces promoting cycling as a dayli way of trasport. Italy has to learn from other European experiences to ensure a better quality of life to its citizens and to renovate its urban configuration. The authors present different solutions that can be undertaken to boost cycling in Genoa. Several recommendations are reported to do a correct Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan where cycling have to be considered as well as the other mean of transport becoming an essential element for urban development and renovation."

Commission "TET d'avenir", TET: agir pour l'avenir [Rapport Duron sur les trains d'équilibre du territoire (TET)]. Paris, 25 mai 2015, 117 p. [formato PDF, 2,45 MB].

Reinhard Haas, Amela Ajanovic (Vienna University of Technology), On the prospects of increasing energy efficiency in car transport by promoting electric and hydrogen vehicles. eceee Summer Study on energy efficiency, 1-6 June 2015, 8 p. [formato PDF, 2,16 MB]. "Transport is still the end use sector with highest increasing emissions and lowest energy efficiency. Alternative powertrains like electric motors and fuel cells based on electricity and hydrogen are considered as important means to cope with environmental problems in transport. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the market prospects increasing energy efficiency in car transport by promoting battery electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles from a technical energetic and an economic point-of-view in a dynamic framework in an optimistic scenario up to 2050 in comparison to conventional passenger cars. Our method of approach is based on life-cycle-analyses, dynamic economic assessments (incl. technological learning) and price as well as policy scenarios e.g. for taxes. The most important results are: (i) The by far most energy efficient solutions are battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) yet only if the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES) as wind, hydro or PV are used; (ii) energy losses in the Well-to-Wheel chain for providing the energy service mobility will be reduced due to technological progress by 30 % to 50 % up to 2050 with respect to all technologies; (iii) Despite the efficiency gap to conventional cars will become smaller because higher technical improvement potentials for especially hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) exist, also in the long run BEV and FCV will remain the most efficient options; (iv) the major uncertainty regarding BEV and FCV is how fast cost reduction due to Technological Learning will take place especially for batteries and fuel cells; (v) Hybrid electric vehicles are currently the most efficient and most effective fossil fuels-based vehicles; Yet they are not considered as Zero-emission cars proper for driving in cities; (vi) Finally, CO2 costs (e.g. taxation ) will play a crucial role for the final future fuel mix. E.g. Oslo in Norway is a city with one of the highest penetrations of BEVs in the world. One major reason is that – among other incentives – the driving costs of conventional cars are very high compared to rather cheap electricity costs for BEV drivers. This leads to the final conclusion that the most efficient types of vehicles will in future only play a significant role if the proper mix of CO2-taxes, intensified R&D, and corresponding riding down the Learning Curve (e.g. batteries for EVs and fuel cells) as well as non-monetary incentives is implemented timely."

Stephanie Ohshita, Nina Khanna, Gang He, Lixuan Hong, David Fridley and Yong Zhou, Urban form as a “first fuel” for low-carbon mobility in Chinese cities: Strategies for energy and carbon saving in the transport sector. eceee 2015 Summer Study on energy efficiency, Toulon/Hyères, France, June 2015, conference paper, 14 p. [formato PDF, 7,93 MB]. "From a systems perspective, the energy needed for urban mobility is fundamentally influenced by the design of a city, its urban form—the spatial layout, transport infrastructure, and social functions of a city. Thus urban form becomes a “first fuel” for mobility. This research examines the characteristics of urban form and other factors that encourage energy efficient and low-carbon mobility in Chinese cities. The analysis utilizes indicator systems and benchmarking in three tools (BEST Cities, ELITE Cities, and Urban RAM) to characterize and compare urban form and mobility across Chinese and international cities. The tools BEST and ELITE characterize operational energy and carbon, while Urban RAM takes a life-cycle perspective, giving attention to embodied energy in transport and other urban sectors. We highlight policies and infrastructure choices that are yielding results around the world and examine their applicability in Chinese cities, from integrated land-use and transportation planning and urban villages, to public transit investments and vehicle license restrictions. Throughout the paper, we use the city of Jinan in Shandong province, P.R. China, as a case study."

Henrik Andersson, Jan-Erik Swärdh & Mikael Ögren (VTI), Traffic noise effects of property prices: Hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators. (CTS Woorking Paper 2015-11). Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 624 kB]. "Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Piano Strategico Nazionale della Portualità e della Logistica. Roma, luglio 2015, 226 p. [formato PDF, 3,87 MB]. "Il Piano disegna una strategia per il rilancio del settore portuale e logistico da perseguire attraverso il valore aggiunto che il "Sistema Mare" può garantire in termini quantitativi di aumento dei traffici, ed individua azioni di policy a carattere nazionale - sia settoriali che trasversali ai diversi ambiti produttivi, logistici, amministrativi ed infrastrutturali coinvolti - che contribuiranno a far recuperare competitività all'economia del sistema mare in termini di produttività ed efficienza. Il "Sistema Mare" viene presentato come strumento attivo di politica economico commerciale euro-mediterranea, e come fattore di sviluppo e coesione del Mezzogiorno nonché come fattore di sostenibilità, innovazione, sostegno al sistema produttivo del Paese. Nella prima parte si analizzano i profili che condizionano le performance dei porti italiani quali porte di scambio dei sistemi territoriali economico - produttivi e dei consumi. Si analizzano poi gli aspetti legati agli accordi Euro-Mediterranei, gli scenari geo-economici globali di riferimento, l'andamento della domanda dei traffici nei diversi segmenti, l'attuale offerta infrastrutturale e dei servizi. Molto spazio è dedicato poi alla disamina delle vigenti procedure amministrative dei controlli e dello sdoganamento delle merci: una delle principali cause della scarsa competitività internazionale del sistema portuale nazionale. Si evidenzia quindi una normativa eccessivamente complessa e disomogenea, con stratificazione multilivello di iter procedurali, istituzionali ed amministrativi. Infine vengono esposti gli scenari tendenziali di domanda sulla base di analisi macroeconomiche, geopolitiche e sociali, nonché di posizionamento di mercato degli attori di settore e della struttura delle reti distributive, allo scopo di rivedere i possibili cambiamenti dell'organizzazione delle filiere logistiche e trasportistiche. Sulla scorta delle analisi condotte il Piano individua una strategia integrata, con azioni da compiere sia nei porti sia sulla loro accessibilità - da mare e da terra - al fine di potenziare il ruolo dell'Italia nel Mediterraneo e negli scambi internazionali. La strategia è articolata per dieci Obiettivi strategici, declinati al loro interno in specifiche e dettagliate azioni: Semplificazione e snellimento; concorrenza, trasparenza e upgrading dei servizi; miglioramento accessibilità dei collegamenti marittimi; integrazione del sistema logistico; miglioramento delle prestazioni infrastrutturale; innovazione; sostenibilità; certezza e programmabilità delle risorse finanziarie; coordinamento nazionale e confronto partenariale; attualizzazione della governance del sistema. L'attuale assetto della governance portuale è plasmato dalla legge n.84 del 1994, ed ha evidenziato, nel corso degli anni, limiti e distorsioni evidenti. Il Piano individua nella dimensione "mono-scalo" degli organi di governo dei porti uno dei fattori principali su cui intervenire, avendo tale assetto prodotto nel tempo una non efficiente allocazione delle risorse e degli investimenti, anche per l'assenza di una stringente strategia nazionale volta a sviluppare il sistema portuale italiano nel suo complesso. E' quindi proposto un nuovo modello di governance, da realizzarsi attraverso atti legislativi successivi, in ossequio al disposto dell'art. 29 decreto legge 12 settembre 2014, n. 133, cd. "Sblocca Italia", che pone tra gli strumenti serventi alla realizzazione degli obiettivi del Piano la razionalizzazione, il riassetto e l'accorpamento delle Autorità portuali esistenti. In particolare il piano definisce una strategia di intervento ipotizzando l'istituzione di Autorità di Sistema Portuale (AdSP). In prospettiva, il Piano costituirà uno dei piani di settore che andranno a confluire in un documento programmatico più ampio, plurisettoriale e plurimodale, e, segnatamente, nel Documento di Programmazione Pluriennale che il Ministero delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti intende redigere ed approvare entro la fine del corrente anno 2015, secondo il disposto del decreto legislativo n. 228/2011, e nella cornice del Piano Strategico Nazionale dei Trasporti e della Logistica."

Brenner Nordzulauf: Effizienter Schienenverkehr für die bayerische Wirtschaft. IHK Studie. IHK für München und Oberbayern, München, März 2015, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,54 MB]. "Die Inbetriebnahme des Brenner Basistunnels (BBT) ist für das Jahr 2026 geplant: Die hiermit beauftragte Brenner Basistunnel SE sieht diesen Termin als machbar an. Auf italienischer Seite sind im Abschnitt Franzensfeste – Verona ergänzende Maßnahmen vorgesehen, die einen schrittweisen Ausbau der Kapazitäten zeitgerecht bis zur Eröffnung des BBT gewährleisten. Die Aktionsgemeinschaft Brennerbahn1 hat die wirtschaftlichen Effekte der Bauphase in Italien und in Österreich ermittelt. Der prognostizierte Investitionsimpuls in Höhe von 10 Mrd. Euro führt zu einer Steigerung der Bruttowertschöpfung von rund 15 Mrd. Euro. Die erwartete Steigerung der Güterverkehrsnachfrage bis zum Jahr 2025 im Zulauf zum Brenner Basistunnel um rund 89 % verlangt in Oberbayern und München adäquate Ausbaumaßnahmen.2 Die vielfältigen rechtlichen, trassierungs- und netztechnischen Fragen in Oberbayern erfordern zeitgerechte Lösungen, die es gestatten, bis zum Jahr 2026 mit den in Zukunft notwendigen Leistungsfähigkeitssteigerungen Schritt zu halten."

Andrea Appetecchia (Isfort), Sviluppo dell'intermodalità. Autostrade del mare 2.0 e combinato marittimo. Rapporto finale. Confcommercio, Roma, 21 luglio 2015, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,12 MB]

Andrea Appetecchia (Isfort), Sviluppo dell'intermodalità. Autostrade del mare 2.0 e combinato marittimo. Presentazione. Confcommercio, Roma, 21 luglio 2015, 25 slides [formato PDF, 2,77 MB]

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Anna Mellin, Effects of more stringent sulphur requirements for sea transports. European Transport Conference 2014. Transportation Research Procedia 8 (2015) 125–135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 414 kB]. Open Access. "In 2008 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided on more stringent requirements from 2015 for airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide from sea transports in the sulphur emission control areas (SECA). The European SECA comprises the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. The paper contains an overview of the European studies that have been carried out to investigate the impacts of IMO´s more stringent sulphur requirements. All studies were carried out after IMO´s decision in 2008 (which means that the decision was taken based on other reasons). The studies focus on different aspects but all of them estimate how IMO´s stricter requirements will affect the sea transport costs. The Swedish impact studies are described in particular: in the 2009 study the national transport model Samgods was used and in 2013 both the Samgods model and the agent-based simulation model Tapas. Impacts on the choice of transport chains, routes and ports are calculated. The results indicate that shippers to some extent can reduce the increase in transport cost by transferring flows from the Swedish east coast to the Swedish south and west coast, the Norwegian coast and the land-based route via Denmark. Modal back shifts from sea to rail and road occur. These shifts are modest, especially if higher prices for diesel and higher rail track fees are assumed on top of more stringent sulphur requirements in the SECA. One important question is to what extent the increases in costs that are due to more stringent requirements can be compensated for by improved efficiency of the transports, such as the exploitation of economies of scale."

Urban Mobility System Upgrade. How shared self-driving cars could change city traffic. (Corporate Partnership Board Report). International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2015, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,86 MB]. "This report examines the changes that might result from the large-scale uptake of a shared and self-driving fleet of vehicles in a mid-sized European city. The study explores two different self-driving vehicle concepts, for which we have coined the terms “TaxiBot” and “AutoVot”. TaxiBots are self-driving cars that can be shared simultaneously by several passengers. AutoVots pick-up and drop-off single passengers sequentially. We had two premises for this study: First, the urban mobility system upgrade with a fleet of TaxiBots and AutoVots should deliver the same trips as today in terms of origin, destination and timing. Second, it should also replace all car and bus trips. The report looks at impacts on car fleet size, volume of travel and parking requirements over two different time scales: a 24-hour average and for peak hours only."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2013-2014, Roma, 2015, IPZS, 494 p. [formato PDF, 5,49 MB].

Aimée Aguilar-Jaber, Daniela Glocker, Shifting towards low carbon mobility systems. (Discussion Paper 2015-17). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 29 p. [formato PDF, 833 kB]. "The present section of this report provides results obtained through modelling carried out for the Transport Outlook of the International Transport Forum (ITF) of the long-term CO2 mitigation potential of aligning policies towards public transport-oriented urbanisation in Latin America, China, and India (part 1). It will then review some of the major institutional challenges for achieving policy coordination and implementing sustainable urban transport strategies in urban centres (part 2). It also provides evidence from cities that have made significant progress in increasing institutional coordination for advancing sustainable urban transport strategies (part 3)."

Olaf Merk, Theo Notteboom, Port Hinterland Connectivity. (Discussion Paper 2015-13). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 35 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]. "This paper identifies main port-hinterland connectivity challenges and current and potential policy responses to resolve these challenges. It dissects port hinterland connectivity in three related domains: maritime hinterlands, inland hinterland corridors, hinterland traffic in port-cities, and multi-level governance framework related to hinterland transport."

Gunnar Lindberg, Lasse Fridstrøm (Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway), Policy strategies for vehicle electrification. (Discussion Paper 2015-16). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB]. "Vehicle electrification is an effective strategy to combat CO2 emissions from road transport. An electric vehicle may consume only 1/3 of the energy of the conventional car. The final climate effect depends on the source of the electricity used. Hence the effect will differ between geographic regions and depend on whether a nation is a part of a bigger market for electric power. It also depends on whether there is a cap-and-trade system at work and on whether or not the cap is effective. This report focuses on what type of incentives can be used to help introduce electric vehicles into the market, and on the financial cost to governments of such a policy. We conclude that a consumer-based policy for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) introduction needs to address: the higher manufacturing cost of BEVs; range anxiety and range limitations; the role of local incentives. In addition, the consumer should become familiar with the concept of BEVs, which suggests: high visibility (recognisable number plates, communication with the media and, NGOs); a reasonable share of the market securing support and a second hand car market. One lesson from the Norwegian market is that even with constant incentives market expansion may depend ultimately on the number and variety of BEV models on offer: The economic cost of the policy consists basically of the extra resource cost of manufacturing, of any inefficiency created by local incentives, and of implementing a network of charging stations. The policy is probably not cost efficient based on current CO2 valuations and it is necessary to apply a long term innovation perspective, where the current policy is seen as an investment into lower manufacturing and operating costs in a global market. When asked about their motivation for buying a BEV, Norwegian owners attach the highest importance to - in this order - low operating cost, toll free road use and that a BEV is "the best car for my need". That BEVs are environmentally friendly with a competitive purchase price is also taken into account. Based on the Norwegian experience we would expect the BEV market to show the following characteristics: BEVs will be owned predominantly by multicar households but also with a growing market in single car households; the majority of the buyers will replace their second ICE vehicle by a BEV; the annual mileage of the latest BEV models will be at least as high as for ICE vehicles; in a two-car household, the BEV will be the car for everyday use. The key parameter in policy design is the pre-tax price difference between a BEV and an ICE vehicle. We estimate this difference at € 12 000 today. However, the difference is expected to diminish rather quickly even if we take into account increased efficiency in ICE technology. We use an assumption that the prices are equalized in 2025, and that the price difference reduces linearly until then. This may seem fast, but taken into account that we ignore the lower running cost of BEVs the assumption is deemed reasonable. The policy needs to bridge this diminishing gap. In addition, we estimate that for each new BEV we need to invest in new charging infrastructure at a cost of approximately € 1500 per vehicle. The aim of the high Norwegian purchase tax policy as with the French feebate system is to reduce the difference in purchase price (or lifecycle cost) between BEVs and ICE vehicles. We focus on year 2020 and assume that 10% of the car fleet is renewed during that year and that 10% of this market is electric cars. With a feebate on new car registrations the fiscal effect can be made neutral. For the year 2020 the necessary tax difference is about € 5 455, which is divided into a subsidy on BEVs and a tax on ICE vehicles. Even if the system is revenue neutral, we may expect increased administrative costs. We estimate the magnitude of the resulting vehicle tax increase on ICE vehicles in OECD countries to be somewhere between 1% and 32% depending on the current tax scheme in each country. The consumer price of ICE vehicles may rise between 0.7% and 2%. In an alternative approach with a high initial registration tax (the Norwegian system) we assume zero tax on BEVs, and the ICE vehicles become the sole target to ensure an equalized purchase price. This means significant increases in taxation on ICE vehicles from 25% to over 300%. This means an increased consumer price of cars somewhere between 7% and 20% in the other OECD countries. Such a tax, without taking any demand effects into account, would generate revenue of € 366 billion in 2020 in the OECD region. The charging infrastructure needed is in both alternatives estimated to cost about € 11 billion across the OECD. We have noted that the policy will generate rather high costs per avoided tonne of CO2. Crist (2012) estimates a cost between €500 and €700 per tonne CO2. Fridstrøm and Østli (2015) note that the per tonne abatement cost depends crucially on the time horizon, since the extra cost of vehicle acquisition occurs early, while the energy savings materialize only as fast as BEVs penetrate the car fleet. They conclude a net resource cost in the range € 42-138 per tonne CO2 at the 2050 horizon in Norway, but € 670 to € 825 per tonne CO2 based on accumulated costs and benefits at the 2025 horizon. Finally, since BEVs are three times as energy efficient as ICE vehicles, complete electrification will reduce the energy tax base to one-third. In addition, the tax on electricity use is only about one-tenth of the fossil fuel tax, as reckoned per energy unit. The loss in tax revenues from fossil fuel taxation in the EU is estimated at € 800 billion as a consequence of the vehicles that could enter the car fleet by 2020. This calls for new market correction mechanisms for road transport in the future, if the external costs of transport in the form of road wear, congestion, local pollution and accidents are somehow be to internalised."

Jari Kauppila, Publicly funded passenger transport services in Finland. (Discussion Paper 2015-10). International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2015, 15 p. [formato PDF, 1,01 MB].

Thomas Götschi, Jan Garrard and Billie Giles-Corti, Cycling as a Part of Daily Life: A Review of Health Perspectives, Transport Reviews, 30 June 2015 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 746 kB]. Open Access. "Health aspects of day-to-day cycling have gained attention from the health sector aiming to increase levels of physical activity, and from the transport and planning sector, to justify investments in cycling. We review and discuss the main pathways between cycling and health under two perspectives — generalizable epidemiological evidence for health effects and specific impact modeling to quantify health impacts in concrete settings. Substantial benefits from physical activity dominate the public health impacts of cycling. Epidemiological evidence is strong and impact modeling is well advanced. Injuries amount to a smaller impact on the population level, but affect crash victims disproportionately and perceived risks deter potential cyclists. Basic data on crash risks are available, but evidence on determinants of risks is limited and impact models are highly dependent on local factors. Risks from air pollution can be assumed to be small, with limited evidence for cycling-specific mechanisms. Based on a large body of evidence, planners, health professionals, and decision-makers can rest assured that benefits from cycling-related physical activity are worth pursuing. Safety improvements should be part of the efforts to promote cycling, both to minimize negative impacts and to lower barriers to cycling for potential riders."

Sergio Bologna, Trading ships not cargo. Alcune considerazioni sulla fase attuale del mercato marittimo-portuale, in occasione della stesura del "Piano dei porti e della logistica". Giugno 2015, 25 p. [formato PDF, 562 kB].

Carla Ancona, Risultati del progetto VIIAS: l’impatto del PM2.5 e dell’NO2 in Italia. Relazione al workshop "L'impatto dell'inquinamento atmosferico sull'ambiente e sulla salute"(nell'ambito del Progetto VIIAS, Valutazione Integrata dell’Impatto su Ambiente e Salute dell’inquinamento atmosferico), Roma, 4 giugno 2015, 59 slides [formato PDF, 3,77 MB].

Francesco Cellina, Giorgio Corani, Andrea Emilio Rizzoli, Claudio Bonesana, Albedo Bettini, Andrea Baldassari, Pasqualina Cavadini, Emiliano Soldini, Roman Rudel (SUPSI), Using living labs to investigate the transition towards electric mobility: the e-mobiliTI experiment in Southern Switzerland. 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference, April 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 30,2 MB]. "The diffusion of electric vehicles is one of the most promising opportunities to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and to pave the way for the transition to a more sustainable mobility. However, apart for the main barrier still represented by the purchase cost, the adoption of electric vehicles is still hindered by other barriers, such as autonomy, recharge time any general performance. Therefore, fostering a change in the present mobility patterns requires to go beyond the traditional technological approach and to explicitly address consumers perceptions and behaviour. In 2012 we launched the e-mobiliTI project to get a deeper understanding of the factors favouring or opposing the transition to e-mobility. This project builds upon the living lab approach, focusing on a small sample of families located in Southern Switzerland. Family members accepted to be monitored in all their trips, in exchange for the availability, for a period of three months, of electric cars and bicycles, public transport seasonal tickets and car and bike-sharing subscriptions. In Spring 2013 a first three-months monitoring phase allowed us to identify their present mobility patterns and styles, while in Spring 2014, during a second three-months monitoring phase, the participants experienced the new mobility options in real-world settings. In order to monitor travel behaviour, we relied on both quantitative automatic data-gathering techniques and on qualitative focus groups and interviews. Automatic data-gathering was performed thanks to a specifically developed smartphone application that relied on GPS tracks. To identify the significant variations of mobility patterns between the two monitoring phases, we developed a data mining approach based on regression trees. In this paper we present the results of the e-mobiliTI project and conclude with a critical analysis of our approach, especially regarding the problems in automatic data gathering and mobility profiling and the limited representativeness of our results, due to the small size of our sample and the short duration of the testing period."

Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Evaluating active transport benefits and costs. Guide to valuing walking and cycling improvements and encouragement programs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 27 February 2015, 79 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB] "This report describes methods for evaluating the benefits and costs of active transport (walking, cycling, and their variants, also called non-motorized and human-powered travel). It describes various types of benefits, costs and methods for measuring them. These include direct benefits to users from improved active transport conditions, various benefits to society from increased walking and cycling activity, reduced motor vehicle travel, and more compact and multi-modal community development. It discusses active transport demands and ways to increase walking and cycling activity. This analysis indicates that many active transport benefits tend to be overlooked or undervalued in conventional transport economic evaluation".

Cristina Taddei, Roberto Gnesotto, Silvia Forni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Andrea Vannucci, Giorgio Garofalo, Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence, PLoS ONE 10(4): e0125491 (22 p.) April 30, 2015 [formato PDF, 717 kB]. Open Access. "Objective. To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design. Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a tenyear period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting. Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population. All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results. Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions. Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST."

Steve Wright (University of Aberdeen), A European Model for Public Transport Authorities in Small and Medium Urban Areas. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2015, 45-60 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "Public Transport Authorities (PTAs) are well-established in large urban areas. These dedicated authorities act in the public interest to ensure that a well-functioning, integrated transport system operates within their territory. Within Europe, economic pressures and changes in regulation to encourage more competition are providing the catalyst for municipalities/authorities of all sizes to review the structure under which transport is managed and provided in their jurisdictions and to consider the suitability of establishing a PTA. Based on findings from case studies in eight small and medium urban areas across seven European countries, it is clear that although user needs remain at the center of the actions of a PTA, the level of functionality provided by metropolitan PTAs would not be suitable or possible for a PTA in a small- or medium-size urban area. This paper presents a summary model of the functions/responsibilities and guidelines on the organizational structure that are most suitable for PTAs in small and medium urban areas in Europe."

Olav Eidhammer, Jardar Andersen, Strategi for 50 % redusert miljøgassutslipp fra varedistribusjon i Oslo innen 2020 (Strategy for 50 % reduced emissions from goods distribution in Oslo within 2020). (TØI rapport 1394/2015). Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo, mars 2015, 68 p. [formato PDF, 2,26 MB]. Language of report: Norwegian. "Objectives of the study were to summarize the effects and experiences of measures that contribute to reduced emissions in cities. The study indicates that the most effective is multiple initiatives with consolidation center(s) dedicated for deliveries to specific zones in the city coupled with requirements on use of environmentally friendly goods vehicles. Electric vehicles or freight bikes, trucks with Euro VI engine or fossil fuel to be used for last mile distribution. The municipality can contribute to reduced emissions by combining their own purchases and shift to electric or Euro VI vehicles in their own vehicle fleet. Other measures that contribute to reduced emissions is zero-emission zones, increased number of loading - unloading bays and increased use of evening and night deliveries. Collection points for e-commerce deliveries and use of ITS information with real-time information about traffic and infrastructure are other solutions that provide significant effects. To ensure that the most cost-effective measures is prioritized a separate Sustainable Urban Logistic Plan (SULP) should be established."

Guy Fournier, René Seign, Véronique Goehlich, Klaus Bogenberger, Car-Sharing With Electric Vehicles: A Contribution To Sustainable Mobility? Interdisciplinary Management Research XI, 2015, 955-975 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 715 kB]. "Combining car-sharing and electric mobility results in a “circulus virtuosis” or in other words a profitable dynamic, because car-sharing and electric mobility are mutually beneficial. The operation of a car-sharing model with electric vehicles makes sense given these considerations even though it is still facing challenges. Apart from the costs, the integration of charging is the most critical success factor for the realization of the concept and its economic success. Th is paper discusses possible solutions for this problem which appear to be feasible and promising."

Legambiente, Nuovi treni per città più vivibili. Come una cura del ferro può rendere più moderne e sostenibili le città italiane. Studio realizzato da Legambiente con il contributo di Ansaldo Breda. Roma, 2015, 38 p. [formato PDF, 3,05 MB]. Studio sulla situazione di treni regionali, metropolitane e tram nelle città italiane.

Audimob - Osservatorio sui comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani, Concrete alternative all'auto? Incoraggiare mezzi pubblici e bici!. (Fermata Audimob n.22). Isfort, Roma, maggio 2015, 7 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB]. "Una fermata Audimob, di approfondimento su incentivi e investimenti pubblici per politiche di sostegno finalizzate a trovare soluzioni alternative all’automobile."

Olaf Merk, Bénédicte Busquet and Raimonds Aronietis, The Impact of Mega-Ships. Case-Specific Policy Analysis. OECD/International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 108 p. [formato PDF, 3,92 MB] "There are cost savings of mega-ships, but these are decreasing and might not even be realized. Doubling the maximum container ship size over the last decade has reduced total vessel costs per transported container by roughly a third. However, these cost savings are decreasing with size; the cost savings of the newest generation of containerships are four to six times smaller than the savings from the previous round of upsizing. Approximately 60% of the cost savings of the most recent container ships are related to more efficient engines and not to scale. In addition, mega-ship development and the related container fleet capacity growth has taken place despite sluggish growth of world containerized seaborne trade. The massive ordering of new mega-ships has resulted in oversupply of container ships, which will most likely dampen some of the cost savings due to larger ships, as low demand results in fewer savings per transported container. The transport costs due to larger ships could be substantial. There are size-related fixes to existing infrastructure, such as bridge height, river width/depth, quay wall strengthening, berth deepening, canals/locks and port equipment (crane height, outreach). Mega-ships also require expansion of infrastructure to cater to the higher peaks related to mega-ships; as a result, more physical yard and berth capacity is needed. These annualised transport costs related to mega-ships could amount to US$ 0.4 billion, according to our rough and tentative estimations. Roughly a third of the additional costs might be related to equipment, a third to dredging and another third to port infrastructure and port hinterland costs. A substantial share of the dredging, infrastructure and hinterland connection costs are costs to the public sector in many countries. Supply chain risks related to bigger container ships are rising. There are concerns about insurability of mega-ships and the costs of potential salvage in case of accidents. Mega-ships also lead to service and cargo concentration, reduced choice and more limited supply chain resilience, especially since bigger ships have coincided with increased cooperation of the main shipping lines in four alliances. In addition, public policies need to better take account of this and act accordingly. Key question is how the costs for the public sector imposed by mega-ships could be covered. Many ports and countries have, either accidentally or on purpose, encouraged the development of mega-ships. More balanced decisionmaking would be needed, with clearer alignment of incentives to public interests, policy support to enhance supply chain productivity, more regional collaboration and the creation of an appropriate forum for a discussion between liner companies and all other relevant transport actors. Further increase of maximum container ship size would raise transport costs. So one could wonder if such increases would be desirable. The potential cost savings to carriers appear to be fairly marginal, but infrastructure upsizing costs could be phenomenal. Introduction of one hundred 24,000 TEU ships in 2020 would require substantial investments in those places where these ships would be first introduced (Far East, North Europe, Mediterranean), but would also - via cascading effects - result in introduction of 19,000 TEU ships in North America and 14,000 TEU ships in South America and Africa. This would imply additional investment requirements there as well."

Lena Nerhagen, Sara Janhäll, Exhaust emissions and Environmental classifications of cars. What indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?. (VTI notat 3A-2015). VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, 2015, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,46 MB]. "Folksam is a Swedish insurance company that for more than 30 years has undertaken traffic safety research with an emphasis on the study of real-world accidents. Folksam provides advice on the best vehicles and on how accidents and injuries can be prevented. Environmental aspects have also been assessed in recent years, and Folksam now produces a yearly report on “Safe and Sustainable” new cars. Currently the guidelines developed by Folksam focus on the emissions of CO2 using the criteria determined by the EU. This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration (Vägverket, 2001) and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium (Mayeres & Proost, 2013). We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars (Ecotraffic, 2012 a and b) and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass; the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations."

Ennio Cascetta (Università di Napoli Federico II), Gli spread del trasporto pubblico locale. Presentazione al Convegno "Lo spread del trasporto pubblico locale: disegni di riforma e ruolo delle città metropolitane", Roma, 30 aprile 2015, 22 slides [formato PDF, 2,42 MB].

Attila Buzási, Mária Csete (Budapest University of Techology and Economics), Sustainability Indicators in Assessing Urban Transport Systems. Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, Online First (2015) paper 7825, 8 p. [formato PDF, 379 kB]. "Transport systems are key elements of urban areas, therefore their sustainability has a pivotal role in achieving complex urban sustainability. Nowadays the assessment of urban sustainability is a hotspot in different scientific fields despite of lack of comprehensive and widely accepted definitions of both urban sustainability and sustainable transportation. The use of divergent indicators for evaluating sustainable urban transportation has been emerged as a core of urban studies. The main aims of this paper is to analyze sets of sustainable urban transport indicators developed in the scientific area worldwide, to collect variables for assessing urban transport sustainability in Hungary, finally to do recommendations in order to be able to evaluate sustainability of transport systems in Hungarian urban areas in a more effective manner."

Francisco J. Bahamonde-Birke, Tibor Hanappi, The Potential of Electromobility in Austria: An Analysis Based on Hybrid Choice Models. (Discussion Papers, 1472). DIW Berlin (German Institute for Economic Research), Berlin, 2015, 19 p. [formato PDF, 463 kB]. "This paper analyses the impact of the introduction of electromobility in Austria, focusing specifically on the potential demand for electric vehicles in the automotive market. We estimate discrete choice behavioral mixture models considering latent variables; these allows us to deal with this potential demand as well as to analyze the effect of different attributes of the alternatives over the potential market penetration. We find out that some usual assumptions regarding electromobility also hold for the Austrian market (e.g. proclivity of green-minded people and reluctance of older individuals), while others are only partially valid (e.g. the power of the engine is not relevant for purely electric vehicles). Along the same line, it was possible to establish that some policy incentives would have a positive effect over the demand for electrical cars, while others - such as an annual Park and Ride subscription or a one-year-ticket for public transportation - would not increase the willingness-to-pay for electromobility. Our work suggests the existence of reliability thresholds, concerning the availability of charging stations. Finally this paper enunciates and successfully tests an alternative approach to address unreported information regarding income in presence of endogeneity and multiple information sources."

Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze, Documento di economia e finanza 2015. Allegato Programma delle infrastrutture strategiche del Ministro delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti L. 443/2001, art. 1, c. 1. Roma, Aprile 2015, 78 p. [formato PDF, 1,40 MB]. "L'Allegato Infrastrutture di quest'anno presenta alcune novità rilevanti che rispondono a esigenze da tempo emerse a livello europeo e nazionale. L'Allegato Infrastrutture dà rilevanza al collegamento strategico tra le scelte di investimento adottate dal Governo e dal Parlamento e gli indirizzi comunitari, a partire dall’integrazione tra i nodi portuali, aeroportuali, intermodali e urbani con i 4 Corridoi multimodali TEN-T che attraversano l’Italia. In primo luogo, parte da un’attenta analisi del contesto trasportistico nazionale – in termini di dotazione e di domanda anche potenziale - e del quadro programmatorio e normativo europeo e nazionale che mette in evidenza tre aspetti prioritari relativi alla sicurezza, alla trasparenza e alla mobilità intelligente nell’ambito delle politiche per l’innovazione. In tale contesto, l’Italia è un partner attivo nella costruzione dello spazio unico europeo. In secondo luogo, identifica conseguentemente le linee strategiche nazionali nel campo dei trasporti che saranno di riferimento per le varie politiche del settore trasporti nella consapevolezza del contributo che gli investimenti nelle infrastrutture di trasporto possono dare alla crescita, all’occupazione e alla coesione dell’intera Europa. In tal senso, l’Allegato Infrastrutture indica la scelta del Ministero delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti di individuare in un unico Documento pluriennale di pianificazione (DPP), introdotto dal decreto legislativo 29 dicembre 2011, n. 228, lo strumento di programmazione che includerà e renderà coerenti tutti i piani e i programmi d'investimento per opere pubbliche di propria competenza. In vista della definizione entro settembre 2015 del DPP, sempre sulla base delle linee strategiche definite nel presente Allegato e delle disponibilità finanziarie, saranno valutate anche le opere portuali e logistiche necessarie al perseguimento della strategia che sarà definita per ogni sistema portuale incluso nelle reti TEN nonché le linee strategiche e le relative opere prioritarie per i collegamenti degli aeroporti principali con le reti core e con le città e quelle nei settori idrico e dell’edilizia scolastica. In terzo luogo, sulla base delle predette linee strategiche, dello stato di avanzamento e della possibilità di prevalente finanziamento con capitale privato, il Programma delle infrastrutture strategiche identifica 25 opere prioritarie, per un costo totale di 70,9 miliardi di euro e coperture finanziarie pari a 48 miliardi di euro, rispondendo da un lato a una diffusa esigenza di razionalizzazione e, dall’altro, a un sano esercizio di realismo finanziario finalizzato a selezionare un ristretto numero di opere sulle quali convogliare le risorse pubbliche e private disponibili. Con riferimento alle altre opere contenute nel PIS di cui all’XI Allegato infrastrutture si provvederà, a valle di un approfondito confronto con le Regioni, al previsto aggiornamento sullo stato di avanzamento in sede di definizione della nota di aggiornamento al DEF 2015."

Alexandros Nikitas, MariAnne Karlsson (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, A Worldwide State-of-the-Art Analysis for Bus Rapid Transit: Looking for the Success Formula. Journal of Public Transportation, 18 (1) 2015, p. 1-33 [formato PDF, 619 KB]. "This paper’s intended contribution, in terms of providing an additional angle in the existing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) state-of-the-art knowledge spectrum, is a dual one. On the one hand, it provides a detailed description of the mode, re-defining BRT as an overall concept by identifying, discussing, and categorizing in a systematic way its strengths and its weaknesses in comparison with rail-based solutions and conventional bus services. On the other hand, it presents in detail a number of selected scheme-oriented applications from around the world, looking into some of the basic ingredients behind BRT’s success (or failure) stories. This is a scientific effort that could inform the reader about the current status of BRT internationally and about the challenges and opportunities that exist when trying to materialize BRT’s potential as an effective urban passenger solution that could challenge the merits of more conventional mass-transit options."

Ofelia Betancor, Gerard Llobet, Contabilidad Financiera y Social de la Alta Velocidad en España. (Estudios sobre la economía española 2015-08). Fedea (Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada), Madrid, 20 de Marzo 2015, 61 p. [formato PDF, 2,03 MB]. "Este trabajo estudia la rentabilidad financiera y social de la alta velocidad ferroviaria en España. El análisis se realiza para los cuatro corredores en funcionamiento a finales de 2013. Ambos análisis son contrafactuales, es decir, toman como punto de referencia lo que habría sucedido en caso de no acometer estas inversiones. Asimismo ambos se realizan para un horizonte temporal de 50 años que nos lleva a utilizar como criterios de decisión el VAN financiero y social en términos de valor esperado y distribuciones de probabilidad. Asimismo para facilitar la interpretación de las cifras éstas se expresan en unidades monetarias del año 2013. La evaluación desde el punto de vista financiero se concentra en el concepto de beneficio empresarial, y por tanto estudia qué parte de los costes, incluyendo la inversión, se cubre con los ingresos de las empresas que gestionan los servicios y la infraestructura (RENFE y ADIF). Por otro lado el análisis de la rentabilidad social contrapone los beneficios derivados de las ganancias de tiempo, disposiciones a pagar de la demanda generada y costes evitados, con los costes de oportunidad de la inversión y la operación. Con la excepción del análisis financiero del corredor Madrid-Norte, los resultados muestran que se cubren los costes variables tanto en términos financieros como sociales. Sin embargo en ningún caso se cubre la inversión, lo que implica que, teniendo en cuenta los niveles de demanda, estas inversiones no son rentables ni para las empresas ni para la sociedad."

Daniel Albalate, Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), La experiencia internacional en alta velocidad ferroviaria. (Documento de Trabajo 2015-02). Fedea (Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada), Madrid, March 2015, 82 p. [formato PDF, 1,40 MB]. "El presente informe muestra que la alta velocidad es una tecnología de transporte con presencia internacional pero está enormemente concentrada en Europa occidental y Asia oriental, aunque existen importantes diferencias en cuanto a dotación. España destaca por su liderazgo en dotación de infraestructura una vez corregida por población, lo que contrasta con el escaso uso de la misma, muy por debajo del resto de redes de Alta velocidad (AV). La mayoría de experiencias contemplan, sobre todo en las primeras rutas desplegadas, una motivación de eficiencia con la eliminación de cuellos de botella y las ampliaciones de capacidad como elemento central para lograr ahorros en corredores densos. Otras redes, la minoría, se han justificado por motivaciones de integración política y vertebración, equidad o cohesión territorial. Las motivaciones de las distintas redes afectan al diseño de la red, la elección de rutas y a su funcionalidad. Los costes de la AV ferroviaria son enormes, tanto para su construcción, como en mantenimiento y operación. Los determinantes de los costes son la velocidad de diseño, la integración con las líneas convencionales, el uso mixto pasajeros-mercancías o exclusivo para pasajeros, la orografía del territorio y el valor de las expropiaciones en áreas urbanas. Esto comporta gran heterogeneidad en los costes unitarios de construcción entre los diferentes países. España se caracteriza por presentar unos costes por km comparativamente bajos, aunque sus cifras acostumbran a no incluir la inversión en estaciones y en expropiaciones. Sólo dos líneas de AV han conseguido lograr rentabilidad financiera clara: la Tokio-Osaka y la París-Lyon. Más recientemente, la Jian-Quingdao (China), presenta unos resultados positivos, aunque muy moderados. Estas rutas son enormemente densas y conectan grandes núcleos de población que se encuentran en distancias eficientes para la AV frente al transporte aéreo y al transporte por carretera. Los resultados en términos financieros acostumbran a ser pobres en el resto de las líneas, y empeoran a medida que la red se extiende a corredores con menor demanda."

Évaluation a posteriori des transports collectifs en site propre. Note méthodologique. Cerema, Lyon, janvier 2015, 110 p. [file PDF, 8,42 MB]. "Légalement, un bilan des résultats économiques et sociaux des grands projets d'infrastructure de transport réalisés avec le concours de financements publics doit être élaboré par le maître d'ouvrage de l'opération, en application de l'article L. 1511- 6 du Code des transports et de ses décrets d'application. Pour les Transports collectifs en site propre (TCSP), une première note méthodologique est venue préciser les modalités d'élaboration de ces bilans a posteriori, en s'appuyant sur les évaluations réalisées par les collectivités locales et sur les travaux du Certu en matière d'évaluation des TCSP. Cette nouvelle note méthodologique vient actualiser la précédente sur la base d'évaluations menées depuis cette date. Elle se veut applicable à l'ensemble des TCSP, quel que soit leur montant d'investissement. À destination de tous les acteurs locaux, techniciens et décideurs, elle a pour objet non seulement d'être une note technique mais aussi de rappeler les enjeux de l'évaluation a posteriori. En ce sens, elle prend en compte les travaux les plus récents de l'État sur l'évaluation."

Mohamed Salah Mahmoud, Wafic El-Assi, Khandker Nurul Habib (University of Toronto), Effects of Built Environment and Weather on Bike Sharing Demand: Station Level Analysis of Commercial Bike Sharing in Toronto. Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 11-15.01.2015, 15 p. [formato 837 kB] "Bike Share Toronto is Canada’s second largest public bike share system. Bike Share Toronto provides a unique case study as it is one of the few bike share programs in a North American city that experiences severe cold climates and operates throughout the entire year. Using year-round real time trip data, this study analyzes the factors affecting Toronto’s bike share ridership. A comprehensive spatial analysis is performed and three regression models are developed at the station level. Results of the trip attraction and generation models provide meaningful insights on the influence of socio-demographic attributes, land use and built environment, as well as different weather measures on bicycle share ridership. The developed models can be used to assist policy makers and city planners to predict the monthly trip activity at potential station locations. A station pair (origin-destination) regression model is developed based on station to station paths’ level of service attributes along with other zonal level factors. Results show that station-to-station distance and the number of intersections with major roads have negative impacts on bike share ridership. In addition, for a given origin-destination pair, the higher the percentage of bicycle infrastructure with respect to the total route length, the higher the corresponding ridership. This model can be used to predict the trip distribution between station pairs based on the total trip activity at each station. The model can also be used to assess potential bike infrastructure development based on expected bicycle routes from/to potential station locations."

William Riggs, Jana Schwartz, The Impact of Cargo Bikes on Travel Patterns: Survey Report. Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA, 2015, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,30 MB] "Cargo bikes are becoming increasingly available in the United States with vendors such as Yuba, Trek, XtraCycle, and Marin all offering platforms. While a large body of research has continued to investigate traditional bike transportation, cargo bikes offer the potential to capture trips for those that might otherwise be made by car. To investigate this, a survey was conducted querying how use and travel characteristics changed upon cargo bike ownership (N = 299; 95% Confidence Interval +/-6%). This report documents that research effort. In sum, prior to owning a cargo bike, 60% of the survey respondents traveled via car. Most of these trips (68%) were work related, and 53% of those surveyed dropped off kids on these trips. After purchasing a cargo bike, 19% reported their car / auto as their primary mode, a 41% reduction in auto trips. (69% respondents used their cargo bike as their primary mode of travel after purchase.) The number of auto trips appeared to decline by 1-2 trips for these individuals, and many of these were for trips that total 3-10 miles per day (anecdotally more than average). 62% had considered giving up a vehicle as a result of their cargo bike ownership. Connection between having kids and cargo bike trips to work suggests that focusing on families with small children (unable to ride a bike) are a key correlation and growth area for bicycle transportation. More research is needed in this area."

Amy Smith, Crowdsourcing Pedestrian and Cyclist Activity Data. (White Paper Series). Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, January 2015, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,71 MB]. "Collecting cyclist and pedestrian activity data can be challenging due to data gaps and unique characteristics of active transportation that set it apart from other modes. Technological advances continue to improve data collection for demographic, infrastructure, and motorized travel data, much of which is made available online. However, active transportation data resources that can be used to better understand detailed spatio-temporal (location and time-based) travel patterns and personal experience may be absent or difficult to find. Crowdsourcing, or the process of obtaining information, insight, and knowledge from user-generated data provided through web and mobile applications, can help address these data gaps efficiently. In addition to increased data availability, crowdsourcing offers many additional benefits to active transportation planning, such as broad and diverse perspectives, local knowledge, data timeliness, and direct dialogue between planners and those affected by planning decisions. Existing crowdsourced datasets can serve as resources for many types of active transportation planning projects. New crowdsourcing applications developed for a specific use or planning implementation can produce high-quality, project-specific data about cyclists and pedestrians while at the same time opening lines of communication between planners and those contributing data. Data providers including public agencies, open source projects, and commercial developers are making data easier to find, and in some cases these resources are freely available. When used carefully and creatively, user-generated cyclist and pedestrian data has great potential to inform and add value to active transportation planning projects. This paper considers how crowdsourcing applications and crowdsourced data are currently being applied, as well as potential new uses for active transportation research and planning efforts of various types. The objectives of this white paper are to review existing crowdsourced bicycle and pedestrian data resources and crowdsourcing tools; discuss potential planning implementations of crowdsourced data for a sample of bicycle and pedestrian project types; and provide examples of how crowdsourcing is currently being used to inform decision-making. Potential issues related to crowdsourced data are also considered (e.g., quality, privacy concerns, participation rates, bias). The research presented here highlights a decreasing skepticism over the quality of volunteered, user-generated data provided by amateurs (as opposed to professionals) in light of a desire to open the lines of communication between the planning world and those affected by planning decisions, directly addressing (rather than being discouraged by) data limitations. The initiatives surrounding progressive data collection, management, and analysis are further reflected in the numerous conferences, meetups, and other events fostering collaboration between planners, developers, data scientists and others interested in applying critical thought and innovation in planning (1). While this paper reviews existing crowdsourcing techniques and their current applications in planning, the pace of technological change and rate of adoption in planning indicates that planners will continue to develop and apply innovative approaches like crowdsourcing in response to continually changing community needs. This paper focuses on examples of current uses of crowdsourced data, crowdsourcing data suggestions, and data considerations."

Julia Schmale, Erika von Schneidemesser and Axel Dörrie, An Integrated Assessment Method for Sustainable Transport System Planning in a Middle Sized German City. Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 1329-1354 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 1,36 MB]. Open Access. "Despite climate change mitigation and sustainability agendas, road transport systems in Germany and the resulting environmental burden are growing. Road transport is a significant source of emissions in urban areas and the infrastructure has a significant impact on the urban form. Nevertheless, mobility is a fundamental requirement for the satisfaction of the human desire to socially and economically engage in society. Considering these realities and the desire for sustainable development in a growing city (Potsdam, Germany), an integrated assessment methodology was co-developed among scientists and practitioners to prioritize a suite of transport-related measures. The methodology reflects the city’s qualitative and quantitative goals to improve public transport and promote sustainability, capturing synergies in categories that include environmental considerations as well as road safety, eco-mobility, and quality of life. This approach applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to derive a practically relevant solution for the local traffic and mobility problems that fosters ownership and accountability of all involved. This paper reflects on the process of developing the MCA, and the different aspects that were found important and required consideration during the process. Recommendations on specific traffic-related measures and the assessment of their effectiveness are not given. The aim is that such process information could foster greater collaboration within city departments and similar transdisciplinary efforts."

Carlo Carminucci (Isfort), Giacomo Lozzi e Annita Serio (Federmobilità), a cura di, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, competenze, servizi. Presentazione al convegno, Roma, 5.2.2015, 28 slides [formato PDF, 693 kB].

Federmobilità e Isfort, Trasporto pubblico e disabilità. Norme, offerta di servizi, meccanismi di finanziamento: un Rapporto introduttivo. Federmobilità e Isfort, Roma, gennaio 2015, 76 p. [formato PDF, 1,00 MB].

Romeo Danielis, Lucia Rotaris, Andrea Rusich, Eva Valeri (Univ. di Trieste), The potential demand for carsharing from university students: an Italian case study. (Working paper SIET). SIET, 2015, 25 p. [formato PDF, 1,13 MB]. "The paper presents a methodology to estimate the potential demand for carsharing from university students. The methodology is based on two surveys: a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a detailed computer-assisted interview. The data collected are used to operationalize a model that estimates the generalized cost under alternative scenarios, with and without carsharing. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to estimate the probability that a person would use carsharing. The methodology has been tested with the students enrolled at the University of Trieste. The main finding is that, under the prevailing conditions, 32% of the sample students would benefit in terms of generalised cost from the use of carsharing if private car was unavailable. The model is also used to perform scenario analysis."

Giorgio Saibene, Giancarlo Manzi, Bike Usage in Public Bike-Sharing: An Analysis of the "BikeMi" System in Milan. (Working Paper n. 2015-01). Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Economia, Management e Metdo Quantitativi, MIlano, gennaio 2015, 21 p. [formato PDF, 660 kB] "The constant increase of public shared bicycle systems (PSBSs) in western cities suggests that nowadays city councils consider public bike sharing systems a serious alternative to traditional public transportation in urban areas. PSBSs can represent a solution in the hands of citizens for short journeys in highly urbanized areas. In this paper we focus on the successful example of Milan’s BikeMi PSBS which is giving very positive results in terms of satisfaction for all the actors involved, i.e. the service management, city council and users. From the available data it can be inferred that the bicycle overcome the car central areas in terms of speed, distance travelled daily, and choice of multiple itineraries, especially during peak periods and in proximity of the main railway stations. The main bicycle tracks and hotspots are also detected revealing an imbalance between the northern and the southern part of the city, with the northern part better covered by the service."

2014

Noëlla Karusisi, Frédérique Thomas, Julie Méline, Ruben Brondeel, Basile Chaix, Environmental Conditions around Itineraries to Destinations as Correlates of Walking for Transportation among Adults: The RECORD Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 9(5): e88929 (May 2014) (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Introduction: Assessing the contextual factors that influence walking for transportation is important to develop more walkable environments and promote physical activity. To advance previous research focused on residential environments and overall walking for transportation, the present study investigates objective environmental factors assessed around the residence, the workplace, the home - work itinerary, and the home - supermarket itinerary, and considered overall walking for transportation but also walking to work and to shops. Methods: Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Multilevel ordinal regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental characteristics associated with self-reported overall walking for transportation, walking to work, and walking to shops. Results: High individual education was associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and walking to shops. Among workers, a high residential neighborhood education was associated with increased overall walking for transportation, while a high workplace neighborhood education was related to an increased time spent walking to work. The residential density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and with walking to shops, while the workplace density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation among workers. Environmental factors assessed around the itineraries were not associated with walking to work or to the shops. Conclusion: This research improves our understanding of the role of the environments on walking for transportation by accounting for some of the environments visited beyond the residential neighborhood. It shows that workers' walking habits are more influenced by the density of destinations around the workplace than around the residence. These results provide insight for the development of policies and programs to encourage population level active commuting."

Blerim Cici, Athina Markopoulou, Enrique Frías-Martínez, Nikolaos Laoutaris, Assessing the Potential of Ride-Sharing Using Mobile and Social Data. A Tale of Four Cities. (arXiv:1305.3876). 2014, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Published in: UbiComp '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, p. 201-211, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2632048.2632055 "Ride-sharing on the daily home-work-home commute can help individuals save on gasoline and other car-related costs, while at the same time it can reduce traffic and pollution. This paper assesses the potential of ride-sharing for reducing traffic in a city, based on mobility data extracted from 3G Call Description Records (CDRs, for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid) and from Online Social Networks (Twitter, collected for the cities of New York and Los Angeles). We first analyze these data sets to understand mobility patterns, home and work locations, and social ties between users. We then develop an efficient algorithm for matching users with similar mobility patterns, considering a range of constraints. The solution provides an upper bound to the potential reduction of cars in a city that can be achieved by ride-sharing. We use our framework to understand the different constraints and city characteristics on this potential benefit. For example, our study shows that traffic in the city of Madrid can be reduced by 59% if users are willing to share a ride with people who live and work within 1 km; if they can only accept a pick-up and drop-off delay up to 10 minutes, this potential benefit drops to 24%; if drivers also pick up passengers along the way, this number increases to 53%. If users are willing to ride only with people they know ("friends" in the CDR and OSN data sets), the potential of ride-sharing becomes negligible; if they are willing to ride with friends of friends, the potential reduction is up to 31%."

D. Göhlich, A. Kunith & T. Ly (Technische Universität Berlin), Technology assessment of an electric urban bus system for Berlin. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 138 (2014), 13 p. [formato PDF, 517 kB]. Urban Transport XX. Open Access. "Public transport authorities particularly in conurbations and mega-cities undertake growing endeavours to improve their CO2 footprint and become less dependent on fossil fuels. Electric buses are an obvious alternative to conventional diesel vehicles. However, public transport authorities face several different options of electric bus technologies and different system solutions to implement electric buses. These options have specific assets and drawbacks concerning technology, capital and operational cost. Despite the importance of this issue only very limited research has been published on that matter so far. This study presents a technology assessment of battery-electric public bus systems based on technical and economical key performance indicators. The methodology is applied to an electric bus project for the city of Berlin. To facilitate the selection of a suitable technology a step-wise approach is applied. Firstly, an energetic simulation model has been set up to forecast the needed energy for daily service based on bus operating profiles in Berlin. Secondly, a pre-selection of potential electric bus solutions is made by qualitative evaluation of different systems using defined technical and economic indicators. Thirdly, a detailed comparison is made between the remaining technological alternatives taking monetary-based aspects into account. The economic analysis is conducted by means of a total cost of ownership (TCO) approach. In conclusion the examination reveals that under Berlin conditions inductive opportunity charging technology fulfills the comprehensive system's requirements and shows relatively low TCO values."

Alison Conway, Camille Kamga, Jialei Cheng, Penny Eickemeyer, Quanquan Chen, Abhishek Singhal (City College of New York), Freight Tricycle Operations in New York City. Final Report. University Transportation Research Center, New York, NY, October 2014, 196 p. [formato PDF, 7,49 MB] "As cities become more congested and increasingly focused on sustainability, cargo cycles offer a potential alternative to motorized vehicles for local and last-mile goods delivery. However, few studies have examined this mode in the North American context. This project seeks to address this existing gap in research on cargo cycles/freight tricycles in North America and in New York City (NYC). The goals of this project are: (1) to understand the potential commodities moved and sectors served by cargo cycles; (2) to identify the expected benefits, challenges, and barriers to operation for cargo cycles operating in NYC; (3) to understand freight tricycle traffic performance in NYC conditions; and (4) to understand the capability of cargo cycles for use in cold chains – such as food and pharmaceutical delivery – that require temperature control."

Lisa Rayle, Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Danielle Dai, Robert Cervero (University of California, Berkeley), App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco. (University of California Transportation Center (UCTC) Working Paper). University of California, Berkeley, November 2014, 86 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "The rapid growth of on-demand ride services such as uberX and Lyft, or “ridesourcing,” has prompted debate among policy makers and stakeholders. At present, ridesourcing’s usage and impacts are not well understood. Key questions include: how ridesourcing and traditional taxis compare with respect to trip types, customers, and locations served; whether ridesourcing complements or competes with public transit; and potential impacts on vehicle kilometers traveled. We address these questions using an intercept survey. In spring 2014, 380 complete surveys were collected from three ridesourcing “hot spots” in San Francisco. Survey results are compared with matched-pair taxi trip data and results of a previous taxi user survey. We also compared travel times for ridesourcing and taxis with those for public transit. The findings indicate ridesourcing serves a previously unmet demand for convenient, point-to-point urban travel. Although taxis and ridesourcing share similarities, the findings show differences in users and the user experience. Ridesourcing wait times are markedly shorter and more consistent than those of taxis, while ridesourcing users tend to be younger, own fewer vehicles and more frequently travel with companions. Ridesourcing, like taxis, appears to both substitute for and complement public transit; the majority of ridesourcing trips would have taken substantially longer if made by public transit. Impacts on overall vehicle travel are unclear. Future research should build on this exploratory study to further understand impacts of ridesourcing on labor, social equity, the environment, and public policy." (N)

Rémy Prud'homme, Essai d'analyse coûts-benefices de la ligne ferroviaire Lyon-Turin. Mai 2014, 14 p. [formato PDF, 120 kB]. "Ce papier reprend un travail de 2007 sur le même sujet, avec des données nouvelles (sur le coût ou le trafic) et parfois des méthodologies nouvelles (sur le surplus des utilisateurs), mais avec des conclusion inchangées: cette ligne est une folie". (N)

Giulio Maternini, Francesca Ferrari (University of Brescia), Innovative parking strategies through the application of variable pricing techniques. The case of San Francisco. CSE Journal - City Safety Energy 2 (2014) 49-60 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,55 MB]. Open Access. "The goal of this paper is to propose a first methodological approach for the application of the variable parking pricing techniques to Italian mediumsized cities. After some consideration about the need of re-thinking the parking management systems, the pilot project implemented in San Francisco, CA, known as “SFpark”, has been analyzed, basing on the results described in a recent final evaluation report. This project represents the first application of variable rates in specific pilot areas for on-street and off-street parking spaces. Its application aimed mainly to optimize the use of existing parking, reducing time to access the city and to search free parking spaces. Starting from this case study, we highlighted the main steps to be implemented in Italian cities to better use the existing parking supply." (N)

David L. Greene, Sangsoo Park, Changzheng Liu, Transitioning to Electric Drive Vehicles: Public Policy Implications of Uncertainty, Network Externalities, Tipping Points and Imperfect Markets. (White Paper 1:14). Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, January 2014, 74 p. [formato PDF, 6,87 MB]. "This report builds on a previous analysis of the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles in California and the Section 177 states that have adopted California’s Zero Emission Vehicle standards. (Both reports were funded by the ICCT.) That study estimated the costs and benefits of a transition to electric drive vehicles under six alternative scenarios using the same model and technology and market assumptions as a recent National Research Council study. It concluded that, given the NRC assumptions, benefits would like exceed costs by roughly an order of magnitude. Targeted, temporary transitions policies would be required however; internalizing external costs alone would likely be inadequate to accomplish the transition. This study estimates the effects of the timing and intensity of policies and adds uncertainty about technological progress to the previous study’s analysis of uncertainty about the market’s response. The analyses presented in this report are based on Scenario 2 of the previous report, in which the ZEV standards are enforced through 2025 and continued at the 2025 level through 2030 and then ended. The rest of the U.S. is assumed to follow California’s lead, adopting similar policies and deploying refueling infrastructure but five years later than California and the Section 177 states. The new model runs indicate that, given the assumptions of Scenario 2, starting the ZEV standards 5 years earlier or doubling their intensity increases upfront costs but increases benefits by a greater amount. Similarly, delaying the ZEV mandate is estimated to reduce upfront costs but cause an even greater reduction in the present value of benefits. Network effects and other positive feedbacks were measured to illustrate the dynamics of the transition. The impacts of mandates or subsidies was strongly dependent on their timing and context. The simulations again showed the important synergies between California and U.S. transition policies. The effects of technological and market uncertainty were simulated assuming policies that forced the achievement of the market shares of PHEVs, BEVs and FCVs of Scenario 2. This assumption should overestimate the costs of the transition relative to policies that adapt to circumstances. Nevertheless, the frequency of negative net present values was less than 10%." (N)

Lisa Créno, Béatrice Cahour, Chronicles of Lived Experiences for studying the process of trust building in carpooling. Conference paper, ECCE 2014, European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 1-3 sept 2014, Vienna, 8 p. [formato PDF, 487 kB]. "The goal of our research is to characterize user experience of carpoolers and more particularly their process of building trust, which allow them to cope with the perceived risks. This communication presents two passengers’ chronicles of lived experiences, completed by other qualitative data, and detail how this social and mediated activity is really lived through 7 key sequences. We show that users may perceive 4 different kinds of moderate or higher risks, which leads them to pay attention to the ride conditions and driver profile. The sources of trust and mistrust are mainly linked to the relational, organizational, road safety, or vehicle and passenger placement dimensions. From the first sequence of “Choosing a ride” to the post-ride sequence, most users are sensitive to these elements to build trust; but this process is fragile and can be deconstructed at any time. We argue that web carpooling platforms must be particularly cautious about the available indicators which reassure the users, in order to encourage new one to practice and to maintain a critical mass of carpoolers. We finally discuss some ergonomic recommendations and methodological perspectives for studying trust." (N)

Lisa Créno, User experience of Dynamic Carpooling: How to encourage drivers and passengers?. Conference Paper, CESA 2014 Congress on Automotive Electronic Systems, Montrouge, France, 2014, 7 p. [formato PDF, 466 kB]. "In the “Internet world”, the car is rapidly becoming one of the most connected elements in our everyday’s life. Our research topic deals more specifically with drivers who connect their smartphones to carpool with strangers. In fact, smartphones communicate crucial data for eco-mobility, such as the number of “empty seats travelling” [1], available for potential passengers. Thanks to the GPS, 3/4G networks and “dynamic carpooling” applications, the car stands out as the new “public-private” transport. This innovative service of dynamic carpooling develops in a lightning way. In this article, we decided to present a state of the art, which details successively the history of the practice, the technical components of the service, the issues and needs for a sufficient critical mass of users, the benefits and limits of the system. Then, we describe various examples of incentives, updated during the deployment of large-scale studies to encourage the practice to a larger number of users." (N)

Ioannis G. Damousis, Angelos Amditis, Denis Naberezhnykh, Electromobility: a market readiness study. Preliminary findings. Paper presented at IEEE IEVC (International Electric Vehicle Conference), Florence, December 16-19, 2014, 7 p. [formato PDF, 658 kB]. "In recent years there has been a significant turn towards the research and development of electric vehicles. There are several government incentives towards decarbonizing the transport sector which is a major atmospheric pollutant via greenhouse gases that conventional ICE gasoline and petrolfueled vehicles produce during their operation. In parallel, major vehicle manufacturers have introduced hybrid and fully electric vehicles to the market trying to reach the critical mass of buyers that will result to large penetration of electromobility in the transportation sector. The efforts above can be categorized in several ways: the funding source (governments and the European Commission or the industry and vehicle manufacturers), the focus of the research ((R&D that is aimed at the actual electric vehicles, R&D focusing on the electric vehicle charging infrastructure and the grid) and finally there can be a categorization based on the charging mode i.e. static, stationary and dynamic charging. Further categorization is possible based on the technologies used for each charging mode (conductive or inductive). The present study attempts to provide an assessment of the current electromobility status from the above mentioned viewpoints and present preliminary results of a market readiness survey for charging systems that was carried out within FABRIC IP." (N)

Veronica Usai, Il trasporto pubblico nelle capitali europee: un'analisi di benchmark. Hermes e ASSTRA, Moncalieri/Roma, giugno 2014, 69 p. [formato PDF, 760 kB]. "La presente ricerca è finalizzata ad analizzare l'assetto e le caratteristiche della mobilita ed in particolare del trasporto pubblico locale in alcune delle principali aree metropolitane nazionali ed europee, con l'obiettivo di descrivere le peculiarità di ciascun sistema di trasporto, di individuarne le differenze e di definire gli indirizzi e le linee di azione maggiormente funzionali ad un percorso di sviluppo del trasporto pubblico locale. La ricerca, infatti, si rivolge all'insieme degli stakeholder del settore (istituzioni, amministrazioni locali, imprese, associazioni di imprese, soggetti finanziatori, associazioni dei lavoratori, associazioni dei consumatori e cosi via) al fine di fornire loro un quadro organico e complessivo delle specificita dei sistemi trasportistici e delle scelte della mobilita adottate nei vari paesi europei, inspirato ad una logica di confronto e di selezione delle "buone pratiche". Più nel dettaglio, la prima parte dell'analisi è dedicata ad una disamina degli scenari istituzionali e normativi con particolare attenzione agli assetti di governance del sistema e alle forme di affidamento del servizio. Le città oggetto di analisi sono le seguenti: Berlino (Germania), Copenaghen (Danimarca), Londra (Regno Unito), Madrid (Spagna), Parigi (Francia), Roma (Italia), Vienna (Austria). La seconda parte, invece, esamina le caratteristiche del sistema di mobilita complessiva di ciascuna area metropolitana. In particolare, viene effettuato un confronto circa le quote modali, il grado di infrastrutturazione del bacino di traffico servito, il tasso di motorizzazione, i volumi dell'offerta per abitante, i chilometri di corsie preferenziali per il mezzo pubblico, le dinamiche complessive della mobilità. Specifica sezione sarà dedicata alle misure intraprese nel corso degli anni a sostegno della mobilità sostenibile. Nella terza ed ultima parte, infine, si entrerà nell'alveo dei risultati economico produttivi delle gestioni aziendali, facendo dei raffronti sul grado di copertura dei costi con i ricavi da traffico, sull'entità dei corrispettivi da contratti di servizio, sui principali indicatori di produttività e di efficienza economica e sulle tariffe praticate in ciascuna realtà. La rilevazione dati è stata costruita tramite la raccolta delle informazioni effettuata direttamente dai bilanci di esercizio delle aziende incaricate del servizio città per città, laddove possibile. Tale fonte è stata integrata con informazioni desunte dai siti web aziendali, o con documenti aziendali quali carte della mobilità e bilanci di sostenibilità, da pubblicazioni sul tema, dalle statistiche disponibili sui siti delle municipalità o agenzie della mobilità. I dati raccolti sono stati trasmessi in un secondo momento alle città interessate con il questionario in appendice, con la richiesta di confermare la veridicità di quanto raccolto nonché di integrare con i dati mancanti. Sono stati così interpellati: VDV-BVG (Berlino); MOVIATRAFIK-Comune di Copenaghen (Copenaghen); TRANSPORT FOR LONDON (Londra); CRTM (Madrid); RATP (Parigi); ATAC-Agenzia per la Mobilità (Roma); Wiener Linien (Vienna)." (N)

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2012-2013, Roma, 2014, IPZS, 530 p. [formato PDF, 6,34 MB]. "Il "Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti - Anni 2012-2013" (CNIT 2012-2013) è redatto dall'Ufficio di Statistica dell'Amministrazione, in collaborazione con Uffici e Direzioni Generali del Ministero, altre Amministrazioni Pubbliche di settore, Istat, Aziende, Imprese, Enti ed Istituti di ricerca. Il Conto, nato con la Legge n.1085/67, è divenuto, nel corso dei decenni, pubblicazione e fonte di dati di interesse ed utilità nell'ambito dell'informazione statistica ufficiale sulle infrastrutture e sui trasporti. Nell'ambito dei nuovi argomenti presentati e delle tematiche tradizionalmente trattate si segnalano: - i conti nazionali e le serie di dati di settore relativi a valore aggiunto, costi intermedi, unità di lavoro, redditi, retribuzioni, spese delle famiglie, prezzi ed imprese, analizzate anche in relazione all'evoluzione delle principali attività economiche; - nell'ambito dei trasporti, i dati, le statistiche e gli indicatori relativi a infrastrutture, mezzi, traffico passeggeri e merci per modo di trasporto, mercato dell'automobile, patenti ed esiti degli esami di guida, trasporto pubblico locale, mobilità, spese e finanziamenti pubblici e privati di settore, incidentalità ed altre esternalità derivanti dai trasporti, logistica, cantieristica navale ecc.; - relativamente a infrastrutture, lavori pubblici e politiche abitative, la Legge Obiettivo e le altre norme inerenti la realizzazione di opere di rilevanza strategica e nazionale, le reti stradali e ferroviarie, i porti, gli interporti, le reti di trasporto trans-europee, le reti idriche, le dighe e le infrastrutture per i servizi di rete, le caratteristiche strutturali dei lavori pubblici, l'abusivismo edilizio, il nuovo Piano Casa ed i programmi di riqualificazione urbana e di sviluppo sostenibile del territorio. Il Conto 2012-2013 è strutturato in una parte introduttiva alla quale seguono tredici Capitoli ed un'Appendice contenente statistiche di dettaglio. Allegati al CNIT sono disponibili, inoltre, l'ultima edizione de "Il Diporto Nautico in Italia" e, sempre su distinti file, ulteriori informazioni e dati su trasporti ed infrastrutture." (N)

European Environment Agency, Noise in Europe 2014. (EEA Report, 10/2014). EEA, Copenhagen, December 2014, 62 p. [formato PDF, 4,21 MB]. "This report is the European Environment Agency's (EEA) first noise assessment report. Its purpose is to present an overview and analysis of environmental noise based upon information reported to EEA by its member countries following the requirements of the EU Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise — the Environmental Noise Directive (END) (EU, 2002a)". (N)

Paul Kelly, Sonja Kahlmeier, Thomas Götschi, Nicola Orsini, Justin Richards, Nia Roberts, Peter Scarborough and Charlie Foster, Systematic review and meta-analysis of reduction in all-cause mortality from walking and cycling and shape of dose response relationship, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014, 11:132 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 192 kB]. Open Access. "Background and objective: Walking and cycling have shown beneficial effects on population risk of all-cause mortality (ACM). This paper aims to review the evidence and quantify these effects, adjusted for other physical activity (PA). Data sources: We conducted a systematic review to identify relevant studies. Searches were conducted in November 2013 using the following health databases of publications: Embase (OvidSP); Medline (OvidSP); Web of Knowledge; CINAHL; SCOPUS; SPORTDiscus. We also searched reference lists of relevant texts and reviews. Study eligibility criteria and participants: Eligible studies were prospective cohort design and reporting walking or cycling exposure and mortality as an outcome. Only cohorts of individuals healthy at baseline were considered eligible. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Extracted data included study population and location, sample size, population characteristics (age and sex), follow-up in years, walking or cycling exposure, mortality outcome, and adjustment for other co-variables. We used random-effects meta-analyses to investigate the beneficial effects of regular walking and cycling. Results: Walking (18 results from 14 studies) and cycling (8 results from 7 studies) were shown to reduce the risk of all-cause mortality, adjusted for other PA. For a standardised dose of 11.25 MET.hours per week (or 675 MET.minutes per week), the reduction in risk for ACM was 11% (95% CI = 4 to 17%) for walking and 10% (95% CI = 6 to 13%) for cycling. The estimates for walking are based on 280,000 participants and 2.6 million person-years and for cycling they are based on 187,000 individuals and 2.1 million person-years. The shape of the dose–response relationship was modelled through meta-analysis of pooled relative risks within three exposure intervals. The dose–response analysis showed that walking or cycling had the greatest effect on risk for ACM in the first (lowest) exposure interval. Conclusions and implications: The analysis shows that walking and cycling have population-level health benefits even after adjustment for other PA. Public health approaches would have the biggest impact if they are able to increase walking and cycling levels in the groups that have the lowest levels of these activities." (N)

DEFINE Consortium, DEFINE Synthesis Report. Project report/Research Report (Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Introduction of Electromobility). Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS) und the DEFINE Consortium, Vienna, December 2014, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,32 MB] "The main results of the project are the economic costs of an increased penetration of electric vehicles under different incentive regimes and tax measures, the effects on the electricity system and the relat-ed emission reduction potential. The core of the project consists in the development of a model-based evaluation framework that systematically combines the relevant dimensions of electromobility: the economy in sectoral disaggregation, consumption and mobility preferences of private households re-garding electric vehicles, and the electricity system for several countries in Europe (Austria, Germany, Poland). Emissions and environmental effects associated to electromobility are quantified in a case study." (N)

Detlef Stolten (Institute of Electrochemical Process Engineering, Jülich) Achievements and Issues of Fuel Cell Transportation at the Brink of Market Introduction. 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Gwangju, June 15-20, 2014, 38 slides [formato PDF, 3,35 MB]. (N)

Till Koglin, Vélomobility and the politics of transport planning, GeoJournal, 8 July 2014 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 516 kB]. (DOI 10.1007/s10708-014-9565-7). "Cycling as a transport mode has gradually become more attractive in cities during the last 10 years. However, not all cities give due consideration to cycling issues in the planning process. In many transport systems, cycling and issues of vélomobility are still neglected. Recent research considers several aspects of cycling, however, few studies have shown why differences in for example modal split and bicycle infrastructure exist between cities. This article deals with the differences in cycling issues between Copenhagen and Stockholm and furthermore why such differences occur in these two Scandinavian capitals. The focus here is on transport planning and the dissimilarities in the structures and aspects that have affected the thinking of planners and politicians and the planning outcomes in these two cities. Questions of marginalisation of cyclists in the public space and different planning politics or politics of vélomobility are touched upon. The results are set in a theoretical frame of power relations, mobility theory and political economies. The results show that these two cities have very different planning approaches and economic, structural and cultural presumptions leading to the fact that Copenhagen prioritises cycling, whereas Stockholm focuses more on facilitating public transport and motorised modes of person transport." (N)

María Luisa Delgado Jalón, Sandra Flores Ureba, José Ángel Rivero Menéndez (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos), Identificación de los factores del coste social del transporte: una revisión de la literatura (Identification of the factors from transport social costs: A review of the literature). Observatorio Medioambiental, Vol. 17 (2014) 65-89 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 308 kB]. "The prevailing model of transport characterized by a predominant use of private vehicles, identified the need to develop a policy transport towards sustainability in the European Union. This policy marked the Spanish Strategy for Sustainable Mobility, aimed at promoting more sustainable means - i.e. “public transport”, "car-sharing”- to reduce emissions and energy consumption. With these objectives it was launched in 2013 the Co-Mobility (TIN2012-31104) project, funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness which seeks to apply new technologies to improve the mobility of people on their commute. As one of the objectives of this project is to identify the transport costs to alert the commuter to a more sustainable mobility, this paper highlights an approach to the key variables for commute costs calculator by a detailed review of the existing literature in order to justify the variables and quantities included in the commuting costs." (N)

Nils-Olof Nylund and Kaisa Belloni (eds.), Smart sustainable mobility. A user-friendly transport system is a combination of intelligence, low carbon energy, and adaptable services. - Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, June 2014. - 72 p. - (VTT Visions ; 5). - [formato PDF, 8,29 MB] (free). "As we have shown, we are committed to making a change. In our vision, we depict a sustainable transport system of the future. Three things are evident, as mentioned below. First, when building the new system, we have to switch from the conventional hardware-centred approach (e.g. road infrastructure and vehicles) to a system based on user demand and mobility services. Second, we need a systemic approach to mobility. To reach all the goals regarding climate, energy and service level, we cannot just work on a single element of the system, we also have to consider the system as a whole and, further still, the entire society beyond the system boundaries. Third, we must be aware that one size does not fit all. By this, we mean that one single vehicle technology, energy carrier or even ICT service platform cannot cover all the mobility needs. We simply have to accept that we will have a mix of technologies, and we should have the knowledge to decide for which application a certain technology is best suited. In our vision, the transport system is mainly powered by electricity, biofuels and hydrogen. Where conventional fuels and powertrains still apply, we have succeeded in improving the efficiency of using energy and other resources remarkably. Energy systems for transport are integrated into other infrastructures in terms of production, storage and delivery. In our ideal system, the transport and mobility needs of individual people and companies are fulfilled by a wide range of transport services, characterized by advanced technologies, functionality and efficiency." (N)

Maria Foraster, Nino Künzli, Inmaculada Aguilera, Marcela Rivera, David Agis, Joan Vila, Laura Bouso, Alexandre Deltell, Jaume Marrugat, Rafel Ramos, Jordi Sunyer, Roberto Elosua, and Xavier Basagaña, High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic. Environ Health Perspect 122:1193–1200, November 2014 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 232 KB]. "Background: Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people’s noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. Objectives: We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Methods: We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003–2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results: Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 µg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (ß = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (ß = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (ß = 0.56; 95% CI: –0.03, 1.14) per 10 µg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise–SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Conclusion: Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by collinearity." (N)

Anna Biton, David Daddio, and James Andrew, Statewide Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning Handbook. (FHWA-HEP-14-051). U.S. Department of Transportation John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, September 2014, 94 p. [formato PDF, 3,35 MB]. "This handbook is designed to help State departments of transportation (DOTs) develop or update State pedestrian and bicycle plans. Based on research including interviews with nine State DOTs and critical evaluations of documents from 15 States, this handbook covers statewide planning from plan inception and scoping to engaging stakeholders and the general public; developing goals, objectives and strategies; collecting and analyzing data; linking to the larger statewide transportation planning process; and implementation. For each stage of the planning process, this handbook uses recent experiences and noteworthy practices from DOTs around the country, helping inform a new generation of statewide nonmotorized planning and implementation." (N)

Oliver O’Brien (University College London), Bicycle sharing systems - Global Trends in Size. (UCL Working Paper Series 196). Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, London, May 2014, 10 p. [formato 854 kB] "Bicycle sharing systems allow users to hire a bicycle from an automated docking station for short journeys, typically one-way, providing a novel alternative to traditional methods of transport. The adoption of such systems by cities has been accelerating, with over 700 active systems as of early 2014, an increase of around 50% in a year. UCL CASA has been observing a number of the larger systems since 2010, and collecting data on their size in terms of numbers of docking stations and bicycles. This paper shows that, for many larger cities, their existing systems have grown in size organically or on a phased basis, by area expansion and/or intensification, during the period of study, although some systems have decreased in size." (N)

European Environment Agency, Adaptation of transport to climate change in Europe. Challenges and options across transport modes and stakeholders. EEA Report n.8/2014. EEA, Copenhagen, December 2014, 60 p. [formato PDF, 2,79 MB]. "This report explores current climate change adaptation practices concerning transport across European countries. It provides an overview on the challenges and state adaptation action, a review of a number of initiatives in different countries, and conclusions on a potential way forward. Its purpose is to stimulate discussions among the many different stakeholders concerned with transport adaptation. Opening the perspective on the transport system and sector as a whole should inspire and encourage learning from practices across modes and areas of responsibility and support efforts to mainstream adaptation within transport-related policy and practices. The factual information collected is based on data available in the Climate-ADAPT information platform, a literature review, case studies provided by many stakeholders, and a questionnaire on transport and adaptation addressed to EEA member countries in 2013." (N)

Sustrans Design Manual. Handbook for cycle-friendly design. Sustrans, Bristol, April 2014, 36 p. [formato PDF, 8,33 MB]. "This document is part of a suite of technical design guidance on active travel being developed by Sustrans. There is much useful material already available from a range of organisations, and this guidance from Sustrans aims to provide detailed technical advice on key issues around on and off highway cycle infrastructure whilst signposting users to this developing library of further resources." (N)

Rachel Aldred, Anna Goodman, James Woodcock, Where cycling is increasing, is it getting more equal?. Presentation, 11th Cycling & Society Annual Symposium, Newcastle (UK), September 14-16, 2014, 21 slides [formato PDF, 832 kB]. "In low-cycling countries, cycling is not evenly distributed across genders and age groups. In the UK, men are around twice as likely as women to cycle to work. Cycling also tends to be comparatively dominated by younger adults, despite the fact the health benefits of cycling are largest at older ages. By contrast, in higher-cycling countries and cities, gender differences are low, absent, or in the opposite direction. Such places also lack the UK's steady decline in cycling among those older than 35. However, over the past ten years some local areas within the UK have seen increases in cycling. This presentation analyses data from the Census 2001 and 2011 to examine whether such increases in cycling are associated with greater diversity among those cycling. We find that more cycling does not necessarily mean more equal cycling: in areas where cycling has increased, there has been no increase in the representation of females among cyclists, and there has in fact been a decrease in the representation of older adults. We discuss potential causes of these findings and implications for policy. This includes the important implication that simply increasing cycling modal share is not necessarily enough to create an inclusive cycling culture. The UK's culturally specific factors limiting female take-up of cycling seem to remain in place, even where cycling has gone up. Creating a genuine mass cycling culture may require deliberately targeting infrastructure and policies towards a broad range of potential cyclists, particularly those in under-represented groups." (N)

Graeme Sherriff, Communicating Cycle Training: Perceptions and Experiences of Adult Cycle Training. University of Salford, Manchester, August 2014, 54 p. [formato PDF, 4,70 MB]. "This research aims to better understand the communication strategies that can most effectively be used to engage with the diverse community of adults who cycle, or would cycle, and help convince them of the benefits of cycle training. The research is based upon empirical work in Greater Manchester comprising a web-based survey and a series of focus groups." (N)

Annika K. Jägerbrand, Joanna Dickinson, Anna Mellin, Mattias Viklund and Staffan Dahlberg, Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden. (VTI rapport 827a). VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, 2014, 103 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals." (N)

Hans Jakob Walnum, Carlo Aall and Søren Løkke, Can Rebound Effects Explain Why Sustainable Mobility Has Not Been Achieved?. Sustainability 2014, 6, 9510-9537 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. Open Access. "Since the report “Our Common Future” launched sustainable development as a primary goal for society in 1987, both scientific and political discussions about the term’s definition and how to achieve sustainable development have ensued. The manifold negative environmental impacts of transportation are an important contributor to the so-far non-sustainable development in financially rich areas of the world. Thus, achieving sustainable mobility is crucial to achieving the wider challenge of sustainable development. In this article, we limit our sustainability focus to that of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We discuss whether rebound effects can reveal why sustainable mobility has not been reached. Rebound effects refer to behavioral or other systemic responses after the implementation of new technologies or other measures to reduce energy consumption. Three main strategies exist for achieving sustainable mobility: efficiency, substitution, and volume reduction. (1) The efficiency strategy is based on the idea that environmental problems caused by transport can be improved by developing new and more efficient technologies to replace old, inefficient, and polluting materials and methods; (2) The second strategy—substitution—argues for a change to less polluting means of transport; (3) The volume reduction strategy argue that efficiency and substitution are not sufficient, we must fundamentally change behavior and consumption patterns; people must travel less, and freight volumes must decrease. We found rebound effects associated with all three of the main strategies that will lead to offsetting expected savings in energy use and GHG emissions in the transport sector." (N)

Frank Proulx (UC Berkeley), Methods and Technologies for Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection, NCHRP 7-19. SafeTREC seminar, Berkeley, CA, December 5, 2014, 88 slides [formato PDF, 3,36 MB]. (N)

Linjie Hou, Harry Geerlings, Port related transport management and the governance of air pollution: A comparative study on emission standards between china and Europe and the position of ports. European Transport \ Trasporti Europei (2014), Issue 56, Paper n° 9 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 237 kB]. "It can be observed that hinterland connections of ports have experienced an unprecedented growth over the last two decades due to the emerging economies in the Asian countries and the related process globalization. At the same time, this development has sincere negative effects on the natural environment, in particular emissions with a regional impact and emission with a global effect, in particular CO2 emissions. Addressing these issue is becoming more urgent but there are different approached to come to a coherent strategy. Emission standards are a promising tool as they can set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that is emitted into the environment. Therefor standards setting can be considered as an efficient way of direct regulation to realize objectives on the global, national, regional and local level as they do not only set limits (a constraint on behavior), but standards can also function as a positive impetus to stimulate technological development. This paper focus the role of standards from a port and hinterland transport perspective and it describes the various policy initiatives undertaken in China and Europe (who represent the biggest ports in the world) with respect to standard setting in transportation with the aim to improve the air quality in ports and the hinterland connections and the results of these efforts so far. The most striking conclusion is that, despite the sense of urgency, the public concern and the willingness of the government in China to address air pollution, standards are completely lacking. This is in contrast to Europe where clear standards are formulated for vehicle emissions even for the period after 2020." (N)

Jordan Lewis and Mike Schwindeller (Univ. of Washington), Adaptive Streets. Strategies for Transforming the Urban Right-of-Way, 2014, 64 p. [formato PDF, 87,1 MB] "This handbook has been developed to serve as an encouragement and guide for planners, designers, engineers and citizens who see the many opportunities for utility, pleasure and human and environmental health that streets can provide. Developed by UW graduate students Jordan Lewis and Mike Schwindeller for their internship in the UW Green Futures Lab in Seattle and in the firms of Gehl Architects and Schulze + Grassov in Copenhagen, the document has been inspired and informed by worldwide movements to adapt urban streets to serve multiple purposes, from San Francisco to Seattle, Christchurch to Copenhagen." (N)

Legambiente, Rapporto Pendolaria 2014. La situazione e gli scenari del trasporto ferroviario pendolare in Italia. Roma, dicembre 2014, 110 p. [formato PDF, 4,10 MB]. (N)

Lorenzo Bertuccio, Osservatorio sulla Mobilità Sostenibile in Italia: indagine sulle principali 50 città. Edizione 2014. Roma, 18 dicembre 2014, 38 slides [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Presentazione dell'ottavo rapporto sulla mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane redatto da Euromobility. (N)

Malcolm J. Wardlaw, History, risk, infrastructure: perspectives on bicycling in the Netherlands and the UK, Journal of Transport & Health, 1 (2014) 243-250 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 863 kB]. Open Access. "Cycling has consistently been safer in the Netherlands than the UK. Nevertheless, safety has improved in both countries over time. Between 1980 and 2011, the cyclists’ fatality rate declined by 67% in the Netherlands and 57% in the UK. Per capita bicycle use was sustained in the Netherlands throughout the post-World War Two era, peaking in the early 1960s and only declining for a decade before recovering. In contrast, UK bicycle use peaked in 1952 and declined permanently. The survival of popular bicycling in the Netherlands through the 1950s and 1960s was fundamental to the development of effective bicycling policies after the 1970s. The Dutch network of cycle tracks and routes increased from 9,000 km in the mid 1970s to approximately 29,000 km currently. The annual distance cycled per capita increased by 30% in the ten years to 1988, but has not materially increased since then. In the UK, cycling has a long heritage as a marginalised form of travel. This continues to hinder efforts to achieve a national cycling revival. Nevertheless, cycling on quiet urban and rural roads in the UK incurs much lower risks than the national average fatality rate would suggest. Networks enabling cyclists to avoid main roads, especially rural A-roads, could provide safety levels comparable to the Netherlands and Denmark. There are towns in the UK with segregated cycling networks, but few cyclists. This is because a range of measures must be invoked to achieve large modal shifts to cycling. Local authority support is a critical factor." (N)

Silvio Nocera, Stefania Tonin, Maurizio Murino, Federico Cavallaro, La complessità della valutazione della CO2 nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT)(2014), n° 2, articolo 1, 22 p. [formato PDF, 15,2 MB]. "La riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 è fondamentale per valutare la sostenibilità nella pianificazione dei trasporti. Tuttavia, la maggior parte dei piani di mobilità non è ancora riuscita a trovare una metodologia condivisa per internalizzare tali emissioni e renderle uno dei parametri in grado di influenzare attivamente le scelte finali sulle politiche e sulle misure da adottare. In particolare, risulta estremamente complesso dapprima quantificare, quindi attribuire un prezzo economico unitario alle emissioni di CO2. Il presente contributo indaga le problematiche relative alla loro monetizzazione, mostrando le metodologie attualmente in uso e il vasto grado di incertezza scientifica ed economica che le caratterizzano. Attraverso una meta-analisi compiuta su una raccolta di circa settecento casi, si è arrivati a limitare l’enorme intervallo attualmente esistente (fino a sei ordini di grandezza) e predire un modello in grado di definire un valore economico basato sugli obiettivi stabiliti preliminarmente dai decisori politici. In tale modo, la CO2 può essere inclusa attivamente nelle decisioni relative alle misure da intraprendere per una corretta allocazione delle risorse pubbliche, garantendo ai decisori una maggiore trasparenza nelle scelte." (N)

European Environmental Agency, Focusing on environmental pressures from long distance transport. TERM 2014: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (EEA Report n.7/2014), EEA, Copenhagen, 2014, 104 p. [formato PDF, 5,36 MB]. "The 2014 TERM report includes two sections: Part A provides an assessment of the progress made in the environmental performance of the transport system as a whole. This section uses a core set of 12 TERM indicators; these indicators have been selected based on their links to key transitional processes in transport, their association with ongoing European policy targets, and data availability and reliability. Part B of the report presents a dedicated assessment of the impact of long.distance transport activities on the environment. This complements last year's TERM report (EEA, 2013a), in which the importance of health and environmental impacts of urban transport were assessed." (N)

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Iniziativa di studio sulla portualità italiana. Dipartimento per la programmazione e il coordinamento della politica economica, Roma, luglio 2014, 143 p. [formato PDF, 2,12 MB] "Lo Studio ricostruisce lo stato delle infrastrutture portuali e della relativa programmazione e finanziamento, l’andamento e le previsioni di traffico riguardanti le merci, le modifiche del quadro normativo a partire dalla legge n. 84/1994, con particolare riferimento alle procedure di affidamento delle concessioni e dei lavori in ambito portuale, e le principali proposte di riforma. Sulla base dei predetti elementi e delle indicazioni della Commissione Europea nell’ambito della revisione delle Reti Transeuropee di Trasporto (TEN-T), lo Studio individua una serie di indicatori per l’allocazione di future disponibilità finanziarie pubbliche e per la pianificazione del settore, nonché alcune raccomandazioni per azioni/misure di policy finalizzate allo sviluppo del sistema portuale italiano. Oltre alla analisi della documentazione disponibile a livello nazionale e internazionale, è stato chiesto alle Autorità Portuali (AP) di fornire dati riguardo alla realtà dei singoli porti, ai progetti infrastrutturali in atto - ivi comprese le opere di bonifica -, ai collegamenti del porto con la rete viaria/ferroviaria, alla capacità residua di movimentazione, ai piani regolatori e alle relazioni con altri porti. Alle maggiori compagnie di shipping internazionali è stato chiesto di esprimere una valutazione comparativa, in termini di efficienza e competitività, dei porti dell’Alto Tirreno e di quelli del Nord Adriatico a confronto con i porti del Northern range e del West Med, oltre che valutazioni su tempi di percorrenza e costi di spedizione delle merci verso località significative." (N)

Lisa Rayle, Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Danielle Dai, Robert Cervero, App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco. (Working Paper). University of California Transportation Center (UCTC), Berkeley, November 2014, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "The rapid growth of on-demand ride services such as uberX and Lyft, or “ridesourcing,” has prompted debate among policy makers and stakeholders. At present, ridesourcing’s usage and impacts are not well understood. Key questions include: how ridesourcing and traditional taxis compare with respect to trip types, customers, and locations served; whether ridesourcing complements or competes with public transit; and potential impacts on vehicle kilometers traveled. We address these questions using an intercept survey. In spring 2014, 380 complete surveys were collected from three ridesourcing “hot spots” in San Francisco. Survey results are compared with matched-pair taxi trip data and results of a previous taxi user survey. We also compared travel times for ridesourcing and taxis with those for public transit. The findings indicate ridesourcing serves a previously unmet demand for convenient, point-to-point urban travel. Although taxis and ridesourcing share similarities, the findings show differences in users and the user experience. Ridesourcing wait times are markedly shorter and more consistent than those of taxis, while ridesourcing users tend to be younger, own fewer vehicles and more frequently travel with companions. Ridesourcing, like taxis, appears to both substitute for and complement public transit; the majority of ridesourcing trips would have taken substantially longer if made by public transit. Impacts on overall vehicle travel are unclear. Future research should build on this exploratory study to further understand impacts of ridesourcing on labor, social equity, the environment, and public policy." (N)

Susan A. Shaheen, Elliot W. Martin, Nelson D. Chan, Adam P. Cohen, Mike Pogodzinski, Public Bikesharing in North America During a Period of Rapid Expansion: Understanding Business Models, Industry Trends & User Impacts. (MTI Report 12-29), Mineta Transportation Institute, San José, CA, October 2014, 234 p. [formato PDF, 3,01 MB] "Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—is an innovative transportation strategy that has recently emerged in major cities around the world, including North America. Information technology (IT)-based bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Trips can be one-way, round-trip, or both, depending on the operator. Bikesharing can serve as a first-and-last mile connector to other modes, as well as for both short and long distance destinations. In 2012, 22 IT-based public bikesharing systems were operating in the United States, with a total of 884,442 users and 7,549 bicycles. Four IT-based programs in Canada had a total of 197,419 users and 6,115 bicycles. Two IT-based programs in Mexico had a total of 71,611 users and 3,680 bicycles. (Membership numbers reflect the total number of short- and long-term users.) This study evaluates public bikesharing in North America, reviewing the change in travel behavior exhibited by members of different programs in the context of their business models and operational environment. This Phase II research builds on data collected during our Phase I research conducted in 2012. During the 2012 research (Phase I), researchers conducted 14 expert interviews with industry experts and public officials in the United States and Canada, as well as 19 interviews with the manager and/or key staff of IT-based bikesharing organizations. For more information on the Phase I research, please see the Shaheen et al., 2012 report Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator and User Understanding. For this Phase II study, an additional 23 interviews were conducted with IT-based bikesharing organizations in the United States, Canada, and Mexico in Spring 2013. Notable developments during this period include the ongoing expansion of public bikesharing in North America, including the recent launches of multiple large bikesharing programs in the United States (i.e., Citi Bike in New York City, Divvy in Chicago, and Bay Area Bike Share in the San Francisco Bay Area). In addition to expert interviews, the authors conducted two kinds of surveys with bikesharing users. One was the online member survey. This survey was sent to all people for whom the operator had an email address. The population of this survey was mainly annual members of the bikesharing system, and the members took the survey via a URL link sent to them from the operator. The second survey was an on-street survey. This survey was designed for anyone, including casual users (i.e., those who are not members of the system and use it on a short-term basis), to take “on-street” via a smartphone. The member survey was deployed in five cities: Montreal, Toronto, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, and Mexico City. The on-street survey was implemented in three cities: Boston, Salt Lake City, and San Antonio." (N)

Claudia de Stasio, Angelo Martino, Francesca Fermi, Dorota Bielanska, Tariffazione dell’uso delle infrastrutture stradali da parte dei veicoli pesanti: la valutazione d’impatto di politiche a scala europea. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 3 (2014), 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,77 MB]. "La Direttiva Eurovignetta (1999/62/EC e sue successive modifiche) definisce a livello europeo la politica di tariffazione stradale attraverso la regolazione dell’applicazione di tasse, pedaggi e diritti di utenza ai veicoli commerciali che utilizzano la rete di trasporto trans-europea e altre autostrade. Nonostante la Direttiva si collochi lontano nel tempo, il panorama europeo delle tariffe autostradali è ancora oggi discordante e necessita di essere armonizzato. Quest’articolo illustra i principali risultati di un’analisi ex-post sugli impatti della Direttiva Eurovignetta e descrive la metodologia di valutazione seguita per l’analisi ex-ante d’impatti derivanti da future proposte legislative europee."(N)

Bent Flyvbjerg (Oxford University), What You Should Know About Megaprojects and Why: An Overview, Project Management Journal, April/May 2014 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 630 kB]. "This paper takes stock of megaproject management, an emerging and hugely costly field of study. First, it answers the question of how large megaprojects are by measuring them in the units mega, giga, and tera, concluding we are presently entering a new "tera era" of trillion-dollar projects. Second, total global megaproject spending is assessed, at USD 6-9 trillion annually, or 8 percent of total global GDP, which denotes the biggest investment boom in human history. Third, four "sublimes" – political, technological, economic, and aesthetic – are identified to explain the increased size and frequency of megaprojects. Fourth, the "iron law of megaprojects" is laid out and documented: Over budget, over time, over and over again. Moreover, the "break-fix model" of megaproject management is introduced as an explanation of the iron law. Fifth, Albert O. Hirschman's theory of the Hiding Hand is revisited and critiqued as unfounded and corrupting for megaproject thinking in both the academy and policy. Sixth, it is shown how megaprojects are systematically subject to "survival of the unfittest," explaining why the worst projects get built instead of the best. Finally, it is argued that the conventional way of managing megaprojects has reached a "tension point," where tradition is challenged and reform is emerging." (N)

Philipp Rode, Graham Floater, Nikolas Thomopoulos, James Docherty, Peter Schwinger, Anjali Mahendra, and Wanli Fang, Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form. (NCE Cities Paper 03). LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, 2014, 61 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "This paper focusses on one central aspect of urban development: transport and urban form and how the two shape the provision of access to people, goods and services, and information in cities. The more efficient this access, the greater the economic benefits through economies of scale, agglomeration effects and networking advantages. This paper discusses how different urban accessibility pathways impact directly on other measures of human development and environmental sustainability. It also presents the enabling conditions for increasing accessibility and low-carbon mobility in cities. In summary, this paper suggests that more compact urban growth, aligned with the increased provision of public transport infrastructure and services and pro-active support for non-motorised transport use, is likely to deliver substantial net economic and social benefits. Despite this, current urban development trajectories across much of the world diverge considerably from more efficient urban accessibility pathways. This paper provides an overview of current global patterns and trends in the physical development of cities and related urban mobility behaviour. Overall, cities continue to sprawl excessively, with some estimates suggesting that total urban land area could triple between 2000 and 2030. Similarly, in many key emerging economies (such as China and India), private motorised vehicle use and modal share is expanding rapidly, with a range of negative economic and social implications. At the same time, however, evidence on tipping points towards more sustainable development trajectories is emerging in cities across different wealth levels. As a result of socio-demographic change, shifting public opinion, strong political leadership and technological innovation, some cities are moving towards a more compact and public-transport oriented urban development model with increasing shares of non-motorised transport. The last section of this paper then discusses the key policy areas (and related instruments) relevant to enabling spatially- and energy-efficient urban development. Undertaking strategic spatial planning in relation to key infrastructure developments, managing compact urban growth by identifying areas for intensification rather than simply restricting development, and closely integrating the provision of housing with public transport are among the key planning approaches adopted by leading city governments. In addition, the strategic use of incentives and revenue mobilisation instruments is recognised as essential to ensuring the availability of financing for urban infrastructure investment, respecting the ‘polluter pays’ principle and creating positive feedback mechanisms between infrastructure investment, transport modal choice and urban form." (N)

Bundesamt für Verkehr (BAV), Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation (UVEK), Güterverkehr durch die Schweizer Alpen 2013 / Freight traffic and transport crossing the Swiss Alps 2013. Bundesamt für Verkehr (BAV), Bern, Juli 2014, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,19 MB]. "A survey of transalpine freight traffic has been conducted annually since the Gotthard road tunnel opened in 1980. These surveys keep transport policy-makers supplied with information on the status and development of road and rail freight transport in the Alpine region. A more detailed survey – the principal survey – is carried out every five years, most recently in 2009 and again in 2014. 2013 was an intermediate year, i.e. a simplified version of the survey was carried out, which registered 1.14 million heavy goods vehicles crossing the Swiss Alps – -5 % less than in the previous year and -19 % less than in the peak year 2000. Compared to 2012, the volumes of goods transported through the Alps increased by +6 % (rail) and decreased by -5 % (road), respectively. The share of freight carried by rail (modalsplit) increased from 63.4 % to 66.0 %."

Sofi Fristedt, Anna K. Dahl, Anders Wretstrand, Anita Björklund, Torbjörn Falkmer, Changes in Community Mobility in Older Men and Women. A 13-Year Prospective Study. PLoS ONE 9(2): e87827, February 2014(8 p.) [formato PDF, 580 kB]. Open Access. "Community mobility, defined as “moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation”, has a unique ability to promote older peoples’ wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons’ subjective health."

Elmar Wilhelm M. Fürst, Maria Dieplinger (WU, Vienna University of Economics and Business), The acceptability of road pricing in Vienna: the preference patterns of car drivers. Transportation, July 2014, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 765-784 (20 p.) [formato PDF, 301 kB]. "The acceptability of road pricing has attracted considerable attention among researchers over the last decade, as is evident in the amount of literature about transport and environmental economics. The general conclusion from these studies has been that there is low acceptability for road pricing among car users. In this paper, we add more knowledge to the existing literature by conducting an acceptability study of road pricing in Vienna, where such a study has never been conducted before. We used a replication study approach where a previous approach used in the EU research project AFFORD (acceptability of fiscal and financial measures and organisational requirements for demand management) was replicated for Vienna and further supplemented with a conjoint analysis. In order to examining whether the Vienna study confirms previous findings. We investigated the acceptability of two concrete policy packages factors influencing this acceptability, and preference patterns that can be used in designing a road pricing policy for Vienna. The survey reveals a higher acceptability if road pricing schemes lead to perceived personal benefits. According to the multivariate analyses, the ‘‘personal outcome expectations’’, ‘‘social norm’’ and ‘‘perceived effectiveness’’ variables account for more than 50 % of the criterion variance and therefore these are the most influential factors. Road pricing schemes can be an effective transport management instrument for a city particularly if they are associated with direct investment in public transport and public infrastructure. Thus, personal benefits can be perceived more easily and direct effects can be expected."

Stef Proost, Fay Dunkerley, Saskia Van der Loo, Nicole Adler, Johannes Bröcker, Artem Korzhenevych, Do the selected Trans European transport investments pass the cost benefit test? Transportation, January 2014, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 107-132 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 390 kB]. "This paper assesses the economic justification for the selection of priority projects defined under the auspices of the Trans-European transport network. In analyzing the current list of 30 priority projects, we apply three different transport models to undertake a cost-benefit comparison. We find that many projects do not pass the cost-benefit test and only a few of the economically justifiable projects would need European subsidies to make them happen. Two remedies are proposed to minimize the inefficiencies in future project selection. The first remedy obliges each member state or group of states to perform a cost-benefit analysis (followed by a peer review) and to make the results public prior to ranking priority projects. The second remedy would require federal funding to be available only for projects with important spillovers to other countries, in order to avoid pork barrel behaviour."

Michael Jerrett, Rob McConnell, Jennifer Wolch, Roger Chang, Claudia Lam, Genevieve Dunton, Frank Gilliland, Fred Lurmann, Talat Islam and Kiros Berhane, Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. Environmental Health 2014, 13:49 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 1,11 MB]. Open Access. "Background: Biologically plausible mechanisms link traffic-related air pollution to metabolic disorders and potentially to obesity. Here we sought to determine whether traffic density and traffic-related air pollution were positively associated with growth in body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) in children aged 5–11 years. Methods: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort of children who lived in 13 communities across Southern California (N = 4550). Children were enrolled while attending kindergarten and first grade and followed for 4 years, with height and weight measured annually. Dispersion models were used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Multilevel models were used to estimate and test traffic density and traffic pollution related to BMI growth. Data were collected between 2002–2010 and analyzed in 2011–12. Results: Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI and was robust to adjustment for many confounders. The effect size in the adjusted model indicated about a 13.6% increase in annual BMI growth when comparing the lowest to the highest tenth percentile of air pollution exposure, which resulted in an increase of nearly 0.4 BMI units on attained BMI at age 10. Traffic density also had a positive association with BMI growth, but this effect was less robust in multivariate models. Conclusions: Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in children aged 5–11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children."

Bruno Van Zeebroeck, Julie Charles, Impact et potentiel de l’usage du vélo sur l’économie et l’emploi en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Les effets directs et indirects de l’usage du vélo en 2002, 2012 et 2020. Rapport pour le Ministère de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Pro Velo, Transport & Mobility Leuven, 30.5.2014, 98 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "Pro Velo R&D et Transport & Mobility Leuven ont été désignés par la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale pour réaliser une étude relative à l'impact économique et au potentiel de l'usage du vélo sur l'économie et l'emploi en Région bruxelloise. Il s'agit tout d'abord de quantifier les impacts directs et indirects de l'usage du vélo: les "impacts directs" regroupent les effets liés au marché économique: l'achat de vélos et d'accessoires, la construction d'infrastructures, les subventions au secteur associatif... Tous ces aspects seront mesurés à la fois en termes d'emplois et de chiffre d'affaires; pour les "effets indirects", il s'agit d'évaluer les bénéfices sociétaux, tirés de la pratique du vélo, pour lesquels les cyclistes ne sont pas rétribués: meilleure santé, meilleure qualité de l'environnement, décongestion..."

Ellen Flint, Steven Cummins, Amanda Sacker, Associations between active commuting, body fat, and body mass index: population based, cross sectional study in the United Kingdom, BMJ 2014;349:g4887, 19 August 2014 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 590 kB]. Open Access. "Objective: To determine if promotion of active modes of travel is an effective strategy for obesity prevention by assessing whether active commuting (walking or cycling for all or part of the journey to work) is independently associated with objectively assessed biological markers of obesity. Design: Cross sectional study of data from the wave 2 Health Assessment subsample of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). The exposure of interest, commuting mode, was self reported and categorised as three categories: private transport, public transport, and active transport. Participants: The analytic samples (7534 for body mass index (BMI) analysis, 7424 for percentage body fat analysis) were drawn from the representative subsample of wave 2 respondents of UKHLS who provided health assessment data (n=15 777). Main outcome measures: Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2); percentage body fat (measured by electrical impedance). Results: Results from multivariate linear regression analyses suggest that, compared with using private transport, commuting by public or active transport modes was significantly and independently predictive of lower BMI for both men and women. In fully adjusted models, men who commuted via public or active modes had BMI scores 1.10 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) and 0.97 (0.40 to 1.55) points lower, respectively, than those who used private transport. Women who commuted via public or active modes had BMI scores 0.72 (0.06 to 1.37) and 0.87 (0.36 to 0.87) points lower, respectively, than those using private transport. Results for percentage body fat were similar in terms of magnitude, significance, and direction of effects. Conclusions: Men and women who commuted to work by active and public modes of transport had significantly lower BMI and percentage body fat than their counterparts who used private transport. These associations were not attenuated by adjustment for a range of hypothesised confounding factors."

Johannes Erhard, Werner Reh, Manfred Treber, Dietmar Oeliger, Daniel Rieger, Michael Müller-Görnert, Klimafreundlicher Verkehr in Deutschland. Weichenstellungen bis 2050 (Climate-friendly transport in Germany). WWF Deutschland, Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V. (BUND), Germanwatch e.V., Naturschutzbund Deutschland e.V. (NABU), Verkehrsclub Deutschland e.V. (VCD), Juni 2014, 75 p. [formato PDF, 3,16 MB]. "In their concept for “Climate-friendly transport in Germany”, the environmental associations WWF, BUND, Germanwatch, NABU and VCD present a way for the German transport sector to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 95 % by 2050. The core message is that in addition to technical solutions like efficiency improvements, measures to reduce traffic and shift traffic onto more environmentally friendly modes of transport need to be pursued to reduce final energy demand in the transport sector. By 2050, as a result, the transport sector’s final energy demand will fall by nearly 70 % (compared to 2005), with a 64 % cut in greenhouse gas emissions (compared to 1990). To close the remaining “gap” and deliver an almost total reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector will need to use electricity from renewable energy sources as well as regenerative gaseous and liquid fuels. Whether and how these can be made available and at the same time fulfil ambitious sustainability requirements is still uncertain today. Germany has set a target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 80 to 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. However, if global warming is to be limited to a maximum of two degrees Celsius by the end of the century compared to the pre-industrial age, Germany – as an industrial nation – will need to position itself at the top end of this range. Yet Germany will miss its climate goals unless the transport sector also makes an appropriate reduction. While the energy transition in the electricity sector is the talk of the day, so far the German federal government has completely lacked a transport policy that is aligned with the climate goals. The transport sector is currently responsible for around 20 % of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, yet has underperformed other sectors in reducing its emissions. Including international air and sea traffic originating in Germany, transport emissions actually rose by 2.5 % between 1990 and 2012. At the heart of the joint concept is a climate protection scenario which quantifies the target outlined above for a sustainable transport system. The associations’ concept includes international air and sea traffic originating in Germany and takes the higher climate impact of air traffic emissions into account. The scenario is based on assumptions which underline what changes are needed in the political framework and in our mobility patterns to make the target achievable. Priority is given to measures which preserve mobility and at the same time are associated with a better quality of life. For example, noise and pollutant as well as greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, and attractive public spaces are created. Passenger traffic falls 15 % by 2050. In the long term, this is influenced by a declining population and demographic change. In an ageing society, there is a shift away from journeys to and from places of work and education, towards leisure travel. Since everyday products are increasingly bought online, the number of shopping trips decreases, with a corresponding increase in goods distribution traffic. There is a significant change in the chosen modes of transport. Whereas car ownership is predominant today, what matters most in the long term is flexibility. Especially in urban and suburban areas, people will rely on (shared) bicycles, pedelecs, a good public transport network and electrically powered carsharing vehicles, according to their needs. For longer distances, an effective rail and long-distance bus network will be available with coordinated connections across the country. As a result, by 2050 there will be only around half as many private cars as there are today. Policymakers support these trends by providing integrated funding for attractive public transport offerings, and expanding the cycling infrastructure. This is accompanied by the introduction of distance- and emissions-based tolls for passenger cars. EU limits for new car CO2 emissions will be tightened to a maximum of 65–68 grams CO2/km by 2025 and a maximum of 50 grams CO2/km by 2030. While freight transport in Germany will increase further by 2030, in the long term it will stabilize at the current level. Growth in average transportation distances in the freight sector, which in the past was caused mainly by EU integration, will not continue. At least for food and animal feed, regional trade patterns will become more important again. The freight transport volume, i.e. the quantity of goods transported each year, will increase only slightly by 2050. While the transport volume for transit traffic moves somewhat higher, there is a drastic fall in the transportation of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, as a result of the systematic implementation of the energy transition. Rail and inland waterways account for a significantly larger share of transportation. Overall, around half of freight transport in 2050 uses these modes of transport. Also the combination of different modes of transport becomes more important. In cities, electrically powered light duty vehicles and cargo bikes are used for deliveries. Policymakers support these developments in goods traffic by increasing and extending truck tolls. The target of doubling rail capacity to 225 billion tonne-kilometres by 2050 is accompanied by target-oriented transport infrastructure planning in Germany. Its main focus is on boosting seaport hinterland transportation by rail. Air cargo traffic increases by around one-third by 2050. In contrast, growth in air passenger traffic weakens, resulting in a slight decline by 2050. The inclusion of air traffic and international flights in an effective emissions trading scheme has an increasing impact on airfares. At the same time, policymakers reduce subsidies for regional airports. Because of higher ticket prices, the trend for many short trips reverts to longer-duration and fewer air journeys. Business flights are increasingly replaced by telemeetings. Nevertheless, because of the higher climate impact of its emissions in the upper layers of the atmosphere, aviation constitutes a considerable problem for achieving the climate goals in the long term. Despite ambitious measures to reduce and shift traffic, and significant efficiency gains in all modes of transport, even in 2050 the transport sector still accounts for a considerable final energy demand of nearly 900 petajoules. The goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 95 % can only be achieved if sufficient low-greenhouse-gas and sustainable fuel alternatives are available. Biofuels made from food crops are not considered as a possible solution in this concept owing to current doubts as to their sustainability and actually achievable greenhouse gas reductions. In 2050, trains, local public transport, cars and light commercial vehicles will largely be powered by electricity from renewable energy sources. The remaining demand for liquid and gaseous fuels from heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), ships and aircraft as well as hybrid cars and light commercial vehicles can be partially covered by biofuels produced from waste and residues. In addition, synthetic fuels generated using electricity from renewable sources can be used. The enormous long-term electricity requirements of the transport sector underline the urgent need for systematic implementation of the energy transition in Germany. Uncertainties regarding the available quantities of sustainable alternative fuels make it all the more clear that a drastic reduction in final energy demand constitutes the essential core of a successful climate strategy for the German transport sector."

Sigal Kaplan, Francesco Manca, Thomas A.S. Nielsen, Carlo G. Prato (Technical University of Denmark), Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Artikler fra Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet (Proceedings from the Annual Transport Conference at Aalborg University), 25.-26. August 2014, Aalborg, Denmark, 18 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "This study explored the behavioral factors underlying tourist intentions to use urban bike-sharing for recreational cycling while on holiday. The analytical framework relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior relating tourist intentions to pro-cycling attitudes, interest in bicycle technology, pro-cycling subjective norms and perceived cycling ease. The case-study focused on the new bike-sharing system in Copenhagen (Denmark) and questioned 655 potential tourists about a hypothetical holiday scenario. Structural equation models revealed: (i) the great interest in using bike-sharing, frequently and for multiple purposes; (ii) the relation between holiday cycling and living in a cycling-friendly country, past cycling experience and habitual mode choice; (iii) the appeal of electric bicycles to tourists with high interest in bicycle technology, low perceived cycling ease and weak pro-cycling norms; (iv) the relation between frequent and multi-purpose cycling intentions and stronger pro-cycling attitudes and norms, and greater perceived likelihood that the holiday partners would cycle."

Stefan Gössling, Scott A. Cohen, Why sustainable transport policies will fail: European Union climate policy in the light of transport taboos. Journal of Transport Geography (in press, 2014) (36 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. "There is widespread consensus that current climate policy for passenger transportation is insufficient to achieve significant emission reductions in line with global climate stabilization goals. This article consequently has a starting point in the notion of ‘path dependency’ (Schwanen, Banister and Anable 2011) and an observed ‘implementation gap’ (Banister and Hickman 2012), suggesting that significant mitigation policies for transport do not emerge in the European Union because of various interlinked ‘transport taboos’, i.e. barriers to the design, acceptance and implementation of such transport policies that remain unaddressed as they constitute political risk. The paper argues that without addressing transport taboos, such as highly unequal individual contributions to transport volumes and emissions, social inequality of planned market-based measures, the role of lobbyism, and the various social and psychological functions of mobility, it will remain difficult to achieve significant emission reductions in passenger transport. Yet, transport taboos remain largely ignored among EU policy makers because their discussion would violate ‘order’, i.e. harm specific interests within neoliberal governance structures and the societal foundations and structures of transport systems built on these."

Sonja Heikkilä, Mobility as a Service – A Proposal for Action for the Public Administration, Case Helsinki. Master Thesis of Science in Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Aalto University, 28.04.2014, 94 p. [formato PDF, 2,06 MB]. "The passenger transport sector is being affected by several major trends. These trends alter the requirements of the transport system, thus creating a challenge to the city development. However, it seems that the current organization of the public transport service provision in Helsinki fails to sufficiently respond to the challenge. Simultaneously, the objective of the national transport policy is to increase the share of sustainable travel modes. In addition to the altering requirements, modern technology, such as means of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), provide a spectrum of possibilities in the field. The deployment of ITS could contribute to more efficient utilization of resources, including infrastructure and fleet, improved fluidity of traffic due to real time information, and attractive provision of mobility services. Having said this, it appears that the passenger transport sector in Helsinki needs to be transformed. In order to discover a possible form and course for the transformation, the Helsinki City Planning Department has procured this study. This study discovers a way to reorganize the passenger transport sector so that it would promote the concept of “Mobility as a Service” (MaaS), that is, convenient provision of a versatility of attractive mobility services. This study provides a suggestion of a transformed mobility sector. Furthermore, it provides a scheduled proposal for action for executing the transformation. The study examined former transformations in four industries: telecommunications, energy, airline, and railroad industries. The author aimed to identify the most significant factors that contributed to the success of the transformations. These numerous factors were then formed into proposals for action and crystallized into seven most considerable ones. The seven proposed actions were then appointed to a time scale from 2015 to 2025, thus creating a road map for the transformation of the passenger transport sector in Helsinki. The results show that all stakeholders should cooperate in the transformation, and legislation as well as regulation should be revised. In addition, purchase and subsidization procedures, as well as mobility service provision should be reorganized, and transformed operations established. Additionally, pilots should be conducted from the beginning to gain practical experience."

Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Muoversi meglio in città per muovere l'Italia. Analisi e proposte per un progetto di mobilità urbana. Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Roma, ottobre 2013, 328 p. [formato PDF, 6,34 MB]. Lo studio è stato presentato e reso pubblico dall'ACI l'8 luglio 2014. "Il crescente volume di spostamenti urbani (solo parzialmente fermato dalla crisi economica), oltre ai bisogni che quotidianamente soddisfa, determina una serie di effetti negativi che incidono su molteplici aspetti della vita cittadina: consumi energetici, reddito delle famiglie, lavoro, salute, turismo, tutela delle persone anziane, salvaguardia del patrimonio artistico, sicurezza (non solo stradale). Questi effetti non sono inevitabili. Ce lo dimostrano i risultati di questa ricerca e il confronto fra i dati delle nostre città e quelli delle altre realtà europee. Per evitare questo paradosso è necessario adottare una serie di interventi coordinati, funzionali a migliorare la vivibilità delle città. Anche in questo caso prendendo spunto dagli esempi che hanno funzionato, dalle best practices italiane ed europee. Muovendo da queste premesse, lo studio definisce le più efficaci terapie per migliorare la mobilità, partendo dall’anamnesi delle nostre città in "movimento" e dalla diagnosi delle patologie della nostra "immobilità". Tenendo in debita considerazione gli strumenti finanziari e di governo locali, necessari per dare forma alle diverse idee. Le terapie proposte mirano a riequilibrare la ripartizione modale, favorire lo sviluppo di nuove reti per la mobilità sostenibile (tram, metropolitane, piste ciclabili), rilanciare il trasporto pubblico, in sintesi colmare lo spread, il differenziale che i trasporti urbani italiani scontano nel confronto con l’estero."

European Environmental Agency, Effects of air pollution on European ecosystems. Past and future exposure of European freshwater and terrestrial habitats to acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants. (EEA Technical Report n.11/2014). European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2014, 42 p. [formato PDF, 6,91 MB]. "The report assesses the proportion of European ecosystems exposed to nitrogen and sulphur-containing pollutants above sustainable levels. When pollutants exceed these levels they can harm plants and animals. In the 1970s, many European governments became increasingly concerned about acid rain, which was damaging forests and killing fish such as the brown trout and Atlantic salmon. The report shows that acidification has been greatly reduced since its peak in 1980 when almost half of the sensitive ecosystem area in the 28 EU Member States was affected. This has been reduced to around 5 % of ecosystems today. Air pollution also contributes to eutrophication, an oversupply of nitrogen. This can change ecosystems, for example creating conditions more favourable to certain plants, thus reducing the 'species richness' in grasslands and other sensitive areas. Eutrophication from air pollution peaked in 1990 with around 80 % of sensitive ecosystems in the EU exposed above safe levels. Despite some improvements almost 60 % of the ecosystems are still affected. While the situation is set to improve further, the report indicates that air pollution will cause significant eutrophication for some years to come."

Silvia Maffii, Riccardo Parolin, Marco Ponti, L’"errore strategico" nelle valutazioni italiane. Le maggiori distorsioni finalizzate a dimostrare la fattibilità economico-finanziaria di infrastrutture di trasporto non fattibili. Paper, convegno Sipotra "La valutazione economica delle infrastrutture di trasporto tra errori passati e prospettive future", Milano, 6 giugno 2014, 10 p. [formato PDF, 642 kB]. "Le note che seguono si riferiscono ad alcuni fatti molto concreti e dimostrabili: il primo e più evidente è la sistematica assenza di valutazioni negative nelle analisi rese note al pubblico; il secondo è la scarsità di tali analisi; il terzo è l’assoluta mancanza di “terzietà”, caratteristica indispensabile per dare un minimo di credibilità alle analisi stesse. Queste sono sempre eseguite da portatori di interessi favorevoli della fattibilità dell’opera analizzata. Il quarto è l’assoluta assenza di analisi comparative, e tale assenza comporta che, anche se tutte le analisi avessero davvero dato risultati positivi, sia impossibile stabilire una qualche priorità, cioè escluderne alcune come “meno urgenti”. Tutto e sempre deve risultare fattibile, e possibilmente dar luogo all’apertura dei cantieri. Vi sono ovviamente anche molte considerazioni soltanto indiziarie, per la difficoltà o l’impossibilità di reperire dati e aprire archivi assolutamente riservati, pur trattandosi di risorse e progetti di interesse pubblico. Questi problemi sono inoltre resi ancora più difficili dal fatto che tra oggi e alcune vicende sono trascorsi parecchi anni. Il quadro complessivo che ne emerge tuttavia non consente maggiori dubbi sulla solidità dell’assunto."

Peter Mock and Zifei Yang, Driving electrification: A global comparison of fiscal policy for electric vehicles. White Paper. The International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington DC, May 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 882 kB]. "Governments around the world—motivated by long-term targets for climate change mitigation and reduction of petroleum use—have set goals to increase electric vehicles’ future market share. In support of these goals, some governments have enacted direct subsidies, fiscal incentives, and regulatory policy to help accelerate the movement of electric vehicles into the marketplace. In the meantime, the number of electric vehicle models is increasing as early market adopters have begun to purchase these advanced-technology electric vehicles. The global sales of electric vehicles have about doubled in each of the past two years, from about 45,000 vehicles sold in 2011 to more than 200,000 in 2013. However, in the context of overall automobile sales, the consumer uptake of electric vehicles has been generally limited to less than 1% in nearly every major auto market. This report is the first to evaluate the response to fiscal incentives in 2013 to incentivize the purchase of plug-in electric vehicles in major vehicle markets around the world. It offers a synthesis of wide-ranging sales data, national taxation policy information, and direct electric vehicle purchasing rebates to analyze the link between government policy and electric vehicle sales. It does so by focusing on two representative vehicles, the Renault Zoe battery-electric vehicle (BEV) and the Volvo V60 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This work identifies markets with varying market growth in electric vehicles and quantifies the taxation difference between electric vehicles and their conventional, non-electric counterparts. The report incorporates fuel and electricity prices to evaluate the equivalent total cost of ownership. Finally, the paper links the level of incentives to the level of electric vehicle market share and sales growth, seeking to draw conclusions about the impact of different incentive programs. There are clear differences in the taxation benefits provided for electric vehicles and sales of electric vehicles across the major vehicle markets. Figure ES-1 summarizes the relationship between the equivalent per-vehicle fiscal incentive provided in each region (in percentage of vehicle base price, on the x-axis), and the respective passenger car market share of BEV and PHEV for 2012 and 2013 (y-axis). For example, Norway’s fiscal incentive of about 11,500 EUR per BEV (equivalent to about 55% of vehicle base price) is associated with a 6% market share for BEV in 2013, and a 90% market share increase from 2012 to 2013. Similarly, the fiscal incentive in the Netherlands of about 38,000 EUR for PHEV (equivalent to about 75% of vehicle base price) in 2013 is associated with a 5% market share for PHEV in 2013, and a 1,900% market share increase from 2012 to 2013. These two examples indicate how national fiscal policy can offer a powerful mechanism to reduce the effective total cost of ownership and entice consumers to purchase electric vehicles."

Hua Zhang, Susan A. Shaheen, and Xingpeng Chen, Bicycle Evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 8:317–335, 2014 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 2,68 MB]. "This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars. Four lessons have been learned from China's electric bike experience relevant to government policy and management. Public bikesharing represents an important step towards integrating the bicycle with bus, metro, and rail systems. Five early operational lessons have been identified from China's limited public bikesharing experience."

Ufficio Studi Confcommercio, Analisi e previsioni per il trasporto merci in Italia. Confcommercio, Roma, maggio 2014, 63 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]

Natalie Popovich, Elizabeth Gordon, Zhenying Shao, Yan Xing, Yunshi Wang, Susan Handy (Univ. of California, Davis), Experiences of electric bicycle users in the Sacramento, California area. Travel Behaviour and Society 1, 2 (May 2014) 37–44 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 257 kB]. "In some parts of the world, electric bicycles (e-bikes) represent a significant share of daily travel, though they are still rare in the United States. The small size and maneuverability of e-bikes that are assets in cities in China may not be as important in the U.S., where cities are built to accommodate cars, but their potential as a substitute for cars makes them an important part of the discussion around sustainable transportation. In this study we conducted 27 interviews with e-bike users in the greater Sacramento area in which we asked participants about the reasons why they chose to invest in an e-bike, the ways in which they use their e-bikes, positive and negative aspects of using e-bikes, and reactions from friends and family members. Several important themes emerged from the interviews. The functional characteristics of e-bikes, particularly greater speed and acceleration than conventional bicycles with less exertion, contribute to several positive aspects of their use, including enabling more people to bicycle, more trips to be made by bicycle, and more fun for their users. The result, for these users, was an overall decrease in driving, with some users getting rid of their car altogether. Negative aspects cited by users include security concerns, safety concerns, unwieldiness, and range anxiety. Participants also discussed several misperceptions on the part of non-users that could inhibit their adoption. These results provide insights for the development of e-bike policy and guidance for future research."

Kenji Amagai, Takayuki Takarada, Masato Funatsu, Kikuo Nezu, Development of low-CO2-emission vehicles and utilization of local renewable energy for the vitalization of rural areas in Japan. IATSS Research, 37, 2 (2014), 81-88 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]. Open Access. "Most of Japan's energy supply depends on imports from foreign countries, making the independence ratio of energy in Japan very low. The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to a mass shutdown of all the nuclear plants in Japan, a stoppage that is still in effect. In this paper, we review the energy supply situation and some social problems faced by rural areas in Japan. Given that lifestyles in rural Japan are reliant on automobiles, there is significant demand for the establishment of a sustainable mobility society. Furthermore, Japan is now entering an aging society ahead of other countries. In order to enhance the vitalization of rural areas and accelerate the establishment of sustainable society, our project developed low-CO2-emission vehicles (i.e., a single-driver EV [micro-EV] and a low-speed E-bus) for elderly people and tourists through the cooperation of regional industries, a local university, and a city office. This paper also reports some trial test results on renewable energy utilization as the driving energy supply for these low emission vehicles."

Andrea Rusich, Romeo Danielis (Univ. Trieste), The private and social costs of a car. An estimate for cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy. 14th CIRIAF National Congress, Perugia, April 4-5, 2014, 11 p. [formato PDF, 314 kB]. "The paper estimates the private and social costs of several cars, making use of the Italian data with reference to vehicles’ purchase and maintenance costs, fuel and electricity costs, energy mix, pollution and noise costs. Focusing on Italy, this paper: a) reviews the current literature; b) sets up a model able to assess the social and private costs of several car types fueled by gasoline, diesel, CNG-bifuel, LPG-bifuel, hybrid, fully electric and fully electric with leased battery with a specific brand and with reference to the current Italian car market; c) performs a scenario analysis to get an idea of future car market developments. A previous version of the model is described in Rusich e Danielis (2013) “The private and social monetary costs and the energy consumption of a car. An estimate for seven cars with different vehicle technologies on sale in Italy”, Working Papers Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica."

Caroline Mullen, Miles Tight, Anthony Whiteing, Ann Jopson, Knowing their place on the roads: what would equality mean for walking and cycling?, Transportation Research Part A 61 (2014) 238-248 [formato PDF, 527 kB]. "Trials and dangers faced by pedestrians and cyclists have not only created an impression of undesirable conditions, but have promoted arguments of injustice and inequality. High rates of death and injury coupled with reporting of poor infrastructure and fear of the behaviour of other road users point to a plausible prima facie concern that pedestrians and cyclists suffer inequalities. Yet this appearance masks uncertainty about what factors are relevant in judging inequality and how these should be treated against potentially competing claims. This article develops a framework assessing conditions for walking and cycling according to a theoretical conception of political and social equality, and so providing a basis on which to make arguments for change in transport policy, planning and law. In developing the framework we examine the relevance to equality of a range of factors, including measurement of road casualties, questions of responsibility to increase walking and cycling as means of contributing to pollution and carbon reduction, matters of fault and responsibility for road safety, and the economic impacts of improving conditions for walking and cycling."

Min Chen, Hailong Tang, Kun Zhang (BeiHang University, Beijing, China), Some Critical Issues in the Development of Chinese High-Speed Rail: Challenges and Coping Strategies, Journal of Transportation Technologies, April 2014, 4, 164-174 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 838 kB]. Open Access. "In this paper, several critical issues related to Chinese high-speed rails (CHSR) are analyzed, investigated and discussed, including development background, reasons for high ticket fare, some typical factors that influence the environmental life-cycle assessment, time and cost comparison of typical door-to-door travel routes between different transport modes and complementary strategies among different transport modes. First, the results show that the expanding high-speed rail network increased the pressure on the country's roads in the 2010 spring festival rush period due to the high ticket fare of CHSR. Second, due to lower than expected ridership because of the high ticket price and limited demand in less developed areas, some Chinese CHSR projects have become economically unsustainable. Third, without sufficient ridership and service life, the utilization of HSR was unable to show any advantages in the environmental impact compared with the other transport modes. In addition, the impact of shock from CHSR on Chinese domestic civil airlines is evident when the travel distance is below 1050 km. The key objective of the investigation is to enhance our understanding of the development and operation of Chinese high-speed rail. One of the key contributions of the current paper is the presented suggestions for complementary strategies between different transport modes to make full use of Chinese transportation resources to promote low carbon economy."

Anna Goodman, Judith Green, James Woodcock, The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists. Journal of Transport & Health, v.1. n.1, March 2014, pp.5-8 (4 p.), [formato PDF, 273 kB], Open Access. "Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible."

Signs and signals for cyclists and pedestrians. Comparison of rules and pratices in 13 countries. Cerema, Lyon, April 2014, 44 p. [formato PDF, 11,6 MB]. "The lack of physical activity coupled with the frequent use of private cars in urban areas has led to an increasing sedentary lifestyle and has become a serious public health concern. Increasing the share of walking and cycling does not only contribute to increased health, but would also reduce noise and air pollution and could lead to an increased use of public transport. I order to increase the attractiveness of walking and cycling, the necessary infrastructure must be provided that is safe, accessible and comfortable to all users. Studies have shown that users have a very limited knowledge of the urban space and often see cities as an archipelago made up of islands in a sea of unknown spaces. Therefore, easily recognizable and familiar signs and signals that provide clear directions and information on distances and travel times are an indispensably tool to make walking and cycling more attractive. Today there exist a multitude of different signs and signals, mainly developed at the local level, that do not yet always fulfil these criteria. The present study, prepared by CEREMA in the framework of the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP), provides an inventory of existing or planned rules and regulations as well as best practices on signs and signals for cyclists and pedestrians in 13 countries. The information and the examples could be referred to by local authorities or States wishing to develop such types of signs and signals. The study could also be the starting point for the harmonization of signs and signals for walking and cycling at the international level and could contribute to the current review of the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals (1968) towards promotion of active mobility and the facilitation of pedestrian and bicycle tourism."

Ian Skinner, Dawei Wu, Christian Schweizer, Francesca Racioppi, Rie Tsutsumi, Unlocking new opportunities: jobs in green and healthy transport. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2014, 29 p. [formato PDF, 10,0 MB]. "The Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP) partnership on jobs in green and healthy transport is exploring potential job creation in greener, healthier, more efficient transport. This publication focuses on potential job creation in public transport, cycling and walking. An analysis of the available evidence suggests that these modes could be significant employers and contributors to the green economy. A simple method was used to estimate the job creation potential of cycling, as this was the mode for which most information was available. It was estimated that about 76 600 jobs could be created if selected cities achieved the same modal share of cycling as the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Additionally, about 10 000 deaths could be avoided each year thanks to the health benefits of cycling. These figures are likely to be underestimates, as they correspond to only one city per country and to only a small proportion of the jobs that could contribute to making transport greener, safer and more efficient."

Christian Schweizer, Francesca Racioppi and Leda Nemer, Developing national action plans on transport, health and environment. A step-by-step manual for policy-makers and planners. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2014, 62 p. [formato PDF, 37,4 MB]. "A national transport, health and environment action plan (NTHEAP) is a key tool and mechanism for developing sustainable and healthy transport in a country. NTHEAPs provide a comprehensive and intersectoral way of planning and implementing transport, environment and health action at the national level. They also call for working across sectors, and action can result in reducing health inequalities, thus contributing to Health 2020, the European policy for health and well-being; the Parma Declaration on Environment and Health; and the action plan for implementation of the European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2012–2016. This manual was developed to guide NTHEAP development at the country level. It proposes four phases: planning, development, implementation and evaluation. It does not provide specifics on how to establish the general policies or strategies on sustainable and healthy transport, an activity that usually precedes the development of action plans. The manual provides practical advice for each of the phases and steps and highlights good practices from the European Region."

Gunilla Björklund, Värdering av restidsbesparingar vid gång- och cykelresor. Tre sammanfattningar (Valuation of travel time savings in pedestrian and bicycle trips. Three summaries). (VTI notat 11-2014). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 38 p. [formato PDF, 716 kB]. "This report consists of three summaries of studies, conducted at VTI, concerning cyclists’ valuation of travel time savings on different types of bicycle paths and pedestrians’ valuation of travel time savings on footh paths. In the bicycle studies effects of health aspects have also been studied. All studies are questionnaire studies conducted with stated preference techniques. The results show that the valuation of travel time savings are lower when cycling on a bicycle path than when cycling on a road way in either mixed traffic or in a bicycle lane in the roadway. Cycling on a path next to the road was not considering worse than cycling on a path not in connection to the road, indicating that the respondents did not take traffic noise and air pollution into account in their decision to cycle. Respondents who included health aspects in their choice to cycle had lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents that stated that health aspects were of less importance, at least when cycling on a bicycle path. Valuations of travel time savings regarding cycling differed markedly depending on the respondents’ alternative travel mode, where persons with car as alternative travel mode had much higher values than those with public transport as alternative travel mode. The mean values of travel time savings were 241 SEK/h for cycling in mixed traffic, 249 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle lane in the road way, 178 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle path next to the road, and 167 SEK/h for cycling on a bicycle path far from the road. The lowest value obtained in these studies was 60 SEK/h and the highest was 344 SEK/h, depending on alternative travel mode, health awareness, and if the questionnaire was distributed to existing cyclists or sent home to a random sample (commuters). To study the shift to bicycle from other types of travel modes when changing the bicycle environment an incremental logit model was used. The results showed that the largest shift to bicycle would happen if all cycling after the change takes place on a bicycle path far from the road. The proportion of cyclists in this study would then increase from 51.0 percent to 61.3 percent, i.e., an increase of 20 percent. For pedestrians, it was shown that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. Another result that is worth to highlight is that the visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing were not nearly as important. The lowest value for a travel time savings for walking that was obtained in these studies, 79 SEK/h, regarded a walk on a separated pedestrian and bicycle path with good visibility, far from a road with motor vehicles and well maintained. The highest value, 239 SEK/h, regarded walking to or from another travel mode along a roadside on a road with speed limit 50 km/h."

Alyson Azzara, Dan Rutherford, Haifeng Wang, Feasibility of IMO Annex VI Tier III implementation using Selective Catalytic Reduction. (Working paper 2014-4). ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), March 2014, 9 p. [formato PDF, 262 kB]. "In 2008 the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) agreed upon progressively stricter limitations for nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from vessels based on their date of engine installation, with the strictest Tier III requirements to take effect in designated Emission Control Areas (ECA) beginning in 2016. At MEPC-66 in April 2014, an amendment that would delay the introduction of the Tier III standards to 2021 will be considered based on concerns arising from perceived equipment, supply chain, and cost barriers raised at MEPC-65. This paper investigates the current status of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), a key technology to meet Tier III requirements. Challenges and costs of the technology, including applicability to various engine and vessel types, potential environmental side effects, urea and catalyst availability and disposal, and anticipated system costs, are discussed. Based on this evaluation of technological capabilities and history of successful application of SCR technology to maritime vessels, we find no substantial equipment, supply chain, or cost barriers to necessitate the delay of IMO’s Tier III requirements."

Artem Korzhenevych, Nicola Dehnen, Johannes Bröcker, Michael Holtkamp, Henning Meier, Gena Gibson, Adarsh Varma, Victoria Cox, Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport. Final Report. Ricardo-AEA, London, January 2014, 139 p. [formato PDF, 3,42 MB]. This report is the Copyright of the European Commission and has been prepared by Ricardo-AEA as an independent consultant. "The 2008 Handbook proved to be an important source of input data and unit cost values for policy analysis, research projects and academic papers in Europe. In order to maintain this strong standing, this revised Handbook aims to update the 2008 Handbook with new developments in research and policy. This updated Handbook continues to present the state of the art and best practice on external cost estimation. Accordingly, the most recent information for the following impact categories has been gathered: 1. Congestion; 2. Accidents; 3. Noise; 4. Air pollution; 5. Climate change; 6. Other environmental impacts (costs of up- and downstream processes); 7. Infrastructure wear and tear for road and rail. Most important in this context is the road transport sector, due to the fact that road transport is responsible for the majority of external costs. The illustrative values and bandwidths presented in the Handbook main text are at the EU-level. Supplementary tables provide unit values for Member States. The updated Handbook provides for each cost category: An overview of the latest methods for calculating external costs, their advantages and limitations; Highlights on any differences in approach between the updated Handbook and the original 2008 Handbook; Recommended approach for calculating external costs; Updated recommendations for input values; and Updated recommended unit (marginal cost) values. Every chapter on individual cost categories is structured in a similar way by first providing a discussion of the methodology for the given cost category, then providing updates for critical parameters used in the calculations, and finally updating the unit cost values for road transport and for other modes. The update is based on a comprehensive literature review. In recent years, progress has been achieved in several areas relevant for external cost estimation: Large new databases on noise, accidents and emission factors; New and updated models; Updated estimates of important input parameters; Research identifying additional health effects; Case studies and marginal cost calculations. All of these sources have been used to provide a comprehensive update of the methodology and of the recommended unit costs."

Ugo Arrigo e Giacomo Di Foggia, L’alta velocità della spesa pubblica ferroviaria. Un contributo alla spending review. (IBL Special Report). Istituto Bruno Leoni, Torino, marzo 2014, 34 p. [formato PDF, 614 kB]. "Qual è, e quale è stato in un arco temporale ampio, l’onere complessivo per le finanze pubbliche italiane derivante dal trasporto ferroviario? È stato ed è maggiore o minore rispetto agli altri paesi, tenuto conto delle diverse dimensioni delle reti e del traffico? Si può, in un’ottica di spending review, ridurlo? I governi che si sono succeduti sono riusciti a controllare questa spesa e a indirizzarla verso obiettivi di efficienza, crescita del settore, riequilibrio modale? Quale contributo ha dato la spesa pubblica per le ferrovie alla formazione del debito pubblico italiano? Poiché la risposta a nessuna di queste domande è nota, il presente studio si è posto l’obiettivo di ricostruire i sussidi pubblici complessivi erogati nell’ultimo quarto di secolo al trasporto ferroviario in cinque grandi paesi europei: Italia, Gran Bretagna, Germania, Francia e Svezia. Obiettivo principale è di valutare la congruità dei trasferimenti concessi nel caso italiano in rapporto a casi europei confrontabili in un’ottica di contenimento e razionalizzazione della spesa pubblica, di miglioramento dell’efficienza complessiva del sistema e anche di tutela della concorrenza in un mercato che presenta, almeno da un punto di vista legislativo, segmenti pienamente liberalizzati. La spesa pubblica ferroviaria dell’Italia nei 21 anni trascorsi dalla trasformazione di FS in società per azioni (1992-2102) è stata enorme: 207,7 miliardi di euro, di cui 84,8 di parte corrente e 122,8 in conto capitale, ricostruiti sommando i dati storici, senza alcuna rivalutazione monetaria. Essi corrispondono a una media annua di 9,9 miliardi, valore che rappresenta una quota notevole del deficit pubblico annuale dell’Italia. Nello stesso arco temporale la spesa ferroviaria francese è stata di 153,6 miliardi, ma il settore ferroviario francese è il doppio di quello italiano per dimensioni dell’infrastruttura e più che doppio per il livello del trasporto passeggeri. La spesa ferroviaria britannica è stata invece di soli 69,3 miliardi di euro, un terzo di quella italiana, nonostante la rete britannica sia della stessa lunghezza di quella italiana e il traffico trasportato praticamente uguale nell’intero periodo considerato. Anche il confronto con la Germania conferma l’eccesso di spesa dell’Italia. Il dato tedesco, disponibile solo per i 9 anni compresi tra il 2002 e il 2010, ammonta a 88 miliardi totali (contro gli 85 dell’Italia nello stesso periodo) che corrispondono in media a 9,8 miliardi annui. Ma il settore ferroviario tedesco è due volte e mezza quello italiano."

Karsten Michael Drohsel, Arvid Krenz, Jörg Leben, Vanessa Lösche (Hrsg.), Aspekte des städtischen Radverkehrs (Aspects of urban cycling). (Spektrum des Verkehrswesens; 1). Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, Berlin, 2014, 168 p. [formato PDF, 5,57 MB]. "The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of urban cycling. These papers originate from research and course work at the Technische Universität Berlin, chair Verkehrswesenseminar (Transportation Seminar). Contents: 1. Bausteine der Radverkehrsförderung: Wege zu einer fahrradfreundlichen Stadt; 2. Grüne Welle für Berlin; 3. Berlin: Pendeln mit dem Mietfahrrad als Ergänzung zum ÖPNV. Ein vergleichender Blick nach Luxemburg, Kopenhagen und Paris; 4. Einkaufen mit dem Fahrrad: Nachhaltige Stadtmobilität zwischen Förderung und fehlendem Interesse in Berlin; 5. Copenhagenize Berlin? 6. Anforderungen und Verhalten von Radfahrenden. Eine Bestandsaufnahme; 7. Regelwidriges Verhalten im Fahrradverkehr; 8. Fahrradkultur – ein Modewort oder ein gerechtfertigter Begriff?"

James Woodcock, Marko Tainio, James Cheshire, Oliver O’Brien, Anna Goodman, Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study, BMJ 2014;348:g425, February 2014 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. Open Access. "OBJECTIVE: To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. DESIGN: Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. SETTING: Central and inner London, England. DATA SOURCES: Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). PARTICIPANTS: 578,607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change -72 DALYs (95% credible interval -110 to -43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; -15 (-42 to -6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change -49 DALYs (-88 to -17) among men; -1 DALY (-27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled benefits of cycling were much larger than the harms. Using background injury rates in the youngest age group (15 to 29 years), the medium term benefits and harms were both comparatively small and potentially negative. CONCLUSION: London's bicycle sharing system has positive health impacts overall, but these benefits are clearer for men than for women and for older users than for younger users. The potential benefits of cycling may not currently apply to all groups in all settings."

Jeff Kenworthy, Total Daily Mobility Patterns and Their Policy Implications for Forty-Three Global Cities in 1995 and 2005. World Transport Policy and Practice, Volume 20.1, January 2014, 41-55 (15 p.) [vol. 20.1: formato PDF, 5,48 MB] "It is common to see mobility patterns in cities expressed in terms of the percentage of daily trips by different modes, most usually, private transport, public transport and non-motorised modes (e.g. Buehler, 2010; Pucher and Buehler, 2012). Often these figures represent all types of trips for all purposes, or sometimes only work trips, depending on the source of data and the aims of the survey or analysis. However, it is rare to see a complete analysis of daily mobility expressed as person-kilometres of travel per day by cars, motorcycles, public transport, walking and cycling. Such an analysis is important in order to see on a comparative basis just how different cities are around the world in terms of total daily mobility or movement of people. This paper presents such an analysis on forty-one cities in the more developed parts of the world (USA, Canada, Australia, Europe as well as selected more wealthy Asian cities), presenting panel data for the years 1995/6 and 2005/6. Importantly, by doing the same analysis for two years, it enables us to see some important trends in this factor. In a supplementary analysis, it also considers two further cities (Taipei, the capital of Taiwan and Sao Paulo, the largest metropolitan area in Brazil). Both these cities are much less wealthy than the cities in the core analysis, but have been included here in order to also gain an insight into what may be happening in at least some examples of lower income, rapidly motorising cities around the world."

Silvia Moroni, in collaboration with Ario Ruprecht, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts on traffic and environment. Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio, Milano, 2014, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,55 MB]. Relazione dell'ing. Moroni per le autorità cinesi, farà parte della pubblicazione "International Best Practices for Congestion Charge and Low Emissions Zone". "Milan is located in one of the most polluted area in the world and is historically affected by traffic congestion problems due to its central economic and cultural role in the Northern part of Italy and to one of the highest motorization rate in Europe. Air quality is mostly affected by road traffic, therefore Local Administration is working to reduce exposure to traffic-related air pollution both by mean of short time interventions during winter season - when persistent episodes of high stability lead to the longest period of EU Limit Values non-attainment episodes - and by mean of structural measures in the context of the Sustainable Mobility Urban Plan. In Milan traffic emissions, noise, accidents and congestion give external costs for more than 5 billion euros/year, for related health and life quality problems, material damages for buildings and artistic patrimony, global climate change and time losses in transport. Milan launched several measures to face air pollution and traffic congestion including two innovative road price schemes applied to the historical center, the first, started in 2008 and called ‘Ecopass’, based on the ‘polluter pays principle’, and the second and definitive scheme, launched in January 2012, called ‘Area C’, which combine a Congestion Charge scheme with the banning of the most polluting vehicles. The ‘Area C’ LTZ was introduced in observance to the results of a public referendum indicating that the vast majority (79%) of the Milan voting citizens wanted to potentiate public transports and to limit traffic-related pollution. Thus the Area C was conceived as a congestion charge measure aiming to improve environmental conditions in the city of Milan and consequently to enhance the life quality and health both of citizens and city users. The successful results of the Area C measure are the following: Less Traffic - 30,2% (reduction of daily entrance - 39.864 vehicles, compared with 2011 Ecopass, the previous pollution charge scheme); Less Road accidents - 23.8%; Less occupation of on-street parking -10% (with a gain in public space availability); Increase of public transport speed (during peak hours: +9,3% for buses and +5,4% for tram); Less pollutant vehicles: - 49% (-2.400 pollutant vehicles entering every day the Area C); More cleaner vehicles + 6,1 % (from 9,6% to 16,6% of the total vehicles); Less polluting vehicular emissions: Total PM10 -18% ; Exhaust PM10 -10%; Ammonia -42%; Nitrogen Oxides -18%; Carbon Dioxide -35%; Less Airborne Black Carbon (BC) concentrations: -52% (Summer, at kerbside) and - 28% (Winter, residential site). Briefly, almost one out of three cars was left at home, the number of clean vehicles has almost doubled thus road traffic emissions had important reductions (in particular for CO2) and inside the ‘Area C’ LTZ traffic-related toxic compounds, traced by airborne Black Carbon measurements, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts 140540010_00 rev. 00 20/02/2014 6/51 were found lower from 1 to 3 epidemiological change units (Janssen et al., 2011), attesting an important benefit in public health. In the framework of the Urban Traffic Plan (PGTU), as part of the Environmental Report required by the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure, it was assessed that ‘congestion charge’ scenario at 2015 leads to a decrease of exposure to the highest Black Carbon traffic emission levels (>50 grams/day) for about 9,000 residents with respect to the ‘Loop’ circulation scheme (an alternative option for the same area), with an important improvement on public health. This result supported, together with other evaluations, the adoption by the Municipal Board, in March 2013, of the ‘Area C’ Congestion Charge scheme as a permanent and strategic measure, after one year trial period. All the Area C LTZ incomes have been reinvested in projects for Sustainable Mobility such as the strengthening of public transport and the development of the bike-sharing system. A survey carried out in April 2013 analyzing the perception of the citizens of Milan stated that 58% of residents expressed favorable views of ‘Area C’ measure. Possible perspectives of road pricing schemes are going to be discussed in the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) process, just started. The Environment Mobility and Transport Department of the Municipality of Milan is responsible for the implementation of the Area C measure. AMAT, the local Agency, provides monitoring and assessment technical services. ‘Area C’ LTZ description and monitoring results can be accessed at the websites: http://www.areac.it; http://www.comune.milano.it; http://www.amat-mi.it; http://amat-mi.it/it/ambiente/qualita-aria/il-progetto-di-monitoraggio-del-black-carbon/"

Gunilla Björklund, Anna Mellin and Kristofer Odolinski, Fotgängares värderingar av gångvägar (Pedestrians’ valuations of footpaths). (VTI report 806). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 66 p. [formato PDF, 2,19 MB]. "The background to this study is an inquiry by the Swedish Transport Administration to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses for pedestrians’ appraisals of their walking environment and how different improvements in the environment affect decisions to walk. In the present report, three different studies are presented. The first is a pilot study involving a literature review, a focus group interview, and a questionnaire survey. The second study is a survey study aimed to estimate pedestrians appraisals of different walking environments. The third study is also a survey but with the purpose of studying commuters’ demand for various types of pathways. The issues that we in the pilot study tried to find methods for and in subsequent studies have attempted to answer are: 1. What type of road (environment) do pedestrians prefer when they choose which route to walk? 2. What is the willingness to pay to get more attractive footpaths (in terms of security, safety etc.)? 3. How many persons will start to walk if it is built more attractive footpaths? The third issue was unfortunately not possible to answer because of the low response rate in that part of the study. The most surprising result from the study is that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. Another result that is worth to highlight is that the visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing was not nearly as important. The lowest value for a travel time savings for walking, 79 SEK/h, was obtained in study 1 and regarded a walk on a separated pedestrian and bicycle path with good visibility, which is far from a road with motor vehicles and is well maintained. The highest value, 239 SEK/h, was obtained in study 3 and regarded walking to or from another travel mode along a roadside on a road with speed limit 50 km/h. Finally, it seems not impossible to investigate individuals' appraisals for various types of footpath attributes and choice of footpath using stated preference methodology. However, the interest in walking issues seems not to be high and many of the questions in the questionnaire seemed to be difficult to answer. In future studies about pedestrian appraisals it is therefore recommended that the investigations are carried out as some kind of interview as it is easier then to clarify some of the ambiguities."

Jörgen Larsson, Cykelhjälmsanvändning i Sverige 1988–2013. Resultat från VTI:s senaste observationsstudie. (Bicycle helmet use in Sweden 1998–2013 – Results from VTI’s recent observations. (VTI notat 8-2014). VTI, Linköping, 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,78 MB]. "Since 1988 VTI has performed annual observation studies of cyclists' helmet wearing habits in 21 towns in Sweden. Below is a summary of the observations conducted in 2013 on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. The 2013 study, in line with previous studies, focused on four main categories of cyclists: - Children (0-10 years) who cycle in their spare time in residential areas - Children (6-15 years) who cycle to/from their primary or secondary school - Adults (> 16 years) who cycle to/from work - Adults (> 16 years) and children who cycle on cycle routes. The majority of the observations were performed during the first two weeks of September. The 2013 study observed a total of 58,162 cyclists in 21 towns in the four main categories. The results show that children < 10 years cycling in residential areas on average wear a cycle helmet at 79%. Children cycling to/from primary or secondary school (6-15 years old) wear a bicycle helmet on a lesser scale, at about 61%. However the rate differs greatly, almost 34% in secondary school (children 13-15 years old) and almost 85% in primary school (children 6-12 years old). Among adults who cycle to/from work, the usage rate is about 29%. Most cyclists were observed on cycle routes and the results include all ages as well as adults only. The total number of cyclists on cycle routes displayed slightly higher helmet usage (about 32%) than the subset of adults (30.5%). The weighted average rate of helmet use seen over all categories in 2013, soared to the highest ever. The rate increased continuously until the end of the 1990's when stagnation occurred for some years. In 2005 legislation requiring children up to 15 years of age to wear a cycle helmet by law, was brought into effect. Helmet use increased again between 2004/2005 and 2008, followed by a stagnation that was broken 2011. The estimated value of the average helmet use is 36.2% for the year 2013, which is significantly higher than the 33.2% in 2012. The difference is statistically significant at risk level 1%. The increase in helmet use in 2013 compared to 2012 has been most pronounced for children < 10 years cycling in residential areas and adults to/from work."

M. Clerico, L.Giunti, L.Mercalli, M. Ponti, A. Tartaglia, S.Ulgiati, M. Zucchetti, Railway Related Impacts: the Turin-Lyon High-Speed Rail Case Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, (in print, 2014), 8 p. [formato PDF, 392 kB]. "One of the best known cases of struggle for the commons in Italy, characterized by bitter controversies over the last 20 years, is the popular opposition to the construction of the High Speed Railway line (HSR, “TAV” in Italian) between Turin and Lyon, designed to cross the Susa Valley (at the Italian-French border) and the Alps. This HSR project still carries, in spite of twenty years of continuous updating and reworking, a great deal of unsolved environmental and economic issues. An issue of insufficient cost-benefit balance has recently come to clear evidence, especially in view of the non-negligible passenger and freight traffic decrease along the Turin-Lyon direction. The most important aspects dealing with economic costs and claimed benefits, energetic considerations, legal constraints, environmental impact, health impact potential, and the negative experience of other projects, are discussed." Traduzione in italiano: Impatto ambientale della Nuova Linea Ferroviaria Torino-Lione.

OTI NordOvest (osservatorio territoriale infrastrutture), Rapporto 2013. Gennaio 2014, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]. "Il Rapporto OTI NordOvest nasce dalle attività dell’Osservatorio Territoriale Infrastrutture del Nordovest, promosso dalle associazioni industriali di Milano, Genova e Torino allo scopo di monitorare lo stato di avanzamento delle opere infrastrutturali ritenute prioritarie per lo sviluppo dei rispettivi territori di riferimento. In analogia all’evoluzione degli ultimi anni, il Rapporto contiene l’analisi dei progetti ricadenti in 9 sistemi infrastrutturali: Corridoio Mediterraneo, Corridoio Reno-Alpi, sistema portuale ligure, sistema pedemontano, nodi metropolitani di Milano, Torino e Genova, sistemi di accessibilità a Malpensa e a Expo 2015."

Mariacarmela Cusano, Antonella De Santis (ISPRA), Trasporti: strumenti europei e nazionali per il risanamento della qualità dell'aria. (Rapporti 191/2014). ISPRA, Roma, 2014, 28 p. [formato PDF, 457 kB]. "Il settore trasporti è una delle principali sorgenti dell’inquinamento atmosferico in Europa. Nell’ultimo decennio, sia a livello europeo che nazionale, grazie all’attuazione di politiche mirate, sono state osservate rilevanti riduzioni delle emissioni di alcuni inquinanti atmosferici come monossido di carbonio, ossidi di zolfo e composti organici volatili; mentre per altri inquinanti, come biossido di azoto, materiale particolato ed ozono, sono state osservate riduzioni meno importanti delle emissioni con scarsi effetti sulla qualità dell’aria, soprattutto a causa della complessa relazione fra emissioni e concentrazioni in aria ambiente, che caratterizza questo tipo di inquinanti, ma anche in seguito all’applicazione di provvedimenti rivelatesi inadeguati. Il presente lavoro fornisce un quadro delle politiche dei trasporti messe in atto nell’Unione Europa e in particolare in Italia da regioni e province autonome nell’ambito dei piani per la qualità dell’aria."

Dagmar Nelissen, Jasper Faber, Economic impacts of MRV of fuel and emissions in maritime transport. Report. Delft, CE Delft, January 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 504 kB]. "In June 2013, the European Commission issued a legislative proposal to establish an EU system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) of CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports. There are different methods to monitor fuel on ships. This report analyses the costs and accuracy of the different methods. Methods with low investment costs in general incur higher costs in monitoring and reporting. The accuracy of the different methods varies significantly: from about 5% for bunker delivery notes to potentially less than 0.5% for fuel flow monitoring. This also has an impact on the potential environmental benefits. While MRV in itself will not result in efficiency improvements, accurate data about fuel consumption can provide a basis for taking action to improve efficiency. Less accurate methods are unlikely to result in efficiency improvements."

Giulia Cesaroni, Francesco Forastiere, Massimo Stafoggia, Zorana J Andersen, Chiara Badaloni, Rob Beelen, Barbara Caracciolo, Ulf de Faire, Raimund Erbel, Kirsten T Eriksen, Laura Fratiglioni, Claudia Galassi, Regina Hampel, Margit Heier, Frauke Hennig, Agneta Hilding, Barbara Hoffmann, Danny Houthuijs, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Michal Korek, Timo Lanki, Karin Leander, Patrik K E Magnusson, Enrica Migliore, Caes-Göran Ostenson, Kim Overvad, Nancy L Pedersen, Juha Pekkanen J, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Andrei Pyko, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Andrea Ranzi, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Veikko Salomaa, Wim Swart, Anu W Turunen, Paolo Vineis, Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf, Kees de Hoogh, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Annette Peters, Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project. BMJ 2014;348:f7412 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 551 kB] Open Access. "Objectives: To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design: Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting: Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants: 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures: Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5-10 μm (PMcoarse), and <10 μm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results: 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 μg/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 μg/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values."

2013

Nils Fearnley (Institute of Transport Economics, Norway), Free Fares Policies: Impact on Public Transport Mode Share and Other Transport Policy Goals. International Journal of Transportation, Vol 1, No 1 (2013), 75-90 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 357 kB]. "This article investigates the merits of free public transport as a means to achieve a number of transport policy objectives, including mode shift towards public transport. It outlines some political and societal motivations behind proposals for free and low fare schemes, and presents key economic principles for public transport pricing. Examples of free fare schemes mainly from Europe are summarised and their impacts synthesised. Although free public transport at a first glance may seem attractive both from economic, social and environmental perspectives, the message learnt from a number of schemes is that free public transport offers poor goal achievement in all these respects, and at a high cost. The main effect is a huge growth in patronage, up to 13-fold increase is reported, of which the larger brunt is shifted from walk/cycle, or induced. The effects on car traffic levels are marginal and typically they are offset already after a few years’ traffic growth. Successful free public transport schemes are those whose goal is mainly to grow patronage. Congestion relief, social and environmental benefits are best achieved with more targeted measures, or in combination with such measures." (N)

Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington, Narelle Haworth (Queensland University of Technology), Bike share: a synthesis of the literature. Transport Reviews, v.33. n.2, 2013, pp. 148-165 (26 p.), [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "This paper begins by providing an overview of bike share programs, followed by a critical examination of the growing body of literature on these programs. This synthesis of previous works, both peer-reviewed and gray, includes an identification of the current gaps in knowledge related to the impacts of bike sharing programs. This synthesis represents a critically needed evaluation of the current state of global bike share research, in order to better understand, and maximize the effectiveness of current and future programs. Several consistent themes have emerged within the growing body of research on bike share programs. Firstly, the importance bike share members place on convenience and value for money appears paramount in their motivation to sign up and use these programs. Secondly, and somewhat counter intuitively, scheme members are more likely to own and use private bicycles than nonmembers. Thirdly, users demonstrate a greater reluctance to wear helmets than private bicycle riders and helmets have acted as a deterrent in jurisdictions in which helmets are mandatory. Finally, and perhaps most importantly from a sustainable transport perspective, the majority of scheme users are substituting from sustainable modes of transport rather than the car." (N)

Harry Rutter, Nick Cavill, Francesca Racioppi, Hywell Dinsdale, Pekka Oja, Sonja Kahlmeier, Economic Impact of Reduced Mortality Due to Increased Cycling, Am J Prev Med 2013; 44(1) 89–92 (4 p.) [formato PDF, 70 kB]. "Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the “value of a statistical life.” The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling." (N)

Melissa R. Marselle, Katherine N. Irvine and Sara L. Warber, Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5603-5628 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,19 MB]. Open Access. "The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708) were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), depression (Major Depressive Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity." (N)

Neil Maizlish, James Woodcock, Sean Co, Bart Ostro, Amir Fanai, and David Fairley, Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area. American Journal of Public Health, April 2013, Vol 103, No. 4, 703-709 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 554 kB]. "OBJECTIVES: We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). METHODS: Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose-response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. RESULTS: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32,466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates." (N)

Ting Xia, Ying Zhang, Shona Crabb, and Pushan Shah, Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 797312, 14 pages [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]. "It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed." (N)

Do Duy Dinh, Hisashi Kubota (Saitama Univ.), Drivers' perceptions regarding speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit. IATSS Research 37 (2013) 30–38 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 328 kB]. "Previous studies have shown very little information regarding drivers' opinions, attitudes and behaviours with respect to speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit. The present research aims to address this issue by conducting a questionnaire study with a sample of 367 Japanese drivers. The results showed that drivers tended to have positive beliefs about complying with the 30 km/h speed limit and understand the negative consequences of speeding; however, a majority of the drivers considered breaking the speed limit as a way to reduce their travel time. While the extent of speeding was found to be very serious, a number of drivers still supported the use of a 30 km/h speed limit on residential streets and favoured protecting the right of vulnerable street users. The logistic regression models developed in this study identified that the drivers who did not support the 30 km/h speed limit were associated with those who had committed traffic-law violations, who had negative beliefs about complying with the speed limit, who did not consider residents' opinions, who believed it is acceptable for them to drive at a high speed, and who felt it difficult to refrain from speeding. With regard to anti-speeding countermeasures, under drivers' point of view, streets should be designed to make the 30 km/h speed limit more credible, although this study also showed evidence supporting the application of public awareness programmes and social campaigns as speeding interventions. In addition, this research investigated drivers' speed choices in various specific driving circumstances, and six underlying factors affecting drivers' speed choices were determined. On the basic of the findings, the implications and suggestions for speeding interventions were also discussed." (N)

Alexandros Nikitas, Toni-Matti Karjalainen and Ulrike Rahe, Innovative Bike-Sharing Design as a Research and Educational Platform for Promoting More Livable Urban Futures. 5th International Congress of IASDR (International Association of Societies of Design Research), August 26-30, 2013, Tokyo, Japan, 12 p. [formato PDF, 6,41 MB] "Studying the viability of innovative urban access design is the key to achieve optimum results when attempting to transform dogmatism referring to conventional car-orientation into a meaningful driver of modal change that is founded on the actual societal needs for future transportation. An efficient public bicycle scheme could be the very definition of a solution that could encourage and even facilitate, to a certain extent, such a transition. This paper discusses how a post-graduate course embraced, through the means of a service-oriented design exercise, the potential introduction of such a system. More specifically, seven research teams, closely guided by the three authors, were affiliated with designing a new hypothetical bike-sharing scheme in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. The paper reports on: a) the novel educational approach the tutors employed, b) the taught experiences that helped the students utilize their potential as learners but also as inventive designers, c) the research in terms of design results and d) the overall transition from solely serving the needs of automotive mobility in urban environments to creating a knowledge platform that actually illustrates an improved design-innovation process to tackle future urban demands and eventually have a real-life context impact on the city of Gothenburg." (N)

Dr. W.P. Vlakveld, M.J. Boele, MSc, dr. L.T. Aarts & ing. G. Schermers, Natuurlijk Sturen in Limburg. Een kijkgedrag- en snelheidsonderzoek en een verkeerskundige analyse van twee aangepaste wegen (Natural traffic calming in the Dutch Province of Limburg; Pilot study of two adapted roads). (R-2013-2). Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid SWOV, Leidschendam, 2013, 87 p. [formato PDF, 5,98 MB] "The continuous search for infrastructural measures to further improve road safety motivated and stimulated a number of regions to use more ‘natural’ measures and territorial characteristics. These natural measures are expected to have a positive influence on the perception and behaviour of the road user, and, consequently, also on road safety: ‘natural traffic calming’. This actually involves ‘environmental and territorial traffic engineering design’. The Regional Road Traffic Safety Authority Limburg (ROVL) as well as the Province of Limburg is interested in the possibilities of Natural traffic calming. To gain experience with this relatively new approach, natural traffic calming measures have been implemented at two locations in the Province of Limburg." (N)

Martin Ruesch, Cornelia Petz, Philipp Hegi, Ueli Haefeli, Phillipp Rütsche, Handbuch. Güterverkehrsplanung in städtischen Gebieten. (Fachpublikation des NFP 54). Schweizerischer Nationalfonds SNF, Schweizerische Vereinigung der Verkehrsingenieure und Verkehrsexperten SVI, Zürich/Luzern, 2013, 164 p. [formato PDF, 6,14 MB]. "Das Planungshandbuch fasst die Erkenntnisse und Empfehlungen aus dem Projekt «Nachhaltige Güterversorgung und -transporte in Agglomerationen» des Nationalen Forschungsprogramms 54 «Nachhaltige Siedlungs- und Infrastrukturentwicklung» zusammen und macht sie in anschaulicher Form einer breiten Leserschaft bekannt. Dieses Handbuch dient der Sensibilisierung der Akteure für Fragestellungen des Güterverkehrs in urbanen Gebieten. Das Planungshandbuch beleuchtet die Probleme und den Handlungsbedarf im Güterverkehr in Agglomerationen, zeigt die Einbindung des Güterverkehrs in die Planungspraxis auf und entwickelt Strategien, Konzepte und Massnahmen für einen nachhaltigeren Güterverkehr in urbanen Räumen. Anhand von Good-Practice-Fällen werden erfolgreiche Beispiele dargestellt. Das Planungshandbuch richtet sich an Behörden und Verwaltungen von Bund, Kantonen und Gemeinden, an Investoren und Bauherren, Verlader, Logistik- und Transportdienstleister, Verbände, Planungs- und Beratungsunternehmen, an die Wissenschaft und die breite Öffentlichkeit." (N)

Tobias Heldt and Viktoria Liss, Cykelturism och effekter på lokal, regional och nationell nivå – En litteraturgenomgång samt fallstudie på cykelturister i Varberg och på Gotland. (Biking tourism and effects on local, regional and national levels – A literature review and case study on biking tourists in Varberg and Gotland, Sweden). (VTI notat 35-2013). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,93 MB]. "Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development efforts. The starting point for this study is the preconditions for development of bicycle tourism by public spending on bicycle trails in Sweden. This study discusses the methods of estimating a bicycle tourism effect within the socio-economic analysis framework. Secondly, the method of estimating the economic contribution of bicycle tourism is exemplified by data gathered in two specific destinations in Sweden, Varberg and Gotland. Finally a stated choice scenario is used to estimate the willingness to pay for changes in key variables of importance for the tourist’s choice of bicycle destination. Questions asked in this study are: how large are the benefits from bicycle tourism and who gains from a developed bicycle trail network? One finding from the study is that inbound bicycle tourism gives rise to mostly regional effects. A bicycle tourism effect on national level only occurs in cases where a tourist chooses a destination within Sweden instead of going abroad thanks to a new or developed bicycle trail. New incoming bicycle tourism is always a net contribution to the national bicycle tourism effect. The findings from the study of bicycle tourism in Varberg and Gotland are that there is a vast difference in the economic contribution of bicycle tourists. The range for the guest night spending is 466 SEK – 1,233 SEK depending on region and type of visitor. The conclusion is that it is important to not only having knowledge about total number of tourists but also about tourist type. Hence, the size of the bicycle tourism effect varies depending on type of bicycle visitor to the destination. Finally, the findings from the stated choice experiment are that longer bicycle trails are preferred above shorter and that there seems to be a willingness to pay of about 0.5 SEK per kilometer to increase the length of the bicycle trail. The conclusion is that it is not only factors attached to the specific bicycle trail, like length and signage, that makes a trail attractive, but also factors like the tourism industry’s size and structure, like quality of lodging and restaurants, that is of importance for a bicycle tourist’s destination choice." (N)

Åsa Aretun and Kerstin Robertson, Ökad cykling: Professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen. (Increasing the share of bicycling: The challenge of professional path dependency in local transport planning). (VTI report 781). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,56 MB]. "The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning." (N)

Robert Hrelja, Lisa Hansson, Tim Richardson, Tomas Svensson, Enza Lissandrello, Petter Næss, Aud Tennøy, Frode Longva, Innovations for sustainable public transport: experiences and challenges in the Scandinavian countries. (VTI rapport 799A). VTI, Linköping, 2013, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB] "In this report we have analysed institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers qualitative case-studies of public transport. Results show that, from an institutional perspective on roles and responsibilities, it is difficult to speak of a unified Scandinavian public transport model. However, there are common challenges in all the Scandinavian countries. There is a need for new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas in a number of crucial areas. For example, municipal land use planning and regional public transport planning could be better coordinated. Public transport in Trondheim, Aarhus, and Skåne is consciously and strategically promoted as a driving force in sustainable cities and regional development. It is clear that public transport cannot be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system. On a long-term planning level, public transport organizations in all countries, regardless of the regulatory and legal conditions, should try to reach agreement on the question of what they want to achieve with public transport. Such agreements are one prerequisite for the successful coordination of land use and transport planning in contexts where there are no formal coordination mechanisms between municipal land use planning and regional public transport planning. The long term development of public transport also depends on whether or not the land use and infrastructure planning measures that municipalities choose to use will actually improve conditions for public transport." (N)

Marián Gogola (Univ. Žilina), The comparison among transport policies allowing the bicycle on board in urban public transport. Railway Transport and Logistics / Železničná doprava a logistika, 2/2013, 49-53 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 453 kB]. "This paper provides the short overview of transport policies among the particular countries which allow to take the bicycle on board. The bicycle friendly transport varies from means of transport where the better conditions are in train and buses in US cities (exception of the German cities) in comparison with mainly east European countries including Slovakia. The American example can be useful for our condition although there is problem with an approval of used front bicycle racks. It will be interesting to examine also the benefits of integration between cycling public transport in European conditions much more in the future". (N)

Bradley J. Flamm (Temple University), Determinants of Bicycle-On-Bus Boardings: A Case Study of the Greater Cleveland RTA. Journal of Public Transport, vol. 16, No. 2, 2013, 67-84 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 783 kB]. "Transit agencies around the country have made significant investments since the late 1990s to provide improved service to cyclist-transit users (CTUs), that is, transit riders who bring bicycles with them by using bicycle racks installed on buses. Use of these bus bicycle racks appears to vary significantly from transit system to transit system. It is unclear, however, what specific factors contribute most to bicycle-onbus boardings (BoBBs). Using multi-variate regression analysis and a detailed data set of 2008–2011 BoBBs for Northeast Ohio’s Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA), this study compared daily BoBBs to general ridership (measured by unlinked passenger trips) in light of key weather, transit service, and travel cost variables. Rates of BoBBs rose during the study’s time period and were strongly associated with weather conditions, though even in wet and cold weather, dozens of transit users traveled with their bicycles. To a lesser extent, BoBBs are also associated with transit service levels and travel costs." (N)

Contribution to impact assessment of measures for reducing emissions of inland navigation, Panteia, Zoetermeer, June 2013, 241 p. [formato PDF, 9,0 MB]. [report financed by the European Commission]. "Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) is an efficient, safe and environmentally friendly mode of transport. However, the previously undisputed competitive position of IWT in the field of emissions, in comparison to air, is increasingly being contested. The gap – regarding emissions to air – between road transport and IWT is rapidly becoming smaller. A major concern thereby, is the poor progress made on the emission of air pollutants with in particular, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). In contrast to the road haulage sector the emission standards for new engines are much less stringent and the average lifetime of engines in inland vessels is very long. As a consequence, inland waterway transport already has higher air pollutant emission levels than road transport per tonne kilometre for certain vessel types. Without specific action this situation will further deteriorate in the future and the air pollutant emission will remain high for IWT. The analysis of the ‘Business as Usual’ (BAU) scenario confirms that the most persistent problem in relation to external costs of IWT (especially when compared to road transport) is to be found in the air pollutants NOx and PM, while IWT still has a clear advantage compared to road haulage in the performance of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The focus of this study therefore, lies on the reduction of the air pollutants NOx and PM in order to reduce the related external costs. This study concludes that addressing the emission standards for engines used in IWT is the most effective approach towards the reduction of these emissions." (N)

Mobility management: The smart way to sustainable mobility in European countries, regions and cities. EPOMM - European Platform on Mobility Management, Brussels, September 2013, 132 p. [formato PDF, 55,8 MB]. "This report provides an overview of best practices in mobility management from the current 11 Member States of the European Platform on Mobility Management (EPOMM). These Member States have achieved impressive results in delivering smart mobility management actions. This EPOMM report provides inspiring case studies and is meant to serve as a source of inspiration for interested countries and the European Union as a whole. The best practises detailed here cannot simply be “copied and pasted”, as the contextual environments differ among countries, however they can provide ideas and proven concepts which are worth disseminating amongst countries and on the European level. The aim of this brochure is to share these international experiences and offer a glimpse behind the curtain of EPOMM member countries. The brochure is based on a Dutch report written and published in 2012 by KpVV , EPOMM’s National Focal Point in the Netherlands, which has garnered a wide variety of insights into mobility management from all over Europe." (N)

Giuseppe Sarno, Sara Maio, Marzia Simoni, Sandra Baldacci, Sonia Cerrai, Giovanni Viegi a nome del Gruppo collaborativo EpiAir2 (a cura di), Inquinamento atmosferico e salute umana, ovvero come orientarsi nella lettura e interpretazione di studi ambientali, tossicologici ed epidemiologici. Seconda edizione. (E&P Quaderni). Epidemiol Prev 2013; 37(4-5) suppl 2: 1-86, luglio-ottobre 2013 (88 p.) [formato PDF, 1,93 MB] "Nel triennio 2010-2013 un gruppo di ricercatori appartenenti a Istituzioni diverse collocate in differenti aree geografiche italiane, partecipando al progetto CCM EpiAir2, ha dato testimonianza del fatto che è possibile consolidare quella tanto desiderata collaborazione e integrazione tra competenze sanitarie e ambientali del nostro Paese necessaria per portare a termine ricerche in questo ambito. Le ricadute sanitarie stimabili per l’esposizione ai livelli di inquinamento atmosferico registrati nella aree urbane continuano a costituire infatti un problema rilevante di sanità pubblica di cui continuare a occuparsi, in Italia e in Europa. L’attenzione rimane alta, nonostante le lievi tendenze di miglioramento nella qualità dell’aria di alcune aree italiane, motivo che aveva indotto il Ministero (tramite il CCM) a finanziare la prosecuzione del progetto di sorveglianza e monitoraggio EpiAir, che ha coinvolto nella seconda edizione un più ampio numero di città (15 in più rispetto alle 10 della precedente edizione), un numero maggiore di Enti e ricercatori, portando alla costituzione di un gruppo collaborativo dedicato all’approfondimento delle relazioni che legano inquinamento dell’aria e salute, che rappresenta oggi un patrimonio culturale e di competenze prezioso per il nostro Paese. In questo contesto, viene integrato e aggiornato quindi con nuove conoscenze disponibili il contenuto del Quaderno di Epidemiologia&Prevenzione su Inquinamento atmosferico e salute umana che gli autori già nel 2009 avevano espressamente rivolto agli operatori di sanità pubblica, ai quali era stato fornito come una utile guida per orientarsi nella lettura e interpretazione di studi ambientali, tossicologici ed epidemiologici sul tema. Oggi questo quaderno mira ad essere materiale di studio e lettura per un pubblico ancora più ampio: oltre agli operatori di sanità pubblica (ASL, ARPA) è rivolto ai decisori istituzionali (Regioni, Province, Comuni), agli Enti di ricerca, sarà segnalato alle scuole, alle associazioni ambientaliste e al grande pubblico che potrà scaricarlo gratuitamente dal sito internet della rivista Epidemiologia&Prevenzione." (N)

Susan A. Shaheen, Elliot W. Martin and Adam P. Cohen (Univ. of California, Berkeley), Public Bikesharing and Modal Shift Behavior: A Comparative Study of Early Bikesharing Systems in North America. International Journal of Transportation, Vol.1, No.1 (2013), pp.35-54 (20 p.), [formato PDF, 894 kB] "Public bikesharing — the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public — is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. This paper discusses the modal shift that results from individuals participating in four public bikesharing systems in North America. We conducted an online survey (n =10,661 total sample), between November 2011 and January 2012, with members of four major bikesharing organizations (located in Montreal, Toronto, the Twin Cities, and Washington D.C.) and collected information regarding travel-behavior changes, focusing on modal shift, as well as public bikesharing perceptions. The survey probed member perceptions about bikesharing and found that a majority in the surveyed cities felt that bikesharing was an enhancement to public transportation and improved transit connectivity. With respect to modal shift, the results suggest that bikesharing generally draws from all travel modes. Three of the four largest cities in the study exhibited declines in bus and rail usage as a result of bikesharing. For example, 50% of respondents in Montreal reported reducing rail use, while 44% and 48% reported similar shifts in Toronto and Washington D.C., respectively. However, within those same cities, 27% to 40% of respondents reported using public transit in conjunction with bikesharing to make trips previously completed by automobile. In the Twin Cities, the dynamic was different, as 15% of respondents reported increasing rail usage versus only 3% who noted a decrease in rail use. In all cities, bikesharing resulted in a considerable decline in personal driving and taxi use, suggesting that public bikesharing is reducing urban transportation emissions, while at the same time freeing capacity of bus and rail networks within large cities." (N)

Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington & Narelle Haworth, Bike Share: A Synthesis of the Literature. Transport Reviews, 2013, Vol. 33, No. 2, 148–165 (18 p.), [formato PDF, 419 kB] [Free access until 30th June 2014] "This paper begins by providing an overview of bike share programs, followed by a critical examination of the growing body of literature on these programs. This synthesis of previous works, both peer-reviewed and gray, includes an identification of the current gaps in knowledge related to the impacts of bike sharing programs. This synthesis represents a critically needed evaluation of the current state of global bike share research, in order to better understand, and maximize the effectiveness of current and future programs. Several consistent themes have emerged within the growing body of research on bike share programs. Firstly, the importance bike share members place on convenience and value for money appears paramount in their motivation to sign up and use these programs. Secondly, and somewhat counter intuitively, scheme members are more likely to own and use private bicycles than nonmembers. Thirdly, users demonstrate a greater reluctance to wear helmets than private bicycle riders and helmets have acted as a deterrent in jurisdictions in which helmets are mandatory. Finally, and perhaps most importantly from a sustainable transport perspective, the majority of scheme users are substituting from sustainable modes of transport rather than the car."

Sara Di Lonardo, Daniela Nuvolone, Francesco Forastiere, Ennio Cadum, Alessandro Barchielli; Gruppo collaborativo EpiAir2, Le politiche per la promozione della mobilità sostenibile e la riduzione dell’inquinamento atmosferico causato dal traffico veicolare nelle città partecipanti allo studio EpiAir2. (Policies for the promotion of sustainable mobility and the reduction of traffic-related air pollution in the cities participating in the EpiAir2 project). Epidemiol Prev 2013; 37 (4-5): 242-251 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 305 kB] "OBIETTIVO: fornire un quadro sintetico delle politiche di mobilità adottate negli ultimi anni (2006-2010) dalle amministrazioni di alcuni Comuni italiani attraverso la rilevazione degli interventi sulla mobilità urbana e relativa efficacia. DISEGNO E SETTING: i dati presentati si riferiscono alle quindici città inizialmente partecipanti al progetto EpiAir2: Torino, Milano, Venezia, Bologna, Firenze, Pisa, Roma, Taranto, Palermo, Cagliari, Trieste, Genova, Ancona, Napoli, Bari. RISULTATI: da questa indagine emergono debolezze e punti di forza delle città italiane nell’affrontare il tema della mobilità sostenibile. Le modifiche della consistenza del parco circolante sono state accompagnate da un suo rinnovamento con conseguente riduzione dei veicoli rispondenti agli standard emissivi più vecchi, seppur con differenze marcate tra le varie città. Tra le debolezze più rilevanti nella gestione locale della mobilità urbana è da segnalare in primo luogo lo sviluppo ridotto di metropolitane e di sistemi tranviari e il ritardo nell’ammodernamento delle reti ferroviarie suburbane, che pongono le città italiane in una posizione evidentemente svantaggiata rispetto ad altre realtà urbane europee analoghe. Per quanto riguarda gli altri aspetti della mobilità urbana (offerta/domanda di trasporto pubblico, ZTL, zone pedonali, km di piste ciclabili, servizi di car sharing e bike sharing), si segnala una situazione estremamente disomogenea tra le varie città italiane. CONCLUSIONI: le disomogeneità tra le diverse realtà sono in parte spiegabili con le peculiarità strutturali e culturali locali, oltre che da una diversa attenzione “storica” alle problematiche ambientali e a un’estemporaneità delle scelte effettuate dalle rispettive amministrazioni. Pur in presenza di molte iniziative settoriali, pare sia mancata una strategia nazionale che, pur rispettosa del livello di autonomia locale, abbia fornito linee di indirizzo per affrontare in maniera adeguata e coordinata il tema della mobilità sostenibile e dell’inquinamento atmosferico da traffico veicolare."

Ester Rita Alessandrini, Annunziata Faustini, Monica Chiusolo, Massimo Stafoggia, Martina Gandini, Moreno Demaria, Antonello Antonelli, Pasquale Arena, Annibale Biggeri, Cristina Canova, Giovanna Casale, Achille Cernigliaro, Elsa Garrone, Bianca Gherardi, Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo, Simone Giannini, Claudia Iuzzolino, Paolo Lauriola, Mauro Mariottini, Paolo Pasetti, Giorgia Randi, Andrea Ranzi, Michele Santoro, Vittorio Selle, Maria Serinelli, Elisa Stivanello, Riccardo Tominz, Maria Angela Vigotti, Stefano Zauli Sajani, Francesco Forastiere, Ennio Cadum, Gruppo collaborativo EpiAir2, Inquinamento atmosferico e mortalità in venticinque città italiane: risultati del progetto EpiAir2. (Air pollution and mortality in twenty-five Italian cities: results of the EpiAir2 Project). Epidemiol Prev 2013; 37 (4-5): 220-229 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 630 kB] "OBIETTIVO: valutare gli effetti a breve termine dell’inquinamento atmosferico sulla mortalità nelle 25 città italiane partecipanti alla seconda fase del progetto EpiAir (Sorveglianza epidemiologica dell’inquinamento atmosferico: valutazione dei rischi e degli impatti nelle città italiane). DISEGNO: studio di serie temporali con metodologia case-crossover, con aggiustamento per i fattori temporali e meteorologici rilevanti. L’associazione inquinamento atmosferico-mortalità è stata analizzata per ciascuna delle 25 città in studio. Gli inquinanti considerati sono stati il particolato (PM10 e PM2.5), il biossido di azoto (NO2) e l’ozono (O3 estivo). Le stime complessive di effetto sono state ottenute successivamente mediante una metanalisi e sono state espresse per incrementi di 10 ?g/m3 delle concentrazioni di inquinanti. Sono stati implementati modelli mono e bi-pollutant. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: lo studio ha analizzato 422.723 decessi verificatisi tra i residenti di 35 anni o più nelle 25 città in studio per gli anni 2006-2010. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: sono stati considerati i conteggi giornalieri di decessi per cause naturali, tra cui le cause cardiache, cerebrovascolari e respiratorie. Le informazioni sulle cause di morte sono state ottenute dai Registri delle cause di morte delle singole città. RISULTATI: il numero medio annuo di decessi per cause naturali varia da 513 a Rovigo e 20.959 a Roma. Circa il 25% delle morti è dovuto a cause cardiache, il 10%a cause cerebrovascolari e il 7%a cause respiratorie. Per incrementi di 10 ?g/m3 di PM10 si osserva un effetto immediato sulla mortalità naturale (0,51%; IC95%0,16-0,86; lag 0-1). Effetti più importanti e prolungati (lag 0-5) si osservano per il PM2.5 (0,78%; IC95%0,12-1,46) e soprattutto per l’NO2 (1,10%; IC95%0,63-1,58). Incrementi della mortalità cardiaca sono associati al PM10(0,93%; IC95% 0,16-1,70) e al PM2.5 (1,25%; IC95%0,17-2,34), mentre per la mortalità respiratoria l’effetto dell’esposizione a NO2 risulta più importante (1,67%; IC95%0,23-3,13; lag 2-5) rispetto a quella a PM10 (1,41%; IC95%-0,23;+3,08). I risultati sono fortemente omogenei tra città per la mortalità cardiaca e cerebrovascolare, ma non per quella respiratoria. Non si riscontrano effetti sulla mortalità cerebrovascolare. L’effetto dell’O3 sulla mortalità è al limite della significatività statistica. CONCLUSIONI: lo studio conferma un chiaro incremento della mortalità associata agli inquinanti atmosferici. Risultano più importanti gli effetti degli inquinanti correlati al traffico autoveicolare, qualiNO2 (per mortalità naturale) e PM2.5 (per mortalità cardiaca e respiratoria), con un ruolo indipendente di NO2 rispetto al particolato in base all’analisi bi-pollutant."

Marcin Wołek and Olgierd Wyszomirski (edited by), The Trolleybus as an Urban Means of Transport in the Light of the Trolley Project. [e-book]. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 2013, 167 p. [formato PDF, 5,60 MB]. "The aim of the study is to present the factors, scale of action, as well as the determinants of the development of trolleybus transport, with particular emphasis on the cities participating both directly and indirectly, through their transport companies, in the Trolley project. The study was organised according to the above aim. The first part is dedicated to those factors which play a part in urban transport development within the European Union. It then focuses on the development and scope of utilization of the trolleybus transport within a city, particularly with regards to the cities involved in the Trolley project. The following part of the study discusses the technical and exploitation elements of trolleybus transport. The organisation and management of the trolleybus transport constitute the object of further deliberations, focusing especially, again, on those cities participating in the Trolley project. Later on, the study takes a close look at the costs of trolleybus transport paying close attention to the cities participating in the Trolley project. It also presents a model view on the economical efficiency of the transport trolleybus research. The acquired method is then implemented in the estimation of the economical effectiveness of this mode of transport in the cities participating in the Trolley project. The next part of the work presents the issues connected with the image of trolleybus transport shaped by marketing techniques – important considering the aim of the Trolley project. The final part of the work is dedicated to the directions and determinants of the development of trolleybus transport. It sets out to determine its potential role in the future, taking into consideration the cities participating in the Trolley project. Psychological factors were considered important amongst the determinants of the future development of the trolleybus transport."

Christopher Nash (Univ. of Leeds), When to Invest in High-Speed Rail. (Discussion Paper No. 2013-25). International Transport Forum, Paris, December 2013, 34 p. [formato PDF, 1,84 MB]. "High speed rail (HSR) is usually regarded as services operating at 250 kmph or more, and these invariably require construction of new purpose-built lines. According to the International Union of Railways (UIC), by 2012, a total of 13 000km of such lines had been built worldwide, half in Europe and half in Asia. China had the largest network at 3 426km, whilst Japan, France and Spain all had over 2 000km. There are plans for a further major expansion, with the European Commission calling for a trebling of the kilometrage in Europe by 2030.Yet high speed rail is an enormous investment, with a typical 500km line costing 6-12Bn euros in 2004 prices (Euros 12-24 Bn per km) (de Rus and Nash, 2009). It is necessary to consider very carefully in what circumstances such an outlay is justified. The first such line, the new Tokaido line in Japan, was clearly built with the twin aims of giving large time savings (and thus competing effectively with air transport) and relieving capacity constraints on the existing railway line. These were also clearly the motives behind the construction of the first TGV line from Paris to Lyons in France. But since then, wider motives have appeared, including reducing carbon emissions by diverting traffic from air and road, and promoting economic regeneration and growth. The first part of this paper will consider at a general level the costs and benefits of high speed rail, and evidence to date on what determines their magnitude. We will then consider specifically evidence from the current debate in Britain. The first High Speed Rail line to be built in Britain, from London to the Channel Tunnel, opened in 2004-7. Possible benefits of regeneration in East London played a significant role in the choice of route and in the appraisal of this line (later dubbed HS1). It was not until 2001 that the Strategic Rail Authority commissioned a study of the case for high speed rail linking London with cities to the North. This formed the basis of the current proposals for a line from London to Birmingham, branching near Birmingham to form lines going on to Manchester and Leeds (HS2). The government is committed to going ahead with this line, and is just starting parliamentary processes to obtain the powers to build it. However, the project is very controversial, and consequently an enormous effort has been put into studying its effects by both proponents and opponents. The evidence from these studies will be reviewed, before we draw our conclusions."

Yves Crozet (Univ. of Lyon), Performance in France: From Appraisal Methodologies to Ex-post Evaluation. (Discussion Paper No. 2013-26). International Transport Forum, Paris, December 2013, 37 p. [formato PDF, 1,71 MB]. "In the first part of the paper, we will present the main phases and the principal performance characteristics of the high-speed rail system in France. We will also explain the need to distinguish between high-speed train (TGV) and high-speed line (LGV). In the second part of the paper, we shall see that it is more accurate to talk about high-speed rail systems in the plural because there are other "models" in Europe which differ from the one developed by France. High-speed rail is not just a matter of technology; it also depends on the geography of the country, on the country's institutions and on its ability to master the art of project assessments."

Fumio Kurosaki (Institute of Transportation Economics, Tokyo), Shinkansen Investment Before and After JNR Reform. (Discussion Paper No. 2013-27). International Transport Forum, Paris, December 2013, 27 p. [formato PDF, 2,05 MB]. "As Shinkansen lines have been built in various markets in Japan over a half century, traffic volume varies greatly depending on the line. Based on published data, this paper examines the changes to high-speed rail transport and appraises its outcomes including the financial aspects of the operating companies."

Benjamin Weil (Univ. of Massachusetts), Solar city, bike city, growth city: governance and energy in Davis, California. Journal of Political Ecology 20 (2013): 70-179 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 432 kB] "This article examines the Davis case with a focus on two types of renewable energy; human powered transport and solar heat. They were chosen as useful examples because the technologies in both cases are simple, well developed, applied at the individual or household level, and can have very high immediate impacts on the consumption of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. This essay describes the development of these two technological systems in the City of Davis. In doing so, it discusses the initial rise, and subsequent decline in usage of both technologies. It also engages questions such as: (1) What is the role of local policy capacity, civic engagement, and social capital, in determining energy and land-use choices? (2) What does it take to make an environmentally sustainable city? (3) What conditions favor the widespread adoption of small-scale renewable energy technologies? (4) What conditions threaten the ability of communities to maintain and expand their use of these technologies? (5) What is the role of less-tangible assets, such as values, identity, and sense of community?".

Jian Wang (Southern Cross University), Commuter costs and potential savings: Public transport versus car commuting in Australia. November 2013, 25 p. [formato PDF, 797 kB] "This report identifies the potential annual savings that commuters working in the Central Business Districts (CBDs) of major Australian cities can achieve by commuting to work via public transport rather than by car. Focusing on commuters travelling to the CBDs in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Canberra and Hobart, commuter costs are first identified for the following three scenarios. Scenario 1: Own and commute to work by car five days a week. Scenario 2: Own a car but choose (or are able) to commute to work five days a week by public transport. Scenario 3: Do not own a car or choose not to buy a second car and commute to work five days a week by public transport."

Giuseppe Calabrese, Scenari e politiche industriali per l’auto ecologica, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 2, 14 p. [formato PDF, 270 kB] "La ricerca di nuovi metodi di propulsione per le automobili è oggetto di intenso dibattito a tutti i livelli a causa del riscaldamento globale, delle emissioni degli agenti inquinanti e più in generale per la necessità di sviluppare in modo sostenibile l’industria automobilistica. In un prossimo futuro, il panorama più pro-babile sarà la coesistenza di un portafoglio di tecnologie sviluppate per soddisfare segmenti di utenti di-versi, in termini di prestazioni del veicolo, con una predominanza dei veicoli convenzionali. Il presente articolo dopo aver presentato le diverse traiettorie tecnologiche per la mobilità sostenibile si sofferma sui possibili scenari industriali - della diversità, della gradualità e della rottura - che si stanno delineando rimarcandone le condizioni necessarie per la loro realizzazione e le possibili conseguenze. In ciascun scenario emerge preponderante la necessità di adeguate politiche industriali, ma anche la consta-tazione dei limiti relativi all’auto elettrica, dovuti anche alla presenza di numerosi fattori limitanti tali da generare una sorta di path dependance. L’articolo si conclude con alcune proposte di policy per favorire il progressivo superamento di tali limi-tazioni e promuovere un nuovo paradigma industriale per il settore automotive."

Ilaria Mariotti, Paolo Beria, Antonio Laurino (Politecnico di Milano), Car sharing peer-to-peer: un’analisi empirica sulla città di Milano, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 5, 16 p. [formato PDF, 682 kB] "I sistemi di carsharing (di seguito CS) sono considerati un’alternativa promettente all’auto privata. Nonostante diverse iniziative si siano sviluppate nel mondo, l’impatto reale sulla mobilità privata rimane ancora trascurabile. Una delle possibili evoluzioni del carsharing è rappresentata dal carsharing “peer to peer” (di seguito P2P) per il quale le auto non sono fornite centralmente da un gestore, ma sono di proprietà di singoli individui che le affittano nei momenti di non utilizzo in cambio di un ritorno economico. A partire da un’indagine svolta nel 2012 tra gli abitanti del comune di Milano, l’articolo cerca di individuare i principali fattori che favoriscono l’adesione ad un sistema di carsharing P2P. In particolare, la probabilità di adesione ad un sistema P2P è indagata attraverso un’analisi econometrica che si avvale di due modelli a scelta discreta: un modello logit binomiale e un modello logit multinomiale. Quest’ultimo consente di investigare la probabilità di condividere l’auto personale tra diversi gruppi di persone (nessuno; amici, colleghi e vicini; chiunque). L’articolo contribuisce alla ricerca, ancora in nuce, sul tema P2P e rappresenta il primo tentativo di analizzare, attraverso una indagine specifica, la propensione ad aderire ad uno schema P2P di condivisione dell’auto personale."

Arianna Buonfanti, Lo shipping e la portualità nel Mediterraneo: opportunità e sfide per l’Italia, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 1, 18 p. [formato PDF, 1,70 MB] "Scopo di questo paper è delineare l’andamento e i possibili futuri scenari logistici nel Mediterraneo, che non si limita più ad essere un’area di transito per i flussi internazionali di merci che da Est sono diretti ad Ovest ma sta diventando una regione di scambio autonoma per effetto dell’aumento dei flussi intramediterranei dovuta allo sviluppo dei Paesi della Sponda Sud-Est. In questo contesto, chiare appaiono le potenzialità di sviluppo dei Paesi europei che si affacciano sul bacino e, in particolare dell’Italia, che vanta oltre ad un posizionamento geografico favorevole che le consente di intercettare oltre il 30% del traffico internazionale in transito, anche consolidati rapporti commerciali con i Paesi dell’area Med dei quali è il 1° partner nell’UE 27 in termini di import-export. Il lavoro si propone di effettuare un’analisi della logistica e delle sue prospettive nei Paesi della Sponda Sud, associando un approfondimento della domanda, strettamente collegata agli importanti flussi marittimi di merci che attraversano il bacino, con quello dell’offerta, in termini di infrastrutture portuali destinate ad accogliere quelle merci. Ci si è focalizzati sull’aspetto del trasporto su nave essendo la “logistica marittima” a nostro avviso il driver più importante nelle relazioni economiche tra il nostro paese e questi territori. L’analisi evidenzia l’intensificarsi delle merci che transitano nel Mediterraneo che viaggiano sulle navi che passano per il canale di Suez; anche lo Short Sea Shipping - inteso quale segmento del mercato del trasporto marittimo a corto raggio che, in ambito europeo, comprende i collegamenti via mare tra porti nazionali e internazionali nonché i servizi da e verso le isole dei Paesi dell’Europa geografica e degli altri Paesi che si affacciano sul Mar Baltico, sul Mar Nero e sul Mar Mediterraneo - ha assunto dimensioni significative. Il paper si sofferma quindi sullo scenario competitivo dei porti con riferimento alla dimensione euro-mediterranea, evidenziando le caratteristiche e le prospettive di sviluppo degli scali nelle diverse aree in cui si suddivide il bacino. Il peso dell’economia del mare in Italia è rilevante: il Pil generato dal sistema marittimo nazionale ammonta a 39,5 miliardi di euro, pari al 2,6% del totale nazionale; importante è anche l’aspetto occupazionale, registrandosi oltre 213.000 unità di lavoro dirette. L’interscambio marittimo ammonta a circa 241 miliardi di euro, il 19,7% di questo diretto verso l’Area Med. Il paper si conclude con alcune considerazioni relative all’ulteriore sviluppo del trasporto marittimo che potrà costituire un importante strumento per l’avvicinamento tra l’Europa comunitaria e i Paesi della Sponda meridionale e quindi per il processo di integrazione euro-mediterranea nel quale il nostro Paese potrà assolvere un ruolo da protagonista."

Legambiente, Rapporto Pendolaria 2013. La situazione e gli scenari del trasporto ferroviario pendolare in Italia. Roma, dicembre 2013, 93 p. [formato PDF, 5,52 MB].

Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Josephine S. C. Chong, Supply Chain Decarbonisation in Shipping and Logistics Transportation. Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2013, 233-237 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 548 kB]. "The development and implementation of decarbonisation in shipping and logistics transportation is crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the perspective of products, supply chain, and organizations. There are increasing research interests on supply chain decarbonisation initiated by severe climate change, environmental awareness, government policy pressure, and corporate sustainability responsibility. A decarbonisation framework is developed as backbone for the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction in freight transport. The framework includes the introduction and review of the life cycle assessment, performance measurement metric, model emission targets, implementation, and monitoring tools. Carbon dioxide life cycle assessment is discussed with a recent example of a global fortune 500 corporations. Latest development and examples of carbon auditing and carbon calculator are presented. A review on the recent decarbonisation technology development and industrial practice is conducted with examples from companies from global 500. The analysis in the paper provides useful means for the future direction needed towards reducing the greenhouse gas emission in supply chain and logistics, with consideration on technology, education, corporation social responsibility, public environmental awareness, and government measures."

Carolyn Szczepanski, Women on a roll. Benchmarking women’s bicycling in the United States — and five keys to get more women on wheels. The League of American Bicyclists, Washington DC, August 2013, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,58 MB] "A first-of-its-kind report from the Women Bike program, Women on a Roll compiles more than 100 original and trusted sources of data to showcase the growth and potential of female bicyclists in the United States. It also suggest five key focus areas — the 5 Cs — to increase women's ridership."

Lucinda E. Saunders, Judith M. Green, Mark P. Petticrew, Rebecca Steinbach, Helen Roberts, What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies, PLoS ONE 8(8): e69912, August 2013 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 192 kB]. "Background. Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. Methods. The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining either (a) the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b) the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. Results. Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. Conclusions. Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such interventions should include an assessment of their impacts on obesity and other health outcomes."

Laura Wagner, Using Health Impact Assessments to Evaluate Bicycle and Pedestrian Plans, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, January 2013, 18 p. [formato PDF, 871 kB].

Marzenna Cichosz (Warsaw School of Economic), IT solutions in logistics of smart bike-sharing systems in urban transport. Management, Vol. 17, 2 (272–283) (12 p.), December 2013 [formato PDF, 476 kB] "IT solutions in logistics of smart bike-sharing systems in urban transport In recent years, the public transport of Krakow, Rzeszow, Wroclaw, Poznan, Opole and Warsaw has expanded into the third generation bike-sharing programs - smart bikes. It’s an innovative solution, deploying IT systems and technology to integrate individual stations of urban bike rental system. The article presents the business model solution, its functionality from the perspective of customers and operator, and shows the role of IT solutions support in managing the logistics of rental network. An illustrative case of „Veturilo” solution implementation is presented."

European Environment Agency, Status of black carbon monitoring in ambient air in Europe. EEA Technical report n. 18/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, December 2013, 48 p. [formato PDF, 2,36 MB]. "This report provides a summary of black carbon (BC) definitions as discussed in the air quality monitoring community. Secondly, it provides a summary of the current status of BC-related monitoring in Europe. Information presented in the report includes an overview of available measurement techniques and associated technical issues, monitoring networks and current data reporting practices."

The Bike-share Planning Guide. ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, November 2013, 152 p. [formato PDF, 7,26 MB] "More than 600 cities around the globe have bike share systems, and new systems are starting every year. The largest and most successful systems, in places such as China, Paris, London, and Washington, D.C., have helped to promote cycling as a viable and valued transport option. This guide evaluates international best practice in bike share, helps to bridge the divide between developing and developed countries’ experiences to provide guidance on planning and implementing a successful bike share system regardless of the location, size, or density of your city".

Sergio Valero Verdú, Carolina Senabre Blanes, Demetrio López Sánchez (University of Elche), Feasibility of Recharging Electric Vehicles With Photovoltaic Solar Panels. Energy Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2013, pp. 24-30 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,40 MB] "There are many reasons for the development and the use of renewable energy sources, such as the public awareness in the fight against climate change, energy independence with the security of supply, national competitiveness, technological development and job creation in a sector that has a great future. In this line, and within the proposed electric vehicle sustainability, it is an alternative to achieve a reduction of pollutant emissions and to increase the efficiency of road transport. The article presents a study of the use of electric vehicles from different points of view. It has been compared combustion vehicles with the electric counterparts in terms of power and features appreciated by the user in the automobile market. The purpose of the study was to analyze the feasibility to recharge different electric vehicles by solar photovoltaic modules, so that energy generation would not contribute to any CO2 emissions, when the system would be installed and ready to supply these vehicles. The study also shows a comparative analysis of the cost of purchasing electricity to the distributor compared with the using of a photovoltaic system designed to recharge the vehicle, even it has also been calculated the depreciation. Finally, it has been analyzed comparatively the type of the solar photovoltaic system considered more economically viable for recharging a pure electric vehicle (EV) therefore it has been compared projects on houses and on a parking to recharge several vehicles."

Po-Hsing Tseng (Kainan University), A Qualitative Investigation of Low Emission Port Development. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.9, 2013, 7 p. [formato PDF, 767 kB]. "An in-depth interview study of the practice within low emission port was undertaken to ascertain strategy implication in green port issue. The main focus of the study was streamlined to emissions from ships and trucks. Interviews explored the specific strategies managers used to reduce air pollution from four ports in Taiwan and their perceptions of the efficacy of them. Research findings show that, when explored qualitatively and in-depth, the strategies that stakeholders (e.g. port authorities, terminal operators) should pay more attention to, such as the port planning and development, are seen from a broad perspective, and the mitigation strategy of air pollution should be flexibly designed and managed to achieve resource use rationalization and environment balance."

Robert James Schneider (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Measuring transportation at a human scale: An intercept survey approach to capture pedestrian activity. Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol 6, No 3 (2013), 43-59 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 6,07 MB]. Pedestrian travel data are critical for measuring and analyzing sustainable transportation systems. However, traditional household travel surveys and analysis methods often ignore secondary modes, such as walking from a street parking space to a store entrance or walking from a bus stop to home. New data collection and analysis techniques are needed, especially in areas where walking is common. This paper describes an intercept survey methodology used to measure retail pharmacy customer travel to, from, and within 20 shopping districts in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of the 1003 respondents, 959 (96 percent) reported all modes of travel used from leaving home until returning home, including secondary modes. Walking was the primary travel mode on 21 percent of respondent tours, but an analysis of secondary modes found that 52 percent of tours included some walking. Pedestrian travel was particularly common within shopping districts, accounting for 65 percent of all trips within 804 meters (0.5 miles) of survey stores. Detailed walking path data from the survey showed that respondents in denser, more mixed-use shopping districts tended to walk along the main commercial street as well as other streets connecting to the core shopping area, while respondent pedestrian movements in automobile-oriented shopping districts tended to be contained within specific shopping complexes.

Rhonda Daniels, Corinne Mulley (University of Sydney), Explaining walking distance to public transport: The dominance of public transport supply. Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol 6, No 2 (2013), 5-20 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 810 kB]. "Potential influences on explaining walking distance from home to access public transport are investigated, including trip and demographic characteristics and public transport supply. In Sydney, Australia, people walk farther to the train than to the bus, the distributions of walking distances are different for each mode, and the trip and demographic characteristics of train and bus users are different. Given the decision to walk to public transport, demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, and labor force status and trip characteristics such as trip purpose, time of day and week, fare and ticket type, and trip duration are not significant in explaining walking distance to each mode of public transport. The mode of the public transport trip is the most important determinant of walking distance, reflecting the different supply and spacing of each mode. For instance, there are many more bus stops than train stations. The differences between train and bus users suggest that accessibility initiatives for public transport might not be the same for each mode."

Christopher J. W. McClure, Heidi E. Ware, Jay Carlisle, Gregory Kaltenecker and Jesse R. Barbe (Boise State Univ.), An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2013; 280 (1773): 20132290 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 780 KB]. Published 6 November 2013. "Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale—thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals—alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off—during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our ‘Phantom Road’ and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites—suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals." [full text free, supplementary data].

Hector G. Lopez-Ruiz, Panayotis Christidis, Hande Demirel & Mert Kompil, Quantifying the Effects of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. (JRC Technical Reports). European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, 2013, 85 p. [formato PDF, 1,93 MB]. "The European Commission is considering a European support framework for the implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in EU Member States. This consideration is consistent with the 2011 White Paper proposal to increase coordination between transport authorities and transport policy deciders. Consequently, an interest on how different urban measures can be used in order to render transport activities more sustainable has given way to research concerning the impacts and effects that policy measures might have on socio-ecological systems. These studies rely, mainly, on experts' opinions and past experiences in order to develop a common scorecard on how a transport system might react to different measures. This technical note uses the expert scoring information available in current scientific literature in order to explore the impacts and effects that different urban measures may have in planning for sustainability on a European wide level."

Diana Jorge, Gonçalo Correia (Univ. of Coimbra), Carsharing systems demand estimation and defined operations: a literature review. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, EJTIR 13(3), 2013, pp.201-220 [formato PDF, 401 KB]. "Efforts have been made in the last few decades to provide new urban transport alternatives. One of these is carsharing, which involves a fleet of vehicles scattered around a city for the use of a group of members. At first, part of the research effort was put into setting up real life experiments with vehicle fleets and observing the performance of major private operators. In the meantime, with the growth of this alternative and the need to better plan its deployment, researchers started to create more advanced methods to study carsharing systems’ planning issues. In this paper, we review those methods, identifying gaps and suggesting how to bridge them in the future. Based on that review we concluded that carsharing demand is difficult to model due to the fact that the availability of vehicles is intrinsically dependent on the number of trips and vice versa. Moreover, despite the existence of carsharing simulation models that offer very detailed mobility representations, no model is able to characterise accurately the supply side, thus hindering the cost-benefit assessment that is fundamental to justify investment in this transport alternative, in particular those that are being endorsed by the European Union. More complex, however, is the operation of the emerging one-way carsharing systems, where a vehicle may be dropped off at any station, which adds uncertainty as to the location where vehicles can be picked up. Several optimisation approaches have been proposed to mitigate this problem but they are always limited in scope and leave other aspects out for model simplification purposes. Some simulation models have also been developed to study the performance of this type of carsharing system, but they have not included ways of balancing the vehicle stocks."

European Environment Agency, Air quality in Europe — 2013 report. EEA report n. 9/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, October 2013, 112 p. [formato PDF, 13,3 MB]. "This report presents an overview and analysis of air quality in Europe from 2002 to 2011. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives and gives an overview of policies and measures introduced at European level to improve air quality and minimise impacts. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems is also given."

Julien Harache, Fret ferroviaire: analyse des déterminants des trafics français et allemand. (Études et documents N.87). Commissariat général au développement durable, La Défense, Juillet 2013, 26 p. [formato PDF, 491 kB]. "L’Allemagne est souvent citée en exemple pour le dynamisme de son transport ferroviaire de marchandises. En effet, près de deux décennies après sa transition d’un statut public à un statut privé, la Deutsche Bahn a réussi à faire connaître à sa branche fret ferroviaire une forte croissance sur ces dix dernières années. De son côté, le fret ferroviaire français a connu une forte décroissance depuis 2000, le volume transporté étant pratiquement divisé par deux pour atteindre en 2010 son niveau historique le plus bas, avant de connaître une légère remontée en 2011. Devant ce constat, il est apparu intéressant de chercher à identifier les facteurs de réussite du transport ferroviaire de marchandises à travers une étude comparative."

Esther Walter, Yvonne Achermann Stürmer, Gianantonio Scaramuzza, Steffen Niemann, Mario Cavegn, Fußverkehr. (bfu-Sicherheitsdossier Nr. 11). bfu – Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, Bern, 2013, 210 p. [formato PDF, 2,62 MB]. "Im Sicherheitsdossier «Fussverkehr» werden wissensbasierte Präventionsempfehlungen zur Steigerung der Sicherheit von Fussgängern auf Schweizer Strassen erarbeitet." "Nel dossier sicurezza "traffico pedonale" sono state rielaborate su base scientifica raccomandazioni di prevenzione per aumentare la sicurezza dei pedoni sulle strade svizzere."

Anna Goodman (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), Walking, Cycling and Driving to Work in the English and Welsh 2011 Census: Trends, Socio-Economic Patterning and Relevance to Travel Behaviour in General, PLoS ONE 8(8): e71790, August 2013, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. "Objectives: Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally. Methods: 23.7 million adult commuters reported their usual main mode of travelling to work in the 2011 census in England and Wales; similar data were available for 1971–2001. Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to characterise socioeconomic patterning. The National Travel Survey (2002–2010) was used to examine correlations between commute modal share and modal share of total travel time. These correlations were calculated across 150 non-overlapping populations defined by region, year band and income. Results: Among commuters in 2011, 67.1% used private motorised transport as their usual main commute mode (21.8 percentage-point change since 2001); 17.8% used public transport (+1.8% change); 10.9% walked (20.1% change); and 3.1% cycled (+0.1% change). Walking and, to a marginal extent, cycling were more common among those from deprived areas, but these gradients had flattened over the previous decade to the point of having essentially disappeared for cycling. In the National Travel Survey, commute modal share and total modal share were reasonably highly correlated for private motorised transport (r = 0.94), public transport (r = 0.96), walking (r = 0.88 excluding London) and cycling (r = 0.77). Conclusions: England and Wales remain car-dependent, but the trends are slightly more encouraging. Unlike many health behaviours, it is more common for socio-economically disadvantaged groups to commute using physically active modes. This association is, however, weakening and may soon reverse for cycling. At a population level, commute modal share provides a reasonable proxy for broader travel patterns, enhancing the value of the census in characterising background trends and evaluating interventions."

Giuseppe Tattara (Univ. Ca’ Foscari Venezia), É solo la punta dell’iceberg! Costi e ricavi del crocierismo a Venezia (rev. 27.03.2013). (Note di Lavoro No. 02/NL/2013). Dipartimento di Economia dell’Università di Venezia, Marzo 2013, 42 p. [formato PDF, 2,91 MB]. "Il porto di Venezia ha visto crescere esponenzialmente, negli ultimi anni, l’arrivo di navi da crociera. I crocieristi imbarcati, sbarcati e in transito sono stati nel 2012 più di 1.700.000. Il crocierismo genera ricavi dovuti alle spese dei turisti-crocieristi in città e alle spese delle compagnie di crociera relative all’approdo, stazionamento e rifornimento delle navi, e costi non monetari per le esternalità negative determinate dal traffico navale, dovuti all’inquinamento dell’aria, del mare e agli effetti dei gas serra sul cambiamento climatico. Solo per alcune esternalità è possibile fare una stima in valore degli inquinanti e del relativo costo; andrebbero valutati i costi relativi all’effetto dell’inquinamento sul degrado dei monumenti, sull’alterazione della morfologia della laguna provocata dal passaggio delle grandi navi e altri ancora, e si raggiungerebbe un valore molto elevato. Lo studio richiama il principio che, in queste situazioni, il mercato genera un eccesso di offerta dei servizi crocieristici. Si apre in più un problema distributivo di grande importanza: gran parte dei ricavi sono concentrati in poche categorie economiche, che includono operatori turistici nazionali e internazionali di grandi dimensioni, mentre i costi sono sopportati da tutti i residenti nel centro storico. Coloro che percepiscono i ricavi non si fanno carico dei costi relativi alle esternalità negative generate dalla loro attività, mentre i residenti nel centro storico li subiscono involontariamente."

Comité technique B.3 Améliorer la mobilité en milieu urbain / Technical Committee B.3 Improved mobility in urban areas, Strategies for balancing urban transport to improve mobility and reduce road congestion. World Road Association (PIARC), La Défense, 2013, 125 p. [formato PDF, 3,64 MB]. "This report reviews the factors having a main impact on the supply and demand for road capacity, before it considers the strategies which allow to address congestion and improve mobility of persons in urban areas. From different case studies, the report reviews nine strategies: promoting public transportation; promoting bicycle transportation; promoting pedestrian transportation; promoting intermodal transportation; influencing car demand; strategy to improve the utilisation and allocation of capacity of roads; increasing capacity utilization of vehicles; improving the temporal spread of traffic volume; reducing the impacts of incidents; more compliant handling of road works and maintenance; and makes recommendations to road authorities."

Comité technique B.3 Améliorer la mobilité en milieu urbain / Technical Committee B.3 Improved mobility in urban areas, Stratégies visant à équilibrer la part modale des transports urbains afin d'améliorer la mobilité et de réduire la congestion routière. World Road Association (PIARC), La Défense, 2013, 135 p. [formato PDF, 3,57 MB].

Alyona Zubaryeva, Christian Thiel, Paving the way to electrified road transport. Publicly funded research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in vehicles in Europe. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten, 2013, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,84 MB] "The electrification of road transport or electro-mobility is seen by many as a potential game-changing technology that could have a significant influence on the future cost and environmental performance of personal individual mobility as well as short distance goods transport. While there is currently a great momentum vis-à-vis electro-mobility, it is yet unclear, if its deployment is economically viable in the medium to long term. Electro-mobility, in its early phase of deployment, still faces significant hurdles that need to be overcome in order to reach a greater market presence. Further progress is needed to overcome some of these hurdles. The importance of regulatory and financial support to emerging environmentally friendly transport technologies has been stressed in multiple occasions. The aim of our study was to collect the information on all on-going or recently concluded research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which received EU and national public funding with the budget >1mln Euro, in order to assess which of the EDV challenges are addressed by projects and to identify potential gaps in the R, D & D landscape in Europe. The data on research, development and demonstration projects on electric and plug-in vehicles, which receive public funding, has been collected by means of (i) on-line research, (ii) validation of an inventory of projects at member state level through national contact points and (iii) validation of specific project information through distribution of project information templates among project coordinators. The validation process permitted the identification of additional projects which were not accounted for in the original online search. Statistical elaboration of the collected data was conducted. More than 200 R&D and 160 demonstration projects funded by EU and 14 Member states are listed and analyzed. Collected data allowed also the development of an e-mobility visualization interactive tool, called EVRadar, which portrays in an innovative way R&D and demonstration efforts for EDVs in Europe. It can be accessed under http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energy-systems-evaluation/ev-radar."

Eelco den Boer, Sanne Aarnink, Florian Kleiner, Johannes Pagenkopf, Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential. Report. CE Delft, Delft, July 2013, 151 p. [formato PDF, 3,83 MB]. "The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, a the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market."

Simon Ng, Cruise Ship Emissions and Control in Hong Kong. Civic Exchange, Hong Kong, March 2013, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,47 MB]. "This paper makes an attempt to estimate cruise ship emissions in Hong Kong in 2012, as well as to predict emissions produced by the cruise ships that are planning to berth at the new Kai Tak Cruise Terminal in the latter half of 2013 and in early 2014. Results show that at-berth emissions at Ocean Terminal and in Victoria Harbour near Hung Hom and Kowloon Bay represent a significant portion of cruise ship emissions in Hong Kong. At-berth emissions expected at the new Kai Tak Cruise Terminal will add to the problem. For the benefit of air quality and people’s health, swift actions should be taken to reduce cruise ship emissions."

Claire Papaix, Bénédicte Meurisse, Overview of the policy toolbox for low-carbon road mobility in the European Union. (Information and debates Series n. 26). Chaire Economie du Climat, Paris, July 2013, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,04 MB] "The transition to sustainable transport, which necessarily implies low-carbon transport, will require a major structural shift in both passenger and freight transport systems. Indeed, rapidly increasing traffic and a high dependency on fossil fuels have made transport a crucial but also a challenging issue with regard to the action required to fight climate change. Indeed, CO2 emissions from transport have been sharply increasing over the last decades contrary to the observed trends in the other industrial sectors. Since road represents most of carbon emissions we choose to focus in this report solely on the levers for reducing emissions from road mobility systems. When it comes to the means to steer low-carbon road mobility, most of transport’s carbon emissions are not directly covered by "first best" (CO2-oriented) economic instruments, such as fossil fuel taxation, or very heterogeneously in Europe when it is the case. Therefore, we propose ic this report a French and European review of such "first best" and "second best" (not directly CO2-oriented) policy-tools for rolling out low-carbon transport systems. In particular, command-and-control levers, economic instruments, collaborative initiatives and information and communication policies – applying both to the demand and the supply side of road transportation will be thoroughly analyzed here. Beyond the proposed framing and efficiency appraisal of the policy-tools, one of the key outcomes of this report is that such regulation package for reducing carbon in transport emissions may be recognized as opportunities for innovation and growth rather than constraints if consistently anticipated and time-wisely influenced by all the actors."

Alex Auf der Maur, Stefan Rommerskirchen, Johannes Eggert, Externe Effekte des Personen- und Güterverkehrs auf Österreichs Straßen. Grundlagen und Größenordnungen. Schlussbericht. Erarbeitung einer Broschüre für die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der AISÖ. ProgTrans AG, Basel, 11. April 2013, 49 p. [formato PDF, 663 kB]. Erstellt für Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internationaler Straßenverkehrsunternehmer Österreichs (AISÖ).

Rural Transport and Older People in Lincolnshire. Research report. Lincolnshire County Council, Lincoln, March 2013, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. "The research report examines the challenges facing older people accessing affordable transport in rural Lincolnshire. In a 12 month research study, older people who do not currently use any form of public or community transport were asked what prevents them from doing so. Some of the key findings illustrate that amongst the groups of older people interviewed many did not understand what transport services were available, how they could be accessed and how they operated. Based on the research in this report, a series of short and longer term recommendations are suggested to increase the use of public and community transport services by older people in rural communities. The research was conducted by Dr Mike Ward, in a partnership between the University of Lincoln and Lincolnshire County Council, and funded by the Excellent Ageing Programme."

Dal porto all’hinterland: soluzioni per una catena logistica competitiva. (Freight Leaders Council Quaderni n. 23). Freight Leaders Council, Roma, giugno 2013, 173 p. [formato PDF, 2,23 MB]. "Con il presente Quaderno n° 23 il Freight Leaders Council si propone di analizzare le problematiche e le criticità che limitano l’efficienza e la competitività del collegamento dal porto all’hinterland, soffermandosi in particolare sull’integrazione della catena logistica attraverso il trasporto ferroviario intermodale. L’analisi si è svolta prendendo volutamente in considerazione le infrastrutture di trasporto esistenti con l’obiettivo di sfruttarle al meglio e senza quindi la necessità di nuovi investimenti, scelta motivata anche dall’attuale situazione economica. Il quaderno si basa sull’interazione di 4 pilastri: Porti, Interporti, Ferrovie e Dogane. Dallo studio emergono alcuni spunti e proposte che consentono di migliorare i processi organizzativi che consentano di ottimizzare e velocizzare le attività portuali, ferroviarie ed interportuali per migliorare gli scambi commerciali con l’hinterland."

Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution - REVIHAAP Project. [Final] Technical Report. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2013, 309 p. [formato PDF, 2,57 MB]. "This document presents answers to 24 questions relevant to reviewing European policies on air pollution and to addressing health aspects of these policies. The answers were developed by a large group of scientists engaged in the WHO project “Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution – REVIHAAP”. The experts reviewed and discussed the newly accumulated scientific evidence on the adverse effects on health of air pollution, formulating science-based answers to the 24 questions. Extensive rationales for the answers, including the list of key references, are provided. The review concludes that a considerable amount of new scientific information on the adverse effects on health of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, observed at levels commonly present in Europe, has been published in recent years. This new evidence supports the scientific conclusions of the WHO air quality guidelines, last updated in 2005, and indicates that the effects in some cases occur at air pollution concentrations lower than those serving to establish these guidelines. It also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the burden of disease associated with air pollution in Europe."

Marco Percoco (Università Bocconi), Is road pricing effective in abating pollution? Evidence from Milan. (Working paper). Università Bocconi, Milano, June 2013, 27 p. [formato PDF, 493 kB] "In January 2008 Milan implemented a road pricing scheme in the city center to decrease pollution concentration. By adopting a regression discontinuity design to account for potential confounders, we estimate the effect of the policy on the concentration of benzene, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide. We have found a sizeable effect of the Ecopass on air quality in terms of reduction in the concentration of carbon monoxide and particulates few days after its introduction, although this effect disappears after only one week. We interpret these results as indicative of an inefficient policy design since motorbikes were not charged and the treated area is too limited to generate positive outcomes on the whole city."

Álvaro Fernández Heredia, Andrés Monzón y Sergio Jara-Díaz, Understanding Ciclysts' perceptions, keys for a successful bicycle promotion. (TRANSyT Working Papers Series TWP-2013-02-EN). Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Centro de Investigación del Transporte TRANSyT, 2013, 24 p. [formato PDF, 513 kB] "Increasing bicycle use has positive effects over Public Health, but the factors that command bicycle users’ choice have not been identified properly. Psycho-social factors related to intention, attitudes and perceptions, have not been studied in depth and they can contribute to obtain the keys for a successful bicycle policy. Cyclists perceptions have been studied using a large university survey collected ad-hoc by applying exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. After identifying four latent variables, namely convenience, pro-bike factors, physical determinants and external limitations, a structural equations model was estimated to find structure and relationships among variables and to understand users’ intentions to bike. The main conclusion is that convenience and external restrictions are the most important elements to understand cyclists’ behaviour. Pro-bike factors, like the health component, reinforce the element of convenience."

Akshima T. Ghate, S. Sundar, Can We Reduce the Rate of Growth of Car Ownership?. Economic & Political Weekly (Mumbai, India), June 8, 2013, vol XLVIII, no 23, p. 32-40 [formato PDF, 657 kB]. "The average level of ownership of cars in India, currently 13 per 1,000 population, is expected to grow exponentially. Estimating the average level of ownership in 2025 at 35 per 1,000, this article points out that the growing number of cars has serious implications for energy security, air pollution, road safety, and equitable allocation of road space, and argues that there is an urgent need for India to learn from the experiences of cities that have decoupled car ownership from economic growth, and reduce the rate of growth of car ownership in India."

Robert Regué, Abigail L. Bristow, Appraising Freight Tram Schemes: A Case Study of Barcelona. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 13 (2013) 56-78 [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "Urban goods distribution has gained in importance in recent years since its optimization not only has the potential to increase productivity and operational efficiency but also to achieve broader goals related to the reduction of externalities including congestion, accidents, noise, air pollution and CO2 emissions. The focus of this paper is to explore the costs and benefits related to freight trams and appraise, by means of a cost benefit analysis a hypothetical freight tram scheme in the centre of Barcelona, to identify the factors that critically influence the potential success or failure of such schemes and to examine through sensitivity testing ways of improving performance. Thus, this paper aims to enhance our understanding of the potential for freight trams to contribute to mitigating a range of transport externalities. Two freight tram scenarios were developed for detailed investigation: the first for retail deliveries and the second for domestic waste collection. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was carried out based on the best available public domain information and with clearly specified assumptions. The waste tram scenario yields a high Net Present Value (NPV) and rapid return on investment due to the low set up costs and significant operating cost savings. On the other hand, in the initial specification, the retail delivery tram has a very negative NPV due to high initial investment costs and annual costs exceeding annual benefits. Sensitivity tests indicate that both the initial infrastructure costs and the costs and efficiency levels of the consolidation centres are critical to the performance of a freight tram."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potenziale des Radverkehrs für den Klimaschutz (Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport). (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 84 p. [formato PDF, 5,24 MB]. "Das Ziel des Vorhabens bestand darin, belastbare Aussagen zu den Potenzialen des Radverkehrs in Bezug auf Umweltentlastungswirkungen zu gewinnen. Die Aufgabe bestand in der Untersuchung von Szenarien einer integrierten Radverkehrsförderung bzw. einer nachhaltigen Verkehrsentwicklung hinsichtlich Verkehrsmittelwahl, Zielwahl, Fahrleistung und Emissionen. Mit Hilfe eines für das Projekt entwickelten Kennwertmodells wurden Stellschrauben analysiert und variiert, um dadurch Veränderungen von Fahrleistungen und Umweltwirkungen abzuschätzen. In die Modellrechnungen konnten über die Variation von Modellparametern strukturelle Veränderungen und hypothetische Annahmen im Sinne von „Wenn-Dann“-Konstellationen integriert werden (Sensitivitätsanalysen). Über die dadurch erworbenen Systemkenntnisse wurden im Anschluss rekursiv Maßnahmenszenarien auf genereller Ebene entworfen und Bandbreiten für Wirkungen abgeschätzt. Im Ergebnis bringt die Verlagerung kurzer Kfz-Wege bis fünf Kilometer Länge nur eine geringe Änderung der CO2-Emissionen von ein bis drei Prozent, da der Anteil dieser Wege an der Fahrleistung niedrig ist. Würde das Fahrrad auch für die von der Bevölkerung als „gut mit dem Fahrrad erreichbar“ wahrgenommenen (weiter entfernten) Ziele genutzt, steigt das Reduktionspotenzial deutlich auf sechs bis elf Prozent der gesamten CO2-Emissionen des werktäglichen Personenverkehrs. Werden neben der reinen Verlagerung auch Strategien der Verkehrsvermeidung in die Modellrechnungen integriert sind Fahrleistungsrückgänge von 19 bis 38 Prozent bzw. eine CO2-Minderung von 13 bis 27 Prozent errechnet worden. Die Ergebnisse lassen damit Schlussfolgerungen über die Potenziale des Radverkehrs zur Emissionsreduzierung zu und geben Hinweise zu deren Einordnung in ganzheitliche nachhaltige Strategien. Dadurch wird deutlich, welchen Beitrag die Verlagerung von Verkehrsmittelanteilen (Modal Shift) vom MIV sowie die Vermeidung von weiten MIV-Wegen leisten kann. Insgesamt konnte festgestellt werden, dass Potenziale des Radverkehrs für die Reduktion von Klimagasemissionen in Deutschland vorhanden sind."

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Udo Becker, Thomas Böhmer, Falk Richter, Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport. Executive Summary. (Texte Nr. 19/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 13 p. [formato PDF, 469 kB]. "The aim of the project was to obtain reliable estimates of the potential of cycling transport regarding environmental relief. The task was to study scenarios for integrated promotion of cycling transport and sustainable transport development with respect to mode choice, destination, vehicle kilometres and emissions. With the help of a statistical model developed for the project, different parameters were analysed and varied in order to estimate changes in driven kilometres and environmental impacts. By varying the model parameters structural changes and hypothetical assumptions in the sense of “if-then“ combinations were able to be integrated into the modelled variations (sensitivity analyses). Using the resulting system knowledge scenarios of measures were subsequently recursively conceptualised at a general level and the breadth of impact was estimated. The outcome reveals that shifting short car trips up to five kilometres only effects a small change in CO2 emissions of one to three percent since the share of these trips in driven kilometres is small. If cycling were to be used for destinations (further away) perceived by the public as having good cycling accessibility then the potential for reductions increases considerably to between six and 11 percent of total CO2 emissions in workday passenger transport. If along with mere shifts, strategies for avoiding or reducing traffic are integrated into the model then driven kilometres and CO2 emissions are reduced by 19 to 38 percent and 13 to 27 percent respectively. The results allow conclusions to be drawn as to the potential for cycling transport to reduce emissions and provide guidance on fitting this potential into holistic, sustainable strategies. Thus the contribution of modal shift away from the personal vehicle as well as of avoiding long car trips then becomes clear. On the whole it was determined that there is potential for cycling in Germany to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."

Rachel Aldred and Katrina Jungnickel, Why culture matters for transport policy: the case of cycling in the UK. [article submitted to Journal of Transport Geography; the final published version may be different]. May 2013, 21 p. [formato PDF, 592 kB]. "Policy seeks to support cycling as a form of sustainable and active travel, yet, cycling levels in the UK remain low and evidence about interventions mixed. Data from a qualitative sociological study is used here to explore the difference that cultural meanings make to cycling practices in four different English urban areas. Specifically, we discuss differences between places with established cycling cultures and those with newer cycling cultures. Drawing on concepts from practice theory we discuss the role that cultures of cycling play within the four places, and suggest how the meanings of cycling, including its association with other social identities, are connected to the materials and competences seen as necessary for cycling. Our research highlights the embedding of transport in local as well as national cultures, and the associated need for policy-makers to take culture seriously in considering how to shift transport practices."

Claus Doll, Johannes Hartwig, Florian Senger, Markus Maibach, Daniel Sutter, Damaris Bertschmann, Udo Lambrecht, Wolfram Knörr, Frank Dünnebeil, Wirtschaftliche Aspekte nichttechnischer Maßnahmen zur Emissionsminderung im Verkehr (Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions). (Texte 11/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 199 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB] "Ziel und Ansatz: Die Studie untersucht die Wirkungen ausgewählter Maßnahmen der Verkehrspolitik für Umwelt, Verkehrsteilnehmer, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft bis zum Jahr 2030. Betrachtet werden Verlagerungen zu Fuß-, Radverkehr und ÖPNV, Verkürzung von Pkw-Fahrten und effizientere Autonutzung im Personenverkehr, sowie mehr Bahn im Güterverkehr. Aus Perspektive der Verkehrsteilnehmer werden private Kosten, Fahrzeit, Gesundheitseffekte, Schadstoff- und Treibhausgasemissionen, Lärm und Verkehrssicherheit bewertet. dynamischen Verkehrs- und Wirtschaftsmodell ASTRA-D analysiert. Ergebnisse: Die Umweltwirkungen der Maßnahmen divergieren stark und werden von den Kosten durch Treibhausgasemissionen dominiert. Maßnahmen, die den Fernverkehr einschließen, erzielen größere Emissionsreduktionen als rein städtische Maßnahmen. Speziell für den ÖPNV ergeben sich noch erhebliche Potenziale zur Minderung seiner externen Kosten. Aktive Mobilität fördert die Gesundheit und reduziert das Risiko chronischer Erkrankungen. Jedoch bedarf die Sicherheit von Radfahrern und Fußgängern in Städten einer höheren Aufmerksamkeit. Die Investitionshöhen der untersuchten Maßnahmen reichen bis 10 Mrd. Euro für die Attraktivitätssteigerung lokaler Fahrziele. Die Beschäftigung entwickelt sich hierdurch in fast allen Maßnahmen positiv, und Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt liegt in vier von fünf Maßnahmen in 2030 leicht höher als im Referenzszenario. Empfehlung: Sinnvolle Maßnahmenpakete können die Effektivität und Effizienz der Verkehrspolitik deutlich steigern. Im Zentrum stehen dabei Ansätze des "Push & Pull" im Sinne einer Verlagerungs- und Finanzierungsstrategie." "Aim and methodology: This study looks at the impact of selected transport policy measures on environment, transport users, economy and society by the year 2030. Considered are shifts to cycling, walking and public transport, shorter car trips and more efficient car use in passenger travel, as well as more rail in freight transport. Out of the transport user perspective private costs, travel time, health effects, air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic safety are assessed. Macroeconomic impacts are appraised using the system-dynamics transport and economics model ASTRA-D. Results: The environmental impacts of the measures diverge widely and are dominated by the costs of greenhouse gas emissions. Measures, which include long-distance travel, achieve higher impacts than pure urban transport measures. In particular for public transport considerable potentials to reduce its external costs from air pollution were identified. Active mobility enhances personal health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. However, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in cities requires increased attention. The investment costs for the measures investigated differ strongly, but reach up to 10 billion euros annually for more attractive local destinations. Accordingly, employment develops positively in almost all measures, and the gross domestic product (GDP) is slightly above the base case in 2030 in four out of the five cases. Recommendations: sensible bundles of measures may clearly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of transport policy. Core elements are “push-and-pull” approaches combining transport shift and funding policies."

Claus Doll, Johannes Hartwig, Florian Senger, Markus Maibach, Daniel Sutter, Damaris Bertschmann, Udo Lambrecht, Wolfram Knörr, Frank Dünnebeil, Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions. Summary. (Texte 11/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 29 p. [formato PDF, 196 kB]. "This study looks at non-technical options to reduce the emissions of motorized road traffic. The focus of the study is on the effect of measures to reduce emissions and the associated consequences for the private sector and the economy as a whole. This study aims to provide an objective basis for the debate about the commercial and social consequences of more sustainable traffic behavior on the part of both individuals and companies."

European Environment Agency, Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution. EEA Technical Report n.1/2013, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 3,87 MB]. "In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011). The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe."

Trasporto merci su strada. Analisi economico-statistica delle potenzialità e criticità di un settore strategico per lo sviluppo sostenibile. ANFIA, Automobile Club d’Italia, Febbraio 2013, 102 p. [formato PDF, 4,07 MB]. "I numerosi fattori di criticità del nostro sistema dei trasporti – come l’inefficienza logistica, l’anzianità del parco circolante, la carenza di soluzioni intermodali e di piattaforme logistiche verso l’Europa e verso l’Africa, oltre alla situazione di crisi che investe sia i produttori di autoveicoli e rimorchi, sia le aziende di autotrasporto – hanno spinto ACI (Automobile Club d’Italia) e ANFIA (Associazione Nazionale Filiera Industria Automobilistica) a mettere sotto la lente d’ingrandimento l’intero settore, analizzandone con attenzione le attuali dinamiche e cercando di coglierne le tendenze di sviluppo. I principali argomenti trattati nei cinque capitoli sono: l’analisi dello scenario internazionale degli scambi di beni e servizi e del ruolo della strada, passando dalla mobilità globale al trasporto merci nell’Europa a 27, fino allo scenario Italiano; l’andamento dell’industria automotive nell’economia mondiale, europea e nazionale, descritto attraverso i dati di produzione e di mercato dei veicoli commerciali e industriali; l’analisi dell’evoluzione del parco autocarri italiano (veicoli commerciali fino a 3.500 kg, autocarri sopra i 3.500 kg, rimorchi e semirimorchi sopra i 3.500 kg); l’analisi delle condizioni di mobilità e sicurezza della rete stradale in Europa e della rete stradale e autostradale in Italia; infine, la descrizione del contesto mondiale e nazionale dell’efficienza logistica."

Arne Beck, Heiner Bente, Martin Schilling, Railway Efficiency: An Overview and a Look at Opportunities for Improvement. (Discussion Paper No. 2013-12). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2013, 44 p. [formato PDF, 1,32 MB]. "Railway efficiency is a topic of interest worldwide for railway managers operating in competitive markets and for fiscally strained governments. Several recent studies indicate that European railways differ in terms of their efficiency. Based on a comparison with some major non-European railway systems, our analysis provides further evidence that significant efficiency gaps exist. Indeed, some railways have managed to achieve a high level of efficiency while others, for reasons controlled by management and/or government, can be classified as relatively inefficient. Key efficiency benchmarking indicators, further evidence through interviews with railway efficiency experts and additional research confirm the existence of railway efficiency gaps between railways. Differences in asset utilization, staff productivity, freight rates, and cost/revenue ratios are all key indicators highlighted in this discussion paper that further prove this point. Moreover, our analysis brought further evidence for why these efficiency gaps exist. Regulations and infrastructure constraints, such as regulations that impact freight train length, have a major impact on efficiency. New technologies are also a central driver of railway efficiency, as effective technology allows for improved and more effective maintenance of assets, better communication with customers, and automation of processes. In general, the reasons for efficiency gaps vary widely across countries and depend on nation or region-specific factors. Further levers to efficiency that can be implemented by government and regulatory bodies include opening the rail market to competition and providing steady, reliable funding for rail improvements that improve public mobility and air quality. It is also critical that the government and railway managers clearly define the role as chiefly a business or as an organization with the primary purpose to support public priorities (mobility, environmental and social priorities)."

Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Roberto Sozzi, Marina Davoli, and Francesco Forastiere, Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of more than a million adults in Rome. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):324-31 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 3,85 MB]. "BACKGROUND: Few European studies have investigated the effects of long-term exposure to both fine particulate matter (? 2.5 µm; PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on mortality. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and traffic indicators on cause-specific mortality to evaluate the form of the concentration-response relationship. METHODS: We analyzed a population-based cohort enrolled at the 2001 Italian census with 9 years of follow-up. We selected all 1,265,058 subjects ? 30 years of age who had been living in Rome for at least 5 years at baseline. Residential exposures included annual NO2 (from a land use regression model) and annual PM2.5 (from a Eulerian dispersion model), as well as distance to roads with > 10,000 vehicles/day and traffic intensity. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations with cause-specific mortality adjusted for individual (sex, age, place of birth, residential history, marital status, education, occupation) and area (socioeconomic status, clustering) characteristics. RESULTS: Long-term exposures to both NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with an increase in nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.03) per 10-µg/m3 NO2; HR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.05) per 10-µg/m3 PM2.5]. The strongest association was found for ischemic heart diseases (IHD) [HR = 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) per 10-µg/m3 PM2.5], followed by cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. The only association showing some deviation from linearity was that between NO2 and IHD. In a bi-pollutant model, the estimated effect of NO2 on mortality was independent of PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: This large study strongly supports an effect of long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 on mortality, especially from cardiovascular causes. The results are relevant for the next European policy decisions regarding air quality."

Alberto Colorni (Politecnico di Milano), Green Move: a (sustainable) project of electric vehicle sharing for the city of Milan. Relazione a "Conception innovante des politiques publiques", Université Paris-Dauphine, 28.03.2013, 76 slides [file PDF, 4,68 MB]. "The objective of the project Green Move is to design and implement a vehicle-sharing system in Milan, able to offer to users different categories of ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicles). The system aims to be open, standardized, interoperable, modular and multi-business, in order to support the spread of the service both on the territory and among new vehicle fleets owners and users. The key characteristics of the service are the following. 1. Multi-ownership: the system will offer the opportunity for single users, private companies, associations, etc, to join the service not only using vehicles provided by the service itself but also sharing their personal electric car or fleet. The project aims to apply a peer2peer approach in the field of sustainable mobility: this is made possible thanks to a standardized (possible to be installed to any commercial vehicle) access system that will represent the bridge between the user, the vehicle and the control center. The to join the service. 2. Key-less-mobility: personal smartphone is the main tool to use shared vehicles; the application can solve seamlessly all the steps of the vehicle-sharing experience (registration, booking, localization vehicles, enabling the vehicle, lock-unlock for intermediate stops, navigation, re-fueling, billing, …). 3. Intermodality: the service is defined as a vehicle-sharing system offering to users a multi-modal fleets. One of the limitations of traditional sharing system is to offer to users a single typology of vehicle (usually car or bike). Potentially the system can be integrated with vehicle sharing already in place. 4. Multi-business: the standardized way to join the system gives the chance to design alternative services and flexible mobility solutions. 5. Green mobility credits: the opportunity to profile the user and to link his behavior to the effective consumption of energy makes possible to satisfy the personal will of low impact life style and to set up a credits system able to repay virtuous behavior. Focusing on the five listed above innovative points, the design of the full scale service will be projected by a multi-criteria analysis of a wide number of possible alternatives in order to identify the most feasible and effective one. A trial to test the operating modes and the service efficiency is now carried out with electric vehicles and docking stations in a specific area of Milan. The performance of the service in term of accessibility and usability for the user will be measured with specific monitoring system."

Jean-Louis Bianco, Claude Sardais, Ludovic Espinasse, Recommandations pour réussir la réforme du système ferroviaire. Ministère de l'écologie, du développement durable et de l'énergie, Paris, avril 2013, 22 p. [formato PDF, 2,07 MB]. "M. Jean-Louis Bianco a été chargé par le gouvernement d'une mission de concertation sur le projet de réforme du système ferroviaire français, de manière à permettre la préparation d'un projet de loi. Depuis 1997, le système ferroviaire est caractérisé par la séparation de Réseau ferré de France (RFF), propriétaire de l'infrastructure, et de la SNCF, gestionnaire d'infrastructure délégué, en charge de la maintenance du réseau et de la gestion des circulations. L'auteur étudie les modalités de création d'un GIU (gestionnaire d'infrastructure unifié) en charge de l'ensemble des fonctions de gestion de l'infrastructure, et rattaché à la SNCF via un pôle public ferroviaire."

Jacques Auxiette, Un nouveau destin pour le service public ferroviaire français : les propositions des régions. Avril 2013, 69 p. [formato PDF, 3,27 MB]. "Parallèlement à la mission de Jean-Louis Bianco, Jacques Auxiette, président de la commission transports de l'Association des régions de France, a été chargé de formaliser les attentes et les propositions des régions en tant qu'autorités organisatrices pour les services régionaux de voyageurs."

ISFORT, ANAV, ASSTRA, "Una leva per la ripresa". 10° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Rapporto finale. [Presentato a] Bologna, 14 maggio 2013. ISFORT, Roma, 2013, 137 p. [formato PDF, 2,89 MB]. "In un conteso di generale contrazione della mobilità sia pubblica che privata si assiste a due scenari completamente opposti: in ambito urbano l'automobile privata crolla ed il trasporto pubblico locale guadagna quote di mercato, in ambito extraurbano, invece l'uso dell'auto aumenta a scapito proprio del trasporto pubblico."

Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), Una leva per la ripresa. 10° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Presentazione, 10° convegno nazionale ASSTRA, Bologna, 14 maggio 2013. ISFORT, Roma, 2013, 28 slides [formato PDF, 1,61 MB].

Eleonora Pieralice, Lucio Triolo, Scelte modali e impatto sanitario del PM10. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPT), 2013, 1 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 0,99 MB]. "L’applicazione di metodologie per valutare l’impatto sanitario del PM10, derivante dall’uso dei trasporti, alle indagini dei comportamenti individuali per ottimizzare percorsi e uso dei mezzi, consente di valutare i benefici sulla salute associati a nuovi scenari di emissioni legati alla propensione al cambio modale. Dalle conoscenze teoriche si può simulare l’impatto ambientale derivante dall’uso del mezzo privato, e quindi definire gli ambiti di intervento per l’abbattimento di emissioni inquinanti in atmosfera. Queste emissioni sono costituite da sostanze gassose e da polveri (PM10, PM2.5 e particolato grossolano) le quali oltre ad alterare l’ecosistema globale creano rilevanti effetti nocivi agli ambienti locali e alla salute umana. Lo studio analizza gli inquinanti atmosferici generati dai sistemi di trasporto su strada, contiene una review di alcuni studi internazionali sull’impatto sanitario del PM10, e infine utilizza le funzioni dose-risposta di vari studi epidemiologici e tossicologici per stimare gli impatti sanitari espressi in termini di mortalità e di morbilità determinati dal particolato e da gas inquinanti. L’obiettivo è valutare i benefici per la salute prodotti da nuovi scenari di emissione, associati al cambio delle scelte modali degli utenti del trasporto privato, che determinano una diminuzione delle concentrazioni di PM10. La ricerca, che impiega indici di rischio empirici, si sviluppa su due percorsi: i) l’assessment della mortalità per tutte le cause, per tumore al polmone e per altre patologie croniche quali l’infarto del miocardio, l’aterosclerosi e le malattie ischemiche, è effettuata considerando concentrazioni medie annue di PM10 in termini di aumento degli effetti per incrementi del 10% delle concentrazioni in atmosfera delle polveri PM10; ii) le valutazioni dell’incidenza di morbosità per cause respiratorie in bambini e adulti, sono calcolate in termini di diminuzione del rischio, considerando riduzioni di concentrazioni per intervalli di 10ug/m3. La metodologia proposta mostra scenari potenzialmente importanti per abbattere le emissioni inquinanti e conseguire il risultato di attenuare gli effetti nocivi sulla salute delle popolazioni. L’affermazione di tali scenari migliorativi è regolata principalmente dai cambiamenti dello stile di vita delle persone. A livello europeo i progetti, le esperienze e le soluzioni in tal senso, che hanno riscontrato ampi successi, sono numerose. Le competenze e le politiche per la mobilità sostenibile dispongono di soluzioni per un sistema di trasporti più efficiente ed efficace. Gli studi a sostegno di una mobilità più sostenibile rappresentano lo strumento per creare una visione più cosciente e consapevole della natura al fine di condividere un vivere sociale più responsabile, ma lo strumento può divenire pratica solo se l’esperienza degli uomini è capace di trasformarlo in scelte politiche intelligenti e pragmatiche. La ricerca scientifica prosegue la sperimentazione di nuove linee e la messa a punto di nuove metodologie, ma senza l’applicazione nella realtà sociale delle conoscenze scientifiche e tecnologiche, ne risulterà solo un accanimento diagnostico e progettuale. Inoltre l’assenza di scelte politiche responsabili non consentirà di verificare l’efficienza e l’efficacia delle terapie messe a punto per curare le patologie indagate."

H.P.J. de Wilde, P. Kroon, Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020. (Report ECN-E--13-005). ECN, Petten, February 2013, 35 p. [formato PDF, 482 kB]. "The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. di Sassari), Car and the city: Socio-technical pathways to 2030. (Contributi di Ricerca CRENoS 2013/06). Centro Ricerche Economiche Nord Sud CRENoS, Cagliari, March 2013, 36 p. [formato PDF, 2,12 MB]. "A socio-technical approach is used to show that the future of urban mobility will depend on the competition between coalitions of innovative actors who support alternative transport systems. The current positioning of these coalitions is mapped with reference to innovation and power. The supporting coalition of the ‘individual car’ system benefits from a dominant position on current alternatives, but faces external pressures for change. Three transition pathways to 2030 are considered: 1) ‘AUTO-city’, i.e. the reconfiguration of the ‘individual car’ supporting coalition through the stable integration of producers of batteries; 2) ‘ECO-city’, i.e. the empowering of local coalitions which integrate all non-car modes, and their diffusion from pioneering to laggard cities; 3) ‘ELECTRI-city’, i.e. the empowering of a new coalition centered on electric operators which establish a new ‘electric vehicles + smart grids’ system. The deployment of one or another transition pathway also depends on the ability of supporting coalitions to influence political institutions. Without a political action for the weakening of the dominant position of the ‘individual car’ system, the ‘AUTO-city’ transition pathway will prevail. To support the ‘ECO-city’ and the ‘ELECTRI-city’ transition pathways, a multilevel transport policy or a national/federal industrial policy is needed, respectively."

Laura Perez, Christophe Declercq, Carmen Iñiguez, Inmaculada Aguilera, Chiara Badaloni, Ferran Ballester, Catherine Bouland, Olivier Chanel, FB Cirarda, Francesco Forastiere, Bertil Forsberg, Daniela Haluza, Britta Hedlund, Koldo Cambra, Marina Lacasaña, Hanns Moshammer, Peter Otorepec, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Sylvia Medina, Nino Künzli, Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network). European Respiratory Journal Express. Published on March 21, 2013 (30 p.) [formato PDF, 252 kB]. "Recent epidemiological research suggests that near road traffic-related pollution may cause chronic disease, as well as exacerbate related pathologies, implying that the entire "chronic disease progression" should be attributed to air pollution, no matter what the proximate cause was. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution in 10 European cities by calculating the number of cases of 1) asthma caused by near road traffic-related pollution, and 2) acute asthma events related to urban air pollution levels. We then expanded our approach to include coronary heart diseases in adults.Derivation of attributable cases required combining concentration-response function (CRF) between exposures and the respective health outcome of interest (obtained from published literature), an estimate of the distribution of selected exposures in the target population, and information about the frequency of the assessed morbidities.Exposure to roads with high vehicle traffic, a proxy for near road traffic-related pollution, accounted for 14% of all asthma cases. When a causal relationship between near road traffic-related pollution and asthma is assumed, 15% of all episodes of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Without this assumption, only 2% of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Similar patterns were found for coronary heart diseases in older adults.Pollutants along busy roads are responsible for a large and preventable share of chronic disease and related acute exacerbation in European urban areas."

D. S. Lee, L. L. Lim and B. Owen (Manchester Metropolitan University), Bridging the aviation CO2 emissions gap: why emissions trading is needed. Centre for Aviation Transport and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2013, 29 p. [formato PDF, 5,48 MB]. "Aviation emissions currently account for 2 to 2.5% of global CO2 emissions. Scenarios of future aviation project strong increases in air traffic and therefore emissions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has set a number of ‘goals’ for the environmental performance of international aviation: (1) a global annual average fuel efficiency improvement of 2 per cent until 2020 and an aspirational global fuel efficiency improvement rate of 2 per cent per annum from 2021 to 2050; (2) a medium term global aspirational goal of keeping the global net carbon emissions from international aviation from 2020 at the same level. Additionally, the US, Canada and Mexico have previously proposed a more ambitious, global goal to achieve a collective global goal of carbon neutral growth by 2020 based on a 2005 baseline, while Europe has proposed a 10% reduction by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. In this work, the mitigation potential of i) technology and improved operations; ii) biofuels, and iii) the extension of current regional market-based measures to 2050 are quantified for low, central and high traffic growth projections. Of the three types of measures studied, extension of current regional market-based measures (emissions trading) offers the greatest mitigation potential. None of the measures, or their combinations, for any growth scenario managed to meet ICAO’s aspirational 2020 carbon-neutral goal by 2050, the 2005 stabilization of emissions goal, or the 2005-10% stabilization of emissions goal. The 2% goal would only just be met by 2050, through assuming maximum reductions from technology, operations, and “speculative” availability of biofuels. If a global emissions trading scheme were to be constructed that covered all international aviation, the emissions savings could be even larger than all other measures calculated in this study."

European Environment Agency, The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing. EEA Technical report n.4/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 9,77 MB]. "The main objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature and reports, taking into account expert knowledge, on the maritime transport sector. The report addresses the sector's impact on air quality and climate forcing in Europe. In order to provide this overview a broad range of topics have been addressed. Key findings, as highlighted below, focus on the importance of emissions compared to other sectors; present and future air quality issues; and, the contribution of the sector to present day and future climate forcing. Emissions from maritime transport in European waters constitute a significant share of worldwide ship emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This report also shows that the number of ships registered in the EU-27, combined with ships owned by European companies but registered in third countries, is substantial. In 2011, about 19 % of the world merchant vessel fleet above 100 gross tonnage (GT) were registered in European countries. When taking into account ships registered abroad by European ship owners the European share of the global merchant fleet will be higher. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from international maritime transport in European waters are projected to increase and could be equal to land-based sources by 2020 onwards. The report includes a review of recently developed scenario studies on ship emissions and shows that NOX emissions could be equal to land-based emissions sources from 2020 onwards. SO2 emissions in European waters will continue to decrease further from 2020 onwards due to legislation on the sulphur content in fuel. It is expected that this will also lead to a decrease in emissions of PM2.5. Shipping emissions can contribute significantly to local air quality problems in Europe, but the pan.European knowledge and observation base needs to be improved to provide a more complete picture. The review of available observation data shows that there are relatively few measurement data available to attribute the contribution of ship emissions to local air pollution. Available data shows that the contribution of particulate matter from shipping to local concentrations can be up to 20–30 %, especially for fine particulate matter."

Contrat d’assurance adapté à l’autopartage entre particuliers. Guide à l’attention des autopartageurs et des assureurs. ADETEC, La Bourboule, 2013, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. Document réalisé par ADETEC avec le financement de la Direction Générale des Infrastructures, des Transports et de la Mer (DGITM) du Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l’Energie.

Guide pratique de l’autopartage entre particuliers. Une solution économique, écologique, souple et conviviale. ADETEC, La Bourboule, 2013, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB]. «Quand vous avez envie d’un verre de lait, achetez-vous une vache? Alors, pourquoi acheter une voiture quand vous n’en avez besoin que de temps en temps?». Document réalisé par ADETEC avec le financement de la Direction Générale des Infrastructures, des Transports et de la Mer (DGITM) du Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l’Energie.

Claudia L. Preißner, Herbert Kemming, Dirk Wittowsky, unter Mitarbeit von Simon Bülow u. Alexander Stark, Einstellungsorientierte Akzeptanzanalyse zur Elektromobilität im Fahrradverkehr. (ILS-Forschung 01/2013). ILS – Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung, Dortmund, Februar 2013, 85 p. [formato PDF, 3,54 MB]. "Im Sommer 2012 führte das ILS eine Online-Befragung zu Meinungen und Einstellungen über Elektrofahrräder im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bauen, Wohnen, Stadtentwicklung und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen durch. Über 2.500 Personen aus ganz Deutschland haben an der Studie teilgenommen. Die Daten aus dem Fragebogen wurden zusätzlich um die Meinungen einiger Expertinnen und Experten aus dem Bereich des Radverkehrs ergänzt. Gegenwärtig konzentriert sich die Entwicklung der Elektromobilität auf die Weiterentwicklung von E-Pkw. Die Verkaufszahlen von Pedelecs und E-Bikes lassen aber einen Boom bei elektrisch angetriebenen oder unterstützten Fahrrädern als wahrscheinlich bzw. machbar erscheinen. Ansatzpunkte zur Verbreitung dieser Fahrräder in der Praxis finden sich u.a. im Bereich des Tourismus oder zunehmend auch bei Fahrradverleihsystemen. Bei der Frage der Weiterentwicklung der Fahrräder stehen meist technische Gesichtspunkte wie die Batterietechnik, Ladestationen etc. im Fokus. Die für eine Nutzbarmachung der Vorteile elektrischer Fahrräder relevanten Gesichtspunkte, wie eine Verkehrsverlagerung vom MIV, und die für eine nachhaltige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung bedeutsamen Wechselwirkungen zwischen einer weiteren Verbreitung von elektrischen Fahrrädern und der Raumentwicklung werden bislang kaum wahrgenommen. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurden die Potenziale ermittelt, die sich aus einer zunehmenden Einführung und Verbreitung der Elektromobilität im Fahrradverkehr insbesondere für eine nachhaltige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung ergeben. Wesentliche Grundlagenarbeiten waren dabei die Recherchen und die Aufarbeitung des vorhandenen Wissens in der Forschung wie auch in der Praxis zum Verhalten der tatsächlichen und potenziellen Nutzer von Pedelecs und E-Bikes. Auf dieser Basis wurden Ansatzpunkte für die Praxis wie auch Forschungslücken herausgearbeitet, die zur Nutzbarmachung der absehbaren Potenziale geschlossen werden müssen."

Scenari dell'intermodalità. Studio per l’Interporto di Padova. Gruppo di lavoro: Sergio Bologna, Sergio Curi, Danilo Stevanato. Milano, marzo 2013, 49 p. [formato PDF, 2,69 MB]. "La presente ricerca, svolta su sollecitazione dell’Interporto di Padova, è l’ideale continuazione del precedente lavoro del 2011 “Scenari Adriatici” che aveva come oggetto le possibili strategie di collaborazione e di azione sinergica nei settori dell’intermodalità e dell’immobiliare della logistica tra i principali interporti del Nord Italia (Bologna, Padova e Verona). Questo anche in relazione al possibile aumento del traffico intermodale generato dalla crescita del flusso di container passante dai porti del Nord Adriatico (Venezia, Trieste e Ravenna), dove sono in corso di progettazione, non solo importanti aumenti di capacità, ma soprattutto sembra emergere un rinnovato interesse da parte di importanti gruppi armatoriali verso la via adriatica. Lo sviluppo previsto nei prossimi anni dei paesi dell’Est Europa e dei Balcani riporta infatti all’attenzione delle compagnie di navigazione un bacino marittimo, quello adriatico appunto, fino ad ora visto solo come un’onerosa deviazione, rispetto alla rotta base Suez-Gibilterra, da parte delle navi LCS/VLCS1. In questa ricerca l’attenzione è stata posta in particolare sui rapporti tra l’attività dei terminal container dei porti dell’Arco Tirrenico e dell’Alto adriatico, quella svolta dagli inland terminal e l’importanza che assume l’intermodalità ferroviaria in questo mercato."

Luciano Greco, Il sistema degli Interporti italiani, [relazione per il] 40° Anniversario della Costituzione di Interporto Padova SPA, Aula Magna dell’Università di Padova, 15 marzo 2013, 17 slides [formato PDF, 3,59 MB].

Sergio Bologna, Lavoro e capitale nella logistica italiana: alcune considerazioni sul Veneto, Padova, 15 marzo 2013, 14 p. [formato PDF, 69 kB]

Legambiente, Chi ha visto la Legge Obiettivo? Il crack della legge che doveva rilanciare le grandi opere e la scomparsa dai programmi di tutti gli schieramenti. Roma, 2013, 19 p. [formato PDF, 562 kB]. Il dossier affronta la situazione delle varie opere con una analisi dettagliata dello stato dell’arte (1,5 miliardi di euro buttati, 304 miliardi di euro di debiti stimati). Legambiente segnala quindi le opere inutili, il diluvio di autostrade e i progetti abbandonati per sempre. E, soprattutto, cerca di individuare le vere priorità, perché non ci sono lobby interessate a spingere tram e metropolitane, linee ferroviarie urbane e stazioni metropolitane.

John Dulac, Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements. Estimating road and railway infrastructure capacity and costs to 2050. International Energy Agency, Paris, 2013, 54 p. [formato PDF, 3,46 MB]. "Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections."

2012

Vinit K. Mishra, Prashant Kumar, Martine Van Poppel, Nico Bleux, Evelien Frijns, Matteo Reggente, Patrick Berghmans, Luc Int Panis, Roeland Samson, Wintertime spatio-temporal variation of ultrafine particles in a Belgian city. Science of The Total Environment 431 (2012) 307-313 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 952 kB]. "Simultaneous measurements of ultrafine particles (UFPs) were carried out at four sampling locations situated within a 1 km2 grid area in a Belgian city, Borgerhout (Antwerp). All sampling sites had different orientation and height of buildings and dissimilar levels of anthropogenic activities (mainly traffic volume). The aims were to investigate: (i) the spatio-temporal variation of UFP within the area, (ii) the effect of wind direction with respect to the volume of traffic on UFP levels, and (iii) the spatial representativeness of the official monitoring station situated in the study area. All sampling sites followed similar diurnal patterns of UFP variation, but effects of local traffic emissions were evident. Wind direction also had a profound influence on UFP concentrations at certain sites. The results indicated a clear influence of local weather conditions and the more dominant effect of traffic volumes. Our analysis indicated that the regional air quality monitoring station represented the other sampling sites in the study area reasonably well; temporal patterns were found to be comparable though the absolute average concentrations showed differences of up to 35%." (N)

S. Becagli, D. M. Sferlazzo, G. Pace, A. di Sarra, C. Bommarito, G. Calzolai, C. Ghedini, F. Lucarelli, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, M. Severi, R. Traversi, and R. Udisti, Evidence for heavy fuel oil combustion aerosols from chemical analyses at the island of Lampedusa: a possible large role of ships emissions in the Mediterranean. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3479-3492, 2012 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 2,08 MB]. "Measurements of aerosol chemical composition made on the island of Lampedusa, south of the Sicily channel, during years 2004–2008, are used to identify the influence of heavy fuel oil (HFO) combustion emissions on aerosol particles in the Central Mediterranean. Aerosol samples influenced by HFO are characterized by elevated Ni and V soluble fraction (about 80% for aerosol from HFO combustion, versus about 40% for crustal particles), high V and Ni to Si ratios, and values of Vsol>6 ng m-3. Evidence of HFO combustion influence is found in 17% of the daily samples. Back trajectories analysis on the selected events show that air masses prevalently come from the Sicily channel region, where an intense ship traffic occurs. This behavior suggests that single fixed sources like refineries are not the main responsible for the elevated V and Ni events, which are probably mainly due to ships emissions. Vsol, Nisol, and non-sea salt SO4²- (nssSO4²-) show a marked seasonal behaviour, with an evident summer maximum. Such a pattern can be explained by several processes: (i) increased photochemical activity in summer, leading to a faster production of secondary aerosols, mainly nssSO4²-, from the oxidation of SO2 (ii) stronger marine boundary layer (MBL) stability in summer, leading to higher concentration of emitted compounds in the lowest atmospheric layers. A very intense event in spring 2008 was studied in detail, also using size segregated chemical measurements. These data show that elements arising from heavy oil combustion (V, Ni, Al, Fe) are distributed in the sub-micrometric fraction of the aerosol, and the metals are present as free metals, carbonates, oxides hydrates or labile complex with organic ligands, so that they are dissolved in mild condition (HNO3, pH1.5). Data suggest a characteristic nssSO4²-/V ratio in the range 200–400 for HFO combustion aerosols in summer at Lampedusa. By using the value of 200 a lower limit for the HFO contribution to total sulphates is estimated. HFO combustion emissions account, as a summer average, at least for 1.2 µg m-3, representing about 30% of the total nssSO4²-, 3.9% of PM10, 8% of PM2.5, and 11% of PM1. Within the used dataset, sulphate from HFO combustion emissions reached the peak value of 6.1 µg m-3 on 26 June 2008, when it contributed by 47% to nssSO4²-, and by 15% to PM10." (N)

Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlström, Carina Fors, Sonja Forward, Nils Petter Gregersen, Magnus Hjälmdahl, Jonas Jansson, Gunnar Lindberg, Lena Nilsson and Christopher Patten, Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving. (VTI report 770A). VTI, Linköping, 2012, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving, while at the same time preserve the positive effects. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas and are intended to function as alternatives to banning device usage. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. The authors want to point out that the usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects." (N)

Anna Niska, Annika Nilsson, Maria Varedian, Jenny Eriksson and Liselott Söderström, Uppföljning av gång- och cykeltrafik. Utveckling av en harmoniserad metod för kommunal uppföljning av gång- respektive cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelflödesmätningar. (Evaluating pedestrian and cycle traffic. Development of a harmonised method for monitoring the municipal proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic through travel surveys and cycle counts). (VTI report 743). VTI, Linköping, 2012, 112 p. [formato PDF, 5,90 MB]. "This is the second and last report in a project financed by the Swedish Traffic Administration, with the objective to propose a harmonised method for monitoring the proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic. The method should be used for local monitoring in Swedish municipalities to be able to make comparisons over years and between towns, regions or the country as a whole. The project began with a survey and analysis of the present method of estimating travel by walking and cycling, both in and outside Sweden. This work was described in the first report on the project, VTI Report No 686 (Niska et al., 2010). In this report, method and results of analysis of some municipal travel surveys, cycle counts and other considerations resulting in the harmonised method are presented. In the harmonised method, the basic unit “the proportion, represented by cycle traffic, of all trips which have their origin and destinations in the municipality on weekdays”, is used. In order to collect data for the basic unit, the recommendation is that a municipal travel survey should be performed in the autumn every five years with the help of a written questionnaire consisting of 1–2 pages with background questions, and a simple and self-explanatory travel diary. All movements with an errand at the destination, on the day of survey, should be registered in the travel diary. The sample should consist of at least 1 500 inhabitants of the municipality aged between 16–75 years. Cycle counts can be used for identifying long term trends and for the planning and monitoring of specific measures on individual routes, but usually not for estimating the change in cycling from one year to another. In the report, a number of practical hints are given as to how measuring sites should be selected, when and for how long the measurements should be made, and the requirements that may be specified for the equipment in use. In addition, a summary is given of what should be documented and what should be borne in mind in drawing up the report.." (N)

V. Adamec, R. Ličbinský, R. Cholava (Transport Research Centre, Brno), Transport and Health Risks of Transport. Transactions on Transport Sciences, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 115–134 (20 p.) [formato PDF, 675 kB]. "The increasing amount of gases and solid pollutants emitted into the atmosphere have a considerable impact on human health and environmental ecosystems. Specifically, long exposure to high concentrations of pollutants may lead to a shortening of life by several years due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and contributes to increased risk of death. Recent studies also indicate cancer occurrences related to some pollutants, namely PM, that are hazardous not only due to their physical parameters, but mainly due to their content of many dangerous organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and their derivates, and inorganic compounds, such as Pb, Pt, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, and others, nitrates, ammonia ions, sulphates, etc." (N)

Mircea Steriu, Raising the bar. Review of Cycling Safety Policies in the European Union, ETSC (European Transport Safety Council), Brussels, 2012, 58 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB]. (N)

Marten van den Bossche, Rutger Beekman, Broos Baanders, Bas Scholten, Arno Schroten, Huib van Essen, Study on Urban Aspects of the Internalisation of External Costs - MOVE/B4/310-1/2011. Final report. Ecorys, CE Delft, Rotterdam, November 2012, 228 p. [formato PDF, 4,73 MB]. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission. "This study aims to address Action 12 (The internalisation of external costs), and consists of: an analysis of the general principles and methodologies of internalisation of external costs of urban mobility; an overview of present and failed attempts of economic instruments and policy measures, based on 12 case studies specifically on urban road charging and paid parking; and an assessment of mobility, environmental and socio-economic impacts of the two economic instruments."(N)

Jennifer S. Mindell, Deborah Leslie, Malcolm Wardlaw, Exposure-Based, ‘Like-for-Like’ Assessment of Road Safety by Travel Mode Using Routine Health Data. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50606, 2012, 10 p. [formato PDF, 737 kB]. "Background: Official reports on modal risk have not chosen appropriate numerators and denominators to enable like-forlike comparisons. We report age- and sex-specific deaths and injury rates from equivalent incidents in England by travel mode, distance travelled and time spent travelling. Methods: Hospital admissions and deaths in England 2007–2009 were obtained for relevant ICD-10 external codes for pedestrians, cyclists, and car/van drivers, by age-group and sex. Distance travelled by age-group, sex and mode in England (National Travel Survey 2007–2009 data) was converted to time spent travelling using mean trip speeds. Fatality rates were compared with age-specific Netherlands data. Results: All-age fatalities per million hours’ use (f/mhu) varied over the same factor-of-three range for both sexes (0.15– 0.45 f/mhu by mode for men, 0.09–0.31 f/mhu for women). Risks were similar for men aged 21–49 y for all three modes and for female pedestrians and drivers aged 21–69 y. Most at risk were: males 17–20 y (1.3 f/mhu (95% CI 1.2–1.4)) for driving; males 70+ (2.2 f/mhu(1.6–3.0)) for cycling; and females 70+ (0.95 f/mhu (0.86–1.1)) for pedestrians. In general, fatality rates were substantially higher among males than females. Risks per hour for male drivers ,30 y were similar or higher than for male cyclists; for males aged 17–20 y, the risk was higher for drivers (33/Bn km (30–36), 1.3 f/mhu (1.2–1.4)) than cyclists (20/ Bn km (10–37), 0.24 f/mhu (0.12–0.45)) whether using distance or time. Similar age patterns occurred for cyclists and drivers in the Netherlands. Age-sex patterns for injuries resulting in hospital admission were similar for cyclists and pedestrians but lower for drivers. Conclusions: When all relevant ICD-10 codes are used, fatalities by time spent travelling vary within similar ranges for walking, cycling and driving. Risks for drivers were highest in youth and fell with age, while for pedestrians and cyclists, risks increased with age. For the young, especially males, cycling is safer than driving." (N)

Gary Haq and Dieter Schwela, editors, Transport and Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa. The TEST Network, October 2012, 80 p. [formato PDF, 4,31 MB]. "The report, written by a panel of international experts, provides an introduction to the transport and environment issues in SSA countries. It focuses on the key transport-related areas of air pollution, road safety, traffic flow management, equity and climate change. The study also makes recommendations for the development of sustainable transport policies based on five central principles: Maximizing transport accessibility for all social groups, genders and income levels, so that all citizens can access health care, education, training and jobs with minimal effort, costs and journey time; Creating a safe, secure urban environment with the minimum possible risk of death and injury from road accidents; Ensuring that all public health measures deal with the debilitating and costly consequences of air pollution on human health; Freeing up urban road space by improving traffic flow conditions in a way that stimulates economic activity and job creation and avoids the generation of new traffic; and Reducing greenhouse gas emissions." (N)

Thomas Götschi und Sonja Kahlmeier, Erhebungsmethodik für das Monitoring von SchweizMobil und den Schweizer Wanderwegen (Metodi di rilevamento per il monitoraggio di SchweizMobil e dei percorsi escursionistici svizzeri). Schlussversion vom 3. September 2012. Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, Arbeitsbereich Bewegung und Gesundheit, Universität Zürich, September 2012, 73 p. [file PDF, 1,51 MB]. Dieser Bericht entstand im Auftrag von SchweizMobil und den Schweizer Wanderwegen. (N)

Ingrid van Schagen and Klaus Machata, The BestPoint Handbook. Getting the best out of a Demerit Point System. BestPoint, August 2012, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,09 MB]. "Various kinds of Demerit Point Systems (DPS) have been developed and implemented in European countries, aimed at tackling repeat offences in road transport by acting as a deterrent and providing sanctioning. The impact of a DPS on the number of crashes is often reported to be significant but temporary. In this context the objective of the EU project BestPoint was to establish a set of recommended practices that would result in a more effective and sustainable contribution of DPS’s to road safety. The BestPoint Handbook provides a concise overview of these recommended practices and is the final result of the BestPoint project. It is based on evaluation studies, psychological and learning theories, expert experiences and considerations, and information about current practices." (N)

Robert Cervero, Benjamin Caldwell, and Jesus Cuellar, Bike-and-Ride: Build It and They Will Come. (UCTC-FR-2012-16). University of California Transportation Center, UC Berkeley, December 2012, 19 p. [formato PDF, 2,29 MB]. "Converting park-and-ride to bike-and-ride trips could yield important environmental, energy conservation, and public-health benefits. While cycling in general is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, it still makes up a miniscule portion of access trips to most rail transit stations. At several rail stations of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, 10 percent or more of access trips are by bicycle, up considerably from a decade earlier. This paper adopts a case-study approach to probe factors that have had a hand in not only cycling grabbing a larger market share of access trips to rail stops but also in the enlargement of bike access-sheds over time. Both on-site factors, like increases the number of secure and protected bicycle parking racks, as well as off-site factors, like increases in the lineal miles of bike-paths and bike boulevards, appear to explain growing use of bicycles for accessing rail stations. The adage "build it and they will come", we argue, holds for bicycle improvements every bit as much as other forms of urban transportation infrastructure. Pro-active partnerships between transit agencies, local municipalities, and bicycle advocacy organizations are critical to ensuring such improvements are made." (N)

Gregory Pierce and Donald Shoup (UC Los Angeles), Getting the Prices Right: An Evaluation of Pricing Parking by Demand in San Francisco. (UCTC-FR-2013-03). Forthcoming in the Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 79, Number 1, Winter 2013. University of California Transportation Center, UC Berkeley, May 2013, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,99 MB] "Underpriced and overcrowded curb parking creates problems for everyone except a few lucky drivers who find a cheap space; all the other drivers who cruise to find an open space waste time and fuel, congest traffic, and pollute the air. Overpriced and underoccupied parking also creates problems; when curb spaces remain empty, nearby merchants lose potential customers, workers lose jobs, and cities lose tax revenue. To address these problems, San Francisco has established SFpark, a program that adjusts parking prices to achieve a target parking availability of one or two open spaces on each block. To measure how parking prices affected parking occupancy in San Francisco we calculated the price elasticity of demand for on-street parking revealed by 5,294 individual price and occupancy changes during the program’s first year. Price elasticity varies greatly by time of day, location, and several other factors, with an average value of –0.4. The average meter price fell 1 percent during the first year, so SFpark adjusted prices up and down according to local demand without increasing prices overall. The city can improve the program by making drivers more aware of the variable prices, reducing the abuse of disabled parking placards, and introducing seasonal adjustments for parking prices." (N)

Gerd-Axel Ahrens (Technische Universität Dresden), Potenziale des Radverkehrs für den Klimaschutz. ADFC – Mittagsgespräche, München, 11. Dezember 2012, 16 slides [formato PDF, 2,30 MB]. (N)

Rico Wittwer (Technische Universität Dresden), Sensitivity Analysis to Estimate the Potential of Cycling to Reduce Emissions in Road Transport. Perugia, 29 November 2012, 8 slides [formato PDF, 560 kB]. (N)

Christophe Declercq, Mathilde Pascal, Olivier Chanel, Magali Corso, Aymeric Ung, Laurence Pascal, Myriam Blanchard, Sophie Larrieu, Sylvia Medina, Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmosphérique dans neuf villes françaises. Résultats du projet Aphekom. Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, septembre 2012, 36 p. [formato PDF, 468 kB]. "La causalité des relations, tant à court qu’à long terme, entre exposition à la pollution atmosphérique urbaine et santé est désormais largement acceptée. L’existence d’études épidémiologiques quantifiant les relations entre le niveau d’un indicateur d’exposition à la pollution de l’air et le risque de survenue d’un événement de santé rend possible l'évaluation des impacts sanitaires de la pollution atmosphérique à l’échelle d’une agglomération. Cette démarche a été appliquée pour la période 2004-2006 à neuf villes de France métropolitaine dans le cadre du projet européen Aphekom. Les indicateurs d’exposition à la pollution atmosphérique ont été construits à partir des niveaux de polluants mesurés par les stations de fond des réseaux de surveillance de la qualité de l’air. Les indicateurs de santé ont été construits à partir des données du PMSI (hospitalisations) et du CépiDc (décès). Les relations exposition-risque pertinentes ont été sélectionnées sur la base d’une revue de la littérature. Les méthodes classiques de calcul de l’impact sanitaire ont été utilisées pour évaluer, sous différents scénarios de réduction des niveaux de polluants, le nombre de cas évitables (impacts à court et long terme) et le gain d’espérance de vie (impacts à long terme). Une valorisation monétaire de ces bénéfices sanitaires potentiels a été réalisée en utilisant une approche basée sur le consentement à payer pour la mortalité et une approche coût de la maladie pour les hospitalisations. Pour les neuf agglomérations totalisant 12 millions d’habitants, le respect des valeurs guide de l’OMS pour les niveaux d’ozone aurait conduit à différer 69 décès/an et à éviter 62 hospitalisations respiratoires. Pour les niveaux de particules (PM10), ce sont 360 hospitalisations par an pour causes cardiaques et 673 pour causes respiratoires qui auraient pu être évitées. Pour les particules fines, à long terme, le respect des valeurs guides de l’OMS aurait entraîné un gain moyen d’espérance de vie à 30 ans de 3,6 à 7,5 mois selon la ville, représentant au total plus 2 900 décès/an différés en moyenne. Ces impacts à long terme sont ceux dont la valorisation économique est la plus élevée, avec un montant annuel estimé de 4,9 milliards €/an. Ces résultats mettent en évidence la persistance d’un impact substantiel de la pollution de l’air sur la santé dans les villes françaises. Ils sont ainsi susceptibles d’encourager la mise en oeuvre de politiques publiques d’amélioration de la qualité de l’air au niveau local." "The short- and long-term effects of exposure to urban air pollution on health are now well established. These health impacts can be quantified in a metropolitan area by applying concentration-response functions drawn from epidemiological studies to local air quality and health data. This method was applied for the 2004-2006 period to the nine French cities in the Aphekom European project. Data from background air quality monitors were used to estimate population exposure to air pollution. Health indicators were constructed using data from the PMSI (hospitalizations) and CepiDc (mortality) databases. The concentration-response functions were selected from a literature review. Conventional health impact assessment methods were used to quantify the number of avoidable hospitalizations and postponed deaths, as well as the gain in life expectancy, for various scenarios of decrease of particulate matter and ozone levels. The monetary value of these health benefits was assessed using a willingness-to-pay approach for mortality, and a cost-of-illness approach for morbidity. In the nine cities totaling 12 million people, complying with WHO air quality guidelines for ozone (100 µg/m3) would have postponed 69 deaths per year and prevented 66 respiratory hospitalizations per year. Complying with the PM10 guideline (20 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm) would have prevented 360 hospitalizations for cardiac diseases and 673 hospitalizations for respiratory causes per year. Complying with the PM2.5 guideline (10 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) would have produced an average gain in life expectancy at age 30 of 3.6 to 7.5 months depending on the city; this gain is equivalent to a yearly burden of over 2,900 postponed deaths per year in the nine cities. The monetary value of these potential health benefits is largely dominated by the long-term effects of PM2.5 on mortality with a total estimated value of . 4.9 billion per year. These findings highlight the continuing, significant impact of air pollution on health in French cities and should encourage the adoption and implementation of public policies aimed at improving air quality." (N)

Marcello Contestabile, Gregory Offer, Robin North (Imperial College London), Electric Vehicles: A Synthesis of the Current Literature with a Focus on Economic and Environmental Viability. Technical Paper. LCAworks, London, June 2012, 17 p. [formato PDF, 674 kB] "LCAworks has carried out a study to evaluate the technological progress and economic viability of electric vehicles (EVs) as an alternative to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) using traditional fuels (including blends with biofuels). The study assesses the feasibility and cost effectiveness of EVs, to enable decarbonisation of road transportation, taking into account, where possible: lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the potential of EVs to be deployed at scale, including pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on the evidence we have reviewed, we conclude that the future level of uptake of EVs will depend heavily on progress in battery technology, to bring down costs and increase energy density, and on the provision of a suitable recharging infrastructure. Currently, and for the foreseeable future, BEVs will be characterised by higher purchase price and lower utility than ICEVs, which will affect their future market uptake unless breakthroughs in battery technology occur. We have explored a number of EV uptake scenarios based on the economic and technical evidence. From these, we conclude that the role of BEVs in the passenger car market is likely to be limited to smaller vehicle segments such as mini and super-mini, whereas in larger vehicle segments ICE PHEVs running on biofuels or hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs might be more suitable. Based on the literature we have reviewed, it appears that EVs have the potential to deliver significant GHG emission savings in road transport in a cost-effective way, particularly after 2030, provided that a number of measures are successfully implemented to: drive down GHG emissions associated with battery manufacture and disposal (including recycling of raw materials); significantly reduce the GHG intensity of grid electricity; and target recharging to times of day which will maximise utilisation of low GHG generating capacity (smart charging). Although EVs have higher GHG emissions associated with their manufacture and disposal than ICEVs, in future, given the conditions described above, this should be more than compensated by the lower in-use well-to-wheel (WtW) emissions. However, more work is needed in the area of life cycle assessment (LCA) of EVs, in particular, more accurately to assess GHGs associated with manufacture and disposal, and compare these with the manufacture and disposal emissions of ICEVs, which currently do not feature in most ICEV LCAs published in the literature and are not a part of EU government targets for vehicle GHG emissions. Also, currently, the GHGs associated with provision of recharging infrastructure and end of life disposal do not appear to be included in most LCA studies. In addition, other environmental impacts of battery manufacture, use and disposal, such as acidification, ozone depletion, photochemical smog and eutrophication will be important and need to be addressed fully. In the current study we do not address these impacts directly, although the level of GHG emissions associated with any given product is often a useful proxy for other environmental impacts. The evidence we have reviewed strongly suggests that, even if the development of battery technology matches the optimistic scenarios described in the literature, EVs are unlikely to ever provide a complete solution to road transport decarbonisation. In fact, due to the very nature of batteries, pure BEVs are likely only to be competitive on a cost and performance basis in smaller vehicle segments such as mini and super-mini. As an additional decarbonisation option for road transport, biofuels will therefore have an important role to play in the larger vehicles segments, possibly used in ICE PHEVs with different degrees of electrification dictated by the size of the vehicle, its intended use and the cost and performance of the batteries. Even in the case of breakthroughs in battery technology, the degree of electrification of PHEVs will still be significantly limited by diminishing returns as the battery size increases, to the extent that future PHEVs will probably use biofuels for 60-80% of their total mileage. Based on this level of electricity utilisation by PHEVs, our analysis shows that, per kWh of battery deployment, PHEVs have a slightly greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than BEVs. In conclusion, biofuels and batteries are likely to be complementary rather than competing technologies in the timescale to 2030 – 2050. In terms of decarbonisation potential, it appears likely that biofuels contribution (and therefore its share of the passenger car market) will be limited by constraints in the supply of sustainable biofuels rather than by the competition with electricity, at least well beyond 2030 if not beyond 2050 as well." (N)

Laura Perez, Fred Lurmann, John Wilson, Manuel Pastor, Sylvia J. Brandt, Nino Künzli, and Rob McConnell, Near-roadway pollution and childhood asthma: implications for developing "win-win" compact urban development and clean vehicle strategies. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 November; 120(11): 1619–1626 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 341 kB]. "BACKGROUND: The emerging consensus that exposure to near-roadway traffic-related pollution causes asthma has implications for compact urban development policies designed to reduce driving and greenhouse gases. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the current burden of childhood asthma-related disease attributable to near-roadway and regional air pollution in Los Angeles County (LAC) and the potential health impact of regional pollution reduction associated with changes in population along major traffic corridors. METHODS: The burden of asthma attributable to the dual effects of near-roadway and regional air pollution was estimated, using nitrogen dioxide and ozone as markers of urban combustion-related and secondary oxidant pollution, respectively. We also estimated the impact of alternative scenarios that assumed a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 3.6% reduction or 3.6% increase in the proportion of the total population living near major roads, a proxy for near-roadway exposure. RESULTS: We estimated that 27,100 cases of childhood asthma (8% of total) in LAC were at least partly attributable to pollution associated with residential location within 75 m of a major road. As a result, a substantial proportion of asthma-related morbidity is a consequence of near-roadway pollution, even if symptoms are triggered by other factors. Benefits resulting from a 20% regional pollution reduction varied markedly depending on the associated change in near-roadway proximity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there are large and previously unappreciated public health consequences of air pollution in LAC and probably in other metropolitan areas with dense traffic corridors. To maximize health benefits, compact urban development strategies should be coupled with policies to reduce near-roadway pollution exposure." (N)

Rapporto UIR. Il sistema degli Interporti italiani nel 2011. Unione Interporti Riuniti, Dicembre 2012, 84 p. [formato PDF, 2,89 MB]. "Il Rapporto conferma l’eterogeneità strutturale e gestionale del sistema interportuale italiano. Uno degli obiettivi del lavoro è di tracciare, forse per la prima volta in maniera organica e ragionata, una rappresentazione di tale settore. Per fare ciò gli sforzi sono stati rivolti prima di tutto alla ricerca di indicatori e grandezze da rilevare, in modo da poter raccogliere dati omogenei e raffrontabili tra i diversi interporti." (N)

Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlström, Carina Fors, Sonja Forward, Nils Petter Gregersen, Magnus Hjälmdahl, Jonas Jansson, Gunnar Lindberg, Lena Nilsson, Christopher Patten, Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving - a toolbox. (VTI Rapport 770A). VTI, Linköping , 2012, 90 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. "This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving. An important aspect of this commission was to demonstrate alternatives to legislation. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. The usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects. It is our opinion that a combination of different countermeasures – which educate and inform the driver while at the same time support him or her in a safe usage of communication devices – is preferable to a law against communication device usage while driving. Continuous follow-ups are necessary to ensure the outcome of implemented countermeasures." (N)

Adrian Bader, Christina Hürzeler, Externe Kosten 2005-2009. Berechnung der externen Kosten des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs in der Schweiz. Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung (ARE), 12.2012, 22 p. [formato PDF, 596 kB]. "Insgesamt verursacht der Strassen- und Schienenverkehr im Jahr 2009 externe Kosten von 9 Mrd. CHF. Rund 94% davon werden durch den Strassenverkehr verursacht, 6% entfallen auf den Schienenverkehr." (N)

Fußverkehr in Zahlen. Daten, Fakten und Besonderheiten, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Walk-space.at, Wien, September 2012, 129 p. [formato PDF, 11,5 MB]. "Im Zuge der vorliegenden Studie wird die Bedeutung des Fußverkehrs als Teil des integrierten Gesamtverkehrssystems dargestellt und ein Überblick über den Fußverkehr anhand von Zahlen, Daten und Fakten aus den unterschiedlichsten Themenbereichen gegeben. Gerade der Fußverkehr ist traditionell auf nationaler wie auf internationaler Ebene wenig umfassend und genau erfasst. Die Verkehrspolitik und daraus abgeleiteten Ziele und Maßnahmen sind jedoch auf ein ausreichendes Mindestmaß an zuverlässiger statistischer Information angewiesen. Die Zusammenstellung von Zahlen, Daten und Fakten zum Fußverkehr soll sowohl eine Grundlage für EntscheidungsträgerInnen als auch einen Überblick für die interessierte Öffentlichkeit schaffen. Insbesondere sollen die hier aufbereiteten Daten zur Verbesserung des Verständnisses für den Fußverkehr mit allen seinen Facetten beitragen. Die Studie behandelt folgende Themenpunkte: Mobilitätsverhalten und Besonderheiten zu Fuß; Geh-Infrastruktur; Zu Fuß - aber sicher; Bewegung, Gesundheit und Ökologie; Wirtschaftliche Aspekte zum Fußverkehr; Raumstrukturen und zu Fuß gehen; Mobilitätseinschränkungen und Gehhilfen; Quellenverzeichnis und Links." Ampia ed analitica raccolta di dati statistici sulla mobilità pedonale in Austria e all'estero. Comprende dati sulla sicurezza, gli aspetti economici e sanitari, le relazioni con la struttura urbana. (N)

Benoît Chèze, Julien Chevallier, Pascal Gastineau, Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?. (EconomiX Working Papers, 2012-35). Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Nanterre, August 2012, 27 p. [formato PDF, 702 kB]. "This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. "scenario of type I") recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2°C." (N)

The True Costs of Automobility: External Costs of Cars Overview on existing estimates in EU-27. Final Report. Technische Universität Dresden, October 2012, 52 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. Study commissioned by the Greens/European Free Alliance (EFA) in the European Parliament. "This report analyses the external costs of car use within the EU-27 by evaluating the existing literature in the field and developing a database from these figures. No own field research has been carried out for the preparation of this report; all input data has been published and discussed previously. Based on the assumptions described in this study, the cars used within the EU-27 externalize about 373 billion € per year (high estimate) on to other people, other regions and other generations (low estimate: 258 billion €). This is a considerable sum, and it leads to a level of car use that is inefficient from the perspective of society. The findings of this study clearly show that the frequent claim "that cars cover all their internal and external costs" cannot be sustained. Although no detailed estimation of charges and earmarked taxes of cars attributable to external costs has been made in this study, it is obvious that a sum in the range of 300 to 400 billion € of earmarked funds against these costs cannot be reached. On the contrary; it must be stated that car traffic in the EU is highly subsidized by other people and other regions and will be by future generations: residents along an arterial road; taxpayers; elderly people who do not own cars; neighbouring countries; and children, grandchildren and all future generations subsidize today´s traffic." (N)

Haakon Lindstad, Emission and Cost reductions in shipping through Economy of scale and Speed Differentiation. International Maritime Statistics Forum, Oslo, May 2012, presentation, 19 slides [formato PDF, 606 kB]. (N)

Legambiente, Rapporto Pendolaria 2012. La situazione e gli scenari del trasporto ferroviario pendolare in Italia. Roma, dicembre 2012, 76 p. [formato PDF, 4,09 MB]. "Sono 2 milioni 903 mila le persone che, nel nostro paese, ogni mattina prendono il treno per andare a lavorare o a studiare. Ogni sera lo riprendono per tornare a casa. In 90.000 sulla Roma San Paolo-Ostia, in 75.000 sulla Roma Nord-Viterbo, 60.000 sulla Napoli-Torregaveta, 58.000 sulla Milano-Saronno-Lodi, 45.000 sulla Milano-Como-Chiasso, 30.000 sulla Padova-Venezia Mestre, per fare qualche esempio di linee frequentate da più passeggeri dell’Alta Velocità Roma-Milano. Passeggeri inesistenti, però, nel dibattito pubblico, come mette in evidenza Legambiente nel suo rapporto Pendolaria 2012. Cittadini di serie B per la politica nazionale dei trasporti, che da oltre dieci anni premia la strada a danno della ferrovia come ben dimostra la suddivisione dei finanziamenti della Legge Obiettivo 2002-2012: 71% delle risorse per strade e autostrade, 15% per le ferrovie e 14% per le reti metropolitane. Anche quest’anno, alla crescita costante del numero di pendolari in Italia governo e amministrazioni regionali hanno risposto con tagli ai servizi, aumenti del costo dei biglietti in tutte le regioni e incertezze sugli investimenti, con effetti rilevanti sulla qualità del servizio."

FEFS (Foro de Empresas Ferroviarias por la Sostenibilidad), Estudio "La Aportación del Ferrocarril - tren, metro, tranvía - a la Sostenibilidad en España: Ahorro de Costes Externos en 2010". Noviembre de 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 306 kB]. "El presente estudio de estimación para el año 2010 de los ahorros monetarios generados por los servicios ferroviarios en toda España en concepto de costes externos, parte de la hipótesis de la no prestación de los servicios que realiza el ferrocarril en toda España y de la sustitución de estos viajes por otros modos competidores. Para realizar esta estimación de ahorros de externalidades se ha utilizado el nuevo Estudio “External Costs of Transport in Europe” publicado en 2011 por las consultoras CEDelft, Infras y Fraunhofer ISI por encargo de la Unión Internacional de Ferrocarriles (UIC), actualizando a 2008 las cifras relativas a los costes externos del transporte en Europa. Este nuevo estudio recoge nuevas componentes y adapta la metodología a los criterios del estudio “Internalisation Measures and Policies for All External Costs of Transport -IMPACT- (Medidas y Políticas de Internalización de todos los costes externos del transporte) encargado por la Dirección General de Transporte y Movilidad de la Comisión Europea y publicado en 2008. El principal objetivo de este estudio de actualización es cuantificar los costes externos generados por el transporte para poder dar una información completa de las externalidades en el sector del transporte, utilizando el conocimiento científico más actualizado y proporcionando un manual que permita el desarrollo de políticas de transporte encaminadas a corregir los fallos actuales en el mercado de transportes europeo, especialmente mediante la internalización de costes externos en cada uno de los modos."

Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided. A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC, November 2012, 106 p. [formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "This report provides a snapshot of recent scientific literature and new analyses of likely impacts and risks that would be associated with a 4° Celsius warming within this century. It is a rigorous attempt to outline a range of risks, focusing on developing countries and especially the poor. A 4°C world would be one of unprecedented heat waves, severe drought, and major floods in many regions, with serious impacts on ecosystems and associated services. But with action, a 4°C world can be avoided and we can likely hold warming below 2°C."(N)

The Emissions Gap Report 2012. A UNEP Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, November 2012, 62 p. [formato PDF, 7,17 MB]. "The 2012 report provides the following information: an update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; an overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments; an estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; an update of the assessment of the "emissions gap" for 2020; a review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies already leading to substantial emission reductions and how they can be scaled up and replicated in other countries, with the view to bridging the emissions gap."

European Environmental Agency, The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (EEA Report n.10/2012), EEA, Copenhagen, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 8,94 MB]. "TERM 2012 presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission’s review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution."

Transportation Research Board, Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. A Synthesis of Transit Practice. (TCRP Synthesis 101). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2012, 105 p. [formato PDF, 2,28 MB]. "Fare-free public transit is currently provided in more than three dozen communities in the United States. Not included in this number are fare-free zones in downtown districts, exclusive university campus transit services, or other limited subsystem modes that might be offered on a fare-free basis such as automated guideways or other local circulators. This report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or sub-recipients of federal transit grants and provide fare-free service to everyone in their service area on every mode they provide. Identifying the public transit agencies providing fare-free service required Internet searches, communications through listservs, and other forms of personal contact through committees of APTA and TRB. This synthesis provides the first comprehensive listing of public transit agencies that provide fare-free service in the United States. Thirty-two of the 39 agencies that were identified responded to the survey that was sent to them either electronically or by means of an interview with the Principal Investigator, representing a response rate of 82%. This report focused on policy and administrative issues although survey responses and reports from the literature search provide statistics on changes in ridership increases associated with fare-free service."

European Environment Agency, Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012. An indicator-based report. EEA Report n.12/2012, Copenhagen, 2012, 304 p. [formato PDF, 32,00 MB]. "This European Environment Agency (EEA) report presents information on past and projected climate change and related impacts in Europe, based on a range of indicators. The report also assesses the vulnerability of society, human health and ecosystems in Europe and identifies those regions in Europe most at risk from climate change. Furthermore, the report discusses the principle sources of uncertainty for the indicators and notes how monitoring and scenario development can improve our understanding of climate change, its impacts and related vulnerabilities."

Francesco Ciari (IVT – ETH Zurich), Why do people carpool? Results from a Swiss survey. Conference paper Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012), Monte Verità (CH), May 2 - 4, 2012, 25 p. [formato PDF, 190 kB]. "A recent study aimed to estimate the potential of carpooling in Switzerland. Part of this study was a survey in which the attitude of the public towards this transport option was investigated using both multi-response questions and a stated preference (SP) experiment. This paper reports on the results of the multi-response questionnaire. The main contribution of this paper is to give an insight on the reasons that motivate Swiss people to consider car-pooling as a possible alternative to driving alone with their own private car. Additionally, a subset of the questionnaire was the basis for factor analysis and cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found which are supposed to represent the main orientations toward carpooling among the population. This analysis is valuable to figure out possible strategies in order to introduce carpooling at a larger scale in Switzerland. The results of the questionnaire show that some parts of the population would be ready to embrace this mode of transport, in some cases even enthusiastically. This is true in particular for well educated, relatively affluent people. However, the responses suggest also that in order to exploit this potential, a system able to address some of the typical issues related to carpooling should be set-up. Safety is important but not the most important issue for potential participants. Practical aspects, like the guarantee of being able to go back home as a passenger if pools are arranged on a one-way basis, are those which worry respondents the most and, therefore, the most critical for carpooling success."

Il Piano Nazionale della Logistica 2012-2020. Bozza finale. "Dopo il confronto con gli operatori, i territori e le audizioni parlamentari". Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Consulta generale per l'autotrasporto e per la logistica, Roma, 26 luglio 2012, 244 p. [formato PDF, 380 KB] "Il Piano della Logistica è stato definito attraverso 10 linee strategiche di intervento caratterizzate da 51 azioni che interessano i diversi settori dei trasporti e della logistica nonché le norme, le regole e le valutazioni degli effetti degli interventi che saranno realizzati. In questa logica, il Piano è stato aggiornato dando contenuti delle politiche di settore nella logica di sistemi ed individuando quelle azioni prioritarie che con risorse finanziarie minime consentano di avviare e attuare processi virtuosi."

Philippe Crist (International Transport Forum), Electric Vehicles Revisited – Costs, Subsidies and Prospects. (Discussion Paper No 2012-03). International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2012, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,11 MB] "This paper compares the lifetime costs of like internal combustion and battery electric vehicle pairs on the market in France and finds that relative costs of electric vehicles remain elevated for consumers and even more so for society under current conditions and typical use scenarios. It also suggests that in those cases where electric vehicles do already compare favourably to internal combustion engine powered cars, subsidies may be superfluous. In the future, a number of simultaneous changes in battery electric vehicles (BEV) and ICE technology, fiscal regimes and prevailing energy prices might reduce and even eradicate the consumer cost differential in favour of ICEs. Reducing the social cost differential between BEVs and ICEs seems more challenging under most scenarios and, when successful, raises the question of how much should society seek to subsidise BEVs in instances where there begins to be a business case for them. Electric cars are often presented as zero-emission vehicles and are central to many long-term decarbonisation scenarios for the transport sector but battery electric vehicles face considerable cost and environmental hurdles before they can realise their potential. This study looks at a set of comparable battery electric and internal combustion engine cars for which commercial pricing data is available, in order to assess cost differences from first-order consumer and societal perspectives. We find that the cost of these BEVs (excluding the battery) is still higher than equivalent internal combustion vehicles, though it is conceivable that this gap may narrow as production volumes increase. Batteries still present a challenge as the costs for batteries providing a “useable” range (approximately 150 kms per charge) are still high. These costs may decline in years to come as the scale of production increases but ICEs will still provide superior range at lower costs under many scenarios. This study does not account for indirect impacts of BEC uptake (e.g. reduced oil dependence, resulting productivity benefits and employment effects). These may be important but may also result from improved ICE efficiency at a lower cost. It is also important to note that electric cars are “displaced emission” rather than zero emission vehicles since electricity production may generate both CO2 and conventional pollution. In almost all cases, BECs will generate fewer lifecycle CO2 emissions than comparable ICE counterparts. Exactly how much less depends on the carbon intensity of marginal electricity production used to charge electric vehicles, the full lifecycle emissions (including production) of comparable electric and fossil-fuel powered vehicles (and their fuels) and the relative energy efficiencies of those vehicles. In most scenarios studied here, the marginal CO2 abatement costs of replacing fossil fuel powered cars with electric vehicles remain elevated – the exception being for high vehicle travel scenarios."

Johannes Wirges, Susanne Linder and Alois Kessler, Modelling the Development of a Regional Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Time and Space. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research EJTIR 12(4), 2012, pp. 391-416 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,81 MB]. "This article presents a dynamic spatial model of the development of a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in the German metropolitan region of Stuttgart. The model consists of several sub-models whose functioning and interactions are explained in detail. The first sub-model simulates the time-spatial development of electric vehicle ownership. The output of this module is used by the second component that determines the resulting demand for charging stations. To quantify this demand, the necessary utilisation of charging stations to allow for the profitability of the infrastructure is calculated. A final processing step simulates the mobility of EVs throughout the Region Stuttgart, and thus allows allocating the need for charging stations in space. We used our model to generate several scenarios of the development of a charging infrastructure in the Region Stuttgart until 2020. The main finding of this work is that the number of public charging stations needed for the region in the long run is quite low. If too many charging stations are installed the infrastructure will be under-utilized and thus cannot be operated economically. The simulation runs show that the installation of public charging infrastructure should be focused on the few biggest urban centres of the region. The scenarios also show that publicly accessible charging stations form only a minor part of the overall number of charging stations. Additionally, it can be seen that the exponential growth of electric vehicle ownership, with very few vehicles at the beginning, but large gains after a few years, requires high flexibility from stakeholders involved in the implementation of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles."

Fondazione Filippo Caracciolo, Il Trasporto Pubblico Locale in Italia: stato, prospettive e confronti internazionali. Roma, 2012, 96 p. [formato PDF, 5,20 MB]. "Questo studio si pone l'obiettivo di analizzare lo stato del trasporto pubblico locale in Italia a tutto campo (domanda, offerta, investimenti in atto e programmati, risorse, regole, confronti internazionali) in modo da poterne individuare le criticità e proporre, coerentemente, delle possibili soluzioni."

Elen Twrdy, Igor Trupac, Jurij Kolenc (Univ. of Ljubljana), Container Boom in the Port of Koper. Promet – Traffic&Transportation, Vol. 24, 2012, No. 2, 169-175 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,63 MB] "For the Port of Koper the Central and Eastern European market is very important. The Port of Koper is especially interesting for goods flows relating to the exchange of goods on the East – West route (and vice versa) and bound for the EU, in particular to the catchment area of the North Adriatic ports. The year 2009 was a difficult year for business, especially due to the uncertain international economic situation. In the first nine months of 2010, 16% more goods were handled in the Port of Koper than in the same period in 2009. The container transport especially exploded in tons (45% increase) as well as in container units (40% increase). Within this period they handled 355,000 TEUs (new record) in the container terminal (214,000 TEUs in the same period on the seventh pier in Trieste). The growth of container transport in the Port of Koper as well as the beginning of construction on the new container terminal have made the reconstruction and extension of the current container terminal an absolute priority. The extension is in line with the estimated growth of traffic as well as with the exploitation of present and future terminal capacities. This paper aims to present and analyse: (I) supply chains of the flow of containerised goods through the Port of Koper to/from the countries of Central and Eastern Europe; (II) the changes which enable this boom, current state and strategies to handle even more containers in the future; (iii) market potential, current and future investments in new capacities."

The European Cycle Route Network EuroVelo. Study. European Parliament, 2012, 196 p. [formato PDF, 4,92 MB]. Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism, update of the 2009 study. "This update of the 2009 study evaluates the challenges and opportunities of developing a cycle tourism network across Europe. It focuses on EuroVelo, a network of 14 long distance routes managed by the European Cyclists’ Federation which is being developed in different countries by a wide range of partners. The study reviews the market for cycle tourism and presents a model of demand for EuroVelo. It also evaluates the recent developments on the Iron Curtain Trail."

Lena Levin, Pål Ulleberg, Anu Siren, Randi Hjorthol, Measures to enhance mobility among older people in Scandinavia. A literature review of best practice. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, (VTI rapport 749a), Linköping, 2012, 84 p. [formato PDF, 1,17 MB]. "The present report is part of a larger project about mobility and its impact on older people’s well-being and welfare: Mobile age: The impact of everyday mobility for elderly people’s welfare and well-being. The heterogenity of older people is emphasised, not only with respect to physical age but also with respect to the specific resource situation and social context of everyday life. The geographical context of the project is Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The report is a literature review examining and evaluating measures designed to improve the independency of mobility among older people. While a few good examples of “best practice” in the Scandinavian area (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) have been highlighted, gaps and weaknesses remain. The areas which are examined in the present report are private car, public transport, cycling, walking and to some extent other transport modes defined by motorized wheelchairs, scooters, four-wheeled mopeds/motorcycles, etc. Measures to increase travel with public transport are on the agenda in all three countries, i.e. accessible vehicles and increased accessibility to the interchanges. Also, often small amendments through the travel route could make difference, such as pavements without stairs and benches on the way to the bus stop. Furthermore, strategies and measures for improving public transport concern not only issues such as accessible vehicles, wind shelters and plain pavements at bus stops, but also frequency and routes in relation to the mobility needs of a new generation of older people. However, lack of information and knowledge about public transport services is often rife among older people, which results in them travelling less than they might have done or shying away completely from using public transport. Information campaigns could be synchronised consciously to meet older people’s travel trajectories. New ways of providing information using the latest technology could be found to meet the needs of older people. Actually, sometimes the problem is not lack of information but too much of it or the wrong kind."

Anci, Fiab, Legambiente, #salvaiciclisti, Comune di Reggio Emilia, Libro Rosso della Ciclabilità e della Mobilità nuova. Le soluzioni elaborate dagli Stati Generali della Bicicletta, 5-6 ottobre 2012 - Reggio Emilia. 2012, 25 p. [formato PDF, 291 kB]. "Il lavoro degli Stati Generali ha prodotto il presente documento, un Libro di Impegni per le Amministrazioni di ogni livello, che sintetizza le proposte principali in materia di mobilità nuova. Tra queste vi sono appunto la riduzione al limite dei 30 chilometri orari della velocità urbana, il rafforzamento degli investimenti sul trasporto pubblico e sulle infrastrutture minori e gli spazi a servizio di ciclisti e pedoni, il dimezzamento della mortalità causata da incidenti in ambito urbano, la creazione di una rete di slow cities impegnate a promuovere una nuova filosofia di mobilità nelle città e a continuare il confronto e lo scambio di idee e best practice, l’introduzione di corsi di mobilità ciclistica nelle scuole, il ridisegno delle città mettendo al centro della pianificazione pedoni e ciclisti. La sottoscrizione del Libro verrà considerata un impegno per le Amministrazioni attuali e future di tradurre in azioni concrete l’esigenza di una mobilità nuova, oggi dilagante nella società e che non deve essere sottovalutata. L’obiettivo è quello di rafforzare la lobby a sostegno degli interessi della mobilità collettiva alternativa alla lobby della mobilità individuale motorizzata." Altro titolo: Libro bianco degli Stati Generali della Bicicletta 2012.

Marco Passigato (a cura di), La moderazione del traffico. (Quaderno del Centro Studi FIAB Riccardo Gallimbeni n.7). FIAB Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta, Milano, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 9,28 MB] "In occasione degli Stati Generali della bicicletta del 5 e 6 ottobre 2012, a Reggio Emilia, la FIAB mette a disposizione di un vasto pubblico il nuovo numero della Collana di Quaderni dedicata a Riccardo Gallimbeni. Il quaderno, curato dall’ing. Passigato, affronta il tema della moderazione del traffico (MdT) attraverso i contributi di numerosi tecnici tra i più preparati nel campo oggi presenti in Italia, ponendosi un duplice obiettivo: approfondire la normativa che disciplina tale materia e diffondere le migliori esperienze italiane sul tema. L’argomento trattato, infatti, benché ormai sviscerato da anni nei paesi europei più avanzati, risulta relativamente nuovo nel nostro paese e la stessa normativa di riferimento risulta parziale e in taluni casi, addirittura ostile. Questo non ha evitato, tuttavia che in Italia, gli interventi di moderazione si diffondessero in alcune aree territoriali grazie alo stimolo delle associazioni, alla professionalità di alcuni tecnici e alla sensibilità di alcuni amministratori. Le buone pratiche illustrate e descritte nel Quaderno dimostrano che un nuovo approccio con un occhio attento alla sicurezza di chi sceglie di muoversi a piedi e in bicicletta, ma manche alla qualità urbana delle nostre città, è possibile solo se pensiamo alla strada come allo spazio esterno della nostra abitazione. Da una parte una ridistribuzione dello spazio pubblico quando le dimensioni e il contesto lo consentono, dall’altro una condivisione dello stesso spazio con la massima garanzia di sicurezza per tutti gli attori della strada sono azioni che vanno nella direzione di una riduzione drastica dell’incidentalità che è il vero valore che dobbiamo difendere, considerato che è proprio in ambito urbano che si concentrano il maggior numero di sinistri dagli esiti molte volte drammatici. Il Piano Nazionale per la Sicurezza Stradale ha consentito da questo punto di vista di fare dei passi in avanti, ma proprio la distribuzione a macchia di leopardo degli interventi di moderazione ci segnala che molto, moltissimo resta da fare. La FIAB ha da tempo affrontato il tema nella sua complessità, sia organizzando viaggi di studio nei luoghi più significativi in Italia e all’estero, sia diffondendo pratiche e documenti nel proprio sito “Area Tecnica”. Questo Quaderno, per la stesura del quale vanno i ringraziamenti miei personali e di tutta la presidenza al curatore e a tutti gli autori, si aggiunge a questi strumenti nella speranza che la cultura della sicurezza stradale trovi terreno fertile e si affermi come primo elemento di contesto nella nuova pianificazione, e progettazione, delle nostre città." (Per scaricare il documento è necessaria la registrazione gratuita sul sito della FIAB).

Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Qualità dell’ambiente urbano - VIII Rapporto. Edizione 2012. (Stato dell’Ambiente 33/2012). Roma, ISPRA, settembre 2012, 546 p. [formato PDF, 8,15 MB]. Capitoli su: Emissioni e qualità dell'aria, Cambiamenti climatici, Trasporti e mobilità (Analisi del parco veicolare nelle aree urbane; La mobilità urbana sostenibile; Il trasporto marittimo nelle aree portuali italiane).

Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Qualità dell’ambiente urbano - VIII Rapporto. Edizione 2012. Focus su porti, aeroporti e interporti. (Stato dell’Ambiente 34/2012). Roma, ISPRA, settembre 2012, 186 p. [formato PDF, 6,13 MB]. "A partire dalla IV edizione, il Rapporto sulla qualità dell’ambiente urbano è stato arricchito da un approfondimento tematico che quest’anno è stato dedicato alle infrastrutture logistiche in cui si concentra la maggior parte della movimentazione di merci e passeggeri nel nostro paese: porti, aeroporti ed interporti. L’integrazione modale fra le diverse infrastrutture di trasporto (reti viarie, ferroviarie e marittime) si rende necessaria per costruire una rete logistica che garantisca efficienza e competitività. Ciò richiede la realizzazione di nuove opere, la disponibilità di risorse da investire in progetti di ammodernamento delle infrastrutture esistenti nonché di un impianto normativo più snello che risulti compatibile con la rapida evoluzione del sistema dei trasporti. D’altra parte, viene richiesta una sempre crescente attenzione alla tutela ambientale al fine di una crescita sostenibile che sappia coniugare lo sviluppo del sistema dei trasporti con la protezione dell’ambiente. In tal senso, nel Focus sono riportati diversi contributi in cui sono presentati studi, progetti e ricerche che evidenziano le forti interazioni fra le infrastrutture logistiche e l’ambiente. In particolare, il sistema portuale italiano rappresenta uno degli anelli più importanti della catena logistica nazionale considerando gli elevati volumi di merci e passeggeri che annualmente transitano nei porti italiani. I porti si trovano storicamente ad essere inglobati in aree urbane densamente popolate (Genova, Napoli, Palermo, ecc.) con cui condividono spazi ed infrastrutture. Tale vicinanza porta inevitabili criticità in quanto le normali attività portuali possono avere impatti sulle aree limitrofe in termini di emissioni inquinanti, qualità dell’aria, inquinamento acustico, rifiuti, qualità delle acque, ecc. Alcuni contributi del Focus riportano analisi di scenari per strategie di sviluppo sostenibile nelle città portuali mirate a valutare l’efficacia di interventi di mitigazione e contenimento delle sorgenti emissive di inquinanti gassosi (progetti MED APICE per i porti di Venezia e Genova e CESAPO per il porto di Brindisi) e di inquinamento acustico (progetto NOMEPORTS per il porto di Livorno). Analogamente, l’utilizzo di modelli fotochimici euleriani per la stima degli impatti delle emissioni portuali sulla concentrazione dei diversi inquinanti normati viene presentato per la città di Trieste. E’ interessante notare come un sempre crescente numero di progetti inerenti alla valutazione dello stato dell’ambiente in aree portuali venga finanziato dall’Unione Europea. La stessa ISPRA è partner di un progetto europeo (SUPORTS) che ha l’obiettivo di veicolare a porti di piccole dimensioni sia l’uso di strumenti di gestione ambientale che notizie sulle buone pratiche ambientali messe in campo in ambito portuale. Altre tematiche affrontate riguardano la caratterizzazione e gli interventi di bonifica nelle 26 aree marino-costiere che ricadono all’interno di Siti di Interesse Nazionale, la descrizione degli habitat e delle specie d’interesse comunitario presenti nelle aree protette e nei siti della rete Natura 2000 in prossimità delle aree portuali di Ravenna, Brindisi e Cagliari, aspetti tecnici legati alle attività di dragaggio ed alcune criticità legate al trasporto marittimo quali lo sversamento in mare di prodotti petroliferi e l’invasione biologica di specie alloctone marine. Considerando la procedura di infrazione contro il nostro paese per non aver rispettato le prescrizioni della direttiva europea 2000/5/CE sulla redazione dei piani di raccolta di rifiuti provenienti da navi, riveste particolare importanza sia la proposta di indicatori ambientali per la stima dei rifiuti prodotti in ambito portuale sia il documento di indirizzo sulla gestione dei rifiuti portuali in Campania (che standardizza le modalità di redazione dei piani di raccolta e di gestione dei rifiuti provenienti dalle navi e dei residui del carico) riportati nel contributo proposto da Arpa Campania. Lo studio del rapporto tra aeroporti e ambiente è di notevole complessità, tale complessità diventa più evidente se si considera la funzione strategica degli aeroporti. Essi sono nodi nella rete dei trasporti, strutture intermodali dove passeggeri e merci passano dal trasporto di superficie (stradale e/o ferroviario) a quello aereo e viceversa. I trasporti sono fondamentali per la crescita economica, ma devono essere sostenibili, sviluppandosi nel rispetto dei vincoli ambientali. Alla complessità delle analisi ambientali si somma la sovrapposizione dei riferimenti normativi della procedura autorizzativa ambientale per gli aeroporti. Nel caso degli aeroporti possiamo parlare (seguendo la classica suddivisione delle aree di operazioni) di impatto ambientale air side, considerando il rumore e le emissioni gassose derivanti dalle operazioni dei veicoli e dei mezzi di supporto, e di impatto land side quando analizziamo l’impatto collegato alle infrastrutture aeroportuali (urbanizzazione del territorio) e dal loro funzionamento (consumo energetico, generazione di rifiuti, traffico sulle via di accesso all’aeroporto, ecc.). Una delle principali sfide del settore dell’aviazione, al fine di perseguire l’obiettivo della crescita sostenibile, è la riduzione degli impatti sia a livello globale che locale. L’Ente Nazionale dell’Aviazione Civile (ENAC) per perseguire l’obiettivo della crescita sostenibile sia a livello locale che globale ha avviato una serie di iniziative trattate nel Focus, tra queste particolare rilevanza ha il Patto per l’Ambiente stipulato tra la Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, il Ministero dell’Ambiente e l’ENAC stesso. L’impatto ambientale a cui viene attribuita la maggiore importanza, in quanto immediatamente avvertibile dalle popolazioni che vivono in prossimità degli aeroporti è il rumore. Alcuni dei contributi presentati trattano questo tema. Nel Focus sono illustrate anche le attività di ISPRA che per la determinazione e la gestione del rumore ambientale, anche in ambito aeroportuale, supporta il MATTM nella gestione degli adempimenti previsti dal D. Lgs. 194/2005. Un aeroporto per sviluppare la sua funzione necessita di una notevole infrastrutturazione, quindi funziona non solo come attrattore di traffico ma ha anche la capacità di attrarre attività imprenditoriali, residenziali ed attività di tipo terziario. Questi aspetti sono esaminati considerando le esperienze lombarde. Una tematica di crescente interesse è il rischio di collisione degli aerei con i volatili; ampio spazio è stato riservato alle problematiche del bird strike ed alle principali misure tecniche e gestionali che gli aeroporti sono tenuti ad adottare per ridurre il rischio di impatti. Il Documento di economia e finanza 2012 ritiene prioritari gli interventi di collegamento dei nodi strategici, porti ed aeroporti, alla rete esistente in modo da esaltare lo sfruttamento dell’intermodalità, che si completa con gli interporti, elementi cardine del sistema intermodale esaminati considerando il sistema intermodale campano."

Eric Dumbaugh, Yi Zhang, Wenhao Li (Texas A&M University), Community Design and the Incidence of Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Motorists Aged 75 and Older. Final Report. (Report No. UTCM 11-03-67). University Transportation Center for Mobility, the Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, April 2012, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,65 MB]. "Contemporary community design practice has focused on strategies intended to make communities safe for families with children. Comparatively little attention has been given to its effects on older adults. This study employs a series of negative binomial regression models to understand how urban form may affect the incidence of total and killed-or-severely-injured (KSI) crashes involving older drivers and pedestrians. Intersections, strip commercial uses, big-box stores, and arterial thoroughfares pose crash hazards for older motorists, while big-box stores and arterials are problematic for older pedestrians. A network of lower-speed streets was found to be associated with reductions in crashes involving older motorists and pedestrians."

Paul Graham, David Gargett, Caroline Evans, David Cosgrove, A. Ritzinger, Greenhouse gas abatement potential of the Australian transport sector: Summary report from the Australian Low Carbon Transport Forum, CSIRO, Australia. CSIRO, Newcastle, September 2012, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,84 MB]. "The report focuses on the quantity of abatement achievable rather than the cost. However it draws some broad conclusions about likely cost, challenges and uncertainties. Almost fifty abatement options are included."

David Cosgrove, David Gargett, Caroline Evans, Paul Graham, A. Ritzinger, Greenhouse gas abatement potential of the Australian transport sector: Technical report from the Australian Low Carbon Transport Forum, CSIRO, Australia. CSIRO, Newcastle, September 2012, 102 p. [formato PDF, 1,85 MB]. "This current Technical Report is a companion document to the Summary Report, and aims to detail the methodology and results of the ALCTF process. That is, it describes how the estimated levels of abatement were calculated for each of the abatement options considered in the ALCTF workshops, and how the various abatement potentials were aggregated into an estimate for the maximum potential reduction."

Troubled waters: How to protect the Arctic from the growing impact of shipping. European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Brussels, September 2012, 24 p. [formato PDF, 754 kB] "This paper zooms in on three issues related to the potential impact of an increase in shipping in the Arctic region: increase of emissions of black carbon, the risks of carrying and burning heavy fuel oil, and the potential for regulated ship speeds. It also examines in detail protective measures that could be adopted as part of future regulations and it explores different ways that could be followed to ensure a sufficient level of protection to the vulnerable Arctic environment."

Centro regionale di monitoraggio della sicurezza stradale, Relazione sullo stato dell’incidentalità stradale anno 2010. Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, 2012, 144 p. [formato PDF, 10,9 MB]. "La Relazione sullo stato dell’incidentalità stradale nel 2010 (L.R. 25/2004 art.5) per la prima volta si basa sui dati raccolti dal Centro Regionale Monitoraggio della Sicurezza Stradale (CRMSS) poiché, dall’approvazione della Legge regionale a oggi, il tempo intercorso ha permesso di portare a regime il flusso dei dati verso il CRMSS solo dal 2011. Dal 1° ottobre 2009 le Polizie Locali e i Carabinieri, infatti, inviano i dati degli incidenti con relativa geolocalizzazione al CRMSS e dal 2011 sono stati caricati nel sistema i dati relativi alla Polizia Stradale relativi all’ultimo quinquennio. I dati sono completi per tutto il 2009 e il 2010, mentre per quanto riguarda gli anni precedenti le banche dati sono "a macchia di leopardo". La Relazione esamina i dati degli incidenti del 2010 e quelli correlati della Sanità. Sono esclusi dalle analisi territoriali e sanitarie, il Comune di Trieste che invia il tracciato ISTAT al Servizio Statistica della Regione ma non mette a disposizione i dati al CRMSS per questa tipologia di analisi e il Comune di Monfalcone che per quanto riguarda i dati 2010 ancora non è riuscito ad allinearsi al sistema. Il gruppo tecnico che gestisce il CRMSS è composto da funzionari regionali del Servizio Infrastrutture di trasporto e comunicazione della Direzione centrale Infrastrutture, mobilità, pianificazione territoriale e lavori pubblici, del Servizio Epidemiologico della Direzione centrale Salute, integrazione socio – sanitaria e politiche sociali e del Servizio Statistica e affari generali della Direzione centrale Finanze, patrimonio e programmazione, a sottolineare la caratteristica interdisciplinare del Centro e della materia, nonché quella interistituzionale."

Jean-Marie Geveaux, Thierry Lepaon, L'ouverture à la concurrence des services ferroviaires régionaux de voyageurs. Conseil économique, social et environnemental (CESE), Paris, Juillet 2012, 138 p. [formato PDF, 3,92 MB]. "Le Transport Express Régional de voyageurs (TER) a connu grâce à la régionalisation un essor remarquable. Mais son coût tend à s’accroître et son développement paraît sous contrainte, alors que l’Union européenne a engagé une libéralisation progressive des transports ferroviaires. Dans ce contexte, le Premier ministre a demandé l’avis du CESE sur l’ouverture à la concurrence des transports régionaux de voyageurs, en particulier quant au périmètre géographique, à la propriété du matériel roulant, aux relations contractuelles entre région et exploitant, ainsi qu’à sa dimension sociale.Pour le CESE, la décision d’ouvrir, même à titre expérimental, les TER à la concurrence est politique et relève du gouvernement. Dans cet esprit, l’avis esquisse un chemin de réforme qui permette, via une expérimentation maîtrisée, d’avancer prudemment sur ce dossier sensible, en associant l’ensemble des parties prenantes. L’enjeu est en effet de maintenir, voire d’amplifier le succès de la régionalisation des TER, afin de favoriser la compétitivité et l’accessibilité des territoires, la mobilité des personnes, la préservation de l’environnement et le développement de la filière ferroviaire."

Ugo Arrigo e Vittorio Ferri, La separazione delle reti ferroviarie. Insegnamenti per l’Italia dalle riforme di Svezia e Gran Bretagna. (IBL Special Report). Istituto Bruno Leoni, Torino, maggio 2012, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,27 MB]. "I paesi che hanno liberalizzato i trasporti ferroviari e separato proprietariamente l’infrastruttura dall’erogazione del servizio hanno visto crescere l’efficienza del servizio e aumentare i passeggeri. L’Italia è l’unico paese, assieme a Portogallo e Grecia, ad aver osservato una contrazione del traffico passeggeri tra il 1994 e il 2011."

Gunnar Alexandersson, Staffan Hultén, Jan-Eric Nilsson, Roger Pyddoke, The liberalization of railway passenger transport in Sweden – Outstanding regulatory challenges. (CTS Working Paper 2012:5). Centrum för Transportstudier (CTS), Stockholm, 2012, 24 p. [formato PDF, 174 kB]. "The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to addresses four critical issues for the success of the reforms; the allocation of infrastructure capacity, the provision of maintenance and terminal facilities, the access to rolling stock and the provision of information and ticketing to travelers. The analysis shows that the legislation and regulatory tools that are needed to handle these challenges to a large extent remain to be developed."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". Secondo volume. (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 17). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2012, 147 p. [file PDF, 928 kB]. "L’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica di Isfort dopo la prima esperienza condotta lo scorso anno in cinque porti nazionali (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste), ha proseguito l’indagine di campo circa l’organizzazione del lavoro nei porti italiani a seguito della legge di riforma del settore (l. 84/94), il cui aggiornamento è in corso di discussione nelle sedi parlamentari, e l’applicazione del Contratto Collettivo Nazionale dei Lavoratori portuali, estendendola ad altre cinque realtà portuali (La Spezia, Livorno, Palermo, Bari e Venezia)."

Maria Börjesson, Jonas Eliasson, Muriel Hugosson, Karin Brundell-Freij, The Stockholm congestion charges – five years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt. (CTS Working Paper 2012:3). Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,59 MB] "Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general." Published in Transport Policy, 2012, vol 20, p. 1-12.

Perspectives du système ferroviaire de transport de voyageurs. Faut-il mettre fin au développement de la grande vitesse à la française ?. (Les Carnets de TDIE). TDIE (transport développement intermodalité environnement), Paris, 2012, 10 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. "Entre les gains de vitesse, l’amélioration des capacités et les facilités de correspondance aux noeuds du réseau, il existe une gamme de réponses possibles en fonction des spécificités de chaque territoire, comme le démontre la diversité des solutions mises en oeuvre chez nos voisins européens. Pour spectaculaire qu’il soit, ce changement d’approche s’inscrit dans une évolution encore plus large et plus profonde : la proposition de mettre en chantier une planification intégrée et cohérente du système de transport."

Thomas Götschi, Sonja Kahlmeier, Ökonomische Abschätzung der volkswirtschaftlichen Gesundheitsnutzen des Langsamverkehrs in der Schweiz. Anwendung der „Health Economic Assessment Tools“ (HEAT) for Walking and Cycling der Weltgesundheitsorganisation auf die Schweiz. Universität Zürich, Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, 14. Mai 2012, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,57 MB]. "What is already known : Regular physical activity has numerous positive effects for health and wellbeing. In Switzerland, only 41% of the population fulfill the national recommendations on physical activity and health. Active transport (i.e. all non-motorized forms of transport) contributes substantially to total physical activity. Swiss adults who are cycling or walking on a regular basis for commuting, work, shopping or in leisure time are overall more physically active and less overweight and obese than those who don¡¦t walk or cycle. Walking and cycling are more and more recognized as an important pillar of the urban transport system. New findings presented in this report : So far, health aspects have often played a minor role in decision making processes on active transport. Using the "Health Economic Assessment Tools (HEAT)" for cycling and for walking, developed by WHO, the economic benefits of health effects from regular cycling and walking in Switzerland were quantified for the first time. Current economic benefits: Due to more frequent use of active transport, per-capita economic benefits from the positive health effects of active transport are highest in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, at about CHF 2.800 for walking and about CHF 550 for cycling. Benefits were calculated based on reduced mortality due to regular physical activity from walking or cycling, using the willingness-to-pay approach. In the Italian-speaking part of the country, benefits are about 15% lower for walking and about one third of the benefits of cycling found in the German-speaking part; the benefits found in the French-speaking part lie in between. Based on the annual per-capita benefit from walking, relatively small differences were found between the cities of Basel, Bern, Geneva, Lausanne, Winterthur and Zurich (about CHF 3.000). For cycling, a different pattern was found with the presumably more cycling-friendly cities of Basel and Winterthur yielding twice the per-capita benefit (about CHF 800) of the cities of Geneva and Zurich, and an almost eight times higher benefit than Lausanne, where cycling is less attractive for topographical reasons. Scenario analyses: A doubling of time spent cycling in Switzerland would result in an economic benefit of about CHF 2 billion per year. This would be equivalent to raising the national modal split of cycling (5.3%) to the level of the most cycling-friendly cities of Winterthur (10%) or Basel (11%). Increasing cycling on a national level by 10% would result in additional economic health benefits of CHF 1.5 billion per year, compared to the situation in 2005. This is within the same order of magnitude as the approximately CHF 2 billion in external health costs from air pollution or the estimated CHF 1.3 billion in transport-related costs of climate change. If the potential to shift short motorized trips to active transport to reduce CO2 emissions (as calculated elsewhere) would be realized, an additional CHF 2 to 5 billion of economic benefits from health could be achieved in comparison to the reference scenario. Achieving the target of the recently adopted popular initiative to reduce motorized transport in the city of Zurich by ten percentage points within 10 years would lead to estimated annual economic benefits of CHF 40 million from the positive health effects of cycling and walking. What conclusions can be drawn : In Switzerland, active transport is a considerable source of physical activity and thereby already contributes significantly to the health and wellbeing of the population. Synergies with climate change, air pollution and noise protection policies are obvious. Economically quantifying the health benefits of active transport for the first time is contributing to a systematic and quantitative assessment of benefits in this area. This study showed that the expected economic effects from increasing active transport are substantial. International examples show that considerable increases in active transport over time are feasible, if appropriate investments are made and maintained. In view of the substantial health benefits, significant investments into increasing active transport, for example in relation to the agglomeration programs, appear justified."

Jasper Faber, Dagmar Nelissen, Galen Hon, Haifeng Wang, Mikis Tsimplis, Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits. Delft, CE Delft, February 2012, 117 p. [formato PDF, 1,90 MB] "This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate change in developing countries. The report has been written by a team of experts from CE Delft, the University of Southampton and the ICCT. It was commissioned by Transport and Environment and Seas at Risk."

Ginés De Rus (University of Las Palmas de G.C., University Carlos III de Madrid), Economic evaluation of the High Speed Rail. Revised (May, 2012), 93 p. [formato PDF, 1,10 MB]. This report is undertaken for The Expert Group on Environmental Studies (Ministry of Finance, Sweden). "Investment in high speed rail (HSR) infrastructure produces social benefits and costs. The potential benefits are basically time savings, higher reliability, comfort, safety and the release of capacity in the conventional rail network, roads and airport infrastructure. The costs are high, and sunk in a significant proportion; therefore, the social profitability of the project requires that HSR users’ and other beneficiaries’ willingness to pay is high enough to compensate the sunk and variable costs of maintaining and operating the line plus any other external cost during construction and project life. In Sweden there are now plans to build a high speed rail between the country´s two largest cities, Stockholm and Gothenburg. The distance between the cities is around 500 km. This is a standard medium-length line where the HSR develops its full potential. In this paper we conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the HSR lines for Madrid-Barcelona, Madrid-Seville and Stockholm-Gothenburg. The first one has been running for a couple of years and the second one since 1992, so we can evaluate their performance and increase our understanding of the potential social profitability of similar lines, like the Stockholm-Gothenburg where the investment decision has not been taken so far."

Railway Handbook 2012. Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. International Energy Agency, International Union of Railways, Paris, 2012, 116 p. [formato PDF, 32,1 MB]. "In this book you will find the result of the harmonization of the UIC energy/CO2 railway database with the IEA world energy balances (IEA, 2011a) and CO2 from fuel combustion (IEA, 2011b) databases. The publication is composed of a European part, followed by a selection from Non-European countries where partial data were available".

Uwe Clausen, Claus Doll, Francis James Franklin, Gordana Vasic Franklin, Hilmar Heinrichmeyer, Joachim Kochsiek, Werner Rothengatter and Niklas Sieber, Reducing Railway Noise Pollution. Study. European Parliament, 2012, 130 p. [formato PDF, 5,22 MB]. "12 million EU inhabitants are affected by railway noise during the day and 9 million during the night. This study lists measures, funding and regulations to reduce it. The introduction of modern rolling stock will lower noise most significantly. In the short run, the replacement of cast iron by composite brake blocks on rail freight cars is most important. Developing a regulation scheme for a staged process towards low-noise rolling stock is the heart of a rail noise abatement strategy."

La prise en compte des déplacements à vélo dans la mise en place de tramways. Les préconisations de la FUB. FUB (Fédération française des Usagers de la Bicyclette), Strasbourg, juin 2012, 28 p. [formato PDF, 5,47 MB]. "Une enquête a été menée auprès des associations membres de la FUB présentes dans 21 villes disposant d’un tramway et 5 villes ayant un projet viable et abouti de mise en place d’un tramway. Principal résultat : les collectivités territoriales et les Autorités Organisatrices de Transport Urbain peuvent largement mieux faire. La FUB en tire les enseignements et propose à cette occasion un certain nombre de préconisations au niveau de la gouvernance, de la réglementation, de la planification et de l’expertise de terrain pour une meilleure sécurité et un plus grand confort des cyclistes."

Manuela Samek Lodovici, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, Caterina Rosa, The role of women in the green economy: the issue of mobility. European Parliament, 2012, 83 p. [formato PDF, 1,07 MB]. "This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies."

Innovative öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme. Modellprojekte am Start [Sistemi di bike sharing pubblici innovativi]. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung, Berlin/Bonn, Februar 2012, 20 p. [formato PDF, 2,20 MB] "Im Rahmen des Modellversuchs „Innovative öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme“ erfolgten im Zeitraum 2009-2012 der Aufbau und die Begleitung verschiedener BikeSharing-Systeme in Deutschland. Eine aktuelle Studie des BMVBS untersuchte diese Systeme hinsichtlich ihres Erfolgs und ihrer Übertragbarkeit auf andere Orte. Ein Schwerpunkt der Studie liegt dabei in der kombinierten Mobilität. Durch die Kombination von Leihfahrrädern mit dem öffentlichen Verkehr wird die Verkehrssituation in den Städten entlastet, die Umwelt geschont und die Gesundheit gefördert. Dank der Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Projekte und Lösungsansätze, die im Rahmen der Studie dokumentiert wurden, sollen andere Städte, Gemeinden und Regionen von diesen Erfahrungen profitieren. Generell lässt sich festhalten, dass die Implementierung eines Veloverleihsystems technische und organisatorische Herausforderungen mit sich bringt, die eine gute Koordination aller Akteure sowie eine langfristige Planung erfordern. Weitere detaillierte Evaluationsergebnisse werden nach der Velosaison 2012 erwartet. Zusätzlich sei auf einen europaweiten Test von 40 BikeSharing- Systemen durch die europäischen Automobil- und Verkehrsclubs verwiesen."

Gli italiani e la bicicletta: dalla "riscoperta" alla crescita mancata, ISFORT, Roma, 17 maggio 2012, 5 p. [formato PDF, 299 kB]. "A distanza di circa cinque anni i dati dell’Osservatorio Audimob di Isfort consentono di verificare quello che nel 2007 si ipotizzava poter essere l’avvio del tempo della “riscoperta della bicicletta”. Ebbene, contrariamente alle aspettative, i dati evidenziano negli ultimi anni una significativa battuta di arresto nella diffusione del pedale come ordinario mezzo di trasporto degli italiani."

World Road Association (PIARC), Worldwide situation of road pricing and assessment of its impacts. PIARC, La Défense, 2012, 246 p. [formato PDF, 4,49 MB]. "The report of Technical Committee "Road System Economics and Social Development" presents the state of road pricing schemes, the corresponding developments and an assessment of their impacts. Pricing schemes implemented or under study in the following twenty-two countries: Austria, Canada, Czech Rep., Denmark, USA, Spain, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, UK, Singapore, Slovak Rep., Sweden, Switzerland, and those of the Economic and in the countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union, are presented in an appendix. For the different cases, the report presents the objectives, the pricing scheme, the results (success and difficulties) and the prospects. Road pricing is increasingly seen as a reaction to the dual challenge of reduced budgetary revenues and increased congestion. The range is expanded beyond the traditional taxes on fuels. Tolling remains widespread; vignette systems tend to decline with the emergence of pricing based on the distance traveled. If congestion charging in urban areas tends to grow, implementation of national systems of mobility pricing still faces many challenges including that of obtaining public support. The impact of different pricing methods on: characteristics of mobility, the environment, road safety, the economy, social equity and acceptability are examined from fifteen case studies presented in appendix. The examples covered range from urban congestion schemes to the impact of the internalisation of externalities accompanying the revision of the Eurovignette Directive, through the experiences of pricing related to the distance traveled. Infrastructure charging is not effective in reducing the total demand for transport on inter-urban roads and therefore has no environmental effect. The situation is different for urban pricing. The social acceptance is a key determinant for the success of the implementation of urban systems: neutrality in terms of revenue or their use to improve public transport may contribute to mitigating the social rejection." Full text available, free registration needed.

Nicole A.H. Janssen, Miriam E. Gerlofs-Nijland, Timo Lanki, Raimo O. Salonen, Flemming Cassee, Gerard Hoek, Paul Fischer, Bert Brunekreef and Michal Krzyzanowski, Health effects of black carbon. (ISBN 978 92 890 0265 3). WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2012, 96 p. [formato PDF, 2,10 MB]. "Black carbon is a good indicator of combustion-related air pollution, and was only recently recognized as a short-lived climate-forcer, which contributes to warming the Earth's atmosphere. This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon in ambient air. Epidemiological studies provide sufficient evidence of the association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality with exposure to black carbon. Toxicological studies suggest that black carbon may operate as a universal carrier of a wide variety of chemicals of varying toxicity to the human body. Although black carbon may not be a major, directly toxic component of fine particulate matter, reducing people’s exposure to particulate matter containing black carbon should reduce its effects on their health, as well as helping to mitigate climate change. This review is of particular interest to environmental health professionals concerned with assessing and reducing the health effects of air pollution, as well as to those who use scientific evidence in support of climate change mitigation policies."

Cercle des Transports, Transports et dette publique. Des membres du Cercle des Transports alertent sur la dérive des déficits publics résultant des transports. Paris, Avril 2012, 71 p. [formato PDF, 2,61 MB]. "Les membres du Cercle des Transports, réunissant des experts et des professionnels du secteur, ont publié fin avril un rapport sous la forme d'une " alerte sur la dérive des déficits publics résultant des transports ". Une commission de travail a été créée afin " d'analyser les différentes perspectives d'évolution du secteur au plan économique et budgétaire, et les éventuelles conséquences sur la dérive des déficits publics, à l'horizon 2030 ". Les auteurs explorent ainsi deux scénarios extrêmes, faisant apparaître que si rien est fait dans les vingt prochaines années, " 130 milliards d'euros supplémentaires alourdiraient le montant de la dette publique ", alors qu'un " scénario de désendettement conduirait à […] 110 milliards d'allégements budgétaires ". L'objectif de cette étude est clairement d'alerter les décideurs publics en cette période électorale. Les auteurs présentent un large éventail de choix politiques possibles pour limiter l'impact du secteur des transports sur l'endettement public de la France, tout en maintenant des services de qualité."

ISFORT, ASSTRA, "All'ombra della crisi". 9° Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Rapporto finale. [Presentato a] Desenzano del Garda, 24 maggio 2012. ISFORT, Roma, 2012, 170 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB]. "Tra i temi affrontati: il crollo della domanda di mobilità che consolida il recupero del trasporto pubblico; un tasso di motorizzazione in crescita turbato dall’aumento del prezzo della benzina che rafforza il trasporto su rotaia e l’intermodalità."

Carlo Carminucci (ISFORT), "All'ombra della crisi". Nono Rapporto sulla mobilità urbana in Italia. Presentazione a Desenzano del Garda, 24 maggio 2012, ISFORT e ASSTRA, 38 slides [formato PDF, 1,05 MB].

Steve H.L. Yim and Steven R.H. Barrett (MIT), Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (8), pp 4291–4296 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 2,54 MB]. "Combustion emissions are a major contributor to degradation of air quality and pose a risk to human health. We evaluate and apply a multiscale air quality modeling system to assess the impact of combustion emissions on UK air quality. Epidemiological evidence is used to quantitatively relate PM(2.5) exposure to risk of early death. We find that UK combustion emissions cause ∼13,000 premature deaths in the UK per year, while an additional ∼6000 deaths in the UK are caused by non-UK European Union (EU) combustion emissions. The leading domestic contributor is transport, which causes ∼7500 early deaths per year, while power generation and industrial emissions result in ∼2500 and ∼830 early deaths per year, respectively. We estimate the uncertainty in premature mortality calculations at -80% to +50%, where results have been corrected by a low modeling bias of 28%. The total monetized life loss in the UK is estimated at £6-62bn/year or 0.4-3.5% of gross domestic product. In Greater London, where PM concentrations are highest and are currently in exceedance of EU standards, we estimate that non-UK EU emissions account for 30% of the ∼3200 air quality-related deaths per year. In the context of the European Commission having launched infringement proceedings against the UK Government over exceedances of EU PM air quality standards in London, these results indicate that further policy measures should be coordinated at an EU-level because of the strength of the transboundary component of PM pollution." [no free full text access]

John Moore, Jacob Rodriguez, Masayo Tokuhiro and Christopher Wang, Where Should the Public Sector Invest in Alternative Modes of Transport? A Comparative Study of Car Clubs and Electric Vehicles in London, The London School of Economics & Political Science in conjunction with Arup, March 2012, 70 p. [formato PDF, 0,98 MB]. "The objective of this report is to conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis to identify which of two alternatives – car clubs or electric vehicles (EVs) – might provide the greatest overall return through 2021, and therefore merits priority within London‘s strategic considerations. We ultimately conclude from our analysis that: 1. From the perspective of the public sector, car clubs provide a total social benefit that is four-times as great as that of EVs; 2. Much of this discrepancy in total social benefit stems from the reduction of CO2 and improved air quality, which car clubs contribute to significantly more than EVs; 3. From the perspective of the individual consumer, car clubs appeal to consumers across a wider spectrum of income levels than do EVs; 4. EVs still represent a highly positive social investment and significant opportunities to integrate EVs with car clubs. From these findings, we recommend that London‘s policymakers focus primarily on promoting car clubs over EVs in the short term. Specifically, they should: 1) increase their allocation of car club-designated parking spaces; 2) consider larger parking infrastructure projects for car club vehicles; 3) explore tax incentives for car club operators and consumers; and 4) help build consumer awareness of the benefits of car clubs outlined in this report by engaging in targeted marketing techniques, such as advertising throughout bus and tube networks. Since our analysis reveals a significantly positive net present value for EVs as well, policymakers should: 1) continue subsidising EV-related costs and investing in London‘s charging network; 2) focus on finding ways to enable vehicle manufactures to reduce the price of EVs, such as subsidies on R&D, battery research or direct tax incentives; and 3) promote the integration of EVs into car clubs."

Booz & Co, Study on Impacts of Application of the Vignette Systems to Private Vehicles. Final Report. London, February 2012, 60 p. [formato PDF, 774 kB]. Prepared for: European Commission Directorate – General for Mobility and Transport. "Of the seven EU countries to have a ‘vignette’ tax system for cars, Hungary has the best and Slovenia the worst. That’s the finding of a study for the Commission that has looked at the seven existing systems as it is soon to publish draft guidelines for governments on minimum standards for vignettes. A vignette in road transport is a time-based charge that gives access to part or all of a road network. The seven EU countries to operate a vignette system are Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Switzerland also requires any vehicles using its motorway network to have a vignette, while Great Britain is considering a time-based vignette system for lorries. In preparation for the communication on making vignettes fairer, greener and less discriminatory towards foreigners, the Commission asked the American management consultancy Booz and Company to study all seven existing systems. Hungary comes out best in terms of respecting EU principles, while Slovenia is the worst. There are currently no EU rules on vignettes for cars, but any charges have to be ‘proportionate’ and ‘non-discriminatory’".

OBIS, Ottimizzare i Sistemi di Bike Sharing nelle città europee. Manuale. Progetto OBIS, 2012, 98 p. [formato PDF, 3,06 MB]. "Sono analizzate le differenze – in termini di servizio offerto, modello economico adottato e politica tariffaria - dei SBS esistenti (Sistemi di bike sharing europei). I risultati, presentati tenendo conto delle dimensioni della città studiata, offrono una panoramica e delle utili indicazioni guida per altre città che possiedono caratteristiche simili. Una lista dei fattori di successo permette poi di aver presente, in maniera sintetica, gli aspetti principali dei vari sistemi. Le linee guida sono tratte dal lavoro, pratico e teorico, svolto nel corso del progetto OBIS. Indicano quali passi debbano essere compiuti - da come sia possibile convincere gli stakeholder a come progettare un bike sharing di successo - tenendo conto delle particolari caratteristiche della propria città o regione."

Håvard Bergsdal, Johan Pettersen, Christian Solli, Christine Hung, Carine Grossrieder and Johanne Hammervold (MiSA – Miljøsystemanalyse), Environmental analysis : Climate. Norwegian High Speed Railway Project, Phase 3. Final report. Version 2 (03.02.2012) including all alignments. Miljøsystemanalyse AS, Sandvika/Trondheim, February 2012, 116 p. [formato PDF, 3,92 MB]. "The Norwegian Ministry for Transport and Communications has mandated a national assessment for high-speed rail (HSR) in Norway. This study presents the greenhouse gas (GHG) projections for the Norwegian HSR assessment. A total of 12 HSR alignments are assessed. They are all quite different in terms of landscape, distances and type of market. High-speed rail is proposed as a GHG-reducing measure, as it may be operated on clean electric energy with low energy use per seat-km. However, the operation of HSR requires an initial investment in the construction of a HSR line. The benefit from HSR concepts therefore is a function of market shift by introduction of HSR and emission intensity in the competing transport alternatives, as well as the utilization rate of the built HSR line. This study aims to assess the net benefit for GHG emissions in kg CO2e. Results present the effect on GHG emissions over a 60 year assessment period, and time required to pay back the initial GHG investment in HSR infrastructure."

Yves Krattinger (Sénateur), Les transports publics locaux en France: mettre les collectivités territoriales sur la bonne voie. Rapport d'information n° 319 (2011-2012) fait au nom de la délégation aux collectivités territoriales, déposé le 31 janvier 2012. Sénat, Paris, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 746 kB]. "Les transports publics locaux sont aujourd'hui au coeur d'une véritable révolution en marche dans nos territoires, celle de la « mobilité durable ». Les usagers, toujours plus nombreux, veulent désormais plus de mobilité, une offre plus diversifiée prenant en compte le développement durable, une plus grande accessibilité, une plus grande fiabilité et davantage d'informations en temps réel. Nos concitoyens veulent plus que jamais être des acteurs de leur propre mobilité. Le succès des parkings relais, des vélos en libre-service ou encore du covoiturage démontre, s'il en est besoin, l'importance de l'intermodalité comme il traduit l'évolution des comportements en matière de transport. De la coordination des interventions de chaque acteur à l'avenir de leur financement, en passant par l'impact des nouvelles technologies, le rapport d'Yves Krattinger, établi au nom de la délégation sénatoriale aux collectivités territoriales et à la décentralisation, dresse un large panorama de la situation et des perspectives des transports publics locaux pour contribuer à «mettre les collectivités territoriales sur la bonne voie»."

Autostrade di montagna: impatto zero?. Peraltrestrade Dolomiti, Comitato Interregionale Carnia-Cadore, 14.02.2012, 2 p. [formato Word, 30 kB]. L'inutile e dannoso progetto di prolungamento dell'A27 nella valle del Piave.

Massimo Andreis Allamandola, La linea ferroviaria Ceva-Ormea: una risorsa locale per il futuro del trasporto pubblico in Alta Valle Tanaro. Garessio (CN), 2012, 6 p. [formato PDF, 1,32 MB]. Il documento contiene alcune riflessioni sul futuro della Ceva-Ormea, mirate a prevenire la chiusura del servizio ferroviario, che invece dovrebbe essere ottimizzato, rendendolo integrato e competitivo all’interno dell’offerta turistica e pendolare tra il Piemonte e la Liguria.

Colin F. Clarke, Evaluation of New Zealand’s bicycle helmet law, The New Zealand Medical Journal, 10 February 2012, v. 125 No 1349 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 200 kB]. L'articolo analizza gli effetti controproducenti dell'obbligo del casco per i ciclisti introdotto in Nuova Zelanda nel 1994. "The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990–1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006–09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988–91 to 2003–07, cyclists’ overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK’s Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989–1990 to 2006–2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties."

ARPAT, Il rumore generato dalle infrastrutture di trasporto. Presentazione di una panoramica dello stato dell’arte dei progetti europei sul rumore ambientale, la sua valutazione, i suoi effetti gli strumenti per la sua mitigazione. ARPATnews, n. 007 - Martedì 10 Gennaio 2012, 9 p. [formato PDF, 247 kB] o [html]. Testo di questo numero a cura di Gaetano Licitra, Diego Palazzuoli, Mara Nolli e Stefania Calleri.


2011

Stuart Reid, Simon Adams, Infrastructure and Cyclist Safety. (TRL Report PPR 580). Transport Research Laboratory, Wokingham, Berkshire, October 2011, 54 p. [formato PDF, 593 kB]. "The Department for Transport commissioned TRL to conduct a literature review to consider the role of infrastructure in relation to the safety of cyclists and their interaction with other road users. It was undertaken as part of the wider research programme, Road User Safety and Cycling, being led by TRL. Overall, it proved problematic to draw firm conclusions from the literature. Taken as a whole, the most significant infrastructure-related risk factors for cyclists in single vehicle incidents on highways appear to be slippery roads (due to weather) and poor or defective road surfaces. For multi-vehicle collisions, the main infrastructure risk factors appear to be posted speed limits and encounters with other road users at junctions." (N)

Michael Browne, Julian Allen, Steve Meyrick, Wisinee Wisetjindawat, Yan Peng, Hussein S. Lidasan, Sustainable Urban Freight Transport. Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific no. 80, 2011, 110 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "In order to address and overcome the negative impacts of urban freight transport, it is necessary for policymakers to develop sustainability strategies that attempt to balance the economic, social and environmental impacts of urban freight transport operations. In devising these sustainability objectives and measures it is important that policymakers work in close cooperation with companies involved in the operation of urban supply chains. The first paper outlines a set of urban freight policy measures and company actions that can be part of a sustainability strategy, and also non-freight transport policy measures that can have unintended effects on urban freight sustainability. The second paper focuses on two issues: what governments can do to promote more eco-efficient and sustainable transport; and how the progress in this endeavour can be measured. The paper considers a number of 'attack points' on which governments can focus in order to achieve the required improvements and a range of instruments that governments can employ in order to influence outcomes on each of these points. The paper identifies a range of policies that are available to governments and suggests some specific measures that could be undertaken in implementing these policies. It also develops a framework for prioritising policy action. The third paper provides case studies on freight transport policies and measures implemented in several countries in Asia, Europe and North America. It considers three main objectives for sustainable freight development as reducing energy consumption, decreasing the usage of less sustainable transport modes and increasing the usage of more environmentally friendly transport modes. The policies and measures in each of the categories are discussed based on their contribution to achieving the objectives, and their practicality is analyzed. Issues of concern with each policy are also presented. With the rapid growth in road freight vehicle numbers and the corresponding increase in road freight tonnage, the road freight sector has become a major consumer of energy resources and a contributor to air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In order to address the issues of the road freight sector, China has undertaken various policy, legal and regulatory, and other measures including introducing pilot projects at different levels of the government. The fourth paper focuses on lessons learned from the Guangzhou Green Trucks Project, aiming to promote an alternative approach towards sustainable road freight transportation. Urban logistics systems, involving physical distribution and supply chains in urban areas, is a promising subject that can be looked at in developing a framework on how to address the issues in urban environment in the context of transport and land use. Measures, involving transport planning and logistics in urban areas under the term of city logistics have been found promising in dealing with many traffic and transport problems. The concept of city logistics has a potential to contribute to meeting the objectives of logistics related to efficiency, economy and environment. The fifth and last paper presents how logistics and transport initiatives can be instrumental in developing a framework which can eventually contribute to alleviating the negative impacts of freight transport on urban environment." (N)

Todd Alexander Litman, Economic Value of Walkability. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2011, 28 p. [formato PDF, 256 kB]. "This paper describes ways to evaluate the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings, cost savings (reduced external costs), efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this paper, are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel." (N)

P. Oja, S. Titze, A. Bauman, B. de Geus, P. Krenn, B. Reger-Nash, T. Kohlberger, Health benefits of cycling: a systematic review, Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2011, 21(4):496-509 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 194 kB]. "The purpose of this study was to update the evidence on the health benefits of cycling. A systematic review of the literature resulted in 16 cycling-specific studies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed a clear positive relationship between cycling and cardiorespiratory fitness in youths. Prospective observational studies demonstrated a strong inverse relationship between commuter cycling and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cancer morbidity among middle-aged to elderly subjects. Intervention studies among working-age adults indicated consistent improvements in cardiovascular fitness and some improvements in cardiovascular risk factors due to commuting cycling. Six studies showed a consistent positive dose-response gradient between the amount of cycling and the health benefits. Systematic assessment of the quality of the studies showed most of them to be of moderate to high quality. According to standard criteria used primarily for the assessment of clinical studies, the strength of this evidence was strong for fitness benefits, moderate for benefits in cardiovascular risk factors, and inconclusive for all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality, cancer risk, and overweight and obesity. While more intervention research is needed to build a solid knowledge base of the health benefits of cycling, the existing evidence reinforces the current efforts to promote cycling as an important contributor for better population health." (N)

Kees van Goeverden, Tom Godefrooij, The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability. Delft: Delft University of Technology, October 2011, 99 p. [formato PDF, 4,11 MB]. "The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transport and to contribute to more efficient and qualified urban planning and management. This report discusses a number of Dutch case studies on the effects of investments in bicycle infrastructure. The reviewed studies include the three ‘classical’ cases in the 20th century: rather large investments in the cities of Tilburg, The Hague and Delft that were evaluated extensively by before and after studies. Other, smaller and more recent cases include the evaluation of shared space, a bicycle street, and interurban highways for cyclists. A general conclusion is that policies can be effective in sustaining high levels of cycling and strengthening cycling culture." (N)

David Ogilvie, Fiona Bull, Jane Powell, Ashley R. Cooper, Christian Brand, Nanette Mutrie, John Preston, and Harry Rutter, An Applied Ecological Framework for Evaluating Infrastructure to Promote Walking and Cycling: The iConnect Study, American Journal of Public Health, March 2011, 101, 473–481 [formato PDF, 1,25 MB]. "Improving infrastructure for walking and cycling is increasingly recommended as a means to promote physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce traffic congestion and carbon emissions. However, limited evidence from intervention studies exists to support this approach. Drawing on classic epidemiological methods, psychological and ecological models of behavior change, and the principles of realistic evaluation, we have developed an applied ecological framework by which current theories about the behavioral effects of environmental change may be tested in heterogeneous and complex intervention settings. Our framework guides study design and analysis by specifying the most important data to be collected and relations to be tested to confirm or refute specific hypotheses and thereby refine the underlying theories." (N)

Klaus Eisenack, Rebecca Stecker, Diana Reckien, Esther Hoffmann, Adaptation to Climate Change in the Transport Sector: A Review. (PIK Report No. 122). Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Mai 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 301 kB]. "The paper identifies the literature that deals with adaptation to climate change in the transport sector by means of an extensive search, and presents a systematic review of the publications. Although it is frequently claimed that this socially and economically important sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change, there is comparatively little research into adaptation by industry, utilities and settlements. The 63 sources we found are analysed following an action theory of adaptation that distinguishes different adaptational functions. A very heterogeneous set of adaptations is identified and the actors and means of adaptation are classified by an open coding procedure. The paper shows that a broad diversity of actors is relevant for adaptation in the transport sector – ranging from transportation service providers to public and private sector actors and private households. Most adaptations discussed in the literature require inputs in the form of technical means, institutional means, and knowledge. The review shows that the existing literature either focuses on overly general and vague proposals, or on detailed technical measures. The paper concludes that the knowledge on adapting transport to climate change is still in a stage of infancy and suggests fields for further research." (N)

Matthieu Glachant, Marie Laure Thibault, Laurent Faucheux, Le déploiement des infrastructures de charge de véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables : une approche économique. Projet de recherche pour le PREDIT, GO6, financé par l’ADEME. Rapport final. Armines, Paris, Décembre 2011, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,74 MB] "Ce document est le rapport final d’une recherche du CERNA, le laboratoire d’économie de MINES ParisTech, sur l’économie du déploiement des infrastructures de recharge réalisée dans le cadre du PREDIT et financée par l’ADEME. L’objectif de cette étude économique est d’analyser les politiques publiques et privées (dans le domaine de la standardisation notamment) qui permettraient de déployer rapidement les infrastructures de charge à un coût minimal pour la société. Notre analyse a permis de produire des résultats sur trois points que nous allons maintenant résumer: le calibrage de l’infrastructure de recharge, l’organisation de la recharge publique et la standardisation." (N)

IHS – Institute for Advanced Studies, IKK-ZT GmbH, ÖBB-Infrastruktur AG, ZTL Zentrum für Transportwirtschaft und Logistik, Baltic-Adriatic-Axis. Macroeconomic evaluation as part of the expanded cost-benefit analysis for rail. Final Report. ÖBB-Infrastruktur AG, Vienna, September 2011, 142 p. [formato PDF, 6,22]. "An expansion of the Baltic-Adriatic Axis into an efficient, continuous rail connection will provide sustainable economic stimuli for Austria, as well as for all other regions along the axis, as this expanded cost-benefit analysis for rail clearly shows. In this way, the expansion of the Baltic-Adriatic Axis in Austria, with the projects of the Pottendorfer Line, Stadlau-Marchegg, the new Semmering Railway basic tunnel and Koralm Railway as well as railway station modernisations in Bruck/Mur and Graz main train station at an investment total of 8.46 billion EURO (according to overall economic plan 2011-2016, not valorised, present value including reinvest and other values is 6.03 billion EURO) will provide an additional value to the Austrian national economy of about 9.5 billion EURO during the construction phase and about 5.5 billion EURO during the operational phase. This means an average of 4,000 workplaces during the construction phase respectively 15,000 additional, sustainably assured workplaces during the operational phase. The fiscal returns amount to approx.. 5.3 billion EURO, whereby 3.6 billion EURO will be generated during the construction phase and 1.7 billion EURO during the operational phase (evaluation of the microeconomic effects at a real interest rate of 3.56%, evaluation of the national economic effects at a real interest rate of 2.5%). For the other EU regions along the Baltic-Adriatic Axis, an additional added value of about 5.8 billion EURO and 31,000 new workplaces are pending from the commissioning of the developed Austrian project. The fundamental point of this positive effect is the connection of the growing industrial regions in Poland and in the Baltic region with the traditionally strong economic region of Northern Italy. By networking economic regions, which have historically been separated, the trade and service flows within the EU will be intensified." (N)

Colin G Pooley [et al.], Understanding walking and cycling: Summary of key findings and recommendations. Lancaster University, September 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 2,39 MB] "It is widely recognized that there is a need to increase levels of active and sustainable travel in British urban areas. The Understanding Walking and Cycling (UWAC) project, funded by the EPSRC, has examined the factors influencing everyday travel decisions and proposes a series of policy measures to increase levels of walking and cycling for short trips in urban areas. A wide range of both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in four English towns (Leeds, Leicester, Worcester, Lancaster), including a questionnaire survey, analysis of the built environment, interviews and ethnographies. Key findings of the research are that whilst attitudes to walking and cycling are mostly positive or neutral, many people who would like to engage in more active travel fail to do so due to a combination of factors. These can be summarised as: Concerns about the physical environment, especially with regard to safety when walking or cycling; The difficulty of fitting walking and cycling into complex household routines (especially with young children); The perception that walking and cycling are in some ways abnormal things to do so. It is suggested that policies to increase levels of walking and cycling should focus not only on improving infrastructure (for instance through fully segregated cycle routes), but also must tackle broader social, economic, cultural and legal factors that currently inhibit walking and cycling. Together, such changes can create an environment in which driving for short trips in urban areas is seen as abnormal and walking or cycling seem the obvious choices." (N)

MDS Transmodal Limited, NAPA: Market study on the potential cargo capacity of the North Adriatic ports system in the container sector. Draft Report. December 2011, 65 p. [formato PDF, 3,20 MB] "The North Adriatic Ports Association (NAPA) has commissioned MDS Transmodal (MDST) to carry out a market study on the potential cargo capacity of the North Adriatic Ports system in the container sector. This study, which is part-funded by the European Union TEN-T Programme, will help to determine the future development of the NAPA ports system in the container sector up to at least 2030. The five NAPA ports - Koper, Ravenna, Rijeka, Trieste and Venice – are all either developing new or enhanced container port facilities and/or have plans to do so. NAPA has a common objective of developing its container traffic and becoming a multi-port gateway, particularly between the dynamic Asian and Central and Eastern European economies; NAPA’s guiding principle is “coopetition”, where it co-operates internationally but competes internally. The key objective of this study therefore is to provide an independent and objective view as to the potential combined demand for the existing and potential container port facilities up to 2030, based on the port’s collective strengths and the likely future business environment.. The geographic scope of the study is focused on the existing NAPA ports of Koper, Ravenna, Rijeka, Trieste and Venice and the ports’ collective worldwide foreland and European hinterland. The study seeks to define both the existing and potential hinterland of the NAPA ports by country and, for the larger, countries, by region. The time horizon for the study is 2030, with intermediate forecasts required for 2015 and 2020." (N)

Active Transportation in Canada: a resource and planning guide. Transport Canada, Ottawa, 2011, 100 p. [formato PDF, 6,60 MB] "This guide is intended primarily for municipal and regional transportation planners in communities with limited active transportation planning and implementation experience, but can also be used by other individuals, including allied professionals (e.g., community planners, engineers, public health officers, etc.). While the guide is intended primarily for town and transportation planners, it recognizes that all types of planners (e.g., recreation, environmental, economic development, etc.) at all levels (e.g., local, regional , provincial, etc.) have a role to play in promoting and supporting active transportation in their communities. Another group that can use this guide is elected representatives, who are a community’s major decision-makers and are critical players in helping support and promote active transportation. Finally, representatives from local advocacy organizations (e.g., environmental groups, healthy living associations, etc.) and community groups with an interest in active transportation (e.g., Chambers of Commerce) can also use this guide to support communitybased active transportation projects initiated outside of City Hall, or as a resource guide to help better support and engage with active transportation projects initiated by the local government." Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre "Guide de planification et de ressources sur les transports actifs au Canada". (N)

Patrick Eberling, Jennifer Bogner, Jörg Ortlepp, Aree di circolazione condivisa. Invitanti e sicure. (Documentazione tecnica dell'upi 2.083). upi – Ufficio prevenzione infortuni, Berna, 2011, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,28 MB] "«Shared Space», attualmente uno degli argomenti più dibattuti nell'ambito della pianificazione dei trasporti, è spesso indicato come soluzione nuova e innovativa. Eppure Shared Space non è un'idea nuova, bensì semplicemente un nome efficace nel dibattito pubblico per un principio convalidato: l'utilizzazione condivisa dell'area pubblica da parte di tutti gli utenti della strada. I responsabili nell'ambito della pianificazione dei trasporti sono però tenuti a effettuare analisi accurate prima di realizzare una filosofia di arredo che prevede un'area condivisa. Ormai esistono molti concetti con varie denominazioni che corrispondono a tale filosofia. La maggior parte di questi viene tuttavia presentata in modo erroneo al pubblico: misura di sicurezza stradale, soluzione per tutti i problemi nella circolazione stradale e spazio privo di regole stradali. La sicurezza stradale è considerata, se mai, soltanto marginalmente. Normalmente non si effettuano indagini distinte per migliorare la sicurezza; l'effetto di sicurezza viene semplicemente presunto. Questo procedimento ha comportato una serie di realizzazioni erronee di Shared Space e di filosofie simili. Di conseguenza sono aumentati gli incidenti ed è diminuita la qualità di utilizzo di tali aree. Ne risulta un pericolo particolarmente per gli utenti della strada privi di protezione come i pedoni, i ciclisti, gli utenti della strada anziani e i bambini nonché gli utenti della strada ipovedenti e non vedenti. Pertanto la Unfallforschung der Versicherer (GDV, Germania), l'Ufficio prevenzione infortuni (upi, Svizzera) e il Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit (KFV, Austria) hanno redatto questa pubblicazione in cui riassumono i criteri d'uso e le condizioni per un'area di circolazione condivisa e in cui spiegano come si può tener conto sistematicamente della sicurezza stradale e migliorarla. Con il termine «area di circolazione condivisa» si intende stabilire una definizione unitaria per la Germania, l'Austria e la Svizzera. Il termine «area di circolazione condivisa» non è protetto come Shared Space e un tale progetto può essere realizzato senza la partecipazione di una qualsiasi organizzazione certificata. Questa pubblicazione, destinata alle autorità locali e regionali, presenta le condizioni fondamentali di cui bisogna tener conto per la realizzazione di un'area di circolazione condivisa affinché la sicurezza stradale possa essere garantita per tutti gli utenti dell'area. L'opuscolo vuole essere uno strumento per poter realizzare con successo la filosofia di «un'area condivisa» che permette di aumentare ulteriormente la qualità di vita nelle nostre città e nei nostri paesi."

SUGAR (Sustainable Urban Goods Logistics Achieved by Regional and Local Policies), City Logistics Best Practices: a Handbook for Authorities. Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, November 2011, 276 p. [formato PDF, 5,75 MB]. Final SUGAR project publication.

Mattias Lundberg, Anchalee Jenpanitsub, Roger Pyddoke, Cost overruns in Swedish transport projects. (CTS Working Paper 2011:11). Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, 2011, 16 p. [formato PDF, 274 kB]. "Cost overrun of transport projects is one of the most important problems in transport planning. It also makes the result of the cost-benefit analyses uncertain, thus decreasing their usefulness for decision making. In recent years more emphasis has been put on improving cost calculations and reducing cost overruns, in Sweden and internationally. Still cost overruns have not decreased. We find that the average cost overrun in Swedish road projects is similar to other countries, while it is lower than in other countries for rail. Small projects (<100 million SEK) have much higher cost overruns than large projects and constitute a large share of total overruns. A project type with large overruns, both in absolute and relative terms, is new rail tracks on existing lines. To improve cost estimates in Sweden, the Successive Calculation method has recently been applied. We find that the variance is significantly lower in these than in actual outcomes, and that the difference is surprisingly small between projects in different planning stages. Another method, Reference Class Forecasting, is demonstrated in two case studies. It results in higher required uplifts. An interesting way forward would be to develop risk-based estimating, based on principal component analysis. To do that, a database needs to be collected, which in turn demands better follow-up procedures."

Sonja Kahlmeier, Nick Cavill, Hywell Dinsdale, Harry Rutter, Thomas Götschi, Charlie Foster, Paul Kelly, Dushy Clarke, Pekka Oja, Richard Fordham, Dave Stone and Francesca Racioppi, Health economic assessment tools (HEAT) for walking and for cycling. Methodology and user guide. Economic assessment of transport infrastructure and policies. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, 2011, 46 p. [formato PDF, 2,33 MB]. "The promotion of cycling and walking for everyday physical activity not only promotes health but can also have positive effects on the environment. This booklet summarizes the tools and guidance developed to facilitate this shift: the methodology for the economic assessment of transport infrastructure and policies in relation to the health effects of walking and cycling; systematic reviews of the economic and health literature; and guidance on applying the health economic assessment tools and the principles underlying it. This methodology and user guide will be of key interest to professionals at both national and local levels: transport planners, traffic engineers, and special interest groups working on transport, walking, cycling or the environment, as well as health economists, physical activity experts and health promotion experts."

Inge Vierth (VTI), 15 years deregulated rail freight market – lessons from Sweden. European Transport Conference 2011, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 10–12/10/2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 470 kB]. "Sweden was one of the first countries to implement the current EU policy for rail freight. Rail infrastructure and running services were separated in 1988. The rail freight market was deregulated in 1996 (the market for not tendered passenger services was opened recently). The national Swedish rail company was commercialised and split into companies for passenger transport (SJ AB), freight transport (Green Cargo AB), real estate and maintenance etc. in 2001. A regulatory body has been established in 2004. The EU rail freight market was completely opened in 2007. An extensive follow up of the intramodal competition in the Swedish rail freight market since 1996 has been carried out with help of literature, agencies' statistics, operators' annual reports and interviews with operators, shippers and authorities. As far as possible developments in the market sectors for kombi trains, system trains, wagonload trains resp. national versus international services are analysed. It is shown which operators started freight transport services, which got bankrupt and which are still in business. Today fifteen operators offer freight transport services. They are owned public and/or private bodies from Sweden and other countries. The market share of new entrants is limited. In 2009 the Green Cargo concern, Green Cargo AB and three daughter companies, stood for about 84 per cent of the total turnover. The incumbents' revenues decreased during the recession while new operators could increase their incomes. It is shown that efficiency in terms of tonne-km per employee, turnover per employee, tone-km per wagon etc. has increased since 1996. New types of services have been developed, especially for kombi and system trains. The prices for rail and road transports have followed each other quite well. The rail share in the freight market has been relatively constant, in contrast to the EU-level where rail has lost market share since 1996. However, the profitability of the rail freight companies is relatively poor. Return on capital is in most cases below ten per cent. Companies' solidity and their ability to withstand losses are generally low. Potentials and remaining obstacles for competition are analysed. Operators see problems regarding access to common facilities and services such as appropriate access to the infrastructure that is shared with passenger services, access to tracks and transhipment services in kombi-terminals. Other barriers are the limited competition in the markets for shunting/marshalling and maintenance of the rolling stock. Access to rolling stock and staff seems to be a minor problem. The existence of economies of scale and sunk costs can also be barriers for new entrants. In this context the limited size of the Swedish market is important. For the time being the development of the rail freight markets in other European countries (Germany, Netherlands, UK) are studied and comparisons with the outcomes form the follow up of the deregulation of the Swedish rail freight market are planned. The experience from Sweden may have some lessons for other countries."

Marco Kouwenhoven, Eric Kroes, Cyrille Gazave, Eric Tardivel, Estimating potential demand for Autolib’ – a new transport system for Paris, International Choice Modelling Conference 2011, Leeds, 4-6 July 2011, 19 p. [formato PDF, 418 kB]. "The City of Paris, together with surrounding “communes”, has created a public authority to investigate the possibility to launch by the end of 2011 a new transport system: Autolib’. The project is related to the highly successful Velib’ project that was installed in Paris a few years ago. Autolib’ is essentially a system of 4,000 “shared” electric cars that can be used for oneway trips of limited distance between 1,400 parking points within central Paris and the surrounding regions. Details of the fare system are still being studied, but it is envisioned that the user would pay a subscription fee and a variable cost depending on the duration of use. And importantly: there would be a guaranteed parking space at the destination of the trip. Avis, RATP, SNCF and VINCI Park formed a consortium to bid for the operation of the Autolib’ system. They have commissioned research to estimate the potential demand and revenue for the new Autolib’ service with the highest possible accuracy. This to help them to shape the service in the best possible way, to determine the financial conditions and the economic basis of the project. In the paper we briefly introduce the proposed new system, and report the stated choice research that was carried out to estimate the potential demand. The following three experiments were conducted: a stated intentions exercise to measure the absolute willingness to subscribe to the new Autolib’ concept for different specifications of the system and its pricing; a stated choice experiment to measure preferences for different combinations of characteristics in the specification of the Autolib’ system and its pricing; a stated choice experiment investigating mode choice among three alternatives: chosen mode, best alternative mode, newly proposed mode in varying specifications. In the paper we describe the chosen methodology, the way in which the results of the three experiments have been integrated, the implementation of the population simulator and what we feel are five important elements in estimating potential demand for a new transport mode using stated choice experiments."

Lucia Rotaris, Romeo Danielis, Paolo Rosato (Univ. di Trieste), Stima del valore del tempo per gli studenti universitari: aspetti metodologici e primi risultati. (Working Papers SIET 2011). XIII Riunione Scientifica della Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica, Messina, 16-17 giugno 2011, 14 p. [formato PDF, 72 kB]. "Il bacino di utenza dell'ateneo di Trieste si caratterizza in modo non trascurabile per la presenza di studenti pendolari. Una parte non marginale degli studenti universitari iscritti in questo ateneo, infatti, preferisce il pendolarismo alla domiciliazione in prossimità della sede universitaria di appartenenza. Le dimensioni del fenomeno e le ragioni che lo originano, con particolare attenzione al livello di accessibilità garantita dai mezzi pubblici e alle caratteristiche dell'offerta di alloggi sia pubblici sia privati, rappresentano temi di grande interesse non solo ai fini dell'adeguamento dei servizi offerti dall'ateneo alle esigenze dell'utenza che opta per la domiciliazione a Trieste, ma anche al fine di una migliore gestione della mobilità degli studenti (sia domiciliati, sia pendolari). Il presente lavoro illustrerà i risultati di un'indagine condotta su questi temi di ricerca presso l'Università di Trieste. L'indagine, sviluppata nell'ambito del progetto UNIMOB , è stata realizzata attraverso interviste personali ed ha previsto il coinvolgimento non solo degli studenti pendolari, ma anche degli studenti che, pur essendo domiciliati a Trieste, potrebbero verosimilmente scegliere di fare i pendolari. Le determinanti della scelta fra il pendolarismo e la domiciliazione a Trieste, la percezione che gli intervistati hanno espresso sull'impatto che tale scelta produce sul loro rendimento scolastico e le implicazioni che ne derivano in termini di politiche della mobilità e di investimento in alloggi pubblici saranno illustrati nel presente lavoro."

Romeo Danielis, Lucia Rotaris, Edoardo Marcucci, Jérôme Massiani, An economic, environmental and transport evaluation of the Ecopass scheme in Milan: three years later. SIET, 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 236 kB]. "The paper provides an evaluation of the Ecopass scheme for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The term Ecopass conveys the stated political objective of the scheme: a PASS to improve the quality of the urban environment (ECO). The scheme has actually improved the air quality in Milan, although the recommended PM10 threshold is still exceeded for a larger number of days than that recommended by EU directives. This paper estimates the costs and benefits of the scheme three years after its implementation using the same methodology applied in Rotaris et al. (2010) for the year 2008. It results that the benefits still exceed the costs by an increasing amount, but at an annual decreasing rate of improvement. The Ecopass scheme has proved beneficial, but it seems to have exhausted its potential: little further gains in environmental quality could be obtained via a fiscal incentive to improve the abatement technology of the vehicles. The new administration, elected in June 2011, is faced with the task of deciding whether to dismiss, maintain or change the Ecopass scheme. The prevailing idea coming from the Ecopass Commission and from the advocacy groups is to extend both the area of application and the number of classes subject to the charge. A move from a pollution charge to a congestion charge, or at least a combination of a pollution and a congestion charge is envisaged."

Nicole A.H. Janssen, Gerard Hoek, Milena Simic-Lawson, Paul Fischer, Leendert van Bree, Harry ten Brink, Menno Keuken, Richard W. Atkinson, H. Ross Anderson, Bert Brunekreef, and Flemming R. Cassee, Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5. Environ. Health Perspect. 119 (2011) 1691–1699 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 405 kB]. "Background: Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 µm (PM10) or ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5)] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from combustion sources are more relevant to human health than are particles from other sources, but the impact of policies directed at reducing PM from combustion processes is usually relatively small when effects are estimated for a reduction in the total mass concentration. Objectives: We evaluated the value of black carbon particles (BCP) as an additional indicator in air quality management. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of health effects of BCP compared with PM mass based on data from time-series studies and cohort studies that measured both exposures. We compared the potential health benefits of a hypothetical traffic abatement measure, using near-roadway concentration increments of BCP and PM2.5 based on data from prior studies. Results: Estimated health effects of a 1-µg/m3 increase in exposure were greater for BCP than for PM10 or PM2.5, but estimated effects of an interquartile range increase were similar. Two-pollutant models in time-series studies suggested that the effect of BCP was more robust than the effect of PM mass. The estimated increase in life expectancy associated with a hypothetical traffic abatement measure was four to nine times higher when expressed in BCP compared with an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. Conclusion: BCP is a valuable additional air quality indicator to evaluate the health risks of air quality dominated by primary combustion particles."

Simon Moody, Steve Melia, Shared Space – Implications of Recent Research for Transport Policy. (Working Paper). University of the West of England, Bristol, 2011, 15 p. [formato PDF, 798 kB] "Shared space is an approach to street design which minimises demarcations between vehicles and pedestrians. It has become particularly influential in the UK, where a comprehensive study of shared space schemes has informed recently published national guidance to local highway authorities. This article critically examines the claim made in the guidance that it is ‘evidence based’. Primary research reported in the article, examines one of the sites in the ‘official study’, in Ashford, Kent, in greater depth, using video observation and a street survey of pedestrians. The findings show that most pedestrians diverted away from their desire lines, gave way to vehicles in most cases and felt safer under the original road layout. This study casts doubt on some aspects of the methodology and findings of the ‘official study’ and its interpretation in the national guidance. The authors conclude that some claims made for shared space have been exaggerated. Shared space is not, in itself, a sustainable transport measure. It may be combined with, and form part of a sustainable transport strategy. It has also been proposed as an alternative to measures such as pedestrianisation, in which case its effects on modal share and the externalities generated by road traffic would be deleterious."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. di Sassari), I nuovi tunnel ferroviari del Frejus e del Gottardo: un confronto politico-istituzionale (The New Railway Tunnels of Frejus and Gothard: a Political and Institutional Comparative Analysis). TeMA, Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Vol 4, No 4, dicembre 2011, p. 69-78 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 336 kB]. "Le nuove gallerie ferroviarie del Frejus e del Gottardo hanno caratteristiche tecnico-economiche simili. Ma, mentre il nuovo San Gottardo è in costruzione e dovrebbe entrare in esercizio nel 2017, il progetto del nuovo Frejus è fermo alle fasi preliminari. Le ragioni di questa differenza sono da attribuire al diverso schema istituzionale e politico in cui le due grandi opere si inseriscono. Il tunnel svizzero è parte di un vasto disegno di politica dei trasporti, finalizzato al potenziamento del trasporto ferroviario e allo spostamento del traffico dalla strada alla ferrovia, anche grazie all’introduzione di una nuova tassa sul traffico stradale di merci. Tale disegno è stato sostenuto da ben tre referendum confermativi. Il tunnel italiano non è integrato in nessuna politica nazionale dei trasporti e si inquadra solo parzialmente nella politica europea dei trasporti e nel Protocollo sui trasporti della Convenzione delle Alpi: esso infatti non è affiancato da misure per lo spostamento del traffico dalla strada alla rotaia. Solo in Francia l'approvazione del progetto ha previsto il ricorso a meccanismi consolidati di partecipazione; in Italia il tardivo – e non sempre coerente – ricorso a tali meccanismi non è stato sufficiente per fronteggiare la persistente opposizione al progetto." "Projects of the two new railway transalpine tunnel of Frejus and Gothard have similar technical characteristics: an identical length (57 km), a similar cost (10 billion Euros) and the existence of a highway along the same Alpine corridor. But, whilst the new Gothard is now under construction and should become operational in 2017, the new Frejus is at standstill at preliminary phases and has faced a very strong local opposition on the Italian side of the Alps. This difference can be explained by analysing the political and institutional framework of the two projects. The new Swiss tunnel is integrated into a national scheme of transport policy which is based on: the development of a new system of railway infrastructures, which features two new transalpine tunnels (the new Gothard and the Loetschberg); the implementation of a distance-related heavy vehicle fee, which is levied on the basis of total weight, emission level and the kilometres driven; the provision of financial resources to stimulate the transfer of transalpine freight from road to railway. The approval of such a scheme started twenty years ago: it was based on a constitutional decree, implemented through several Federal acts and supported by three confirmatory referenda. The new French-Italian infrastructure is not integrated in any transport policy scheme. The new tunnel is only partially consistent with the overall goals of the European transport policy and the Transport Protocol of the Alpine Convention (which has not yet been ratified by the Italian Parliament): actually no action for modal shift is envisaged. Moreover, the new tunnel was initially supported by a structured consultative and participative procedure – based on the ‘débat public’ technique – only in France. In Italy this megaproject was not backed by an effective deliberation process, neither at the local nor the national level; on the contrary: it was considered among the strategic projects of the so-called ‘Legge obiettivo’ and therefore it could bypass the ordinary administrative procedures (and the otherwise mandatory environmental impact assessment). The late creation of a consultative committee (the so-called ‘Commissione Virano’) and the implementation of participative procedures have not been always consistent and has not proved valid to stop the fierce opposition to the project."

Huib van Essen, Ewout Dönszelmann, Linda Brinke, Arno Schroten, Eelco den Boer, Climate Rating of Transport Infrastructure Projects. Exploration of a methodology for including climate impacts in project appraisal. CE Delft, Delft, October 2011, 56 p. [formato PDF, 641 kB]. "In its recent White Paper on Transport the Commission announced ambitious plans for building a competitive transport system. At the same time, the Commission set specific objectives for greenhouse gas reduction in transport in its Roadmap for decarbonisation, which were further elaborated in the White Paper. The climate policy set out in these papers aims at a dramatic reduction of Europe's dependence on imported oil and a cut in carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels. Infrastructure policy and climate policy interfere. Developing or upgrading transport infrastructure can have significant impacts on the decarbonisation of transport. While some types of infrastructure carry the risk to get locked-in to carbon intensive technology or transport modes, other projects may actually contribute to greenhouse gas reduction. Until now, the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are not well integrated in transport infrastructure project appraisal. This is not only true at a European level but also at most national and local levels. Climate rating could solve this by explicitly taking account of the effect on greenhouse gases emissions in the infrastructure project appraisal and funding decisions. The European Commission announced that it aims at making climate rating be a part of the decision process for investments (EC, 2011). However, the Commission has not yet decided on a methodology for climate rating. In order to achieve this interlinking of policy objectives and to feed the Commission with further developing this issue, the European Federation for Transport & Environment (T&E), together with partners asked CE Delft to develop a methodology for climate rating, which is presented in this report. Although the study primarily focuses on TEN-T, recommendations could also be applied to other EU funds which can, directly or indirectly, influence the decarbonisation of the European transport sector. The greenhouse gas impacts of new, extended or upgraded transport infrastructure consist of four main elements: 1. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions from traffic; 2. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions from infrastructure operation, maintenance and management (OMM); 3. Greenhouse gas emissions from infrastructure development and end-of-life processes; 4. Other impacts, such as indirect effects on other sectors. This is true for all different types of infrastructure, including the development of new or upgraded road, rail or waterway infrastructure, interconnection of different transport modes, intelligent transport systems or innovative energy projects (e.g. new carbon free operation). Traffic impacts are relevant for all types of projects. Sometime these are mainly the results form changes in transport volume or modal split, e.g. in the case of a port the upgrade of a railway line. In other cases, the changes in traffic emissions are mainly the result of changes in energy technology or vehicle efficiency, e.g. in the case of electrification projects. The greenhouse gas impacts from traffic can be calculated with the traffic volumes per mode and vehicle type and the relative emission factors per vehicle type. The traffic data can be retrieved from traffic modelling. They should be the same as the data used for the socio economic assessment of the project. The emission factors can be retrieved from national emission registration or datasets (e.g. TREMOVE). They should reflect real-life well-to-wheel emissions. The relative importance of emissions from developing, maintaining, managing or operating infrastructure depends strongly on the type of project. In some cases, such as the construction of high speed railway line, these impacts can vary significantly, while in other cases they can expected to be negligible, e.g. for traffic management systems. These emissions can be estimated using either emission factors per type of material and energy used (bottom-up approach) or by using typical values, e.g. per lane or track kilometre (top-down). For comparing different projects, the change in greenhouse gas emissions after project realisation compared to the reference scenario should be compared to a measure for the size or value of the project. The (EU or total) investment is the best candidate for this for the short to medium term. For the longer term, also the net contribution to economic welfare from the cost benefit analysis could be used, however, these are currently often not available. The value of the climate rating indicator could be used for deciding on the co-funding rate or for prioritisation of projects. The methodology has been applied to a few concrete examples. From this it can be concluded that climate rating is possible and can help to integrate climate and infrastructure objectives. A further development of the methodology is strongly recommended, both at the EU level (e.g. by the TEN-T Agency) as well as at national level, with support of relevant experts."

Educazione alla sicurezza stradale, [numero monografico di] Annali della Pubblica Istruzione, n.3/2011, 169 p. [formato PDF, 15 MB]. "I contributi qui raccolti presentano i risultati delle attività svolte nell’ambito dell’Ufficio IV – Direzione Generale per lo Studente, l’Integrazione, la Partecipazione e la Comunicazione, con l’obiettivo di modellare uno Studio approfondito sulle tematiche dell’educazione stradale, da destinarsi agli Uffici Scolastici Regionali, Provinciali, al Corpo docente e più in generale a tutti coloro che si occupano della promozione e diffusione della sicurezza stradale nelle scuole, ai sensi delle nuove norme del Codice della Strada di cui alla legge n. 120 del 29/7/2010. Lo Studio di cui sopra intende fornire delle indicazioni finalizzate a rendere sistematici, su tutto il territorio nazionale, gli interventi per la promozione e la diffusione della sicurezza ed ha previsto l’approfondimento e lo sviluppo di una serie di ambiti tematici (come dimostrato nello schema riportato più avanti) che hanno riguardato: l’analisi degli aspetti significativi attinenti alla tematica dell’educazione stradale. Questa parte del lavoro, svolta a partire da un’indagine conoscitiva su progetti e iniziative in essere e sulla consultazione di referenti scolastici e di altri enti e istituzioni competenti in materia, ha fornito le basi per l’approfondimento della tematica dell’educazione stradale; la stesura di indicazioni operative per agevolare, anche sotto il profilo comunicazionale, le azioni da parte degli Uffici Scolastici Regionali e delle Province Autonome al fine di promuovere e sviluppare la progettualità scolastica nel campo della sicurezza stradale, nonché favorire la partecipazione e il coinvolgimento di tutte le categorie di utenza coinvolte, tra le quali, genitori e famiglie, dirigenti scolastici, insegnanti, studenti, ecc.; la predisposizione di «schemi-tipo» utilizzabili per i corsi e per altre iniziative nel campo dell’educazione stradale sia per la Scuola Primaria che per quella secondaria; l’esame di criteri e aspetti metodologici per la valutazione dei risultati delle attività di educazione stradale in termini di appropriatezza, efficienza, efficacia e nel rispetto dei principi di trasparenza ed economicità."

Jamie Hosking, Pierpaolo Mudu, Carlos Dora, Health in the green economy: health co-benefits of climate change mitigation – transport sector. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011, 156 p. [formato PDF, 4,19 MB] "Cycling, walking and rapid transit systems are associated with a wide range of potential health benefits that climate assessment needs to consider more systematically. Health benefits may include: physical activity from walking and cycling, which can help prevent heart disease, some cancers, type 2 diabetes, and some obesity-related risks; lower urban air pollution concentrations; lower rates of traffic injury risks for users of dedicated bicycle and pedestrian networks; and less noise stress. Transport systems that prioritize active transport and rapid transit systems, along with better urban land use, also can help improve access for vulnerable groups, including children, the elderly, people with disabilities, and lower wage earners, enhancing health equity. This new WHO report, part of the Health in the Green Economy series, considers the evidence regarding health co-benefits, and risks, of climate change mitigation strategies for transport, as reviewed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007)."

Carlos Dora, Jamie Hoskings, Pierpaolo Mudu, Elaine Fletcher, Urban Transport and Health. (Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities, module 5g). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011, 60 p. [formato PDF, 2,47 MB]

Osservatorio delle Trasformazioni Territoriali e Sociali dell’Associazione AmbienteVenezia, Grandi navi in Laguna di Venezia. Risorsa o problema per la città e per la popolazione? Problemi ambientali e sanitari, impatto ambientale, inquinamento collegati al traffico marittimo. Materiali d'informazione. Associazione AmbienteVenezia, Venezia, dicembre 2011, 22 p. [formato PDF, 2,33 MB]. "Il dossier riassume un lavoro di ricerca e raccolta su studi internazionali sugli impatti ambientali e sanitari causati dal traffico marittimo, ed in particolare delle "grandi navi da Crociera e Trasporto".

Paolo Beria, Raffaele Grimaldi (Politecnico di Milano), An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Projects (Una prima valutazione dell’Alta Velocità in Italia). TeMA Vol 4, No 3, settembre 2011, p. 15-28 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 794 kB]. "L’Italia ha affrontato, negli ultimi 15 anni, un eccezionale sforzo finanziario per costruire circa 1 000 km di linee ferroviarie ad alta velocità. Ulteriori estensioni sono attualmente in costruzione o sono state pianificate, in particolare sulle principali relazioni internazionali. Questa rete è comunemente considerata fondamentale nella visione europea di un sistema di trasporto continentale. Questo articolo analizza il passato ed il futuro di questa rete, laddove possibile da un punto di vista quantitativo. La prima parte dell’articolo ripercorre la storia del progetto Alta Velocità, soffermandosi in particolare sulle questioni relative alla regolazione degli investimenti ed alle vicende finanziarie nelle prime fasi ed alle questioni attuali relative alla regolazione dei servizi ferroviari. Nella seconda parte l’analisi dell’offerta, dei guadagni di tempo permessi, della domanda e dei costi permette di sviluppare una valutazione ex post – semplificata ma indipendente - dei progetti realizzati, sottolineandone i successi e le potenzialità ancora inespresse, ma anche le significative criticità. L’ultima parte dell’articolo analizza i piani di espansione futura, confrontando i costi, la domanda esistente e quella attesa. Tale analisi permette di derivare alcune indicazioni di politica dei trasporti e strategie di riduzione dei costi, al fine di controllare la spesa pubblica in un periodo di crisi, senza abbandonare l’idea di una rete ferroviaria moderna ed efficace." "Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system. The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services. The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues. The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network."

Lorenzo Bertuccio, La mobilità sostenibile in Italia: indagine sulle principali 50 città. Edizione 2011. Roma, 23 dicembre 2011, 53 slides [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. Presentazione del Quinto rapporto sulla mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane redatto da Euromobility. "Si arricchisce in questa quinta edizione l'insieme degli indicatori di cui si è tenuto conto per stilare la classifica: oltre alle innovazioni introdotte per la gestione della mobilità (car sharing, bike sharing, mobility manager, ecc) e alla loro efficacia, allo stato di salute delle città in relazione alla presenza di auto di nuova generazione o alimentate a combustibili alternativi (gpl, metano), all'offerta di trasporto pubblico, alle piste ciclabili, all'adozione di strumenti di gestione e di pianificazione del traffico, si è tenuto anche conto del numero di parcheggi di scambio e di quelli a pagamento, del numero di incidenti e dell'indice di mortalità, del numero di autovetture per kmq, della qualità dell'aria e delle iniziative di promozione e comunicazione a favore della mobilità sostenibile. Per le innovazioni (car sharing, bike sharing ed eventi di comunicazione) si è anche tenuto conto dei miglioramenti registrati nel 2011. Le 50 città monitorate sono tutti i capoluoghi di Regione, i due capoluoghi delle Province autonome e le città con una popolazione superiore ai 100.000 abitanti.“

ACI, CENSIS, XIX rapporto ACI-CENSIS 2011, Il triennio che sta cambiando il modo di muoversi. "Auto sempre più cara: la usi meno, la paghi di più". Roma, 13 dicembre 2011, 63 p. [formato PDF, 801 kB]. "La crisi economica frena l’automobile: 1 italiano su 5 ha ridotto l’uso del proprio veicolo, che si conferma comunque il mezzo preferito per l’83,9% degli spostamenti. Sono soprattutto i giovani ad abbandonare le quattro ruote, ricorrendo più di prima a bus e due ruote; gli over45 ripiegano sulla bicicletta o una passeggiata. Riscuote un maggiore gradimento il trasporto pubblico, soprattutto in città, ma i passeggeri chiedono corse più frequenti, orari in linea con le esigenze della domanda e contributi economici per biglietti ed abbonamenti. Anche se si usa sempre meno, l’auto costa sempre di più: 3.278 euro nel 2011 contro i 3.191 del 2010 (+2,7%). Le maggiori voci di spesa sono il carburante (1.530 euro, +2,3%), l’assicurazione (715€, +2,9%) e il parcheggio (218€, +5,3%). In forte aumento le multe (+18%), frutto di maggiori controlli su strada. La crisi porta a ridurre notevolmente i costi di manutenzione ordinaria (-15,2%), ma questo fa crescere sensibilmente quelli di manutenzione straordinaria (+8,5%). Tra le spese considerate “superiori al giusto” spiccano la benzina (84% delle risposte), considerata ormai un bene di lusso, e l’assicurazione (67,6% del campione); il 40% degli italiani imputa all’alto costo della rc-auto l’aumento delle truffe assicurative. Il caro-auto favorisce l’interesse verso il car-sharing (il servizio che permette di utilizzare un veicolo su prenotazione, prelevandolo e riconsegnandolo in un parcheggio dedicato): gli utenti sono arrivati a 30.000/mese nel 2011 (+66% in tre anni). E’ un fenomeno ancora di nicchia che però rappresenta un’evoluzione della mobilità urbana. I suoi punti di forza sono l’attenzione all’ambiente e la comodità di parcheggio; da migliorare la promozione verso i cittadini, le modalità di riconsegna dell’auto e l’incentivazione all’utilizzo per periodi prolungati. Aumentano le trasgressioni “confessate” dagli automobilisti, sia quelle a basso rischio di incidentalità (divieto di sosta +9%, occupazione corsia mezzi pubblici +5%, violazione ZTL +3%), sia quelle più pericolose (sorpasso a destra +5%, superamento limiti di velocità +15%, cellulare senza vivavoce +25%). Cresce anche la percentuale dei sanzionati, soprattutto per passaggio col rosso (+8%), superamento dei limiti di velocità e mancato rispetto della precedenza (+3%). Diminuiscono invece del 4% le multe per una infrazione molto comune: l’uso del cellulare senza viva voce. Autovelox e tutor non spaventano particolarmente i conducenti: il 56% si dichiara indifferente, mentre il 29% si affida a “contromisure” come navigatori satellitari o app per smartphone. L’indagine pone in evidenza un deficit culturale: 1 automobilista su 10 non rispetta i parcheggi riservati ai disabili. A tutela della sicurezza stradale, il 44% degli italiani si dichiara favorevole all’inasprimento delle pene per i pirati della strada. Maggiore severità anche verso i conducenti ubriachi, chi passa con il rosso e guida contromano."

ACI, CENSIS, XIX rapporto ACI-CENSIS 2011, Il triennio che sta cambiando il modo di muoversi. "Auto sempre più cara: la usi meno, la paghi di più". Roma, 13 dicembre 2011, 34 slides [formato PDF, 694 kB].

Linee guida per la progettazione degli attraversamenti pedonali. ACI, Roma, novembre 2011, 187 p. [formato PDF, 7,22 MB]. Lo studio dell’ACI promuove un innovativo know how per la progettazione e la realizzazione degli attraversamenti pedonali, basato sull’analisi delle migliori esperienze europee e finalizzato all’incremento della sicurezza dei pedoni. L’obiettivo è anche quello di gettare le basi per la definizione di criteri uniformi per la normativa europea sugli attraversamenti pedonali: stesse regole per tutti, dai progettisti ai costruttori fino agli stessi pedoni. Le principali novità progettuali sono: il semaforo con un countdown che indichi ai pedoni il tempo a disposizione per l’attraversamento; l’accessibilità per tutti, con rampe più sicure e dispositivi specifici per le utenze deboli; la visibilità pedone-conducente con appositi layout per i marciapiedi e illuminazione artificiale dedicata; una segnaletica qualitativamente migliore, più percepibile dagli utenti e più duratura nel tempo. Il manuale realizzato dall’Automobile Club d’Italia si articola in quattro sezioni in cui si esaminano le normative in materia di attraversamenti pedonali in Italia, in Europa e nel mondo, con focus su Svizzera, Francia, Gran Bretagna, Usa, Australia, India e Nuova Zelanda. Un vademecum ribadisce le più corrette norme di comportamento. Vengono poi analizzate le caratteristiche funzionali degli attraversamenti pedonali con indicazioni sui criteri di progettazione: quando occorre un attraversamento, quale tipologia scegliere e dove posizionarla. Lo studio riporta anche molti schemi grafici degli elementi costruttivi che compongono un attraversamento pedonale.

Zabi Bazari, Tore Longva, Assessment of IMO mandated energy efficiency measures for international shipping. Estimated co2 emissions reduction from introduction of mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships. Project final report. Lloyd‘s Register, Det Norske Veritas, London/Oslo, 31 October 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,72 MB]. "This IMO-commissioned study into the impact of mandatory energy efficiency measures for international shipping shows that implementation of the measures will lead to significant reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships, specifically reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting from enhanced fuel efficiency. The study found that, by 2020, an average of 151.5 million tonnes of annual CO2 reductions are estimated from the introduction of the measures, a figure that by 2030, will increase to an average of 330 million tonnes annually. CO2 reduction measures will result in a significant reduction in fuel consumption, leading to a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry."

Legambiente, Rapporto Pendolaria 2011. La situazione e gli scenari del trasporto ferroviario pendolare in Italia. Roma, dicembre 2011, 71 p. [formato PDF, 4,20 MB]. "Meno 20% in Veneto, meno 13% nelle Marche, meno 12% in Liguria, meno 10% in Abruzzo e Campania: ecco solo alcuni numeri relativi ai tagli dei treni per i pendolari attuati nel 2011 nelle Regioni italiane che pure, negli ultimi due anni hanno visto aumentare le schiere degli utenti (+ 7,8%) raggiungendo quota 2 milioni e 830 mila. Numeri enormi che illustrano senza equivoci la misura in cui il disagio e le difficoltà per chi ogni giorno ha necessità di muoversi per raggiungere il proprio posto di lavoro o studio aumenteranno. Per fare esempi, vuol dire che i treni che ogni giorno attraversano Genova da Voltri a Nervi, dal 2007 ad oggi, sono passati da 51 a 37 mentre i 65 mila pendolari della linea romana da Fiumicino Aeroporto a Fara Sabina, già progettata per contenere il flusso di solo 50 mila viaggiatori giornalieri, vedono tagliati altri 4 treni; chi si muove tra Prato e Bologna ha dovuto rinunciare ad un quarto dei treni e chi viaggia tra Piacenza e Milano ha visto tagliare un terzo dei treni. E la situazione non migliorerà nel 2012, anzi: sono in programma ulteriori tagli. La manovra economica del Governo Monti ha infatti recuperato una parte del buco ereditato dal Governo Berlusconi nelle risorse per i treni pendolari, ma mancano ancora 400 milioni di euro per chiudere i bilanci 2011 e oltre 200 milioni per il 2012 se si vogliono garantire almeno i treni in circolazione. Per il 2013 si prevede di intervenire con un contributo sull’accisa, che però è ancora tutta da chiarire. Intanto aumentano i prezzi dei biglietti: +23,4% in Lombardia, + 25% in Abruzzo, + 20% in Liguria, tanto per citare i più eclatanti." Ampio dossier sul trasporto ferroviario locale in Italia, con tabelle sui costi, la spesa regionale per la gestione e l'acquisto di materiale rotabile, i problemi segnalati dai pendolari e le proposte di interventi sui nodi urbani, le realizzazioni più interessanti di nuove linee e nuovi servizi, l'integrazione tariffaria, il confronto con il resto d'Europa.

Yves Crozet, Christian Desmaris, Le transport ferroviaire régional de voyageurs: un processus collectif d’apprentissage. Recherche Transports Sécurité (RTS), 27, 3 (2011) 143-162 [formato PDF, 311 kB]. "Le transport ferroviaire régional de voyageurs se présente depuis la fin des années 90 comme une sorte d’exception française. C’est en effet un secteur où une réforme a été conduite sereinement et a connu un réel succès, sans doute car elle a été progressive et a pris le temps de l’expérimentation. Ainsi, après les 6, puis 7 régions expérimentatrices, qui se sont lancées en 1997 dans ce qui est encore un processus collectif d’apprentissage, ce sont l’ensemble des régions métropolitaines (Corse et Ile-de-France exceptées) qui sont entrées en janvier 2002 dans l’ère de la gestion décentralisée du transport régional de voyageurs. Aujourd’hui, nous avons le recul nécessaire pour évaluer ce processus d’apprentissage, son cheminement, ses résultats et ses perspectives. Une évaluation qui est, dans un premier temps, rétrospective, pour éclairer le jeu des acteurs et la nouvelle dynamique qui en a découlé, tant pour l’offre que pour la demande. Nous proposons ensuite une évaluation prospective car le succès même de la régionalisation invite à poursuivre le processus d’apprentissage, fut-ce en s’approchant de transformations qui relèvent sans doute plus de la discontinuité que de la continuité." "Regional rail passenger services are prevalent in France, as opposed to the more marginal role they play elsewhere in the world. It is indeed at the regional level that reforms have been successfully implemented, probably because the process was gradual and cautious. Initially in 1997, seven regions began experimenting with a decentralized system of regional passenger transportation services. By 2002, all metropolitan regions, with the exception of Corsica and Ilede- France, were involved. Today we have reached a point where this process can be retrospectively and prospectively assessed. This article is first an assessment of the role of actors and the emerging dynamic between regional passenger rail transport supply and demand. Then, a prospective is offered since regionalization is best understood as an ongoing learning process that can be discontinuous or continuous."

Geetam Tiwari (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi), Key Mobility Challenges in Indian Cities. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-18). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2011, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "The existing modal share in Indian cities is in favor of Non-motorized transport (NMT) and public transport. However given the hostile conditions for public transport and increasing risk to pedestrians and cyclists, the use of personal motorized vehicle is increasing. This trend is accompanied with the rise in traffic crashes and deteriorating air quality in cities. Emission levels vary with travel behavior which is dependent on city size, structure and mode choice available. In Indian cities, a large proportion of population lives in slums, for example in Mumbai percentage of population living in slums is 54.1%, Kolkata 32.5% and in Delhi it is 18.7% (Census of India, 2001). There is a significant proportion of people who cannot afford personal motorized vehicles (cars and two-wheelers) for transportation and subsidized bus systems are also too expensive for them for daily commute (Mohan and Tiwari, 2000). Their transportation needs are thus dependent on NMT (walking or cycling). As such, even in the megacities of India (population more than 8 million), 30% of the trips are made by NMT, 50% by PT (both formal bus systems and informal bus systems, tempos) and rest are by Personal Motorized Vehicles (PMV) i.e. cars and two wheelers. Any investment in infrastructure to improve mobility of motorized vehicles thus benefits only small group of affluent class of people who own PMV. Moreover, without facilities to regulate the interaction between motorized vehicles and NMT this new infrastructure limits the freedom of movement of the common citizen substantially. Also, any investments made in infrastructure to improve mobility of PMV results in improvement in vehicular speeds in the short term. This is often short lived eventually resulting in increase in congestion levels because of the increasing number of PMV (Grazi and van den Bergh, 2008). Moreover, the increasing number of PMV results in increasing negative environmental impacts like degrading air quality, noise and habitat loss and fragmentation (Demirel et al., 2008) and increasing number of accidents (Peden et al., 2004). For a long term solution and sustainable transportation it is required to promote the use of NMT and PT. This study discusses the key challenges in urban mobility in India in three parts as listed below: Urbanization and transport; Urbanization and population growth; City Profile; Vehicle ownership trends; Travel Patterns; Urban Transport challenges; Increasing share of personal motorized vehicles; Traffic crashes; Fuel consumption and GHG emissions; Current policies and interventions; NUTP; State level Policy; City level Policy."

Jan Willem Bolderdijk, Linda Steg (Univ. of Groningen), Pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance as a tool to reduce crash risk: Results so far and further potential. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-23). International Transport Forum, Paris, September 2011, 27 p. [formato PDF, 741 kB]. Prepared for the Roundtable on Insurance Costs and Accident Risks (22-23 September 2011, Paris). "In this paper, we provide an extensive summary of a field experiment we have recently conducted on the behavioural effects of pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) vehicle insurance (Bolderdijk et al., 2011a). We start with a review of the rationale for PAYD schemes from a behavioural science perspective. Next, we describe the design of our study, and discuss and elaborate on the main empirical findings. Based on this, we present practical guidelines for policy makers and insurance companies aiming to introduce PAYD schemes as a tool to reduce crash risk, improve traffic safety, and reduce the negative environmental impacts of car use."

Lars Hultkrantz, Gunnar Lindberg, Accident cost, speed and vehicle mass externalities, and insurance. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-26). International Transport Forum, Paris, September 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 613 kB]. ITF/OECD Joint Transport Research Centre Roundtable 151, 22-23 September 2011. "Traffic accidents are a human tragedy that kills 1.2 million people worldwide annually (World Health Organization, 2004). The cost of traffic accidents are huge and recent estimates for US alone suggest the cost to be USD 433 billion in year 2000 or 4.3 percentage of GDP (Parry et al, 2007). A reduction of this cost can be done in two ways, either by reducing the number of accidents or by mitigating the consequences of the existing accidents. Insurance systems can contribute to both. Vickrey (1968) suggested a partial solution to problems of unaffordable insurance, uninsured driving, premium unfairness and inefficiencies by proposing usage-based car insurance. In fact, several insurance companies have now adopted Vickrey’s idea in the form of Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) automobile insurance (Bordoff and Noel 2008). This policy enables insurers to charge the vehicle owner per mile instead of a pre-set number of miles per year. PAYD is offered to motorists on an optional basis, i.e., they can also choose a conventional scheme.2 PAYD insurance builds on the improved possibilities brought by new in-vehicle technologies for measuring distance driven. However, there is a range of other risk factors that could be supervised, some of which are already used by the insurance industry. For instance, one Swedish insurance provider charges a lower premium to vehicles that have an alco-lock installed to make it impossible to use the vehicle for an intoxicated driver. In this report, we summarize some work we have done on how to incorporate two of the most important risk factors; vehicle mass and speed. The possibility to differentiate insurance premiums according to various risk factors raises questions on the interaction between vehicle insurance schemes and taxes. Distance driven, speeding and vehicle mass are in many countries subject to taxation (for instance gasoline tax for distance, speeding tickets for speed and vehicle tax for vehicle mass). These kind of taxes can be thought of as (often imperfectly implemented) Pigou taxes levied by a principal (a state regulator) that wants to control agents (motorists) that cause various externalities. Insurance companies are then another principal influencing these agents. As the state and the insurance companies have different objective functions and are subject to different legal, informational and technological constraints, taxes and insurance programs are imperfect substitutes as instruments for influencing road traffic safety. In section 2 we will briefly discuss how a PAYD scheme with a speeding penalty (this will here be called Pay As You Speed, PAYS) can be combined with taxes to implement a Pigou taxation of road accident externalities. PAYS vehicle insurance is designed to affect speed, which is a main risk factor that affects the number of accidents as well as the severity of accidents. In section 3 we summarize results from a vehicle-fleet experiment with a PAYS insurance incentive for keeping within speed limits using a speed-alert device. The PAYS scheme was simulated with a monthly bonus to participants during two months reduced by a non-linear speeding penalty. Participants were randomly assigned into four treatment and two control groups. A third control group consisted of drivers who had the device and were monitored, but did not participate. We found that participating drivers reduced severe speeding during the first month, but in the second, after having received feedback reports with an account of earned payments, only those that were given a penalty changed behaviour. In sections 4 and 5 we turn to another major risk factor; vehicle mass. Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a twovehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time it inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner vehicle. In section 4 we analyse this “mass externality” using a database including collision accidents in Sweden involving two passenger cars during five years. In each accident the two involved vehicles are divided into the lighter vehicle and the heavier vehicle and the effect of weight is examined separately for the two groups. We find that the accident costs that fall on the lighter vehicle increases with the mass of the heavier vehicle and decreases with its own mass. Given that a vehicle is the heavier one in the crash, neither the own mass nor the mass of the lighter vehicle significantly affect the accident cost. The expected external accident cost is calculated and it is shown to increase rapidly with vehicle mass. Section 5, finally, uses the results from the previous section to discuss different solutions to internalization of this external accident cost. We calculate a mass dependent multiplicative tax on the insurance premium in a no-fault insurance system. Sections 2 and 3 on PAYS insurance are brief summaries of studies that will soon be published, and therefore can be read in full length elsewhere, while sections 4 and 5 on differentiation with respect to vehicle mass present more novel results and will therefore be presented more extensively."

S.E. Newton, Y. Kawabata, R. Smith, The Balance of Container Traffic amongst European Ports. Final Report. NEA, Zoetermeer, Netherlands, October 2011, 112 p. [formato PDF, 3,40 MB]. Report to: Port of Antwerp, Port of Rotterdam, Port of Hamburg. "Research conducted by the independent transport research agency, NEA indicates that the Northern seaports offer the most efficient route for container transport into a large part of the central European hinterland. Seaports located in the North of Europe have four times the container throughput of the principal ports competing along the Southern coastline of Europe. The analysis concludes that the distribution patterns underlying these shares is efficient, and is explained by a persistent combination of economic and geographical factors. The analysis was carried out on behalf of the Ports of Antwerp, Rotterdam and Hamburg. Five main factors determine the efficiency of the current situation. First, cargo generation and attraction rates are higher in the Northern Continent. The distribution of economic activity suggests a natural split of 70% for the Northern half. Second, Europe's physical geography strengthens the position of the Northern ports. The Alps and the Rhine waterways form a natural barrier and a natural corridor respectively, extending the catchment area of the Northern ports towards Switzerland and Austria. These two factors, volume and terrain, have assisted in the development of high capacity, low cost intermodal corridors being developed from the Northern range. Third, scale economies in the maritime networks linked to the Northern European ports are extending their competitive hinterlands further to the South. Deployment of large container vessels is lowering costs between Northern ports and the Far East. Clustering of activity, scale economies and deep water at the North European main ports permits the use of ships with the lowest unit costs available. Fourth, the ability of the Northern main ports to combine transhipment and hinterland functions contributes further to the scale effect. Finally, from an environmental perspective, large container ships are less polluting in terms of CO2 per tonne kilometre. This advantage is applicable for the full 20,000 kilometre trajectory between China and Western Europe. While it might be expected that current distribution patterns are efficient in terms of minimising internal costs, the study shows that including external costs within the optimisation of traffic distribution does not radically change the picture. Both internal and external cost drivers are similar, for example distance, modal split, fuel economy, scale and load factors. Considering both internal costs and external costs for a container arriving from the Far East via Suez, the Northern European ports have an advantage that reaches as far as the Southern German border. The findings of the study indicate that on the maritime side, market forces already play an important role in creating incentives for low transport costs and lowering carbon emission rates per container unit. It shows that attention must focus on technology, fuels, and load factors as well as on port selection. Largest volumes in the North, but fastest market growth in the South Economic growth in Slovenia, Croatia, and Hungary, resulting from improved infrastructure and economic integration, will foster scale economies in the South. Furthermore, inland intermodal links towards Hungary will help Adriatic ports to gain more shares. In the North however, market growth, even under pessimistic growth assumptions, is likely to be still strongly positive in absolute terms. Thus there is a continuing need for high capacity multimodal links. Future developments on Alpine routes: no extra capacity for maritime traffic On the inland side, the study confirms and supports the direction of the TEN-T core network policy, with the development of long distance multimodal corridors concentrating the flows between the main gateway ports and the inland centres of population and industry. In future, engineering a significant North to South shift through intervention will be limited by the availability and cost of rail infrastructure in the Alpine region. The additional rail capacity offered on Transalpine routes (the Mont Cenis, Lötschberg, Gotthard and Brenner) is likely to be needed for enabling road to rail shifts within intra-European flows rather than for reducing maritime traffic around the Atlantic coastline."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. of Sassari), Get out of the car! Actors and institutions to change the transport regime, 2nd International TEMPO Conference, Oslo, 31.01-01.02.2011, 12 slides [formato PowerPoint, 627 kB].

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. of Sassari), Structure, agency and change in the car regime. A review of the literature, European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 47 (2011): 1-18 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 276 kB]. "This paper is aimed at filling the gap between the already well structured literature on the 'car regime' and the debate on policies for sustainable transport. Two main results emerge from the literature on the past and current evolution of the car regime: - the car regime was established thanks to the ability of purposeful private actors to use the technology of internal combustion to influence markets and institutions, and finally society as a whole; - previous attempts to make urban and regional mobility more sustainable fail because multiple - and mutually reinforcing - path-dependence phenomena lock the society into the car regime. For the future, the dominant scenario appears to be the internal transformation of the existing car regime, which is currently driven by the automotive industry and based on hybrid technology; the emergence of an alternative electric car regime - driven by producers of batteries and managers of electric utilities - remains a secondary option. Further research is needed to understand how - starting from the existing alternatives to the car and the innovations in the car itself - a coalition of public and private actors may be promoted and sustained to create a new regime of sustainable mobility."

Servizio Studi della Camera dei Deputati, L’attuazione della "legge obiettivo", 6. Rapporto per la VIII Commissione ambiente, territorio e lavori pubblici, n.268, Roma, 5 settembre 2011, 278 p. [formato PDF, 7,64 MB].

Servizio Studi della Camera dei Deputati, L’attuazione della “Legge Obiettivo”, Tabelle sullo stato degli interventi. Rapporto per la VIII Commissione ambiente, territorio e lavori pubblici, n.268/1, Roma, 5 settembre 2011, 165 p. [formato PDF, 612 kB].

Servizio Studi della Camera dei Deputati, L’attuazione della “Legge Obiettivo”: opere strategiche e contesto regionale. Rapporto per la VIII Commissione ambiente, territorio e lavori pubblici, n.268/2, Roma, 5 settembre 2011, 220 p. [formato PDF, 2,84 MB].

Servizio Studi della Camera dei Deputati, L’attuazione della “Legge Obiettivo”: schede relative agli interventi deliberati dal CIPE. Rapporto per la VIII Commissione ambiente, territorio e lavori pubblici, Roma, 5 settembre 2011, 188 schede [formato PDF].

Fabrizio Balassone e Piero Casadio (a cura di), Le infrastrutture in Italia: dotazione, programmazione, realizzazione. (Seminari e convegni / Workshops and Conferences). Banca d’Italia, Roma, Aprile 2011, 776 p. [formato PDF, 5,19 MB]. "l volume raccoglie una serie di ricerche presentate nel corso del convegno Le infrastrutture in Italia, tenuto a Perugia il 14-15 ottobre 2010. I lavori analizzano: la relazione tra investimenti pubblici e crescita economica; la dotazione e l'accessibilità delle infrastrutture sul territorio; le risorse finanziarie, pubbliche e private, destinate alle opere pubbliche; le procedure che governano la programmazione e la realizzazione degli investimenti; le reti e i servizi di trasporto. Il contenuto del volume costituisce il materiale di base per il convegno "Le infrastrutture in Italia: dotazione, programmazione, realizzazione", tenuto a Roma il 28 aprile 2011."

Todd Litman, Smart Congestion Relief: Comprehensive Analysis Of Traffic Congestion Costs and Congestion Reduction Benefits. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, October 2011, 40 p. [formato PDF, 409 kB]. "This report critically evaluates the methods used to measure traffic congestion impacts. Current methods tend to exaggerate congestion costs and roadway expansion benefits. This study develops a more comprehensive evaluation framework which is applied to various congestion reduction strategies. The results indicate that highway expansion often provides less overall benefit than alternative congestion reduction policies. Comprehensive evaluation can identify more efficient and equitable congestion solutions."

Frank Kelly, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, H. Ross Anderson, Ben Barratt, Sean Beevers, Derek Cook, Dave Green, Dick Derwent, Ian Mudway, and Paul Wilkinson, The London Low Emission Zone Baseline Study. (Research Report n.163). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, November 2011, 116 p. [formato PDF, 3,05 MB] "This report describes a study by Dr. Frank Kelly of King's College London and colleagues evaluating the feasibility of studying potential changes in air quality and health associated with the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ), which went into effect in 2008 and restricts entry of older, more polluting vehicles into Greater London. Based on their earlier study of London's Congestion Charging Scheme, the investigators conducted emissions and exposure modeling to estimate the projected effects of LEZ implementation. They also assessed the feasibility of using medical records from private practices to evaluate the relationships between exposure to traffic and indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular disease."

Martin Andersson, Lars Modig, Linnea Hedman, Bertil Forsberg and Eva Rönmark, Heavy vehicle traffic is related to wheeze among schoolchildren: a population-based study in an area with low traffic flows. Environmental Health 2011, 10:91 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 393 kB]. "Background. An association between traffic air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children has been reported. However, the effects of traffic air pollution on asthma and wheeze have been very sparsely studied in areas with low traffic intensity in cold climate with poor dispersion. We evaluated the impact of vehicle traffic on childhood asthma and wheeze by objective exposure assessment. Methods. As a part of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending first or second grade in Luleå (72,000 inhabitants) in Northern Sweden in 2006. The age of the children was 7-8 years and the participation rate was 98% (n = 1357). Skin prick tests were performed in 1224 (89%) children. The home addresses were given geographical coordinates and traffic counts were obtained from the local traffic authorities. A proximity model of average daily traffic and average daily heavy vehicle traffic within 200 meters from each participant's home address was used. The associations between traffic exposure and asthma and wheeze, respectively, were analysed in an adjusted multiple logistic regression model. Results. Exposure to high traffic flows was uncommon in the study area; only 15% of the children lived within 200 meters from a road with a traffic flow of ?8000 vehicles per day. Living closer than 200 meters from a road with ?500 heavy vehicles daily was associated with current wheeze, odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relation was indicated. An increased risk of asthma was also seen, however not significant, odds ratio 1.5 (confidence interval 0.8-2.9). Stratified analyses revealed that the effect of traffic exposure was restricted to the non-sensitized phenotype of asthma and wheeze. The agreement between self-reported traffic exposure and objective measurements of exposure was moderate. Conclusions. This study showed that already at low levels of exposure, vehicle traffic is related to an increased risk of wheeze among children. Thus, the global burden of traffic air pollution may be underestimated."

Frank Kelly, H. Ross Anderson, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, Ben Barratt, Sean Beevers, Dick Derwent, David Green, Ian Mudway, and Paul Wilkinson, The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London. Part 1. Emissions Modeling and Analysis of Air Pollution Measurements; Part 2. Analysis of the Oxidative Potential of Particulate Matter. (Research Report n.155). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, April 2011, 194 p. [formato PDF, 8,77 MB] "This report describes a study by Dr. Frank Kelly of King's College, London and colleagues that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). The investigators used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors."

Eric M. Fujita, David E. Campbell, Barbara Zielinska, William P. Arnott, and Judith C. Chow, Concentrations of Air Toxics in Motor Vehicle-Dominated Environments. (Research Report n.156). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, February 2011, 110 p. [formato PDF, 3,89 MB] "This report describes research funded under HEI's Air Toxics Hot Spot program. Dr. Eric Fujita and colleagues characterized concentrations of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other pollutants in potential Los Angeles County pollution hot spots, including on urban highways with a varying mix of gasoline- and diesel-powered traffic and sites at various distances from the highways and close to other roads. They conducted source apportionment using a chemical mass balance model to estimate the contributions of gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, and compared source contributions at the different sites."

Alexander Grous, The British Cycling Economy. ‘Gross Cycling Product’ Report. London School of Economics, 2011, 17 p. [formato PDF, 1,40 MB]. "The GCP report was conceived by Sky and British Cycling and has been made a reality through the London School of Economics." "Cycling in the UK has undergone a renaissance over the past five years, with an increasing number of people taking to the streets of the UK by bike. Over the years there has also been an array of research into different areas of cycling and its associated benefits but no single overview of the cycling sector and its associated benefits. This report sets out to define the ‘cycling economy’ lying behind this growth in numbers. Structural, economic, social and health factors have caused a ‘shift in the sand’ in the UK, spurring an expansion in the cycling market with indications that this will be a longer-term trend. This growth in cycling participation has had the knock-on effect of bringing economic and social benefits to the UK. In 2010 the result was a gross cycling contribution to the UK economy of £2.9b. In addition, this report sets out to quantify the economic benefits generated by each individual cyclist, taking into account factors including bicycle manufacturing, cycle and accessory retail, and employment. In 2010, we determine that the gross cycling product (GCP) reached £230 per cyclist, per annum. If this trend of growth in cycling participation continues, 1m additional Regular Cyclists could contribute £141m to the UK economy by 2013 whilst concurrently reducing absenteeism and improving the individual’s health, providing an incremental economic benefit."

José Ignacio Nazif, Guía práctica para el diseño e implementación de políticas de seguridad vial integrales, considerando el rol de la infraestructura. Documento de proyecto. (LC/W.380-P/E). CEPAL, Santiago de Chile, Abril de 2011, 58 p. [formato PDF, 597 kB]. "América Latina y el Caribe tiene una de las más altas tasas de víctimas mortales asociadas al tránsito con 15,01 fallecidos por cada 100.000 habitantes (OMS, 2009). En este contexto CEPAL junto a OPS han liderado un trabajo que busca cooperar en el diseño de políticas públicas de seguridad vial de la región, con una mirada multisectorial y de largo plazo. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo proponer a los países de la región un proceso de formulación de políticas de seguridad vial en el cual se distingan medidas relativas a la infraestructura. El trabajo, en primer lugar, discute el sistema social sobre el cual la seguridad vial se despliega. Segundo, establece una clasificación de prácticas o medidas, las cuales se adaptan a una metodología desarrollada por la Comisión Europea. La adaptación de esta metodología fue necesaria porque se agregan propuestas llevadas a cabo en Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, México, Perú, Paraguay, Saint Lucia, Surinam, Trinidad y Tobago y Uruguay. En tercer término, se aplica un ejercicio para determinar los porcentajes de reducción en la fatalidad de siniestros de tránsito que un país de esta región podría obtener en ocho años. Para ello se utiliza sólo medidas que presentan resultados comprobados en la reducción de fatalidades. Con ello se puede apreciar la proyección de la disminución de fatalidades para medidas ambiciosas y realistas. Para eso se trabaja con los datos correspondientes a la base de datos de siniestros de tránsito de Chile. El trabajo termina con una propuesta que considera un circuito sobre cómo se pueden implementar las medidas de seguridad vial de forma grupal o individual, proponiendo un set de criterios para evaluar la implementación de las medidas discutidas."

ACI, Legambiente, La mobilità per tutti nella città di domani. 13 proposte di ACI e Legambiente per la mobilità sostenibile. Roma, 22 settembre 2011, 16 p. [formato PDF, 191 kB]. "ACI e Legambiente sollecitano l’emanazione di una legge quadro che permetta di attuare un piano della mobilità di medio e lungo periodo che consenta finalmente un’efficace governance della mobilità urbana, superando la modalità dell’intervento d’emergenza. A questo scopo la norma quadro pensata da ACI e Legambiente dovrebbe prevedere una Valutazione di Impatto sulla Mobilità, una sorta di procedura preliminare a qualsiasi intervento urbanistico-territoriale che valuti l’opportunità della realizzazione sulla base dell’accesso ai servizi di mobilità. La norma quadro dovrebbe altresì stabilire criteri uniformi che guidino gli amministratori nella scelta dei provvedimenti da adottare per limitare il traffico. Non solo individuando le tipologie di veicoli in base alle dotazioni tecnologiche, ma anche alternative di trasporto, una segnaletica ad hoc per le limitazioni, e una metodologia di valutazione ex-post dei provvedimenti che misuri i risultati e permetta di comunicarli ai cittadini. La priorità negli investimenti per la mobilità, secondo ACI e Legambiente, dovrebbe essere data alla flotta del trasporto pubblico locale, perché diventi meno inquinante e più adeguata all’estensione del centro urbano e al numero di abitanti. In questo modo verrebbe prima potenziata l’accessibilità ai centri urbani e poi si potrebbe eventualmente valutare l’introduzione nelle grandi aree del road pricing, definendo criteri uniformi per le politiche tariffarie. Nella ricetta di ACI e Legambiente per la mobilità sostenibile ci sono lo sviluppo di parcheggi di scambio e residenziali non su strada, l’ampliamento del numero e dell’estensione delle isole pedonali e delle “zone 30”, nonché la diffusione di sistemi razionali di sosta a pagamento, con tariffe differenziate per zona e orario. Particolare attenzione è riservata agli utenti deboli della strada (pedoni, ciclisti, disabili) per i quali si dovrebbero stanziare molte più risorse per la realizzazione di isole pedonali e reti di piste ciclabili. Per fluidificare la circolazione lungo le grandi arterie, invece, si dovrebbero realizzare vie verdi con sosta vietata."

Jos G.J. Olivier, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Jeroen A.H.W. Peters, Julian Wilson, Long-term trend in global CO2 emissions. 2011 report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, September 2011, 42 p. [formato PDF, 892 kB]. "After a 1% decline in 2009, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased by more than 5% in 2010, which is unprecedented in the last two decades, but similar to the increase in 1976 when the global economy was recovering from the first oil crisis and subsequent stock market crash. CO2 emissions went up in most of the major economies, led by China and India with increases of 10% and 9% respectively. The average annual growth rate in CO2 emissions over the last three years of the credit crunch, including a 1% increase in 2008 when the first impacts became visible, is 1.7%, almost equal to the long-term annual average of 1.9% for the preceding two decades back to 1990. However, most industrialised countries have not recovered fully from their decreases in emissions of 7 to 12% in 2009. The industrialised countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol plus the non-ratifying USA have emitted approximately 7.5% less CO2 in 2010 than in 1990 and collectively remain on target to meet the original Kyoto Protocol objective of a 5.2% reduction. However, there are large national differences, with for instance over the period 1990 – 2010 decreases in CO2 emissions in the EU and Russia, increases in the USA and stabilisation in Japan. The efforts of the industrialised countries are increasingly hidden in the global picture where their share of CO2 emissions has dropped from about two-thirds to less than half since 1990. Continued growth in the developing nations and economic recovery in the industrialised countries are the main reasons for a record breaking 5.8% increase in 2010 in global CO2 emissions to an absolute maximum of 33.0 billion ton. Increased energy end-use efficiency, nuclear energy and the growing contribution from renewable energy cannot yet compensate for the globally increasing demand for power and transport. This illustrates the large and joint effort still required for mitigating climate change. These preliminary estimates have been made by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) on the basis of energy consumption data for 2008 to 2010 recently published by BP. The estimates are also based on production data for cement, lime, ammonia and steel and emissions per country from 1970 to 2008 from version 4.2 of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), a joint project of JRC and PBL."

Michèle Léglise, Les émissions de CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers. Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, La Défense, Septembre 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,05 MB]. "Comme pour les véhicules particuliers, le Conseil de l’Union européenne a adopté le 11 mai 2011 un règlement limitant les émissions de CO2 des VUL neufs à une moyenne de 175 g/km à partir de 2017. Il devrait à terme permettre d’avoir un parc moins émetteur. Cette étude propose une évaluation des émissions en CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers (VUL) et compare leur évolution avec celle des voitures particulières et des poids lourds. L’évaluation est faite à partir des résultats de l’enquête 2006 sur les VUL (dernière enquête disponible) et à partir des comptes des transports de la Nation (CCTN) de 1990 à 2010. Cette analyse montre que les émissions de CO2 des véhicules utilitaires légers ont représenté 17,7 millions de tonnes en 2005. Mises en regard des émissions des autres véhicules routiers, les émissions des VUL représentent 18% des émissions de l’ensemble du trafic routier national. La part des émissions liées aux VUL n’a cessé de croître au cours des vingt dernières années. De 1990 à 2007, le taux de croissance annuel moyen des émissions en CO2 a presque atteint 2% pour les VUL, plus élevé que pour les PL (+1,3%) et surtout que les VP (+0,7%). La progression plus faible en 2008 et 2009 résulte d’une légère baisse du trafic en 2008, moins accentuée toutefois que pour les voitures particulières et surtout les poids lourds qui ont plus fortement réagi à la crise, mais avec amorce d’une reprise en 2010."

European Environmental Agency, Laying the foundations for greener transport. TERM 2011: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (EEA Report n.7/2011), EEA, Copenhagen, 2011, 92 p. [formato PDF, 4,73 MB]. "For the first time ever the European Commissions is proposing a greenhouse gas emissions target for transport. But how is transport going to provide the services that our society needs while minimising its environmental impacts? This is the theme for the Transport White Paper launched in 2011. TERM 2011 and future reports aim to deliver an annual assessment on progress towards these targets by introducing the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism Core Set of Indicators (TERM-CSI). TERM 2011 provides also the baseline to which progress will be checked against, covering most of the environmental areas, including energy consumption, emissions, noise and transport demand. In addition, this report shows latest data and discuss on the different aspects that can contribute the most to minimise transport impacts. TERM 2011 applies the avoid-shift-improve (ASI) approach, introduced in the previous TERM report, analysing ways to optimise transport demand, obtain a more sustainable modal split or use the best technology available."

Vincent Frigant, Three uncertainties looming over the European auto industry. (Cahiers du GREThA n° 2011-34). GREThA, Université de Bordeaux, 2011, 28 p. [formato PDF, 518 kB]. "The European automotive industry has once again entered a period of uproar. The crisis of 2008/2009 is far from over but probably marks the start of a new era that some observers are starting to refer to as the second automobile revolution. In this article, we will be trying to emphasize three major uncertainties that weigh upon the European automotive industry. The first relates to the future products that the sector is looking to manufacture and sell. This will involve questions about electric vehicles but also how internal combustion vehicles might be sold to more tone-deaf European consumers. The second section will revisit the outsourcing strategies that have arisen over the past 30 years, together with their increasingly obvious limitations. The final section will highlight the profound geographic recomposition that has taken place under our eyes over the past decade or so, and which speaks directly to the issue of Old Europe’s productive capacities in the future."

Il pedaggio delle reti ferroviarie in Europa. (I quaderni dell'Ufficio Studi n.2). Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori S.p.A., Roma, ottobre 2011, 160 p. [formato PDF, 15,70 MB]. "In conclusione a noi sembra che con questo Quaderno 2 sia stato con chiarezza evidenziato che il pedaggio per l’utilizzo delle reti ferroviarie rappresenta ben di più di uno strumento economico-finanziario: è di fatto un fondamentale strumento di politica dei trasporti, mediante il quale indirizzare l’andamento del mercato ferroviario sia sul lato dell’offerta (monopolio o concorrenza) sia sul lato della domanda (competizione tra modalità di trasporto). Non è superfluo ricordare che tutti i paesi del nord Europa, pur appartenenti a differenti tradizioni culturali e politiche (dal liberismo britannico alle socialdemocrazie scandinave), quando si sono ritrovati al crocevia del mercato hanno sempre scelto negli ultimi decenni di avviarsi sulla strada della concorrenza, raggiungendo in tal modo la meta di un significativo rilancio del trasporto ferroviario, oggettivamente dimostrato dalla crescita della sua quota modale."

Study on Public Transport Smartcards – Final Report. AECOM, European Commission DG MOVE, Birmingham / Bruxelles, 2011, 98 p. [formato PDF, 944 kB]. "The report summarises the results of a study undertaken on behalf of the European Commission by the EC Smartcards Study consortium including AECOM, the lead consultant, The Transport Operations Group (TORG) of Newcastle University, PJohnson Associates, AustriaTech and NEA. It presents recommendations regarding possible actions at the EU level to encourage and support interoperability between current and future public transport schemes, through the use of Smartcards. Recommended actions have been assessed, in terms of their possible costs to the EC and the possible benefits that might accrue to scheme owners, public transport operators, public transport users and the public in general, through the bringing forward of more schemes and in a more integrated way than might otherwise be the case. In addition to consultations with selected scheme owners, worldwide, a Practitioners Panel including 40+ members, representative of key players in the Smart Ticketing value chain has been established to review and comment on the merit of the actions proposed."

Green light for light rail. (Report). Department for Transport, London, September 2011, 61 p. [file PDF, 560 kB]. "The terms of reference for this review were: what are the key cost drivers for light rail?; and what steps could be taken to help make this mode more cost effective in the future? In the latest light rail and tram statistics published in August 2011, passenger journeys in England for light rail and tram systems have shown to have increased by 5.5 per cent between 2009/10 and 2010/11 with 196.5 million passenger journeys in 2010/11. This represents the highest number of passenger journeys to date. There are eight tramway/light rail systems currently in operation in England. These are in Croydon, London's Docklands, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield, Tyne and Wear, Nottingham and Blackpool. There are currently a number of extensions to the Manchester Metrolink system under construction, funded with Central Government support and which will see Metrolink extended to Oldham and Rochdale, as well as Ashton-Under-Lyne and East Didsbury. Further extensions to the system are under active consideration by Transport for Greater Manchester, the local transport authority, using local sources of funding. In addition, the upgrade to the Blackpool and Fleetwood tramway is well underway and is nearing completion, as well as work commencing on the modernisation of the Tyne and Wear Metro. Further extensions to existing networks are also close to final approval. These include extensions to the Midland Metro Line One into Birmingham city centre and to the Nottingham Express Transit system. In addition a new tram system in Edinburgh is being developed. Today’s report builds on action already taken since May 2010 in support of light rail, including: - removing the requirement for light rail schemes to have a higher proportion of local contributions compared to other modes; - providing funding support to a number of light rail schemes; and - supporting a tram train pilot in South Yorkshire and working with Hertfordshire County Council/Network Rail on the possibility of converting the St Albans Abbey Line to light rail. The review has considered evidence from the various inquiries that have taken place previously. This includes findings from the reports published by the National Audit Office, the Transport Select Committee and the All Party Parliamentary Light Rail Group. Further evidence was also provided by other organisations such as UKTram and scheme promoters, as well as research on costs of major infrastructure projects undertaken overseas for which the Department is very grateful." "Light rail has a future in this country if capital costs can be reduced Local Transport Minister Norman Baker said today as he published a review looking at how trams can be more cost effective in the future. Despite tram passenger numbers being at record levels, high building costs have meant that even where passenger forecasts may justify its consideration, light rail has often not been seen as an affordable option for local transport authorities. Recommendations from the review for local authorities and industry include: - to implement a new project design of light rail systems which is uniform across the industry; - to look at lower cost schemes overseas to see whether they could be adopted in this country; and - to set up a ‘centre of procurement excellence’ to advise on the best procurement options." "Findings show that light rail has the potential to provide high capacity transport into and around major conurbations which reduces congestion, supports growth and improves regeneration opportunities. The Department will therefore hold a summit of the light rail sector to agree a sector-led implementation plan for getting light rail on the right track. The report found that one of the main reasons for high construction costs is the need to divert and locate utilities which lie under the road where the tram is to be built e.g. water and gas main pipes. The Department for Transport will now launch a consultation to seek views on how this system can be simplified and ultimately how costs can be reduced."

Inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels. Preliminary version. Paris, OECD, 2011, 355 p. [formato PDF, 4,97 MB]. "This document provides preliminary quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. This information has been compiled as part of the OECD's programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It is also intended to inform the on-going efforts of the Group of Twenty (G20) nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. It may be seen as a complement to the information on fossil-fuel consumption subsidies that has been compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA), primarily for developing and emerging economies." "Covering 24 countries, which account for about 95% of OECD’s total primary energy supply, the Inventory shows that 54% of this support was for petroleum. Overall, the support to fossil-fuel production and consumption in OECD countries was USD 45 – 75 billion annually during the 2005 – 2010 period."

Peter Midgley, Bicycle-Sharing Schemes: Enhancing Sustainable Mobility in Urban Areas. (Background Paper No. 8; CSD19/2011/BP8). United Nations, Commission on Sustainable Development, New York, 2-13 May 2011, 26 p. [formato PDF, 907 kB]

Ecosistema Urbano 2011. XVIII Rapporto sulla qualità ambientale dei comuni capoluogo di provincia. Metodologia e tabelle. Legambiente, Roma, 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 5,04 MB] "La XVIII edizione del rapporto Ecosistema Urbano impiega 25 indici tematici basati su una settantina di indicatori primari (ed oltre 120 parametri) per confrontare tra loro 104 capoluoghi di provincia italiani. L’insieme degli indicatori selezionati per la graduatoria di Ecosistema Urbano copre tutte le principali componenti ambientali presenti in una città: aria, acque, rifiuti, trasporti e mobilità, spazio e verde urbano, energia, politiche ambientali pubbliche e private. Tali indicatori consentono di valutare tanto i fattori di pressione e la qualità delle componenti ambientali, quanto la capacità di risposta e di gestione ambientale. Nell’edizione di quest’anno sono stati introdotti alcuni cambiamenti. Il più significativo è stata la scelta di suddividere le città in tre gruppi e di valutare ciascun gruppo separatamente. I 104 capoluoghi considerati sono stati così separati in: 15 città grandi (con popolazione superiore ai 200.000 abitanti), 44 città medie (con popolazione compresa tra 80.000 e 200.000 abitanti) e 45 città piccole (con popolazione inferiore a 80.000 abitanti). In questo modo il confronto è realizzato tra gruppi di città omogenei rispetto a molte problematiche di gestione della città stessa: ad esempio il trasporto pubblico e la raccolta differenziata di una metropoli sono così valutati in riferimento ad obiettivi diversi, rispetto a quelli di un piccolo centro dove ci si sposta più facilmente a piedi e dove la quantità di spazzatura è più gestibile. Inoltre confrontare due città con popolazione simile rende più significativo il paragone tra i valori degli indicatori pro capite calcolati. Altre modifiche sono state introdotte negli indici e nel numero di città considerate. Si riassumono di seguito le principali variazioni apportate: -il numero delle città considerate passa da 103 a 104, con l'ingresso di Monza nelle graduatorie; -è stato eliminato l’indicatore sui consumi di carburanti pro capite, indicatore a carattere provinciale e poco significativo in ambito strettamente comunale; -è stato introdotto un indice sintetico di ciclabilità che valuta alcuni interventi dell’amministrazione per favorire la mobilità ciclabile (ad esempio la presenza di bike sharing, l’adozione di un biciplan, la presenza di parcheggi di interscambio, ecc…); -è stato modificato l’indice di mobilità sostenibile, togliendo le informazioni sul tema della ciclabilità e su altri interventi meno significativi, e introducendo il car sharing; -è stato modificato l’indice delle piste ciclabili, introducendo nuove categorie di piste ciclabili (quelle su marciapiede), considerando solo le piste urbane ed eliminando quelle con valenza turistica. In accordo con gli esperti della Fiab (Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta), si è inoltre scelto di revisionare i pesi adottati per ricondurre i chilometri delle diverse tipologie di piste ad una “lunghezza equivalente"; -è stato modificato l’indice di eco management introducendo informazioni sugli appalti verdi; -è stato modificato l’indice di pianificazione e partecipazione introducendo l’adozione del Piano d’Azione per l’Energia Sostenibile (PAES); -gli indici di qualità dell’aria di NO2 e PM10 sono stati calcolati solo per le centraline urbane, in modo da avere dei dati più omogenei; -è stato modificato l’indice Energie rinnovabili e teleriscaldamento, eliminando l’indice di Energia da biogas e biomassa a causa dei pochi ed incerti dati ricevuti in merito."

Daniel Albalate del Sol, Maria Lluïsa Sort García, Universitat de Barcelona, La liberalización del ferrocarril de mercancías en europa: ¿éxito o fracaso?. (Documentos de Trabajo No 592). Fundación de las Cajas de Ahorros, Madrid, abril de 2011, 40 p. [formato PDF, 313 kB]. "Tras años de caída en la cuota de mercado del transporte de mercancías por ferrocarril en la mayoría de los países de la Unión Europea, se han impulsado medidas de Política Económica destinadas a la mejora del desarrollo de éste modo de transporte. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar, en términos de cuota de mercado y con la estimación de un pool de datos para 20 países de la Unión Europea para el período 1997-2007, el impacto de dicha política. Los resultados obtenidos son, principalmente, que la separación entre la gestión de la infraestructura y la operadora ha conllevado mejoras en la cuota de mercado del ferrocarril, mientras que la total apertura de los derechos de acceso a la infraestructura, la ha hecho disminuir."

Petter Næss, Arvid Strand, Teresa Næss and Morten Nicolaisen, On their road to sustainability? The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development in two Scandinavian capital regions. Town Planning Review, 82 (3) 2011, 285-315 (32 p.) [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "The metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Oslo (Norway) both aim to facilitate economic development, opportunities for choice and growth in the building stock while limiting negative environmental consequences. Since the 1990s, the rate of consumption of land for urban development has been lower than the economic growth rate in both city regions. Land use policies in Oslo and to some extent in Copenhagen have been explicitly geared towards limiting traffic growth. In both cities, public transport improvements have been combined with road capacity increases. Traffic growth has therefore only been weakly decoupled from economic growth. In both city regions, lack of coordination between sectors, levels and administrative territories is conceived a barrier to sustainability."

Shared Space. Local Transport Note 1/11. Department for Transport, London, October 2011, 56 p. [formato PDF, 1,41 MB] "Shared space is a design approach that seeks to change the way streets operate by reducing the dominance of motor vehicles, primarily through lower speeds and encouraging drivers to behave more accommodatingly towards pedestrians. In the UK, shared space is usually applied to links and minor junctions with the aim of allowing pedestrians to move more freely within the space. This Local Transport Note (LTN) focuses on High Street environments, but many of its principles will apply to other types of shared space."

Enrique Peñalosa, Mobility, Sustainability and Quality of Life. Seminar at the Institute of Transport and Logistic Studies, Sydney, 11 March 2011, presentation, 239 slides [formato PDF, 4,91 MB]. (Enrique Penalosa is currently President of the Board of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy based in New York. He has lectured all over the world in governmental, academic and citizens' forums. Mr Penalosa is an urban strategist whose vision and proposals have significantly influenced policies in numerous cities throughout the world. As former Mayor of Bogota, the 7 million inhabitants' capital of Colombia, Mr Penalosa profoundly transformed the city, turning it into an international example for improvements in quality of life, mobility and equity to developing world cities. During his tenure as Mayor, Mr Penalosa created TransMilenio, a bus rapid transit (BRT) system that is regarded as the world's best for its capacity, speed and cost efficiency. A similar system in Curitiba, Brazil, was its inspiration. An accomplished public official, economist and administrator, Mr Penalosa served as mayor from 1998 to 2001. Mr Penalosa helped develop a model for urban improvement based on all people having equal access to quality transportation, education and public spaces. During his tenure, Mr Penalosa was responsible for numerous initiatives to make the city more pedestrian-friendly, including building hundreds of kilometers of protected bicycle paths, pedestrian-and-bicycle-only promenades, greenways and parks.)

Mario Cavargna (Pro Natura), 150 nuove ragioni contro la Torino-Lione. Brevi considerazioni tecniche sul progetto per l'occasione dei 150 anni dell'Unità d'Italia e dei 20 anni del movimento No Tav. 2011, 64 p. [formato PDF, totale 477 kB]. Aggiornamento al 2011 del testo "Cento ragioni contro la TAV in valle di Susa" del 2006 e successivi aggiornamenti. Un testo che ogni giornalista e politico dovrebbe leggere prima di parlare della Lione-Torino!

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits. PNAS October 4, 2011, vol. 108 no. 40, 16554-16558 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 462 kB]. "We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent." Articolo a pagamento, accesso gratuito dopo 6 mesi dalla data di pubblicazione.

Guangqing Chi, Jeremy R. Porter, Arthur G. Cosby, David Levinson, A Time Geography Approach to Understanding the Impact of Gasoline Price Changes on Traffic Safety. (Working Paper). University of Minnesota, 2011, 14 p. [formato PDF, 129 kB]. "The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety has received increasing attention in empirical studies. However, this important relationship has not been explained within a conceptual or theoretical framework. In this study, we examine this relationship within a time geography framework in an attempt to understand the effect of time-varying fluctuations in gasoline prices and their relationship to traffic safety in a case study of Mississippi from April 2004 to December 2008. We further extend this work by examining the degree to which this relationship is differential in impact by age, gender, and race. The results suggest that changes in gasoline prices have immediate effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of younger drivers, women, and whites. However, changes in gasoline prices do not affect total crashes of older drivers, men, or blacks. Within the theoretical framework of time geography, we understand gasoline prices as one type of capability constraint of the space-time path and space-time prism. As gasoline prices increase (that is, as the capability constraint becomes stronger), traffic crash rates will decrease. However, the effects vary by age, gender, and race because the capability constraint of gasoline prices differs across demographic groups."

Julie Barbey Horvath, Indices caractéristiques d'une cité-vélo. Méthode d'évaluation des politiques cyclables en 8 indices pour les petites et moyennes communes / Die charakteristischen Indikatoren einer Velostadt. Evaluationsmethode der Velopolitiken anhand von 8 Indikatorgruppen für kleine und mittlere Gemeinden. SVI-Fachtagung, Olten, 15 septembre 2011, présentation, 10 slides [formato PDF, 348 kB].

Unplugged: Electric vehicle realities versus consumer expectations. Deloitte, New York, September 2011, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,96 MB] "Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited’s (DTTL) Global Manufacturing Industry group undertook an extensive global study designed to gauge consumer attitudes toward pure EVs. While the broad category of EVs available today include a variety of hybrid vehicles using some form of both electric motor propulsion and internal combustion engines, this study focused exclusively on the pure electric vehicle. In this way, the study serves to anchor the far end of today’s automotive product offerings and create clarity for all those either participating in the study or interested in the fi ndings. The study was based on a survey of over 13,000 individuals in 17 countries and, in addition to inquiring into willingness and intent to purchase, asked respondents a variety of questions related to the car’s major selling points, including price, range, and charge time. The survey, conducted between November 2010 and May 2011, revealed that the majority of consumers are either willing to consider the purchase of an electric vehicle or see themselves as potential fi rst movers when it comes to electric vehicle adoption. Potential fi rst movers were those respondents who indicated they were very interested in purchasing an electric vehicle and were likely to purchase or lease a new vehicle of some kind within the next 12 months. However, deeper questioning revealed a signifi cant gap between consumer expectations of electric vehicle capabilities and what an electric vehicle can deliver today. Consumers generally felt that EVs should be able to go farther, on less charge time, for a cheaper price than automakers are currently able to offer. This gap—and where it manifests itself most dramatically and where it might be most easily closed—will be of special interest to automakers operating in the electric vehicle space. This report looks closely at the results of the survey, with special attention to geographical differences and similarities in consumers’ responses. It also provides critical context by contrasting consumer perceptions and expectations with the current realities of electric vehicle technology."

European Environment Agency, Approximated EU GHG inventory: early estimates for 2010. EEA Technical report n.11/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 208 p. [formato PDF, 2,01 MB]. "This report provides an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990–2008. EEA report n.6/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 146 p. [formato PDF, 5,96 MB]. "This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available."

European Environment Agency, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011 : Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets. EEA report n.4/2011. EEA, Copenhagen, 7 October 2011, 152 p. [formato PDF, 5,24 MB]. "This report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008–2010, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2010 GHG emissions."

Christopher R. Knittel, Douglas L. Miller, and Nicholas J. Sanders, Caution, Drivers! Children Present: Traffic, Pollution, and Infant Health. (CEEPR Working Paper 2011-013). MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA, July 2011, 45 p. [formato PDF, 480 kB]. "Since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), atmospheric concentration of local pollutants has fallen drastically. A natural question is whether further reductions will yield additional health benefits. We further this research by addressing two related research questions: (1) what is the impact of automobile driving (and especially congestion) on ambient air pollution levels, and (2) what is the impact of modern air pollution levels on infant health? Our setting is California (with a focus on the Central Valley and Southern California) in the years 2002-2007. Using an instrumental variables approach that exploits the relationship between traffic, ambient weather conditions, and various pollutants, our findings suggest that ambient pollution levels, specifically particulate matter, still have large impacts on weekly infant mortality rates. Our results also illustrate the importance of weather controls in measuring pollution’s impact on infant mortality."

Christopher R. Knittel and Ryan Sandler, Cleaning the Bathwater with the Baby: The Health Co-Benefits of Carbon Pricing in Transportation. (CEEPR Working Paper 2011-015). MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA, August 2011, 65 p. [formato PDF, 5,57 MB]. "Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US have relied on Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards and Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS). Economists often argue that these policies are inefficient relative to carbon pricing because they ignore existing vehicles and do not adequately reduce the incentive to drive. This paper presents evidence that the net social costs of carbon pricing are significantly less than previous thought. The bias arises from the fact that the demand elasticity for miles travelled varies systematically with vehicle emissions; dirtier vehicles are more responsive to changes in gasoline prices. This is true for all four emissions for which we have data—nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and greenhouse gases—as well as weight. This reduces the net social costs associated with carbon pricing through increasing the co-benefits. Accounting for this heterogeneity implies that the welfare losses from $1.00 gas tax, or a $110 per ton of CO2 tax, are negative over the period of 1998 to 2008 even when we ignore the climate change benefits from the tax. Co-benefits increase by over 60 percent relative to ignoring the heterogeneity that we document. In addition, accounting for this heterogeneity raises the optimal gas tax associated with local pollution, as calculated by Parry and Small (2005), by as much as 57 percent. While our empirical setting is California, we present evidence that the effects may be larger for the rest of the US."

Philippe Menanteau, Marie-Marguerite Quéméré, Alain Le Duigou, Sandra Le Bastard, An economic analysis of the production of hydrogen from wind-generated electricity for use in transport applications. (halshs-00582762) (Paper published in : Energy Policy, vol. 39, n° 5, May 2011, pp. 2957-2965). 2011, 18 p. [formato PDF, 210 kB]. "Wind-generated electricity is often considered a particularly promising option for producing hydrogen from renewable energy sources. However, the economic performances of such systems generally remain unclear because of unspecified or favourable assumptions and operating conditions. The aim of this paper is to clarify these conditions by examining how the hydrogen produced is used. The analysis which has been conducted in the framework of the HyFrance 3 project concerns hydrogen for transport applications. Different technical systems are considered such as motorway hydrogen filling stations, Hythane®-fueled buses or second-generation biofuels production which present contrasted hydrogen use characteristics. This analysis reveals considerable variations in hydrogen production costs depending on the demand profiles concerned, with the most favourable configurations being those in which storage systems are kept to a minimum."

Andrea Debernardi, Raffaele Grimaldi, Paolo Beria, Cost benefit analysis to assess modular investment: the case of the New Turin-Lyon Railway. (MPRA Paper No. 30327). “Contemporary Issues in CBA in the Transport Sector”, Workshop on March 16, 2011, Centre for Transport Studies (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden), 16 p. [formato PDF, 956 kB]. "The assessment of infrastructure investments is often affected by inaccuracy in traffic forecasting, optimism bias and overvaluation of expected benefits. In general, even when such misrepresentation is not strategically introduced by proponents to push their projects, valuators and decision makers must cope with the existence of a risk of demand levels below expectations and consequent problem of overinvestment. In this sense, the concept of option value suggests that flexible or reversible projects may have a higher economic net present value compared with rigid schemes characterised by sunk costs. However, conventionally used cost benefit analysis (CBA) is very seldom used to manage such problem due to the complexity of the issue (for example when introducing a complete risk analysis). Moreover, such CBAs are still conceived as a static tool to decide ex-ante about an investment. In this paper we develop a theoretical framework and a practical application of CBA to formally manage such uncertainty and help the decision makers by postponing some decisions to the following running phase. The idea is to assess the project as split into smaller functional sections and bind the construction of a further section to the compliance of a pre-determined “switching rule”. In practical terms, we adapt a normal CBA procedure to manage also the time dimension of time of investments to reallocate risks already in the early design stage of transport infrastructures. The purpose of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we introduce a way to extend conventional CBA methodology to manage the phasing of projects. Secondly, we demonstrate both theoretically (with a simplified model) and practically (with a more complex case study) the positive effect of phasing under certain conditions (limitedness of sunk-costs due to phasing, predominance of capacity problems). By numerically developing the CBA of the Turin – Lyon high speed rail project, we show how to reduce the risk of overestimation of traffic and its positive effect in terms of NPV of the project: if forecasts are optimistic, only the most effective parts of the scheme will be built. If the traffic forecasts are correct, the new infrastructure will be built as a whole in steps and will generate the highest net benefits."

David Lewis, Economic Perspectives on Transport And Equality. (Discussion Paper No 2011-9) International Transport Forum, April 2011, 30 p. [formato PDF, 1,02 MB]. "Poverty, inequality and social exclusion are closely tied to personal mobility and the accessibility of goods and services. Evidence of the economic role of transport in promoting better living standards and greater wellbeing can be seen in the effects of both overall public investment in transport infrastructure, and in the impacts of specific transport policies, projects and multi-project plans. At the level of overall public expenditure, transport capital investment measurably promotes growth in worker productivity: This is significant because productivity growth is key to facilitating growth in personal incomes and living standards, and to closing income disparities between regions and sub-regions. At the level of specific policies, investments and plans, transport is seen to create economic wellbeing for a wide range socially disadvantaged groups, including the poor, elderly people, people with disabilities, children, young adults, and women. Such benefits include greater accessibility to work and other life-chances and reduced stigmatic harms associated with social exclusion. This paper argues that transport planning, economic evaluation, and governance modalities need to do a better job of adapting to the perspective on transport as a legitimate policy instrument for diminishing inequality and creating a just distribution of social value. Analysis methods to identify and measure such value, and governance mechanisms to ensure that equity objectives are properly served, are beginning to appear. This is a trend to be encouraged, particularly through the extension of economic evaluation methods and governance mechanisms to: Account for a wider range of transport benefits and effects than traditionally recognized; Address multi-project and multi-policy plans as well as individual projects; and Shape transport plans with measures, both transport and non-transport, that mitigate systematic social biases; and Give transport a direct, proactive role in fostering equality (rather than merely mitigating social biases) by encouraging the development of emerging policy development and planning methods that are rooted less in welfare economics and more in the operational ideas of social justice."

Laura Lonza (JRC-EI), Heinz Hass, Heiko Maas (EUCAR), Alan Reid, Kenneth D. Rose (CONCAWE), EU renewable energy targets in 2020: Analysis of scenarios for transport fuels. JEC Biofuels Programme. Final report. (JRC Scientific and Technical Reports). European Union, Luxembourg, March 2011, 70 p. [formato PDF, 687 kB]. "In the three-year JEC Biofuels Programme, the research collaboration between the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, EUCAR and CONCAWE has investigated the potential role of biofuels and other renewable and alternative energy sources in achieving the mandatory 10% renewable energy target in the transport sector by 2020 with an associated calculation of the impact of renewable fuels on the Fuel Quality directive target. The focus of the analysis was on road transport although all other transport modes have been considered. A dedicated analytical tool, the so-called Fleet and Fuels (F&F) model, has been developed and used. The modelled fleet development leads to a transport fuel demand and constitutes the basis on which penetration and distribution of alternative motor fuels - and availability thereof - are analysed. The impacts of key parameters on the achievement of the RED 10% target are analysed in sensitivity cases."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 15). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2011, 241 p. [file zip 2,12 MB - contiene file PDF, 4,12 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". Sintesi del rapporto. (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 15). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2011, 23 p. [file Word, 1,56 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale. Isfort, Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica. Presentazione del rapporto, Roma, 13 luglio 2011, 32 slides [file PDF, 1,30 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Klaus J. Beckmann, Jürgen Gies, Jörg Thiemann-Linden, Thomas Preuß, Deutsches Institut für Urbanistik gGmbH, Leitkonzept - Stadt und Region der kurzen Wege. Gutachten im Kontext der Biodiversitätsstrategie [Città e regione dei percorsi brevi]. (Texte Nr. 48/2011). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, August 2011, 118 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. "Kurze Wege" sind eine Richtschnur für ein räumliches Strukturprinzip, das über das Ziel der Erhaltung der Biodiversität hinaus auch für andere Politikfelder relevant ist. Es stellt sich daher die Frage, wie die Bundesregierung die für die Umsetzung „kurzer Wege“ notwendigen Anstöße geben kann. Die Empfehlungen werden nach den Handlungsfeldern „Schutz der natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen und Ressourcen“, „Steuerung der Siedlungsentwicklung“ sowie „Steuerung der Verkehrsentwicklung“ gegliedert. In den Handlungsfeldern werden vor dem Hintergrund des Oberziels einer deutlich verminderten Flächenneuinanspruchnahme zum Erhalt der Biodiversität Maßnahmen vorgeschlagen. Dabei liegen nicht alle Maßnahmen im unmittelbaren Einflussbe-reich des Bundes. Der Bund kann vielfach jedoch einen Rahmen setzen oder über Forschungs-projekte und Modellvorhaben („Best Practices“) sowie über die Initiierung von Erfahrungsaus-tauschen Entwicklungen anstoßen."

Nicola Limodio, The Highway Concession System in Italy. History, Regulation and Politics. (Policy Research Working Paper Series 5567). The World Bank, Washington, DC, February 2011, 17 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "This paper contains a critical discussion of the opening of the highway concession to the private sector in Italy over the past 20 years. It describes the political context, legal mechanisms and regulatory settings; offers an analysis of the changes in the equity composition of concessionaires after the introduction of public-private partnerships, quality standards, and tariff dynamics; and provides some examples. The Italian experience reflects the typical problems of the"build-now-regulate-later"approach recognized in the highway public-private partnership literature. The Italian model is also characterized by the existence of an overly complex regulatory framework, as well as the lack of a single agent in charge of contract enforcement and independent data collection."

Réseau des Grands Sites de France, Ecomobilité touristique et de loisirs vers les espaces ruraux. Une opportunité pour les territoires. Des enseignements, des recommandations et 11 fiches expériences de territoires. Réseau des Grands Sites de France, Paris, 2011, 41 + 47 p. [formato PDF, 4,44 MB + 4,62 MB]. "Nombre de régions rurales se sont déjà mobilisées pour créer des aménagements, des services et une organisation territoriale leur permettant d'être accessibles sans voiture. Mais ces initiatives sont encore peu nombreuses, mal connues du grand public et les efforts trop dispersés. Une récente étude menée par le Réseau des Grands Sites de France s'est attachée à faire connaître et à tirer des enseignements des initiatives locales existantes. Parmi la cinquantaine d’expériences repérées, onze sont abordées en détail dans des fiches d’expériences. L’étude conclut, entre autres, que l'écomobilité touristique et de loisirs vers les espaces ruraux constitue une véritable offre novatrice et attractive. En plus de répondre à des enjeux environnementaux, elle correspond à une réelle demande des visiteurs, en particulier des citadins. La mise en place de systèmes écomobiles pour les visiteurs peut aussi permettre de conforter des services de transport du quotidien pour les habitants, qui sont parfois fragiles. Bien que chaque projet corresponde à une histoire singulière qui évolue au cours du temps, les auteurs de l’étude dédient un chapitre aux enseignements tirés des initiatives locales, précisant autant les freins et difficultés rencontrés que les leviers d’action et les facteurs favorables à la mise en oeuvre de projets. La plateforme d'échanges créée en relation avec l’étude fournit un soutien technique et met en contact les acteurs."

Heiner Monheim, Christian Muschwitz, Johannes Reimann, Markus Streng, Statusanalyse Fahrradverleihsysteme. Potenziale und Zukunft kommunaler und regionaler Fahrradverleihsysteme in Deutschland [Analisi dei sistemi di bike sharing. Potenziali e futuro dei sistemi comunali e regionali di bike sharing in Germania]. raumkom Institut für Raumentwicklung und Kommunikation, Trier, Juni 2011, 250 p. [formato PDF, 6,27 MB] "Spätestens seit der Einrichtung von "Vélib" in Paris im Jahr 2007 finden öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme als Trend in der städtischen Mobilität auch international viel Beachtung. Das Konzept des öffentlichen Fahrradverleihs hat in Deutschland eine lange Tradition, dennoch blieben moderne Systeme bisher nur auf wenige ausgewählte Großstädte beschränkt. Das Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS) hat im Jahr 2009 einen Innovationswettbewerb gestartet, um viele weitere Kommunen zur Initiative zu bewegen. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersuchte das raumkom Institut für Raumentwicklung und Kommunikation in den vergangenen Monaten wie Entscheidungsträger über öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme denken, welche Chancen oder Hemmnisse sie in Bezug auf die Einführung von Leihrädern sehen und welche Potenziale sie dem öffentlichen Fahrradverleih derzeit und in Zukunft zumessen. Auf Grundlage einer Analyse der zum Wettbewerb eingereichten Beiträge sowie mittels schriftlicher Befragungen, Interviews und Expertengespräche ist eine umfangreiche Studie entstanden, die Einblicke in die Sicht relevanter Akteure vermittelt, aktuelle Trends wie auch Unsicherheiten identifiziert und wichtige Ansatzpunkte für die Weiterentwicklung öffentlicher Fahrradverleihsysteme benennt. "Institutionenbezogenen Ansätze - also die Frage, wie Verkehrspolitik und Administrationen entscheiden, welche Motive sie leiten, wo und wie sie sich informieren und viele mehr - kommen in der Mobilitätsforschung bisher viel zu kurz", erklärt Professor Monheim, Mitinhaber des raumkom Instituts, "da bot der Modellwettbewerb eine gute Chance, Forschungsinstrumente einmal im laufenden Prozess einzusetzen." Die Studie stellt klar, dass öffentliche Leihradsysteme noch nicht im verkehrsplanerischen Alltag angekommen sind und vielerorts - durchaus auch skeptisch - nach wie vor als Innovation gesehen werden. Eine Euphorie, wie sie beispielsweise in Frankreich zu beobachten war, konnte bisher nicht nach Deutschland überschwappen. Doch Prof. Monheim sieht gelassen in die Zukunft: "Fast alle befragten Experten erkennen positive Perspektiven für den Radverkehr, der durch steigende Rohstoff- und Energiepreise weiter zulegen wird. Öffentliche Fahrradverleihsysteme können direkt und indirekt zum Aufschwung beitragen."

Osservatorio "Audimob" sui comportamenti di mobilità degli Italiani, La domanda di mobilità degli Italiani. Rapporto congiunturale di metà anno. 1 semestre 2011. ISFORT, Roma, 2 agosto 2011, 22 p. [formato PDF, 557 kB]. "Il Rapporto sulla mobilità presenta l’analisi di alcuni indicatori fondamentali della mobilità osservati nel primo semestre del 2011".

Eric Heisman, Claire Danielle Tomkins, Shipping. Full Report. The Carbon War Room, Washington, D.C., March 2011, 35 p. [formato PDF, 4,01 MB]. "Satisfying client demands for cost savings and carbon savings stands to become a competitive issue for shipping companies, particularly as awareness by influential shippers of the latent emissions savings that could be relinquished profitably within shipping increases."

Danielle Sinnett, Katie Williams, Kiron Chatterjee, Nick Cavill, Making the Case for Investment in the Walking Environment. A review of the evidence. University of the West of England and Cavill Associates; Living Streets, London, 2011, 77 p. [formato PDF, 2,61 MB]. "The report evaluates the health, economic, social and environmental benefits of investment in walking friendly public spaces. It draws on case studies of schemes which have resulted in safer and more attractive public places in neighbourhoods and city centres in the UK and elsewhere."

Working Group on Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health (PUSH), Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health. Summary Document. (Research Report). OECD, International Transport Forum, Paris, 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 843 kB]. "This is a summary of the report Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health. The report was developed by a group of international experts representing 19 countries, under the aegis of the Research Centre of the International Transport Forum at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Recognising its wide benefits, the purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of walking as an integral part of the transport system and the vital need for policies to promote walking at all levels of planning. This summary document comprises the conclusions and recommendations, as well as the table of contents of the full report, together with details of the experts who contributed to the work."

Alison Primdore, Apollonia Miola, Public Acceptability of Sustainable Transport Measures: A Review of the Literature. (JTRC Discussion Paper No 2011-20). OECD, International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2011, 24 p. [formato PDF, 368 kB].

European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels, Future Transport Fuels. Report of the European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels. . January 2011, 81 p. [formato PDF, 3,30 MB]. "Transport fuel supply today, in particular to the road sector, is dominated by oil [1], which has proven reserves that are expected to last around 40 years [2]. The combustion of mineral oil derived fuels gives rise to CO2 emissions and, despite the fact the fuel efficiency of new vehicles has been improving, so that these emit significantly less CO2 , total CO2 emissions from transport have increased by 24% from 1990 to 2008, representing 19.5% of total European Union (EU) greenhouse gas emissions. The EU objective is an overall reduction of CO2 emissions of 80-95% by the year 2050, with respect to the 1990 level [3]. Decarbonisation of transport and the substitution of oil as transport fuel therefore have both the same time horizon of 2050. Improvement of transport efficiency and management of transport volumes are necessary to support the reduction of CO2 emissions while fossil fuels still dominate, and to enable finite renewable resources to meet the full energy demand from transport in the long term. Alternative fuel options for substituting oil as energy source for propulsion in transport are: Electricity/hydrogen, and biofuels (liquids) as the main options; Synthetic fuels as a technology bridge from fossil to biomass based fuels; Methane (natural gas and biomethane) as complementary fuels; LPG as supplement. Single-fuel solutions covering all transport modes would be technically possible with liquid biofuels and synthetic fuels. But feedstock availability and sustainability considerations constrain their supply potential. Thus the expected future energy demand in transport can most likely not be met by one single fuel. Fuel demand and greenhouse gas challenges will require the use of a great variety of primary energies. There is rather widespread agreement that all sustainable fuels will be needed to resolve the expected supply-demand tensions. The main alternative fuels should be available EU-wide with harmonised standards, to ensure EU-wide free circulation of all vehicles. Incentives for the main alternative fuels and the corresponding vehicles should be harmonised EU-wide to prevent market distortions and to ensure economies of scale supporting rapid and broad market introduction of alternative fuels. The main alternative fuels considered should be produced from low-carbon, and finally from carbon-free sources. Substitution of oil in transport by these main alternative fuels leads then inherently to a decarbonisation of transport if the energy system is decarbonised. Decarbonisation of transport and decarbonisation of energy should be considered as two complementary strategic lines, closely related, but decoupled and requiring different technical approaches, to be developed in a consistent manner. The different transport modes require different options of alternative fuels: Road transport could be powered by electricity for short distances, hydrogen and methane up to medium distance, and biofuels/synthetic fuels, LNG and LPG up to long distance; Railways should be electrified wherever feasible, otherwise use biofuels ; Aviation should be supplied from biomass derived kerosene; Waterborne transport could be supplied by biofuels (all vessels), hydrogen (inland waterways and small boats), LPG (short sea shipping), LNG and nuclear (maritime).

Vera Ferrón Vílchez, Juan Alberto Aragón Correa, María Dolores Vidal Salazar (Universidad de Granada), La Internalización de los Costes Medioambientales en el transporte de mercancías por carretera. (Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry). Cuadernos de Gestión, Vol. 11. Nº 1 (Año 2011), pp. 117-139 (24 p.) [formato PDF, 632 kB]. "Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies."

Plan directeur de la mobilité douce adopté par le Conseil d’État le 31 mars 2011. Direction générale de la mobilité, Genève, mars 2011, 32 p. [formato PDF, 2,19 MB] "Le Plan directeur de la mobilité douce est un document cadre visant à mettre à disposition des pratiquants de la mobilité douce des réseaux de parcours attrayants, sûrs et continus ainsi que des infrastructures appropriées."

Gregor Trunk, Gesamtwirtschaftlicher Vergleich von Pkw- und Radverkehr. Ein Beitrag zur Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion (Overall Economical Effects of Car and Bicycle Traffic - An Input to the Debate about Sustainability). (Diplomarbeit Nr. 3/2010). Diplomarbeit für das Fachgebiet Verkehrswesen, Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, 2011, 77 p. [formato PDF, 778 kB]. "The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the overall economical effects (costs/benefits) of two means of transport – bicycle and car. To do this, several indicators of the three dimensions of sustainability are analysed: health benefit, costs for operation, travel time, infrastructure, noise, accidents, air pollution and CO2 (for global warming potential). To be able to compare the different indicators involved, the effects of both means of transport are put into a framework using €-cent as the unit of indicators per cycled or driven kilometre. Observing the aggregated indicators, the external benefit per cycled kilometre is 81,47 ct/km and the overall costs per cycled kilometre are 1,55 ct/km. Concerning the car, external costs per driven kilometre of 4,35 ct/km are generated and overall costs per driven kilometre are 98,38 ct/km. In a next step, these indicators are applied and calculated on traffic scenarios in Vienna, taking into account the number of car trips which actually could be substituted by bicycle. Based on the actual modal split of Vienna (4 % of all trips by bicycle, 25 % by car drivers), two scenarios are calculated. Starting from status quo, the external benefit of the bicycle outbalances external costs of the car by 35 mio. €/year. Regarding scenario 1 (6 % bicycle, 23 % car drivers), an additional benefit of 111 mio. €/year can be achieved compared to the status quo. Scenario 2 (7 % bicycle, 22 % car drivers) shows an additional benefit of 167 mio. €/year compared to the status quo."

Michael Meschik, Gregor Trunk (Institute for Transport Studies, BOKU Vienna), Costs of Bicycle Traffic for the Overall Economy. Comparing economic effects of bicycle and car traffic in Vienna. Presentation, Velo-city 2011 conference, Sevilla, March 23-25, 2011, 29 slides [formato PDF, 16,7 MB].

Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Pay-As-You-Drive Vehicle Insurance in British Columbia. Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions, Victoria, BC, May 2011, 28 p. [formato PDF, 768 kB]. "Insurance is one of the largest motor vehicle expenses, costing about $1,200 annually for a typical British Columbia automobile. This report shows that insurance pricing can affect how vehicles are used, and evaluates the impacts and benefits of alternative price structures. Most insurance policies, including those sold by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC), are a fixed cost with respect to vehicle use; moderate reductions in vehicle travel generally provide little or no premium savings. An alternative price structure, called Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD), changes insurance into a variable cost, so motorists save money when they reduce their mileage. As a result, they tend to drive less. Various studies using a variety of research methods indicate that a vehicle’s chance of having a crash tends to increase with its annual vehicle mileage, so PAYD tends to increase actuarial accuracy, that is, insurance premiums more accurately reflect vehicles’ claim costs. Mileage is just one of several factors that affect crash rates so it would be inappropriate to use mileage instead of existing rating factors, for example, by charging all motorists the same per-kilometre fee. However actuarial accuracy increases if mileage is incorporated with existing rating factors. PAYD does not simply shift costs from one group to another: premium reductions reflect, in part, the claim cost savings that result when motorists reduce their vehicle travel and therefore crashes. As a result, it need not reduce insurance company profitability. Under most proposals PAYD would be a user option, so motorists could choose the price structure that best meets their needs and preferences. As a result, only motorists who expect to save money would choose this option. In addition to consumer savings, PAYD pricing tends to reduce energy consumption, carbon and other pollution emissions, and traffic congestion. It increases insurance affordability by allowing motorists a new opportunity to save money, and it is progressive with respect to income since lower-income motorists tend to drive less than average. It can help achieve ICBC policy objectives including traffic safety, social equity, consumer affordability, emission reductions, and infrastructure cost savings. There are many possible ways to implement PAYD, some that offer greater impacts and benefits than others. Total benefits tend to increase as more vehicle travel has PAYD pricing, and as the incentive to reduce mileage increases. A relatively simple approach, called basic PAYD, prorates existing premiums by the average annual mileage of each rate class, so a $600 premium becomes 3¢ per kilometre, and a $1,800 premium becomes 9¢ per kilometre. Mileage can be verified with odometer readings at the start and end of the policy term recorded by motorists using digital cameras, by insurance brokers or by service stations. Because this approach is relatively simple and inexpensive to implement, it is likely to have the largest travel reduction impacts and therefore the largest total benefits. Instrumented PAYD, in which electronic instruments are installed in each participating vehicle, allows pricing to vary by time and location, which can further increase actuarial accuracy, but this approach has high implementation costs and raises privacy concerns, and so is likely to have smaller impacts and benefits. PAYD insurance is not currently available in British Columbia but has been implemented elsewhere, including in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is some uncertainty concerning the magnitude of some PAYD impacts. It is impossible to predict with precision the risk profile of motorists who would choose optional PAYD, the amount and type of mileage they would reduce, and the claim cost savings that would result. A pilot project based on the following recommendations would resolve these issues while minimizing risks to ICBC: • Offer fully-prorated basic PAYD applied to all categories of coverage (all existing premiums prorated by average annual mileage), with a 2,000 kilometre annual minimum purchase requirement. Other pricing options (such as instrumented PAYD) can also be offered for comparison. • Base mileage on odometer readings verified by digital photos or brokers and service stations. • During the pilot program, collect mileage data from participating vehicle for at least one month prior to applying PAYD pricing, to provide baseline data. • Provide effective marketing to promote PAYD insurance to appropriate candidates."

Jean-Paul Rodrigue (Hofstra Univ.), Theo Notteboom (Univ. of Antwerp), Athanasios A. Pallis (Univ. of the Aegean), The financialisation of the port and terminal industry: revisiting risk and embeddedness. Paper accepted for publication at Maritime Policy and Management. 2011, p. 27 [formato PDF, 789 kB]. "The paper explores the evolving relationship between the port and terminal industry and the financial sector. Since the financial industry has taken an active role in global economic affairs, understanding global trade and transportation requires more than ever a perspective about financial issues and their impacts on transport operations. Paradoxically, the recent analytical emphasis on the strategies of port operators has rarely focused on one of the fastest and most radical changes ever to affect the maritime and port industries. The paper argues that through the lenses of financial issues – financialisation – a unique dimension of the maritime industry can be understood. It analyses how a changing pattern in risk perception has supported a bubble in the period 2002-2008 and how financial interests in the industry have repositioned themselves since the start of the economic crisis in 2008. The analysis demonstrates how since then, the financial sector is – reluctantly – rediscovering the risks that are part of the maritime industry, notably those related to business cycles."

Chantal Duchène, Gender and Transport. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-11). OECD/International Transport Forum, April 2011, 20 p. [formato PDF, 673 kB]. "While greater account is increasingly being taken of gender in a variety of areas, little progress has been made in this respect in the transport sector. In both developed and developing countries, our societies are gendered in that women and men play different roles, notably because household chores and children are mainly the preserve of women, which reduces the time they have available for activities for which they are responsible and for the trips they need to make in order to perform these activities. Development, employment and even health policies must take account of the issue of travel. And to do this successfully, it is essential to seek ways in which to incorporate the issue of gender into policies relating to mobility and transport. At present, it is no longer women’s non-governmental organisations that stress this point, but the community as a whole. It is for this reasons that this theme is now being examined in greater depth by the International Transport Forum which commissioned this report. The report begins with an overview of the situation, and then presents good practices and a set of recommendations. It addresses both developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, and infrastructure and services."

Uniontrasporti, I Rapporto sullo stato delle infrastrutture in Italia: criticità di oggi, priorità di domani. Milano, 2011, 159 p. [formato PDF, 12,2 MB]. "Il rapporto è costituito da due parti. La prima, derivante da un’analisi desk che punta a valorizzare il patrimonio informativo del sistema Trail (il Portale Nazionale delle Infrastrutture di Trasporto e Logistica delle Camere di commercio italiane), si pone l’obiettivo di dare una visione d’insieme sulle infrastrutture di trasporto e di supporto all’economia che ad oggi sono disponibili nel Paese, andando a definirne le dimensioni, le problematiche e le potenzialità, nonché sulla programmazione e sugli interventi in atto per un potenziamento delle stesse."

Daniel Albalate, Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), Cuando la economía no importa: auge y esplendor de la alta velocidad en España. Revista de Economía Aplicada, n.55, vol. 19, 2011, p. 171-190 [formato PDF, 750 kB]. "The great protagonist of the Spanish transport policy, High Speed Rail (HSR), has reached its greatest splendour to become, in late 2010, the largest HSR network of EU and OECD countries. However, the investment policy decisions have been taken in a context devoid of an open and rigorous debate and where economic analysis, which has obtained clear and robust results, has played a marginal role. The marginality of the effect of economic analysis on the investment policy is due to its almost exclusive emphasis on the financial aspects and the reluctance to address multidisciplinary elements that, in practice, have been commonly used as persuasive arguments for government’s network design. This paper provides an analysis in terms of objectives and actual effects of high speed projects, taking into account the multiple dimensions in order to complement the economic analysis by favouring its impact in the public policy debate. Among these multiple dimensions, we review the issues concerning the design and structure of the network, the economic costs and social return on investments, as well as the environmental and mobility impacts."

Burden of disease from environmental noise. Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, 2011, 128 p. [formato PDF, 3,00 MB]. "This publication was prepared by experts in working groups convened by the WHO Regional Office for Europe to provide technical support to policy-makers and their advisers in the quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise, using evidence and data available in Europe. The chapters contain the summary of synthesized reviews of evidence on the relationship between environmental noise and specific health effects, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance and tinnitus. A chapter on annoyance is also included. For each outcome, the environmental burden of disease methodology, based on exposure–response relationship, exposure distribution, background prevalence of disease and disability weights of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). With conservative assumptions applied to the calculation methods, it is estimated that DALYs lost from environmental noise are 61 000 years for ischaemic heart disease, 45 000 years for cognitive impairment of children, 903 000 years for sleep disturbance, 22 000 years for tinnitus and 587 000 years for annoyance in the European Union Member States and other western European countries. These results indicate that at least one million healthy life years are lost every year from trafficrelated noise in the western part of Europe. Sleep disturbance and annoyance, mostly related to road traffic noise, comprise the main burden of environmental noise. Owing to a lack of exposure data in south-east Europe and the newly independent states, it was not possible to estimate the disease burden in the whole of the WHO European Region. The procedure of estimating burdens related to environmental noise exposure presented here can be used by international, national and local authorities as long as the assumptions, limitations and uncertainties reported in this publication are carefully taken into account."

Marisa Korteland, Jasper Faber, Ban on night flights at Heathrow Airport. A quick scan Social Cost Benefit Analysis. Delft, CE Delft, January 2011, 47 p. [formato PDF, 444 kB]. "Night flights are often considered an essential element of airline networks. Long haul passengers who want to arrive in Europe at the beginning of the day often need to land during the night, especially when they arrive at a transfer airport such as Heathrow from where they take another flight to their final destination. However, the noise they create is detrimental to human well-being as it causes sleep disturbance, increase in medicine use, stress and (environmental) insomnia. Around London Heathrow Airport, a large number of people are affected by aircraft noise during the night time. As the UK Government reviews its limit on the number of night flights allowed at Heathrow, this report endeavours to quantify the costs and benefits to the UK of a ban on night flights at Heathrow before 6.00am. It uses social cost benefit analysis (SCBA) to do so. SCBA systematically identifies all the direct, indirect and external effects of a night flight ban and expresses them in monetary terms so that the net costs or benefits can be calculated. It uses the broad definition of welfare, in which all items that add to the well-being of the society are benefits, and all items that decrease well-being are costs. The boundaries of SCBA presented here are UK welfare effects. The presented SCBA is a quick scan SCBA, based on values from the literature. We assess the costs and benefits of a night flight ban against a baseline scenario in which the current regime is continued. Airlines and passengers can respond in several ways to a night flight ban. We identify three extremes: 1. All flights and connections are rescheduled to daytime operations. 2. All flights are rescheduled to daytime operations but connections are lost, leading to a decrease in the number of transfer passengers. 3. All flights currently arriving or departing during the night are cancelled. Most responses are likely to fall within these boundaries. Likewise, the costs and benefits of a night flight ban are likely to fall between the costs and benefits of these extremes. This report finds that the impacts of a night flight ban on UK welfare are likely to range from an increase of £ 860 million to a decrease of £ 35 million over a period of ten years (2013-2023). The loss would occur if all current night time passengers stopped travelling to Heathrow once a night flight ban was introduced. That however is highly unlikely. The most likely scenario is that a proportion of them will continue to use the airport. If that is the case, a night flight ban before 6.00am will bring economic benefits to the overall economy. This is because there will be a significant decrease in the costs associated with sleep disturbance. The savings that will bring, in terms of improved health and well-being, are expected to offset the main costs of a ban - passengers’ time and airline profits - by a wide margin. The results are sensitive, however, to the valuation of night noise, and we recommend studying the benefits of noise reductions in more detail. Other items that require more study are the impact on passenger choices, on airline networks and on tourism. Our overall conclusion is that a ban on night flights at Heathrow is likely to be beneficial to the economy as the economic costs of the ban will be outweighed by the savings made by the reduced health costs of the sleep disturbance and stress caused by the noise of the night flights."

Jasper Faber, A Night Flight Ban on Heathrow. Overview of the Social Costs and Benefits. Presentation, Main findings. Delft, CE Delft, January 27th, 2011, 18 slides [formato PDF, 444 kB].

Lo sviluppo dell'alta velocità in Europa e nel mondo. (I quaderni dell'Ufficio Studi n.1). Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori S.p.A., Roma, febbraio 2011, 60 p. [formato PDF, 9,80 MB].

ISFORT, Il trasporto urbano su rotaia in Italia. Situazione e linee di sviluppo all'avvio del nuovo decennio. (Rapporto OPMUS 14). Roma, gennaio 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,46 MB]. Ricerca realizzata da un gruppo di lavoro dell’ISFORT composto da Carlo Carminucci, Luca Trepiedi e Massimo Procopio. Il Quaderno sintetizza i risultati di un’ampia indagine sul trasporto urbano su rotaia condotta da Isfort nel corso del 2010.

OTI NordOvest (osservatorio territoriale infrastrutture), Rapporto 2010. Gennaio 2011, 88 p. [formato PDF, 873 kB]. "Il Rapporto OTI, giunto alla sua ottava edizione, conferma una struttura articolata per sistemi infrastrutturali che supera l’approccio per singole opere ricadenti all’interno dei territori regionali. Pertanto, il monitoraggio sullo stato di avanzamento degli interventi di importanza strategica per il Nord Ovest analizza: i corridoi plurimodali, che costituiscono gli elementi portanti delle relazioni con le reti transeuropee, i sistemi della portualità ligure e della viabilità pedemontana, i nodi metropolitani di Milano, di Torino e di Genova (anch’essi visti nella loro dimensione plurimodale) e, per finire, i sistemi di accessibilità a due nodi fondamentali del nostro territorio quali l’aeroporto di Malpensa e l’area dell’Expo 2015. Per evidenti complementarità il Rapporto include anche un capitolo dedicato al quadro infrastrutturale del Nord Est." Decisamente superate le informazioni riguardanti la tratta ferroviaria Venezia-Trieste.

Andrea Debernardi, Il traffico alpino nel 2009. Variazioni congiunturali e trasformazioni strutturali. RTBicocca - Note trasporti n.1. Milano, 2011, 5 p. [formato PDF, 148 kB].

European Environmental Agency, Impact of selected policy measures on Europe's air quality. (EEA Technical Report n.8/2010). EEA, Copenhagen, 2010, 70 p. [formato PDF, 6,03 MB] "The main objective of the present study is to analyse and quantify the effects that certain past policy measures in the road transport and industrial combustion facilities have had on the magnitude of air pollutant emissions and subsequent air quality in Europe. The policies selected are the Euro emission standards for road vehicles and the EU directives on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and large combustion plants (LCP)."


2010

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Tanja Aurich, Thomas Böhmer, Jeannette Klotzsch, Anne Pitrone, Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung. Analysen, Strategien und Maßnahmen einer integrierten Förderung in Städten. Endbericht. Technische Universität Dresden, Lehrstuhl Verkehrs- und Infrastrukturplanung, Dresden, 2010, 265 p. [formato PDF, 7,26 MB]. "Die Forschungsergebnisse sollen genutzt werden, um praxisorientiert konkrete Strategie- und Maßnahmenempfehlungen zur gezielten, koordinierten und möglichst synergetischen Förderung von Rad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung zu geben. Hierzu ist auch ein Leitfaden mit Fallbeispielen erarbeitet worden." (N)

Gerd-Axel Ahrens, Tanja Aurich, Thomas Böhmer, Jeannette Klotzsch, Leitfaden Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung Technische Universität Dresden, Lehrstuhl Verkehrs- und Infrastrukturplanung, Dresden, 2010, 92 p. [formato PDF, 3,72 MB]. "Dieser Leitfaden entstand zum BMVBS-Forschungsvorhaben Interdependenzen zwischen Fahrrad- und ÖPNV-Nutzung - Analysen, Strategien und Maßnahmen einer integrierten Förderung in Städten im Rahmen der Umsetzung des Nationalen Radverkehrsplanes." (N)

Victor Andrade Carneiro Da Silva, Henrik Harder, Ole Bent Jensen, Jens Overgaard Madsen, Bike Infrastructures. (Departmental Working Paper Series, Vol. 37). Aalborg University, Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg, 2010, 205 p. [formato PDF, 61,8 MB] "Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Vestergade Vest and Mageløs in Odense (shareduse space in the core of the city); Hans Broges Gade in Aarhus (an extension of a bicycle route linking the suburb to Aarhus Central station) and Bryggebro in Copenhagen (a bridge for bicyclists and pedestrians crossing the harbor). Bridging research and policy, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy." (N)

Ville Henttu, Lauri Lättilä and Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Financial and Environmental Impacts of a Dry Port to Support Two Major Finnish Seaports. (Research Report 224). Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2010, 141 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB] "Aim of this research was to find out if a dry port solution could decrease costs of transport, especially external costs. Dry port concept is an intermodal transport system, where inland transport between seaport and dry port is performed by rail transport instead of traditional road transport. In addition, dry ports offer similar services as seaports. Research is conducted by performing a literature review about dry port concept and costs of transport, especially external costs of transport. Financial and environmental impacts of the dry port concept are studied by comparing costs of road and rail transport by cost accounting and with a simulation model. Location of dry port is researched with different gravitational models. Results of the literature review are that rail transport is environmentally friendlier mode of transport than road transport. In addition, cost-efficiency of the transport system can be decreased by increasing proportion of rail transport. A cost model was created to compare internal and external costs of both the road and rail transport. According to the cost model, rail transport is more inexpensive mode of transport in external and internal costs. In addition, a simulation model was created to compare conventional road transport and dry port implemented transport. Results of the model are that if only costs of freight movement are considered, the dry port implemented transport is environmentally friendlier and more cost-efficient. Results of gravitational models are that city of Kouvola is in a good position to be a dry port if only Finnish inland distribution is considered. Russian transit traffic through Finland improves location of Kouvola to be a dry port."

Jens Borken-Kleefeld, Terje Berntsen and Jan Fuglestvedt, Specific Climate Impact of Passenger and Freight Transport. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44 (15), pp 5700–5706 [formato PDF, 241 kB]. "Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares first the absolute climate impacts of current passenger and freight transportation. Second, the impacts are normalized with the transport work performed and modes are compared. Calculations are performed for the integrated radiative forcing and mean temperature change, for different time horizons and various measures of transport work. An unambiguous ranking of the specific climate impact can be established for freight transportation, with shipping and rail having lowest and light trucks and air transport having highest specific impact for all cases calculated. Passenger travel with rail, coach or two- and three-wheelers has on average the lowest specific climate impact also on short time horizons. Air travel has the highest specific impact on short-term warming, while on long-term warming car travel has an equal or higher impact per passenger-kilometer."

Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants, The Mortality Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution in the United Kingdom. COMEAP, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, 2010, 108 p. [formato PDF, 614 kB]. "This report deals with answering what, at first glance, appear to be relatively simple questions regarding the effects of particulate air pollution on mortality in the UK. We have tried to explain not only the approaches we have used to answer the questions, but also the limitations of the interpretations that can be put on the results. We anticipate that it will be useful to policy makers and elected representatives, and hope also that it will make a helpful contribution to public awareness and understanding of the health effects of air pollution. In summary: a) Airborne particles comprise an anthropogenic component and a natural component; b) There is an interest in the effects of air pollution on mortality in terms of the impact that policies for reduction would have, or the current burden in terms of public health; c) These effects can be expressed at the population level in terms of life expectancy, and on loss or gain in life years. The burden can also be expressed in terms of deaths occurring in a specified year across the population; d) As everyone dies eventually no lives are ever saved by reducing environmental exposures – deaths are delayed resulting in increased life expectancy; e) These measures are averages or aggregates across the population; it is not known how the effects are distributed among individuals. We conclude that: a) Removing all anthropogenic (‘human-made’) particulate matter air pollution (measured as PM2.5 1) could save the UK population approximately 36.5 million life years over the next 100 years and would be associated with an increase in UK life expectancy from birth, i.e. on average across new births, of six months. This shows the public health importance of taking measures to reduce air pollution; b) A policy which aimed to reduce the annual average concentration of PM2.5 by 1 ìg/m3 would result in a saving of approximately 4 million life years or an increase in life expectancy of 20 days in people born in 2008; c) The current (2008) burden of anthropogenic particulate matter air pollution is, with some simplifying assumptions, an effect on mortality in 2008 equivalent to nearly 29,000 deaths in the UK at typical ages and an associated loss of total population life of 340,000 life-years. The burden can also be represented as a loss of life expectancy from birth of approximately six months; d) The uncertainties in these estimates need to be recognised: they could vary from about a sixth to double the figures shown."

Ruth Kaufmann-Hayoz, Heidi Hofmann, Oliver Tschopp, Martina Blaser (IKAÖ, Bern) und Rolf Steiner, Katja Schori, Rolf Albisser, Rolf (verkehrsteiner, Bern), Der Verkehr aus Sicht der Kinder: Schulwege von Primarschulkindern in der Schweiz (La circulation du point de vue des enfants: Les trajets scolaires des élèves du primaire en Suisse / Traffic and children: Primary school children’s routes to school in Switzerland), Bundesamt für Strassen, Bern, Juli 2010, 181 p. [formato PDF, 6,76 MB]. "For several years now, the topics of children’s appropriation of public spaces and children’s mobility behavior have been increasingly investigated in planning and transportation sciences and in the fields of developmental psychology and education (e.g., Haefeli & Kaufmann-Hayoz, 2009). The goal of the present research study was to contribute towards improved consideration of children’s interests in traffic planning practice. The study aimed to (a) produce a practice-oriented summary of the diverse research findings in the different disciplines, (b) collect representative and up-to-date data, and (c) provide illustrative, specific descriptions of typical conditions regarding primary school children’s routes to school in Switzerland. The research questions focused on traffic hazards on the way to school and how they are perceived by children and parents, how children travel the route to school (especially means of transport chosen and reasons for the choice), type and amount of children’s everyday physical activity, and possible measures to improve the relationship between children and traffic, especially on routes to school."

Chao-Fu Yeh, Francis Papon, Sylvie Abours, Claude Soulas (INRETS), Conditions du développement des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai. les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, N° 58/2010, p. 29-53 [formato PDF, 404 kB]. "Cet article explore les questions liées au développement potentiel des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai dans une perspective de développement urbain durable. Dans un contexte de passage très rapide des modes traditionnels, marche et vélo, aux modes motorisés individuels, les deux-roues électriques pourraient constituer une alternative plus respectueuse de l’environnement. L’examen des caractéristiques techniques des différents deux-roues, de leurs possibilités en termes de vitesse moyenne et de portée, ainsi que du profil de leurs usagers, montre que, pour les déplacements quotidiens d’une grande partie de la population, l’usage des deux-roues électriques est pertinent. Un bilan comparatif portant sur cinq critères -coût, vitesse moyenne, sécurité routière, efficacité énergétique et impact environnemental- met en évidence une supériorité globale des deux-roues électriques, ce qui plaide pour une politique en faveur de ce mode. Compte tenu du bouleversement des répartitions modales en une décennie, il y aurait urgence à infléchir la tendance, mais il semble nécessaire de traduire au préalable dans la réglementation les spécificités de ce mode, à la fois pour mieux profiter de ses avancées techniques et pour limiter l’accidentologie associée. Des recommandations en ce sens sont données en fin d’article." "This paper examines the potential for the development of electric two-wheelers in Shanghai from the standpoint of sustainable urban development. In the situation where the traditional modes of walking and cycling are very rapidly being replaced by personal motorized vehicles, electric two-wheelers could constitute a more environmentally friendly alternative. Our examination of the technical features of various two-wheelers and their possibilities in terms of average trip speed and range, as well as the profile of their users, shows that electric two-wheelers are suitable for most of the population’s daily trips. A comparative review based on five criteria -cost, mean speed, road safety, energy and environmental impact- highlights the comprehensive superiority of electric two-wheeled vehicles, justifying a policy to promote this mode. Urgent measures are required to reverse the radical change in modal split that has occurred in the last decade, but it seems necessary beforehand to modify the regulations in order to take account of the specific features of the mode, both to take advantage of technical breakthroughs and to limit the associated accident rate. Some recommendations in this regard are made at the end of the article."

Kazunori Kojima and Lisa Ryan (International Energy Agency), Transport Energy Efficiency. Implementation of IEA Recommendations since 2009 and next steps. Information paper. Paris, OCDE/IEA, September 2010, p.60 [formato PDF, 2,84 MB]. "Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so (IEA, 2009a). In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations for seven sectors: industry; transport; utilities; buildings; lighting; appliances; and cross-sectoral. Its four recommendations for the transport sector focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), and eco-driving. The IEA report, Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA member countries on track? (hereafter referred to as the Tracking Progress report) describes the level of implementation of the energy efficiency recommendations by IEA countries. It found that there was poor implementation of the transport recommendations up to March 2009 (IEA, 2009b). For this reason, and the fact that transport is such an important user of energy, it was decided to examine the extent of implementation of the transport recommendations in IEA countries. Though the IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations represent a significant step in addressing the continued high use of energy by the transport sector, it is important to continue to review the recommendations and consider whether their scope or focus should be changed. So this report has two purposes: firstly, to examine in more detail the fuel efficiency policies that have been implemented in IEA countries since March 2009 and update the Tracking Progress report; and secondly, to consider the four IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations and discuss whether complementary measures could extend their scope. This report concludes that during 2009 some progress was made in the implementation of the existing IEA transport energy efficiency recommendations and notes the following developments in implementation of each of the transport recommendations."

Mikhail Chester and Arpad Horvath (Univ. of California), Life-cycle assessment of high-speed rail: the case of California. Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010) 014003, 9 p. [formato PDF, 801 kB]. "The state of California is expected to have significant population growth in the next half-century resulting in additional passenger transportation demand. Planning for a high-speed rail system connecting San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Sacramento as well as many population centers between is now underway. The considerable investment in California high-speed rail has been debated for some time and now includes the energy and environmental tradeoffs. The per-trip energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and other emissions are often compared against the alternatives (automobiles, heavy rail, and aircraft), but typically only considering vehicle operation. An environmental life-cycle assessment of the four modes was created to compare both direct effects of vehicle operation and indirect effects from vehicle, infrastructure, and fuel components. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and SO2, CO, NOX, VOC, and PM10 emissions were evaluated. The energy and emission intensities of each mode were normalized per passenger kilometer traveled by using high and low occupancies to illustrate the range in modal environmental performance at potential ridership levels. While high-speed rail has the potential to be the lowest energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter, appropriate planning and continued investment would be needed to ensure sustained high occupancy. The time to environmental payback is discussed highlighting the ridership conditions where high-speed rail will or will not produce fewer environmental burdens than existing modes. Furthermore, environmental tradeoffs may occur. High-speed rail may lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per trip but can create more SO2 emissions (given the current electricity mix) leading to environmental acidification and human health issues. The significance of life-cycle inventorying is discussed as well as the potential of increasing occupancy on mass transit modes."

Sergio Ulgiati, Riccardo Basosi, High-Speed rail: misleading assessments and false solutions. Life Cycle Assessment and Energy Analysis / Alta Velocità ferroviaria: le valutazioni fuorvianti e false soluzioni. Valutazione del ciclo di vita e analisi energetica. September 2010, 6 p. [formato PDF, 68 kB].

John Stanley, David A. Hensher, Janet Stanley, Graham Currie, William H. Greene and Dianne Vella-Brodrick, Social exclusion and the value of mobility. (Working Paper ITLS-WP-10-14). Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, University of Sydney, July 2010, 21 p. [formato PDF, 293 kB]. "This paper investigates factors likely to increase a person’s risk of social exclusion, drawing on survey data specifically framed for this purpose. We use a generalised ordered logit model that accounts for observed and unobserved heterogeneity and derive the marginal effects for each influencing attribute. We find that people are less likely to be at risk of social exclusion if they have regular contact with significant others, have a sense of community, are not poor, are mobile and are open to new experiences which enable them to grow on a personal level. The value of an additional trip is estimated at $A20."

Bruno De Borger, Denis De Bruyne, Port activities, hinterland congestion, and optimal government policies: the role of vertical integration in logistic operations. (Research Paper 2010-012). University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Antwerpen, 2010, 44 p. [formato PDF, 258 kB]. "We study the implications of vertical integration in logistics and transport operations for welfare-optimal port access charges and hinterland congestion tolls. We show that, first, vertical integration of terminal operators and transport firms does not affect the optimal congestion toll rule for the hinterland, but it does imply higher optimal port access charges. Second, the government not only has an incentive to promote competition between downstream firms, it may also be beneficial to approve of vertical mergers in the logistic chain. Third, the government’s failure to respond to changes in industry market structure may have large welfare effects. Fourth, both under separation and integration, optimal port fees may imply subsidies if downstream firms enjoy a high degree of market power."

Bruno De Borger, Stef Proost, A political economy model of road pricing. (Research Paper 2010-014). University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Antwerpen, 2010, 40 p. [formato PDF, 200 kB]. "In this paper, we take a political economy approach to study the introduction of urban congestion tolls, using a simple majority voting model. Making users pay for external congestion costs is for an economist an obvious reform, but successful introductions of externality pricing in transport are rare. In the few cases where tolls were actually introduced, implementation was characterized by two salient facts. First, the toll revenues were tied to improvements of public transport. Second, opposition to the introduction of tolling decreased substantially after it was introduced. In most cases, a majority was against ex ante, but a majority favored the introduction of tolling after it was implemented. This paper develops a stylized model with car and public transport, allowing for idiosyncratic uncertainty about modal substitution costs. We show that uncertainty reduces the number of voters that favors road pricing ex ante. The model can explain the presence of a majority that is against road pricing ex ante and in favor ex post. Moreover, uncertainty also implies that, if a majority is against ex ante, there will be no majority for organizing an experiment that would take away the individual uncertainty. Finally, we show that it is easier to obtain a majority when the toll revenues are used to subsidize public transport than when they are used for a tax refund."

Carme Miralles-Guasch, Dones, mobilitat, temps i ciutats. (Quaderns de l’Institut ; 14). Institut Català de les Dones, Barcelona, 2010, 95 p. [formato PDF, 559 kB]. "Les ciutats han evolucionat en diferents èpoques a partir d’ uns models únics que no han tingut prou en compte les necessitats i les aportacions de la meitat de la població: les dones. En aquesta publicació l’autora, Carme Miralles-Guasch, analitza l’evolució de la mobilitat a les ciutats al llarg de l’últim segle des de la perspectiva de gènere."

Moniek Zuurbier, Gerard Hoek, Marieke Oldenwening, Virissa Lenters, Kees Meliefste, Peter van den Hazel, and Bert Brunekreef, Commuters’ Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route. Environ Health Perspect 2010, 118:783-789 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,79 MB]. "Background: Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. Methods: We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10, and soot between June 2007 and June 2008 on 47 weekdays, from 0800 to 1000 hours, in diesel and electric buses, gasoline- and diesel-fueled cars, and along two bicycle routes with different traffic intensities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. In addition, each-day measurements were taken at an urban background location. Results: We found that median PNC exposures were highest in diesel buses (38,500 particles/cm3) and for cyclists along the high-traffic intensity route (46,600 particles/cm3) and lowest in electric buses (29,200 particles/cm3). Median PM10 exposure was highest from diesel buses (47 µg/m3) and lowest along the high- and low-traffic bicycle routes (39 and 37 µg/m3). The median soot exposure was highest in gasoline-fueled cars (9.0 × 10–5/m), diesel cars (7.9 × 10–5/m), and diesel buses (7.4 × 10–5/m) and lowest along the low-traffic bicycle route (4.9 × 10–5/m). Because the minute ventilation (volume of air per minute) of cyclists, which we estimated from measured heart rates, was twice the minute ventilation of car and bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Conclusions: Commuters’ rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type." "This study shows that exposure to air pollutants is significantly lower in electric powered buses than in diesel buses. The use of clean buses, such as electric buses, is therefore beneficial not only for outdoor air quality but also for bus passengers. Policy makers are encouraged to increase the use of clean buses, such as electric buses. Cyclists are exposed to air pollutants from surrounding traffic. The higher minute ventilation of cyclists especially increases the inhaled doses of air pollutants. Health implications of exposure to short, high peaks during cycling instead of the lower, longer peaks in cars and buses are not clear but could be important (Peters et al. 2004). Because the positive health effects of cycling (Baumann 2004; de Geus et al. 2009, 2008; Hendriksen et al. 2000) likely outweigh the health risks of increased pollution loads, and because cyclists do not emit any air pollutants and thus contribute to clean air, cycling should not be discouraged. Cyclists should be encouraged to choose for low-traffic routes by making them aware of the potential health benefits and by route planners with options to choose for low-traffic routes. City planners should create bicycle lanes with less (preferably no) contact with motorized traffic. In view of the intimate mixing of bicycles and mopeds in the Netherlands, further improvements can be expected from the replacement of spark engine by electric mopeds."

Emanuele Proia, Roberta Lupidi, Elisa Meko, Livello delle tariffe e le strutture tariffarie nel trasporto pubblico locale. ASSTRA, HERMES, Roma, 18 novembre 2010, 142 p. [formato PDF, 2,07 MB]. Studio realizzato da un gruppo di lavoro misto HERMES-ASSTRA. Analisi delle tariffe, integrazione tariffaria, normative regionali.

Jakob Oertli, Peter Hübner, Railway Noise in Europe. A 2010 report on the state of the art. International Union of Railways, Paris, September 2010, 31 p. [formato PDF, 1,90 MB]. Also available in German and French.

Daniel Sauter, Melanie Kunz, Dominique von der Mühll, Sonia Lavadinho, Country Report Switzerland. State-of-the-art in walking policy, communication and research. (COST Action 358 Pedestrian Quality Needs). Urban Mobility Research and EPFL/CHÔROS, September 2010, 119 p. [formato PDF, 2,75 MB]. "This report describes the developments and assembles the relevant information on walking in Switzerland in the past 10 to 15 years. It contains data on walking and deals with the legal framework, policy-making and best practices and innovations, e.g. in terms of strategies, communication, pilot-schemes and evaluation. In addition, all relevant publications and research projects of the past ten years have been listed and annotated, providing for the first time an overview of the research performed in the field. This collection, together with the other parts of the country report, will allow researchers and interested persons to get a quick overview of current practices and available information. It will also serve as a monitoring instrument in the longer term allowing comparisons in the future with the state of today."

Antonella Bernetti, Riccardo De Lauretis, Gianluca Iarocci, Francesca Lena, Renato Marra Campanale, Ernesto Taurino, Trasporto su strada. Inventario nazionale delle emissioni e disaggregazione provinciale. (Rapporti 124/2010). ISPRA, Roma, 2010, 97 p. [formato PDF, 3,33 MB]. "Le stime delle emissioni da trasporto su strada effettuate da ISPRA costituiscono la fonte ufficiale di riferimento a livello internazionale, in ragione del ruolo dell’Istituto come responsabile della realizzazione annuale dell’inventario nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera, strumento di verifica degli impegni assunti a livello internazionale sulla protezione dell’ambiente atmosferico, come la Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici (UNFCCC), il Protocollo di Kyoto, la Convenzione di Ginevra sull’inquinamento atmosferico transfrontaliero (UNECE-CLRTAP), le Direttive europee sulla limitazione delle emissioni. La consistente domanda di mobilità di persone e merci su strada rende rilevante il problema dell’inquinamento da trasporti stradali soprattutto in considerazione dell’impatto sulle aree urbane, relativamente ad inquinanti quali il monossido di carbonio, i composti organici volatili (in particolare benzene), gli ossidi di azoto ed il particolato; inoltre il contributo alle emissioni di gas serra risulta particolarmente gravoso per le emissioni di anidride carbonica. A partire dall’inventario nazionale, viene costruito quello provinciale attraverso un approccio top-down, dall’alto verso il basso. Tale metodologia prevede l’utilizzo di cosiddette variabili proxy correlate all’attività delle sorgenti emissive ed i cui valori siano noti sia sull’area più estesa (in questo caso quella nazionale) sia al dettaglio territoriale di interesse (nello specifico quello provinciale). Alle emissioni nazionali da traffico stradale sono state applicate tre diverse metodologie di disaggregazione spaziale a livello provinciale (approccio top-down) che, all’interno del rapporto, vengono confrontate con diverse metodologie."

Michiel Nijboer, The contribution of natural gas vehicles to sustainable transport. (Working paper). International Energy Agency, Paris, 2010, 84 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. "This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development."

Klaus Barthel, Susanne Böhler-Baedeker, René Bormann, Jürgen Dispan, Philipp Fink, Thorsten Koska, Heinz-Rudolf Meißner, Florian Pronold, Zukunft der deutschen Automobilindustrie. Herausforderungen und Perspektiven für den Strukturwandel im Automobilsektor. (WISO Diskurs). (Diskussionspapier der Arbeitskreise Innovative Verkehrspolitik und Nachhaltige Strukturpolitik der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung). Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn, Dezember 2010, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,07 MB].

André de Palma, Jacques Houard, Stef Proost, Gestion du transport et de la mobilité dans le cadre du changement climatique. Projet Carbone. (PREDIT). Tome 1: rapport. Tome 2 : annexes. Cachan : Ecole nationale supérieure ; Cergy-Pontoise : Université, Laboratoire THEMA UMR 8184, Mai 2010, 2 vol. (94 + 232 p.) [formato PDF, 1,71 MB + 6,01 MB]. "L'étude traite de l'impact sur les émissions de CO2 de mesures politiques dans le domaine du transport. Le «projet Carbone», qui désigne les travaux réalisés dans ce cadre, a consisté en une série de recherches dont les résultats sont résumés dans le rapport. La problématique de la limitation des émissions anthropiques de Gaz à Effets de Serre (GES) et donc de CO2 concerne tous les niveaux de la société et implique l'ensemble des nations à la recherche d'un accord autour de la limitation des émissions. Elle concerne aussi le citoyen lorsque ce dernier choisit ses déplacements et ses modes associés. Une étude de l'impact des mesures politiques dans le domaine du transport se doit de tenir compte de ces différentes échelles et de leurs interactions. Dans le cadre du projet Carbone, les auteurs ont voulu éviter le piège de la construction d'une grande étude théorique, orientée « top-bottom », dont les résultats, généraux et abstraits, resteraient difficiles à mettre en pratique. L'approche ici adoptée se veut plus horizontale : elle a été initiée en partant de manière relativement autonome de plusieurs points de vue orientés vers certains aspects importants et significatifs pour le domaine des transports (macroéconomie, dimension urbaine ou interurbaine). La plupart des travaux mettent en oeuvre des outils mathématiques ou statistiques variés, parfois innovants. Des aspects dynamiques et d'incertitudes inhérents à la problématique traitée ont été pris en compte. La problématique de la limitation des émissions de CO2 est globale. La seconde partie du rapport consiste donc en un rappel du contexte général autour de la prise en compte du changement climatique. Une attention particulière sera portée aux aspects concernant le secteur du transport. La partie 3 est consacrée aux aspects macroéconomiques de la problématique. Elle a pour but de préciser les scénarios importants sous-jacents. L'incertitude autour de la problématique de la limitation des émissions de CO2 qui a, elle aussi, une origine humaine, est étudiée. Dans le quatrième chapitre, l'efficacité relative d'instruments comme les mesures fiscales sur les carburants, sur la demande de voitures, ou l'imposition de normes est examinée. Les scénarios associés à l'environnement international décrit dans la section précédente sont ici pris en compte. Le chapitre 5 est dédiée au regard urbain. La tarification du transport routier urbain, une source prometteuse de double dividende, y est traitée. Cette section étudie les impacts à court terme, comme la diminution résultante du trafic et des émissions de CO2, ainsi que les conséquences à long terme sur le réaménagement urbain. La problématique des transports en commun y est aussi abordée de manière spécifique. Les modèles développés à cette occasion ont été appliqués et discutés dans le cas important de l' le-de-France. La sixième partie, le regard interurbain, traite des transports interurbains de marchandises. Les travaux se sont plus particulièrement intéressés à l'analyse des projets d'infrastructure favorisant le report vers des modes de transports moins polluants. Cette analyse se fait avec un modèle de simulation qui permet la prise en compte de l'incertitude relative à la demande de transport et au coût de l'énergie. Un exemple emblématique, le projet d'extension du canal Seine-Nord Europe, est étudié. Son impact sur les émissions de CO2 est estimé et les auteurs montrent que même si ce projet conduisait à une augmentation des émissions, ce serait notamment en contrepartie d'une augmentation significative de l'activité économique. La conclusion reprend une série de recommandations tirées des études présentées dans les chapitres précédents. Les annexes (tome 2) détaillent les travaux : Annexe A Le choix entre équité et efficience et la problématique du changement climatique ; Annexe B Equipement automobile, type de carburant, consommation et émissions de CO2 des véhicules privés ; Annexe C Fiscalité, congestion et émissions de CO2 ; Annexe D Marché des Options et taxes anti-pollution ; Annexe D-1 Hedging global environment risks: An option based portfolio insurance ; Annexe E Aspects macroéconomiques autour de l'objectif facteur 4 ; Annexe F Automobile Fuel Efficiency Policies with International Cost Spillovers ; Annexe G Le modèle monocentrique et son application ; Annexe G-1 Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France ; Annexe G-2 Cordon pricing in the monocentric city model: theory and application to Ile-de-France ; Annexe H Transport collectif : impacts sur la dynamique urbaine et les émissions ; Annexe I Analyse coût-bénéfice et évaluation de projets de transport avec demande et prix de l'énergie incertains. Application au canal Seine-Nord Europe."

Theo Notteboom (Univ. of Antwerp), Dock labour and port-related employment in the European seaport system. Key factors to port competitiveness and reform. Report prepared for European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO). ITMMA, University of Antwerp, 25 May 2010, 94 p. [formato PDF, 4,38 MB].

C. James Kruse, Nathan Hutson, North American Marine Highways. (NCFRP Report 5). National Cooperative Freight Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2010, 108 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. "North American Marine Highways explores the potential for moving intermodal containers on chassis, non-containerized trailers, or rail cars on marine highways in North America. The report includes an assessment of the conditions for feasibility; an analysis of the economic, technical, regulatory, and logistical barriers inhibiting greater use of the marine highway system; and potential ways to eliminate these barriers."

Chantal C. Cantarelli, Bent Flyvbjerg, Eric J.E. Molin and Bert van Wee, Cost Overruns in Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure Projects: Explanations and Their Theoretical Embeddedness. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research EJTIR 10(1), March 2010, p. 5-18 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 163 kB]. "Managing large-scale transportation infrastructure projects is difficult due to frequent misinformation about the costs which results in large cost overruns that often threaten the overall project viability. This paper investigates the explanations for cost overruns that are given in the literature. Overall, four categories of explanations can be distinguished: technical, economic, psychological, and political. Political explanations have been seen to be the most dominant explanations for cost overruns. Agency theory is considered the most interesting for political explanations and an eclectic theory is also considered possible. Non-political explanations are diverse in character, therefore a range of different theories (including rational choice theory and prospect theory), depending on the kind of explanation is considered more appropriate than one all-embracing theory."

Apollonia Miola, Biagio Ciuffo, Emiliano Giovine, Marleen Marra, Regulating Air Emissions from Ships: The State of the Art on Methodologies, Technologies and Policy Options. (JRC Reference Reports). Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, November 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 7,03 MB]. "This report provides the first comprehensive overview of methodologies for estimating air emissions from shipping, describes technological solutions and proposes policy options for reducing carbon emissions and air pollution in this sector. Maritime transport causes about 4% of global man-made CO2 emissions, which makes its carbon footprint approximately as high as Germany's."

Handbuch Intermodale Schnittstellen im Radverkehr. Empfehlungen zu Planung, Realisierung und Betrieb für Verwaltung, Verkehrsdienstleistungsanbieter und Planer. Schieneninfrastruktur Dienstleistungsgesllschaft mbH, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie – BMVIT, Wien, 2010, 91 p. [formato PDF, 6,80 MB].

Intermodale Schnittstellen im Radverkehr. Empfehlungen zu Planung, Realisierung und Betrieb für Verwaltung, Verkehrsdienstleistungsanbieter und Planer. Endbericht final. LOB iC GmbH, SCHIG GmbH, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie – BMVIT, Wien, 2010, 409 p. [formato PDF, 13,3 MB]. "Österreichische Städte und Gemeinden besitzen derzeit kein geeignetes Instrument um die intermodale Schnittstelle Radverkehr und öffentlicher Verkehr systematisch zu überprüfen. Im Rahmen des Projekts ISR konnte ein innovativer Gesamtansatz für Analysen auf Ebene der intermodalen Schnittstelle Radverkehr und öffentlicher Verkehr entwickelt werden. Die Faktoren- Matrix (siehe Kapitel 6) ist einerseits relativ einfach zu handhaben, und steht damit für eine breite Anwendung zur Verfügung, andererseits erlaubt sie in hohem Maße Rückschlüsse auf die Radverkehrssituation in einer spezifischen Gemeinde. Auf Basis einer umfassenden Auswertung der für den Radverkehr relevanten Rahmenbedingungen kann eine Analyse der im Umfeld eines Bahnhofs bzw. einer Haltestelle spezifisch gegebenen Schwachstellen durchgeführt werden. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt die Ableitung von konkret auf die jeweiligen lokalen Bedingungen zugeschnittenen Maßnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs im Umfeld der intermodalen Schnittstelle. Durch das ISR - Instrumentarium besteht nun eine Methode zum Qualitätsmanagement. Diese Methoden betreffen sowohl die Resultate der Faktorenauswertungen wie in weiterer Folge die Bewertung und Verbesserung der Arbeitsabläufe. Analog zu Qualitätsmanagementprozessen in anderen Bereichen soll den Städten ein Werkzeug zur Verfügung stehen, das es ermöglicht, die Qualität in bestimmten Aufgabenbereichen (Faktorenbereichen) aufzuzeigen und zu verbessern. Durch regelmäßige Fortschreibung der Bewertungen anhand der Faktorenmatrix, kann die Gemeinde somit das Erreichen der selbstgesteckten Ziele überprüfen und verschafft sich die Möglichkeit eines Überblicks über zu treffende Maßnahmen, die die Qualität des Gesamtsystems am wirkungsvollsten verbessern. Das Gesamtschema der Vorgehensweise eignet sich ebenfalls als „erklärendes Tool“ zur Interpretation von vorherrschenden Problemfeldern, was im Vorfeld zur Maßnahmensetzung in Gemeinden oftmals eine bedeutende Rolle darstellt."

La mobilité des Français, panorama issu de l’enquête nationale transports et déplacements 2008. (La Revue du CGDD). Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, Paris, Décembre 2010, 238 p. [formato PDF, 5,04 MB]. "Ce numéro spécial de la revue du CGDD présente les résultats de l'enquête nationale transports et déplacements réalisée auprès des ménages. Ils nous permettent à la fois de disposer d’une description complète des comportements de mobilité des Français, et de retracer et comprendre les grandes tendances à l’oeuvre au cours des dernières décennies. Alors que le nombre de déplacements individuels effectués chaque jour est à peu près le même partout (entre 3,0 à Paris et 3,4 dans les grandes villes de province), l’utilisation de la voiture est d’autant plus faible que la zone est dense (1 déplacement sur 8 à Paris, près de 9 sur 10 dans la périphérie des petites villes). Aussi, plus l’habitat est dense, plus les personnes ont recours aux transports en commun, au vélo et à la marche à pied. L’usage de la voiture reste prédominant mais il se stabilise entre 1994 et 2008 dans les grandes villes de province et recule même à Paris. Or 37 millions d’habitants vivent aujourd’hui dans les pôles urbains, ce qui représente 60 % de la population de la France métropolitaine. Dès lors, l’importance des enjeux liés à la mobilité urbaine s’en trouve renforcée."

E.E.M.M. van Kempen, W.Swart, G.C.W. Wendel-Vos, P.E. Steinberger, A.B. Knol, H.L. Stipdonk, M.C.B. Reurings, Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : A first estimation of the health benefits. (RIVM Report 630053001/2010). RIVM, Bilthoven, 2010, 74 p. [formato PDF, 414 kB] "As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, we assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end we used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and evaluated the availability and quality of data, models and tools that were needed. In our assessment not only the classic environmental pollutants noise and air pollution were taken into account, but also the effects on road safety and physical activity. Application shows that the disease burden related to physical activity reduces at a maximum of 1.3% after one year. As expected, the health benefits due to reduction in road traffic noise levels and traffic-related air pollution are relatively small. Furthermore, it appears that an exchange of short-distance car trips by cycling is only beneficial for young male drivers. Since a lot of information was unavailable and/or unknown and because a lot of choices and assumptions were made, the