VAI A: DOCUMENTI 2000-2017

Katrien De Langhe, Hilde Meersman, Christa Sys, Eddy Van de Voorde and Thierry Vanelslander (University of Antwerp), How to make urban freight transport by tram successful?. Journal of Shipping and Trade (2019) 4:13 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. Open Access. "Many national and international bodies, such as the European Commission, encourage the use of environment-friendly transport modes. Local and national authorities take more and more measures, for instance road pricing, loading/ unloading spaces and low-emission zones, to prevent negative transport-related externalities in urban areas. Hence, transport and logistics operators consider alternative ways to deliver goods in urban areas by using electric vehicles, cargo bikes, inland vessels and rail transport. Which of these alternative modes is appropriate for which transport flow depends on multiple factors, including the available transport infrastructure, the goods volume, the measures taken by the authorities and the presence of congestion. This paper focuses on urban freight transport by tram and the conditions for a successful implementation. A successful implementation is defined as an implementation that is viable, i.e. the difference between the change of the costs and the change of the benefits exceeds a certain threshold value. The viability is studied from a business-economic and a socio- economic perspective for a dedicated freight tram, a freight wagon behind a passenger tram and the transport of parcels by a passenger tram. A viability model is developed, based on a social cost-benefit analysis. The working of this model is illustrated by applying it to the city of Antwerp. The main findings show that the use of a freight wagon attached to a passenger tram provides more potential than a dedicated freight tram. A courier taking the tram to deliver some parcels can be viable as well. For all three types of tram transport, the socio-economic benefits exceed the business-economic ones. Critical factors affecting the viability include the transported volume, the efficiency of the current road transport, the timing of the transport, the need for post-haulage and the operational costs of both road and rail."

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. " Purpose. For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach. The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings. Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over Euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications. Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications. The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications. The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value. The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

Pierre Friedlingstein et al., Global Carbon Budget 2019. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783-1838, 2019 (56 p.) [formato PDF, 8,2 MB]. Open Access. "Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties."

Nick Watts, Markus Amann, Nigel Arnell, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Kristine Belesova, Maxwell Boykoff, Peter Byass, Wenjia Cai, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Stuart Capstick, Jonathan Chambers, Carole Dalin, Meaghan Daly, Niheer Dasandi, Michael Davies, Paul Drummond, Robert Dubrow, Kristie L Ebi, Matthew Eckelman, Paul Ekins, Luis E Escobar, Lucia Fernandez Montoya, Lucien Georgeson, Hilary Graham, Paul Haggar, Ian Hamilton, Stella Hartinger, Jeremy Hess, Ilan Kelman, Gregor Kiesewetter, Tord Kjellstrom, Dominic Kniveton, Bruno Lemke, Yang Liu, Melissa Lott, Rachel Lowe, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Mark Maslin, Lucy McAllister, Alice McGushin, Slava Jankin Mikhaylov, James Milner, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Karyn Morrissey, Kris Murray, Simon Munzert, Maria Nilsson, Tara Neville, Tadj Oreszczyn, Fereidoon Owfi, Olivia Pearman, David Pencheon, Dung Phung, Steve Pye, Ruth Quinn, Mahnaz Rabbaniha, Elizabeth Robinson, Joacim Rocklöv, Jan C Semenza, Jodi Sherman, Joy Shumake-Guillemot, Meisam Tabatabaei, Jonathon Taylor, Joaquin Trinanes, Paul Wilkinson, Anthony Costello, Peng Gong, Hugh Montgomery, The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate. Lancet 2019; 394: 1836-1878 (43 p.)[formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "The data published here elucidate the ongoing trends of a warming world with effects that threaten human wellbeing. As the fourth hottest year on record, 2018 saw a record-breaking 220 million additional exposures to extremes of heat, coupled with corresponding increased vulnerability to heat across every continent. As a result of this and broader climatic changes, vectorial capacity for the transmission of dengue fever was the second highest recorded, with 9 of the past 10 most suitable years occurring since 2000. Progress in mitigation and adaptation remains insufficient, with the carbon intensity of the energy system remaining flat; 2-9 million ambient air pollution deaths; and a reversal of the previous downward trend of coal use."

Isfort, 16º Rapporto sulla mobilità degli italiani. Roma, 27 novembre 2019. Presentazione, 19 slides [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Koichi Sakai, MaaS trends and policy-level initiatives in the EU. IATSS Research (2019) (in press), 9 p. [formato PDF, 617 kB]. Open Access. "The concept of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) was conceived in Finland, and it is characteristically user-oriented. Interest in MaaS has quickly spread across Europe along with the rapid advances in information and communications technology and the internet of things in recent years, as the realization of MaaS is consistent with the policy directions of the EU member states promoting the use of public transport. This paper describes the MaaS concept in EU, the birth of the concept in Finland and its background, and EU-wide policy level initiatives and their characteristics."

Claudio Carlini, Diana Moneta, Preliminary Economic Assessment for Electric Buses Adoption in the Italian Framework. AEIT International Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 18-20 September 2019. Presentation, 12 slides [formato PDF, 3,00 MB]. E-buses in the Italian framework & case studies.

Nikolaos Gavanas, Autonomous Road Vehicles: Challenges for Urban Planning in European Cities. Urban Sci. 2019, 3(2), 61, 13 p. [formato PDF, 254 kB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles will significantly affect mobility conditions in the future. The changes in mobility conditions are expected to have an impact on urban development and, more specifically, on location choices, land use organisation and infrastructure design. Nowadays, there is not enough data for a real-life assessment of this impact. Experts estimate that autonomous vehicles will be available for uptake in the next decade. Therefore, urban planners should consider the possible impacts from autonomous vehicles on cities and the future challenges for urban planning. In this context, the present paper focuses on the challenges from the implementation of autonomous road vehicles for passenger transport in European cities. The analysis is based on a systematic review of research and policy. The main outcome of the analysis is a set of challenges for urban planning regarding the features of urban development, the local and European policy priorities, the current lack of data for planning and the potential for autonomous vehicles to be used by planners as data sources. The paper concludes that tackling these challenges is essential for the full exploitation of the autonomous vehicles' potential to promote sustainable urban development."

Joseph Hollingsworth, Brenna Copeland and Jeremiah X Johnson (North Carolina State University), Are e-scooters polluters? The environmental impacts of shared dockless electric scooters. Environ. Res. Lett. 14 084031 (2019), 10 p. [formato PDF, 961 kB]. Open Access. "Shared stand-up electric scooters are now offered in many cities as an option for short-term rental, and marketed for short-distance travel. Using life cycle assessment, we quantify the total environmental impacts of this mobility option associated with global warming, acidification, eutrophication, and respiratory impacts. We find that environmental burdens associated with charging the e-scooter are small relative to materials and manufacturing burdens of the e-scooters and the impacts associated with transporting the scooters to overnight charging stations. The results of a Monte Carlo analysis show an average value of life cycle global warming impacts of 202 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile, driven by materials and manufacturing (50%), followed by daily collection for charging (43% of impact). We illustrate the potential to reduce life cycle global warming impacts through improved scooter collection and charging approaches, including the use of fuel-efficient vehicles for collection (yielding 177 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), limiting scooter collection to those with a low battery state of charge (164 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), and reducing the driving distance per scooter for e-scooter collection and distribution (147 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile). The results prove to be highly sensitive to e-scooter lifetime; ensuring that the shared e-scooters are used for two years decreases the average life cycle emissions to 141 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile. Under our Base Case assumptions, we find that the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with e-scooter use is higher in 65% of our Monte Carlo simulations than the suite of modes of transportation that are displaced. This likelihood drops to 35%-50% under our improved and efficient e-scooter collection processes and only 4% when we assume two-year e-scooter lifetimes. When e-scooter usage replaces average personal automobile travel, we nearly universally realize a net reduction in environmental impacts."

Raphael Hoerler, Fabian Haerri and Merja Hoppe, New Solutions in Sustainable Commuting - The Attitudes and Experience of European Stakeholders and Experts in Switzerland. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 220 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as 'enablers' for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative solutions like carsharing, Mobility as a Service, or autonomous vehicles, relevant stakeholders were identified for three European case studies. Their perspectives and openness towards trends and new solutions were researched in an online survey. In addition, five expert interviews and two workshops in Switzerland deepened the understanding of how new mobility services could be incorporated into companies through mobility management. Results reflect a strong distinction of stakeholders by their national borders and responsibilities. As new mobility technologies and solutions require collaboration, the acts of supporting strong cross-border and cross-disciplinary cooperation, as well as developing joint interests and work processes beyond traditional ones, are suggested as important starting points. The study reveals a high openness of important stakeholders towards new mobility services and discusses the experience of experts in company mobility management."

Sally Cairns and Lynn Sloman, Potential for e-cargo bikes to reduce congestion and pollution from vans in cities. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. "Cargo bikes and electrically-assisted cargo bikes have significant potential to replace vans in urban areas, and to help reduce congestion and pollution. Scale and nature of the opportunity. Vans (light goods vehicles) already account for about 15% of motorised vehicle miles in urban areas in Britain, and rapid growth of van traffic is a cause of worsening traffic congestion. In large cities, up to a quarter (25%) of all traffic may be trips by delivery and service companies in vans, cars and lorries, according to European research. Estimates suggest about 10-30% of trips by delivery and service companies might be substitutable by (e-)cargo bikes. The potential is likely to be greater in areas where traffic is restricted, for reasons such as poor air quality. Taken together, these figures suggest that there is potential for traffic mileage in urban areas to be reduced by about 1.5-7.5%, if (e-)cargo bikes took over from delivery and service vehicles for suitable trips. E-cargo bikes are particularly suitable for dense urban areas, where there is a high concentration of suitable delivery work and individual trips are short. In some cases, use of e-cargo bikes might be a straight switch; in others, it could involve reorganisation of supply chains, including use of micro-consolidation centres, with (e-)cargo bikes used for the last part of the deliveries. The mail and parcel delivery sector has received the greatest attention. However, there is also significant potential for the use of (e-)cargo bikes for delivery of both food and non-food items, by tradesmen and service providers, by public sector workers, and (for smaller items) by the construction industry. There is also substantial potential for use of (e-)cargo bikes for personal journeys, in particular for shopping and transporting children. Benefits of (e-)cargo bikes. (E-)cargo bikes take up less road-space than conventional vans, and can often make use of cycle lanes. When making deliveries, their smaller size also means that they can be conveniently parked. Vans emit over 30% of all NOx and particulates from road vehicle exhausts, and so replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes disproportionately improves air quality. Replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes also reduces emissions of greenhouse gases. Vans in the parcel and delivery sector may each emit more than 10 tonnes of CO2 per year. Trials by DHL, where two vans are replaced by a 'City Hub' and four e-cargo bikes, are estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by 16 tonnes p.a.. In Maastricht, four companies that replaced a conventional van with an e-cargo bike saved more than a tonne of CO2 in six months. In London, a butcher that began using an e-cargo bike instead of a van whenever possible was able to reduce CO2 emissions by 75%. (E-)cargo bikes are also efficient. They can take shorter, faster routes (using cycle and bus lanes, or being wheeled through pedestrianised areas); they are easier to park and so deliveries can be made more quickly; and they are cheaper to buy, insure and repair than vans. Restaurants using e-cargo bikes to deliver take-away meals report that it is easier to recruit riders than van drivers or moped riders. Measures to encourage take-up of (e-)cargo bikes In Europe, use of e-cargo bikes is growing fast, but in the UK, numbers are small. The recent grants for (e-)cargo bikes announced by the Department for Transport should encourage take-up. Similar (e-)cargo bike grants at national and city level in other European countries have been successful. However, grants are unlikely to be enough on their own. The government could also set up Sustainable Freight Demonstration Towns to show how e-cargo bikes work and how much difference they can make when used on a large scale."

Carey Newson and Lynn Sloman, The Case for a UK Incentive for E-bikes. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 25 p. [formato PDF, 676 kB]. "Numerous evaluations demonstrate that e-bikes support physical activity. They have broader appeal than conventional bikes, including to older people, women, and those who are less active, as well as to the young, men and the physically active. Sales of e-bikes in Belgium and the Netherlands are 20 times greater, per head of population, than they are in Britain. Sales in Sweden, Germany and Austria are between 7 and 14 times higher per head of population than in Britain. A main reason for the greater popularity of e-bikes in these countries is that national and regional or local governments have offered grants to incentivise purchase of e-bikes. These grants have raised awareness of e-bikes as an option. Evaluation of e-bike grant schemes in various countries found that typically, around half (40-60%) of e-bike trips replaced car trips, although the proportion can be as low as 16% or as high as 70% depending on local conditions and previous travel patterns. Results from individual countries showed that: About 40% of those who received a grant to buy an e-bike subsequently reduced their car use for commuting, shopping and leisure trips (Austria); People who received a grant increased the distance they cycled from an average of 200km per year before buying an e-bike to 1,400km per year afterwards, and reduced the distance they travelled by car by 660km per year (France); Sales of e-bikes in Sweden jumped from 12% to 19% of all bike sales in a single year (from 2016/17 to 2017/18), and this was attributed to the national grants programme. E-bikes are used for longer journeys than conventional bikes, and therefore have significant potential to reduce carbon emissions from transport. An e-bike grant scheme would be more than twice as effective, per pound spent, as the current grants offered to buyers of some electric cars: for example, over five years the cost per kg of CO2 saved by an e-bike grant scheme would be 42 pence, compared to 88 pence per kg of CO2 saved by an electric car grant used to buy a Tesla Model S."

David R. Ragland, Kara E. MacLeod, Tracy McMillan, Sarah Doggett, Grace Felschundneff (University of California), Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population. Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, April 2019, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "The mobility needs of an aging population is one of the most substantial challenges facing California in the coming decades. The number of residents age 65 and older is expected to double between 2012 and 2050, and the number age 85 and above is expected to increase by over 70% between 2010 and 2030. Declines in physical function related to age may reduce mobility options dramatically. A survey of 510 residents age 55 and older in Contra Costa County was conducted to determine mobility patterns and limitations related to age and other factors. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of seniors are car dependent. However, some older adults miss important activities due to mobility limitations associated with increasing age, poorer health, living alone, not having a licensed driver in the household, and having a disability. Mobility options are also limited in some geographic areas and demographic groups. Importantly, older adults want to "age in place". Based on these findings and those in related studies, the travel options and the quality of life for older adults, now and in the future, can be greatly enhanced if efforts are made to develop mobility solutions beyond use of private vehicles. The findings support the recommendations of recent regional plans such as the Coordinated Public Transit-Human Services Transportation Plan (2018), adopted by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) of the San Francisco Bay Area, which recommends supporting a range of mobility options centered around shared mobility and accessibility for populations at risk for limited mobility."

Transport & Environment, One corporation to pollute them all. Luxury cruise air emissions in Europe. Transport & Environment, Brussels, June 2019, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The main purpose of this study is to analyse air pollution caused by luxury passenger cruise ships in European waters. The results show that the luxury cruise brands owned by Carnival Corporation & PLC emitted in 2017 in European seas alone 10 times more disease-causing sulphur oxide than all of Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Norway are the most exposed countries to cruise ship air pollution in Europe. Among the major cruise ports, Barcelona, Palma Mallorca and Venice are the most polluted. Analysis also reveals that even in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), where the most stringent marine sulphur fuel standard is mandated, air pollution from cruise ships remains of great concern. In Denmark, for example, whose coasts are entirely within SECAs, cruise ships emitted 18 times more SOX in 2017 than all 2.5 million passenger vehicles in a year. This is a reflection of both the effectiveness of the fuel quality directive for road transport fuels and the failure to implement equivalent standards for the shipping industry. Ships SOX will still remain considerably large compared to passenger car fleet even after the introduction of the global 2020 marine sulphur cap. When it comes to nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, cruise ships are also of great concern despite the air pollution impact of the ongoing land-based "dieselgate" in Europe. In Denmark again, 107 cruise ships analysed emitted as much NOX in the Danish maritime economic exclusive zone (EEZ) as half the passenger cars operating in the country itself. This report recommends a zero-emission berth standard for all European ports. In addition, extra stringent air pollution standards are recommended to apply to cruise ships. These ships usually operate close to the coast with long port calls at major tourist destinations, hence disproportionately affecting air quality. Initially, it is recommended to extend the emission control areas, currently in place in the North and Baltic Seas, to the rest of the EU seas and to tighten marine SECA standard in Europe to 10ppm, equivalent to fuel used in road transport. The report also suggests that cruise ships, the industry's public-facing luxury segment, be looked up and targeted as first-movers in regulations to decarbonise the sector. So, in addition to a zero-emission berth standard, cruise ships should also be the first required to switch to zero emission propulsion in EU territorial waters."

Element Energy, Batteries on wheels: the role of battery electric cars in the EU power system and beyond. Element Energy, June 2019, 56 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. This report is produced under the Study on EV Batteries project, commissioned and funded by Transport & Environment, in collaboration with Renault-Nissan, ENEL, and Iberdrola. "European carmakers have jointly committed more than €130 billion to electrification in the coming years. This is a positive development, but if the rollout of electric vehicles is not properly managed - via uncontrolled grid connections or unsustainable use and sourcing of materials - challenges will arise, reducing the environmental benefits and creating new problems. The report, published alongside T&E's briefing: estimates the expected uptake of EVs and the volumes of batteries available for grid services during the vehicle life, as well as second-life applications and recycling at the end of vehicle life; studies the impact of EV integration on EU grids and renewables penetration, with case studies of France, Spain, Italy and the UK; analyses the economics around innovative second-life applications of batteries and presents a number of promising case studies; and assesses challenges and opportunities around battery recycling, as well as what is needed to spur circular economy markets in Europe. T&E's short briefing accompanies the Element Energy report; it provides additional analysis and policy recommendations in view of the new European Commission and upcoming legislative opportunities."

EASAC, Decarbonisation of transport: options and challenges. EASAC policy report 37. EASAC Secretariat (European Academies' Science Advisory Council), Halle (Saale), March 2019, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "This EASAC report reviews options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from European transport. It argues for stronger policies to bridge the gap between the GHG emission reductions that will be delivered by current policies and the levels needed to limit global warming to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C (Paris Agreement). The report focusses on road transport because, in the EU, this contributes 72% of transport GHG emissions. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Opportunities for the EU to strengthen its industrial competitiveness and create high quality jobs are also discussed."

Federica Aldighieri (ISPRA), Ridurre le emissioni climalteranti: indicazioni operative e buone pratiche per gli Enti Locali. Quaderni Ambiente e Società 20/2019. ISPRA, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, 2019, 101 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "Le politiche per affrontare i Cambiamenti Climatici sono principalmente la mitigazione e l'adattamento. Questa pubblicazione si concentra sulla mitigazione, cioè l'abbattimento delle emissioni di gas serra o gas climalteranti. Tra i protagonisti di questo indispensabile e non più rimandabile impegno ci sono sicuramente le città e gli Enti Locali in generale, cui la pubblicazione si rivolge. Vengono affrontati tre settori sui quali le città hanno la possibilità di intervenire: la mobilità urbana (capitoli 2 e 3), il risparmio di energia (capitolo 4 e 5) e la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili (capitolo 6 e 7). I capitoli per ogni settore sono due: il primo fornisce una panoramica delle azioni possibili e degli strumenti a disposizione di un Ente Locale per abbattere le emissioni di gas serra; il secondo una selezione di buone pratiche cui ispirarsi. Sia il primo che il secondo capitolo di ogni settore hanno un approccio operativo fornendo link e pubblicazioni utili per entrare in azione. La pubblicazione si rivolge agli amministratori e i dipendenti degli Enti Locali. Potrebbe essere inoltre utile per i soggetti coinvolti dagli Enti Locali nei processi di partecipazione alle politiche decisionali. Precede un capitolo (capitolo 1) in cui si spiega che la pubblicazione intende partire dai "numeri" delle emissioni climalteranti in Italia, con facili tabelle in cui si riportano i dati concreti. La tabella guida aprirà ogni capitolo evidenziando di volta in volta il peso delle emissioni derivanti dal relativo settore a livello nazionale: i trasporti, lo spreco di energia, e la produzione di energia. Anche se la tabella non sarà uno strumento di lavoro per i lettori essi però potranno pesare con i propri occhi il contributo effettivo alle emissioni di gas serra del settore specifico e virtualmente sentirne il peso."

European Environment Agency, Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2017 and inventory report 2019. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. EEA Report No 6/2019. (EEA/PUBL/2019/051). Copenhagen, 27 May 2019, 962 p. [formato PDF, 15,4 MB + 5 additional files (annexes)]. "Total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU) increased by 0.7 % in 2017, according to latest official data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Less coal was used to produce heat and electricity but this was offset by higher industrial and transport emissions, the latter increasing for the fourth consecutive year. total greenhouse gas emissions (including international aviation) rose by 0.7 % in 2017 compared with 2016. These official data confirm the preliminary estimates published by the EEA in October 2018. From 1990 to 2017, the EU reduced its net greenhouse gas emissions by 21.7 %. The EU is therefore still exceeding its 20 % reduction target set for 2020. EU greenhouse gas emissions have decreased since 1990 as a combined result of policies, economic and structural factors and, on average, milder winters (requiring less energy for heating). The largest emission cuts have been made in the energy sector, due to efficiency improvements, increased use of renewables and a less carbon intensive mix of fossil fuels - more gas, and less coal and oil. Energy efficiency and renewable energy will continue to play a key role in cutting future emissions and helping the EU achieve its 40 % reduction target by 2030."

Transport & Environment, Emissions reduction strategies for the transport sector in Italy. A report produced under the framework of the EUKI project. Transport & Environment, Brussels, January 2019, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "Transport is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Italy. In contrast to the industry and public electricity and heating sectors, transport emissions are still just above 1990 levels, but emissions from international shipping and aviation have doubled in the same time. In the context of needing to be decarbonised by the mid-century under the Paris Agreement, this trend needs to be rapidly reversed. Italy is already experiencing amplified climate change and warming compared to Europe. The objective of this report is to show how Italy can decrease their transport emissions from a broad range of European and national measures. In particular, the report focuses on reductions in road transport emissions that fall under the jurisdiction of the European Climate Action Regulation, which enforces a 33% emissions reduction target in 2030 compared to 2005. Finally, policy recommendations are presented to enable Italy to meet the most ambitious targets. The effect of mitigating measures such as vehicle efficiency standards, modal shift, and demand reduction, among many others, are calculated using Transport & Environment's in-house transport model, the EUTRM. The main results of the scenarios investigated are shown below. Crucially, Italy can meeits 2030 targets as long as ambitious vehicle standards, electrification, and national measures are implemented."

Andrew R. Goetz, Serena Alexander, Urban Goods Movement and Local Climate Action Plans: Assessing Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Freight Transportation. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, April 2019, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This report examines how freight transport/goods movement has been addressed in U.S. city climate action planning. Transportation generally is a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and freight transport represents a growing component of transportation's share. Almost all climate action plans (CAPs) address transportation generally, but we wished to focus on efforts to reduce GHG emissions from freight transport specifically. We analyzed 27 advanced local CAPs to determine the degree to which freight transport was targeted in goals and strategies to reduce GHG emissions. We found only six CAPs that included direct measures or programs to reduce freight emissions. Many of the CAPs mentioned general transportation objectives such as lowering vehicle miles traveled or reducing emissions from city-owned vehicle fleets, but most did not include strategies or actions that explicitly targeted freight transport. We identified the specific strategies and actions that cities are taking to address GHG emissions from freight transport, such as working with the freight community to promote anti-idling and encourage transitions to electric and alternative fuel delivery vehicles. We also analyzed freight transport plans relevant for the same cities, and found that most do not explicitly mention reducing GHG emissions. Most of the freight plans are focused on improving reliability and efficiency of freight movement, which would likely have the ancillary benefit of reducing GHG emissions, but that goal was not explicitly targeted in most of these plans. Based on our findings, we recommend that cities specifically target freight transport goals and strategies in their CAPs and better coordinate with planners developing freight transport plans to identify GHG emission reduction approaches."

Gregory D. Erhardt, Sneha Roy, Drew Cooper, Bhargava Sana, Mei Chen and Joe Castiglione, Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion?. Science Advances 2019;5:eaau2670 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. Open Access. "This research examines whether transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, live up to their stated vision of reducing congestion in major cities. Existing research has produced conflicting results and has been hampered by a lack of data. Using data scraped from the application programming interfaces of two TNCs, combined with observed travel time data, we find that contrary to their vision, TNCs are the biggest contributor to growing traffic congestion in San Francisco. Between 2010 and 2016, weekday vehicle hours of delay increased by 62% compared to 22% in a counterfactual 2016 scenario without TNCs. The findings provide insight into expected changes in major cities as TNCs continue to grow, informing decisions about how to integrate TNCs into the existing transportation system."

Rocío Rodríguez Quintero, Candela Vidal-Abarca Garrido, Hans Moons, Miguel Gama Caldas, Oliver Wolf (JRC), Ian Skinner (TEPR), Anouk van Grinsven, Maarten 't Hoen, Huib van Essen (CE Delft), Revision of the EU green public procurement criteria for transport. Technical report and criteria proposal. JRC Science for Policy report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, 155 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Public authorities' expenditures in the purchase of goods, services and works (excluding utilities and defence) constitute approximately 14% of the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Europe, accounting for roughly EUR 1.8 trillion annually. Thus, public procurement has the potential to provide significant leverage in seeking to influence the market and to achieve environmental improvements in the public sector. This effect can be particularly significant for goods, services and works (referred to collectively as products) that account for a high share of public purchasing combined with the substantial improvement potential for environmental performance. The European Commission has identified (road) transport as one such product group. Road transport covers a wide scope of vehicles (cars, LCVs, L-category vehicles, buses and waste collection vehicles) and services (mobility services, public bus services, waste collection services and post and courier services). The main environmental issues at the use phase addressed by the criteria are GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions and noise emissions. The impacts from the manufacture of batteries used in electric vehicle are also considered, leading to criteria on minimum and extended warranty of batteries. This revision has coincided with the evaluation of the Clean Vehicle Directive and the introduction of new test procedures to measure CO 2 and air pollutant emissions of vehicles (WLTP, Real Driving Emissions in Euro 6). All these policies have been taken into account in the revision process of the EU GPP criteria for transport, to ensure a full harmonisation of the EU policies."

a cura di Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti, Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città e aree metropolitane 2017-2018. Rapporto MobilitAria 2019. 2° Rapporto Kyoto Club, CNR IIA, in collaborazione con OPMUS ISFORT. Istituto sull'inquinamento atmosferico del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Cnr-Iia) e Kyoto Club, Roma, aprile 2019, 152 p. [formato PDF, 10,9 MB]. "MobilitAria 2019 è il secondo rapporto realizzato dal gruppo di lavoro Mobilità sostenibile di Kyoto Club e dagli esperti di CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) con una inedita collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT. Il rapporto delinea un quadro complessivo sull'andamento della qualità dell'aria e delle politiche di mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città e aree metropolitane italiane nel periodo 2017-2018. Ricordiamo che il primo Rapporto 2018 aveva analizzato le stesse città per il decennio 2006-2016. Uno sguardo critico è dedicato alla parte trasporti del Piano Nazionale Energia e Clima, la proposta presentata di recente dal Governo italiano, di cui è avviata la consultazione pubblica. La vera novità contenuta nel rapporto 2019 è la collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT, che ha elaborato e commentato una indagine sulla mobilità nelle 14 aree metropolitane, con dati inediti. Seguono due specifici contributi: uno di T&E che approfondisce la strategia europea per la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti al 2030 e al 2050, con gli obiettivi di riduzione dei gas serra e per diventare fossil free: una sfida immane e necessaria che deve vedere le città protagoniste. Segue un contributo di TRT Trasporti e Territorio, che ha effettuato sulla base del modello MOMOS, una simulazione sulla mobilità elettrica e i suoi effetti in quattro grandi città metropolitane al 2030. La seconda parte del rapporto è ricca di dati sulla mobilità urbana di ogni grande città e le tendenze del biennio con l'inserimento dei nuovi dati e le tendenze sulla mobilità nelle aree metropolitane. I dati sono corredati da una puntale ricognizione dei provvedimenti di mobilità e le azioni concrete realizzate da ogni grande città nel biennio 2017 e 2018. Tra gli elementi considerati vi è anche lo stato di attuazione dei PUMS sia a livello metropolitano che di ogni singola città. Vengono approfonditi i dati di qualità dell'aria delle 14 città nel biennio 2017 e 2018 e lo stato della qualità dell'aria delle singole stazioni cittadine per l'anno 2018. Completa il Rapporto un set di proposte verso la mobilita sostenibile, la sicurezza stradale e la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti, elaborate di Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA."

Marcin Szamatowicz and Joshua Paundra (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Access or Ownership? The effect of car attributes and collective psychological ownership on the preference for car subscription services. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 2019, Vol. 2(1): 159-173 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 397 kB]. Open Access. "The variety of alternative transportation services for urban commuters continues to expand with the introduction of car subscription services. Under the header of the sharing economy, car subscription services enable drivers to have access to cars without ownership for a relatively longer time period (e.g. months), when compared to other sharing economy based transportation services. Based on a mixed of between- and within-subject design online experiment involving 274 participants, this study investigates this novel service by looking at the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership to various traditional and upcoming subscribed car features namely, mileage limit, price, self-driving capability, and advance safety systems, on people's preference for car subscription services. Results suggested that these features significantly impacted people's preference for subscribed car. Collective psychological ownership was found to moderate the influence of self-driving capability and advance safety systems. That is, high collective psychological ownership individuals preferred subscribed car with self-driving capability or had more concerned to the unavailability of advance safety systems in a subscribed car. This study points to the need for car subscription companies to consider traditional (price and mileage limit) as well as upcoming (self-driving capability and advance safety systems) features, when offering their services and enticing potential users. More importantly, the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership on these upcoming car features means car subscription companies should account for people's psychological disposition to their own vehicle when considering additional car features to effectively attract new users."

Ana MarÍa Manzur Tirado, Rowan Brown, Osiris A. Valdez Banda, Risk and safety management of autonomous systems: a literature review and initial proposals for the maritime industry. (Aalto University publication series SCIENCE + TECHNOLOGY, 1/2019). Aalto University, School of Engineeering, Marine Technology, 2019, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Maritime autonomous systems pose many challenges to their designers. A fully autonomous vessel must be able to handle everyday navigation and propulsion in addition to an extensive list of other tasks such as cargo handling, emergency manoeuvering, ship-ship and ship-shore communications, situational awareness, and much more. If such systems are to be implemented for the sake of increased safety, their operational risk and safety must be managed and assured. The goal of this report is to investigate how risk and safety of these systems can and should be managed. There are three categories of system modelling methods that can be used for this purpose. The oldest category is "sequential methods", followed chronologically by the most popular category, called "epidemiological methods", and then by the newest category, called "systemic methods". This report first contains an overview of these three categories. Following this is a literature review that investigates the approaches to risk and safety management of autonomous systems that are taken within four transportation industries (aviation, railway, automotive, and maritime). Next are three SWOT analyses, one for each category of methods. Within these analyses there contains the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats presented by or towards each method. For the role of autonomous maritime systems, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that STPA (a systemic method) is the optimal choice (if one method that current exists is to be used). This is because it is a comprehensive method that can handle complex socio-technical systems, such as those in question, while providing useful safety improvement recommendations. However, no single method is better than every other in all situations, and STPA presents certain limitations and drawbacks. First, it is very resource heavy, demanding long time investments from expert personnel. Second, because few data on the proposed systems exist, it is very difficult to conclusively recommend a suitable method. Therefore, if practitioners decide to employ STPA, they should be open to considering other methods in case they can yield better results. Finally, STPA (and other systemic methods) cannot currently yield accident probabilities. This means that STPA, in its current form, is unable to entirely satisfy the IMO's FSA, which is important for the future of autonomous ships. Conversely, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that methods that can satisfy the FSA are unsafe for this application. This is because they are too theoretically simplistic and not comprehensive enough to produce trustworthy results. To solve this issue, one of the following should take place: (a) STPA (or another systemic method) is augmented to include probabilistic abilities; (b) STPA (or another systemic method) is combined with a sequential method to achieve the benefits of both categories (e.g. comprehensive and probabilistic results); or (c) a new systemic method is created that provides the depth of analysis of STPA as well as the required probabilistic capabilities. However, barring the FSA issue, the enclosed analysis indicates that the optimal choice is a systemic method (specifically STPA) despite its heavy burden to resources. This may seem like a cavalier recommendation, but it is the most comprehensive method and it produces the most safety improvement recommendations, thereby making it the optimal choice. It is additionally recommended that system analysis is performed from the design concept stage through to system operation, regardless of the method chosen. This is so that the analysis can be improved as more system data are produced."

Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Folęga (Silesian University of Technology), Impact of Road Transport Means on Climate Change and Human Health in Poland. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 31, 2019, No. 2, 195-204 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 380 kB]. Open Access. "Operation of means of transport is one of major sources of environmental impact. The goal of this article was to analyse the greenhouse gas emissions and to assess the impact of operation of means of road transport in Poland on human health using the life cycle assessment technique based on an analysis of emission of dust and gas pollutants. Road transport was assessed by taking the following means of transport into account: passenger cars, other cars with weight of up to 3,500 kg, lorries, buses, motorcycles, mopeds and tractors. The analysis covered various dust and gas pollutants, including the emission of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, NOx, NMVOC, PM and SO2. Using the IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment method, transport was assessed in a breakdown into the following impact categories: greenhouse gas emission and damage to human health, including damage caused by organic and inorganic compounds. It has been evidenced that the highest emissions of dust and gas pollutants are caused by passenger cars, which is mainly due to the number of vehicles of this type traversing Polish roads. The main cause of climate changes due to road transport is CO2 emission, while NOx emission is the main factor determining individual categories of damage to human health. The negative environmental impact is primarily related to the operation of combustion engine vehicles. Diesel oil and petrol are currently the main fuels used in Polish transport. In order to reduce their impact on the environment one should intensify the efforts aimed at increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport."

Erling Holden, Geoffrey Gilpin and David Banister, Sustainable Mobility at Thirty. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1965 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "It is now almost three decades since the concept of 'sustainable mobility' first appeared in the 1992 EU Green Paper on the Impact of Transport on the Environment. This paper reviews the literature and reflects on how societies' understanding and interpretation of the concept of sustainable mobility has evolved. We track this evolution over six dimensions: research and policy, transport impacts and categories, scientific disciplines, methodological approach, and research questions. From this review we assert that the mainstream understanding and interpretation of sustainable mobility can be grouped into four generations of studies. The first generation of studies (1992-1993) were techno-centric and focused on how to limit transport's negative environmental impacts by improving then-existing technology. The second, third and fourth generations of studies (1993-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2018 respectively) increasingly acknowledge the limitations of preceding efforts to achieve sustainable mobility, and open for a more diverse set of alternatives. These studies have gradually become more interdisciplinary in nature-reflecting the inter-relatedness of mobility with all other aspects of society. We conclude that despite the ensuing elevation of mobility into the holistic picture society, we still have not achieved a sustainable mobility system. Furthermore, what is much needed now, more than ever, is a bold set of new narratives."

Kobe Boussauw, Thomas Vanoutrive, Flying Green from a Carbon Neutral Airport: The Case of Brussels. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2102 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "The aviation sector is one of the fastest growing emitters of greenhouse gases worldwide. In addition, airports have important local environmental impacts, mainly in the form of noise pollution and deterioration in air quality. Although noise nuisance in the vicinity of airports is recognized as an important problem of the urban environment which is often addressed by regulation, other environmental problems associated with aviation are less widely acknowledged. In the climate debate, the importance of which is rising, aviation has remained under the radar for decades. In the present paper, we use the case of Brussels Airport (Belgium) to demonstrate that the local perception of air travel-related environmental problems may be heavily influenced by the communication strategy of the airport company in question. Basing our analysis on publicly available data, communication initiatives, media reports, and policy documents, we find that (1) the noise impact of aviation is recognized and mainly described in an institutionalized format, (2) the impact of aviation on local air quality is ignored, and (3) the communication on climate impact shows little correspondence or concern with the actual effects. These findings are relevant for other airports and sectors, since the type of environmental communication produced by airport companies can also be observed elsewhere."

Elisabetta Cornago, Alexandros Dimitropoulos, Walid Oueslati, Evaluating the Impact of Urban Road Pricing on the Use of Green Transport Modes: The Case of Milan. OECD Environment Working Papers No. 143, OECD Publishing, Paris. 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of congestion pricing on the demand for clean transport modes. To this end, it draws on an empirical analysis of the effect of Milan's congestion charge on the use of bike sharing. The analysis indicates that congestion pricing increases daily bike-sharing use by at least 5% in the short term. Extending the schedule of the congestion charge in the early evening increases bike-sharing use in the affected time window by 12%. The impact of the policy on bike-sharing use mainly occurs through the reduction of road traffic congestion, which makes cycling safer and more pleasant. The findings of the study indicate that policies aiming to reduce car use also have positive repercussions on the uptake of green mobility options. Relying solely on direct incentives for cycling, which often involve infrastructure projects, is likely insufficient to remove barriers to bike use."

Ugo Fiore, Adrian Florea and Gilberto Pérez Lechuga, An Interdisciplinary Review of Smart Vehicular Traffic and Its Applications and Challenges. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8, 13 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of the hefty data volumes generated by sensors, and the coordinated operation between selfish agents. The purpose of this work is to survey recent literature with an emphasis on applications and a multidisciplinary eye, with the aim of stimulating discussion and reflection in the scientific communities. The principal application areas of smart traffic and smart mobility are discussed, synthesizing different perspectives. Many intriguing areas for future research exist besides those relative to connectivity, data fusion, and privacy. Some research challenges pertinent to sustainability, insurance, simulation and the handling of ambiguous information are highlighted."

José María Martín Martín, Jose Manuel Guaita Martínez, Valentín Molina Moreno and Antonio Sartal Rodríguez, An Analysis of the Tourist Mobility in the Island of Lanzarote: Car Rental Versus More Sustainable Transportation Alternatives. Sustainability 2019, 11, 739 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Studies have shown that certain modes of tourist development jeopardize the environment, as in the case of mass tourism, especially in areas that require special protection. The goal of this study is to apply a proposal for studying sustainability of tourist mobility to a protected space, the island of Lanzarote, which has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. This paper seeks to figure out the mobility patterns of tourists, the criterion used to select a mode of transportation, the attitude of tourists towards the sustainability of transport, and its environmental implications by analyzing secondary sources and interviewing tourists. The results show that the tourism model of the island is based on scattered natural resources that tourists want to enjoy in a tailor-made visit, which makes it hard to give up individual transportation. The only environmentally sustainable alternative is opting for electric vehicles with charging stations in the aforementioned tourist spots."

Tessa Kate Anderson, Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility. vehicles 2019, 1(1), 57-68 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and use. This study used a combination of in-depth surveys and interviews with all 61 Danish municipalities on their fleet PEV experience and use. By building on the literature, the paper offers a deeper understanding of decision-making pathways for the procurement of PEVs. PEVs were found to be most suited to certain departments and the acceptance and uptake of PEVs was found to be complex and not straightforward."

Yingnan Jia, Ding Ding, Klaus Gebel, Lili Chen, Sen Zhang, Zhicong Ma, Hua Fu, Effects of new dock-less bicycle-sharing programs on cycling: a retrospective study in Shanghai. BMJ Open 2019;9:e024280 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 420 kB]. Open Access.

Gruppo di Lavoro sulla valutazione dei progetti, Analisi costi-benefici del nuovo collegamento ferroviario Torino - Lione. Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 79 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Avv. Pucciariello, Relazione tecnico-giuridica (sulla nuova linea ferroviaria Alta Velocità/Alta Capacità Torino-Lione). Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 53 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB].

Cerema, Amphibiens et dispositifs de franchissement des infrastructures de transport terrestre. Cerema, Janvier 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 19,4 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques biologiques des amphibiens et des menaces qui pèsent sur ce groupe, le présent ouvrage précise les enjeux de protection et les impacts des infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT), en particulier les routes. Les infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT) font courir deux risques majeurs aux amphibiens : la fragmentation (disparition, diminution, dégradation et isolement des surfaces d'habitats favorables, extinction des petites populations) et la mortalité directe par les collisions. Divers dispositifs associés aux mesures "Eviter, Réduire, Compenser" (ERC) sont destinés à éviter l'impact ou le supprimer, atténuer ou réduire ces risques ou tenter de compenser les dommages. Cet ouvrage présente les dispositifs temporaires et permanents de protection des amphibiens, en particulier les "crapauduc" ou "batrachoduc"), et les principes de conception. Les méthodes de dénombrement, les mesures d'accompagnement, l'entretien et le suivi de l'efficacité de ces mesures, la pérennisation des corridors rétablis (politiques foncières) et quelques estimations de coût sont également abordés. Il s'adresse principalement aux concepteurs de ces installations et aux gestionnaires d'infrastructures mais également à tous les autres acteurs qu'ils appartiennent à des structures associatives ou institutionnelles intéressées et impliquées dans l'initiative et la mise en oeuvre de ces mesures."

Keith Bevis, Oycan Sozcu, Russell Fenner, Mobility as a Service: Early implementations in the UK. EEVConvention: Policies and Best Practice, Oslo Congress Center, Oslo, Norway, 25 Sep 2018, 15 p., [formato PDF, 648 kB]. "Mobility as a Service, MaaS, has been developing at a pace across Europe. While engaged in an InnovateUK project, MotionHub, to implement a MaaS scheme in a municipality in the South East England, the authors began to ask two fundamental questions; what is MaaS and to what extent is it materialising in the UK. From the experience of MotionHub, it is clear that UK implementations would be slow. Combining a number of web-based services and amalgamating their financial transactions is relatively straightforward. However, introducing the potential for public transport ticketing as well raises additional security, scale and financial constraints. Motion Hub has engaged with major players and regulators across the public transport industry. In its latter stages project was rolled out to the public. The various individual services became available from the single website via one membership application and the use of a single card. Other MaaS styled initiatives have been reviewed and it appears that there are just five other MaaS projects being trialled concurrently with MotionHub that provide journey planning and single point ticket purchase for multimodal journeys. A number of other initiatives provide just some aspects of MaaS. The project has also reviewed customer perceptions, suitability of various types of town to MaaS initiatives and the varying enthusiasm amongst local government officials. From these reviews it is clear that the MaaS uptake will be slow. However, reflecting on the theoretical discussions about Maas, there appears to be a significant gap between theory and practice In particular of the claimed benefits of de-congestion and reduced pollution seem to be some way off in the future. This is not a criticism of MotionHub and the other implementations, some of which are substantial investments. It is acknowledgement that the goal of seamless adaptive travel is an extremely ambitious one."

Cerema, Adapter la mobilité d'un territoire au changement climatique. Cerema, 2018, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Les changements du climat, déjà sensibles et amenés à s'amplifier à l'avenir, ont et auront des incidences importantes sur la mobilité des territoires. Destiné aux acteurs des territoires, le présent ouvrage propose dans un premier temps une démarche puis développe une méthode en quatre étapes. Après avoir posé quelques principes préalables de la démarche, la première étape de la méthode vise à délimiter le cadre temporel et spatial de la réflexion; la deuxième étape permet d'identifier les effets du changement climatique sur la mobilité à l'échelle du territoire, en s'appuyant sur neuf effets répertoriés; la troisième étape consiste à élaborer des scénarios sur la base de trois familles proposées; enfin, la quatrième étape précise le contenu du scénario choisi grâce à sept leviers opérationnels."

Liridona Sopjani, Jenny Janhager Stier, Sofia Ritzén, Mia Hesselgren, Peter Georén, Involving users and user roles in the transition to sustainable mobility systems: The case of light electric vehicle sharing in Sweden. Transportation Research Part D,, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "Low-carbon mobility alternatives, such as shared services integrating light electric vehicles, support transitions to sustainable transport systems. However, new products and services are not enough, as changes must also incorporate the practices of travelling, infrastructure, and mobility cultures in which users of mobility solutions are core stakeholders. This paper argues that user involvement is necessary in sustainable innovation processes but that the expected diversity of user roles and their involvement can also lead to contrasting outcomes for sustainable innovation transitions. Guided by theory in user involvement, this study investigated users and nonusers of light electric vehicles in a sharing mobility service system set up as living lab in two large workplaces in Sweden. Fifty-one interviews with employees at the workplaces were conducted during the implementation process and analysed combined with a questionnaire and data from system tracking through sensor technology. The paper finds that both users and non-users are co-creators in building momentum for sustainable mobility alternatives and provides a spectrum of user roles with defined characteristics. Four roles are distinguished within this spectrum: vigilant users, passive collaborators, active decision makers and ambassadors. We suggest that a convergent activation strategy is deployed for involving a full spectrum of users in order to capture their insights in ways that positively affect transition. Such a strategy addresses users and non-users as part of decision-making concerning alternatives and cultivates a culture of user collaboration, while also enabling a plurality of contributions in order to challenge existing regimes and established practices among individuals."

Konstantin Klemmer, Tobias Brandt, Stephen Jarvis, Isolating the effect of cycling on local business environments in London. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0209090 (2018) (31 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "We investigate whether increasing cycling activity affects the emergence of new local businesses. Historical amenity data from OpenStreetMap is used to quantify change in shop and sustenance amenity counts. We apply an instrumental variable framework to investigate a causal relationship and to account for endogeneity in the model. Measures of cycling infrastructure serve as instruments. The impact is evaluated on the level of 4835 Lower Super Output Areas in Greater London. Our results indicate that an increase in cycling trips significantly contributes to the emergence of new local shops and businesses. Limitations regarding data quality, zero-inflation and residual spatial autocorrelation are discussed. While our findings correspond to previous investigations stating positive economic effects of cycling, we advance research in the field by providing a new dataset of unprecedented high granularity and size. Furthermore, this is the first study in cycling research looking at business amenities as a measure of economic activity. The insights from our analysis can enhance understandings of how cycling affects the development of local urban economies and may thus be used to assess and evaluate transport policies and investments. Beyond this, our study highlights the value of open data in city research."

Heikki Liimatainen, Markus Pöllänen and Riku Viri (Tampere University of Technology), CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios. European Journal of Futures Research (2018) 6:22 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "The transport sector produces 23% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. While the mitigation of climate change requires GHG emissions to be drastically reduced, the emissions from the transport sector are expected to grow. The purpose of this study is to produce alternative scenarios which meet the target of 80% CO2 emission reduction by 2050 for the Finnish transport sector and to analyse the carbon abatement potentials, costs and benefits of the required behavioural and technological measures. We found that the most cost-efficient measure for the society is to support a shift from private car use to shared car use through increasing car-sharing and ride-sharing. Aiming to reach the emission reduction targets solely through technological measures would require a rapid uptake of alternative energies and the society would not receive the possible benefits, including health benefits, energy savings and fixed car cost savings."

Eckert Fritz, Johannes Klühspies, Roland Kircher, Michael Witt, Laurence E. Blow, Energy Consumption of Track-Based High-Speed Transportation Systems: Maglev Technologies in Comparison with Steel-Wheel-Rail. Research Series Volume 3. The International Maglev Board, November 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 869 kB]. Public Full-Text. "Energy consumption is an important criterion of the total operating costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, with maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Linear Shinkansen. From a scientific point of view, a fair and objective comparison is needed, without any distortion of results. Therefore, a comparison of energy values based on "normative usable areas" inside the high-speed systems will be introduced and evaluated in this paper. The results give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. But, as a whole, energy consumption cannot be seen as major advantage of high speed maglev systems over conventional steel-wheel-rail, when compared at same speeds."

Andrea Giuricin, Roberto Tosatti, The history of Italo and the benefits of competition in the Italian HSR sector. CESISP Working Paper N. 6. CESISP (Centro di Ricerca in Economia e Regolazione dei Servizi, dell'Industria e del Settore Pubblico), Università di Milano-Bicocca, 2018, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The purpose of this study, divided in three different parts, is to represent the evolution of the Italian high-speed railway (HSR) sector from the origin to the competition phase, focusing attention on the non-public competitor, Italo, recently became an American company. In the first part of the study will be provided a presentation about the liberalization of the Italian rail market under EU regulation. This theme will be address within a legal point of view. In the second part of the paper will be represent the evolution of the HSR sector in the country, from an infrastructural and economics point of view. In particular we will discuss about the development of the service until the competition phase. In the last part we will talk about the history of NTV and its service (Italo). We will talk about the origins and the current commercial situation. Lately we will analyse the results of its first 6 years of life, comparing the HSR sector before and after its entry and the benefits it produced."

Jessica E. Bourne, Sarah Sauchelli, Rachel Perry, Angie Page, Sam Leary, Clare England and Ashley R. Cooper, Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (2018) 15:116 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Open Access. "Background: Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have been highlighted as a method of active travel that could overcome some of the commonly reported barriers to cycle commuting. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the health benefits associated with e-cycling. Method: A systematic literature review of studies examining physical activity, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and psychological outcomes associated with e-cycling. Where possible these outcomes were compared to those from conventional cycling and walking. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists were searched up to November 2017. Hand searching occurred until June 2018. Experimental or observational studies examining the impact of e-cycling on physical activity and/or health outcomes of interest were included. E- bikes used must have pedals and require pedalling for electric assistance to be provided. Results: Seventeen studies (11 acute experiments, 6 longitudinal interventions) were identified involving a total of 300 participants. There was moderate evidence that e-cycling provided physical activity of at least moderate intensity, which was lower than the intensity elicited during conventional cycling, but higher than that during walking. There was also moderate evidence that e-cycling can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive individuals. Evidence of the impact of e-cycling on metabolic and psychological health outcomes was inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence was compromised by weak study design and quality. Conclusion: E-cycling can contribute to meeting physical activity recommendations and increasing physical fitness. As such, e-bikes offer a potential alternative to conventional cycling. Future research should examine the long-term health impacts of e-cycling using rigorous research designs."

Alessandro Panaro, Dario Ruggiero, Daniele Testi, Corridoi ed efficienza logistica dei territori. Risultati di un'indagine sulle imprese manifatturiere. SRM/Contship Italia, Melzo, dicembre 2018, 40 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. Report gratuito, necessaria la registrazione. Report online realizzato grazie al partenariato tra SRM e Contship Italia Group nell'ambito delle attività di ricerca dell'Osservatorio Permanente sull'Economia dei Trasporti Marittimi e della Logistica ( "Lo studio è il frutto di una survey, progettata e realizzata da SRM e Contship, con l'obiettivo di offrire una fotografia delle scelte logistiche di un panel di 400 imprese manifatturiere, localizzate in tre regioni che rappresentano poco più del 40% del PIL italiano e il 52,7% dell'interscambio commerciale totale del nostro Paese: Lombardia, Emilia Romagna e Veneto. L'indagine si concentra sui "corridoi" logistici utilizzati dalle imprese che utilizzano i container per trasportare le proprie merci, sulle modalità di trasporto usate per raggiungere le infrastrutture portuali dalla sede dell'impresa e viceversa, e sui porti italiani più utilizzati per raggiungere i mercati di destinazione."

Dieter Scholz (Hamburg University of Applied Sciences), Evaluating Aircraft with Electric and Hybrid Propulsion. Electric & Hybrid Aerospace Technology Symposium 2018, Cologne, Germany, 08.-09.11.2018, 73 slides [formato PDF, 5,3 MB]. "Purpose: This presentation takes a critical look at various electric air mobility concepts. With a clear focus on requirements and first principles applied to the technologies in question, it tries to bring inflated expectations down to earth. Economic, ecologic and social (noise) based well accepted evaluation principles are set against wishful thinking. Design/methodology/approach: Aeronautical teaching basics are complemented with own thoughts and explanations. In addition, the results of past research projects are applied to the topic. Findings: Electric air mobility may become useful in some areas of aviation. Small short-range general aviation aircraft may benefit from battery-electric or hybrid-electric propulsion. Urban air mobility in large cities will give time advantages to super-rich people, but mass transportation in cities will require a public urban transport system. Battery-electric passenger aircraft are neither economic nor ecologic. How overall advantages can be obtained from turbo-electric distributed propulsion (without batteries) is not clear. Maybe turbo-hydraulic propulsion has some weight advantages over the electric approach. Research limitations/implications: Research findings are from basic considerations only. A detailed evaluation of system principles on a certain aircraft platform may lead to somewhat different results. Practical implications: The discussion about electric air mobility concepts may get more factual. Investors may find some of the information provided easy to understand and helpful for their decision making. Social implications: How to tackle challenges of resource depletion and environment pollution is a social question. Better knowledge of the problem enables the public to take a firm position in the discussion. Originality/value: Holistic evaluation of electric air mobility has not much been applied yet. This presentation shows how to proceed."

Cláudia A. Soares Machado, Nicolas Patrick Marie de Salles Hue, Fernando Tobal Berssaneti and José Alberto Quintanilha, An Overview of Shared Mobility. Review. Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4342 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "In a wider understanding, shared mobility can be defined as trip alternatives that aim to maximize the utilization of the mobility resources that a society can pragmatically afford, disconnecting their usage from ownership. Then, shared mobility is the short-term access to shared vehicles according to the user's needs and convenience. The contributions and added value of this paper are to provide an up-to-date and well-structured review on the area of shared mobility to researchers and practitioners of the transport sector. Hence, this paper presents a bibliographical review of shared mobility and its diverse modalities, as an alternative to individual transportation, especially in cases of individual automobiles or short trips restricted to an urban city. The present literature review on shared modes of transportation has discovered that the introduction of these modes alone will not solve transportation problems in large cities, with elevated and growing motorization rates. However, it can among the strategies employed to help alleviate the problems caused by traffic jams and pollution by reducing the number of vehicles in circulation, congestions, and the urban emission of polluting gases. Thus, the implementation of shared mobility schemes offers the potential to enhance the efficiency, competitiveness, social equity, and quality of life in cities. This paper covers the fundamental aspects of vehicle and/or ride sharing in urban centers, and provides an overview of current shared mobility systems."

Luqi Wang, Barriers to Implementing Pro-Cycling Policies: A Case Study of Hamburg. Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4196 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. Open Access. "Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major barriers and removing them is critical. This study took an in-depth look at Hamburg which started a major cycling promotion in 2008. According to expert interviews and literature surveys, the author found that the major barriers are physical, political and institutional, and social and cultural. Specifically, the city lacks enough physical space, political support, and the evaluation of travel behavior and demand. Also, some private stakeholders are reluctant to give up on-street car parking space for cycling lanes, and the negotiation process is difficult and time-consuming. To overcome these barriers, Hamburg requires cycling-oriented urban design, a strategic and integrated cycling action plan, strong political support, and target group-oriented communication."

Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives. TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report. EEA Report No 13/2018. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2018, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The aims of this report are to: bring together existing evidence on the environmental impact of BEVs across the stages of their life cycle, undertaking where possible comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs); consider how a move to a circular economy could reduce these impacts."

Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola, Theo Notteboom, Towards low carbon global supply chains: a multi-trade analysis of CO2 emission reductions in container shipping. PortEconomics, Conference Paper for the International Association of Maritime Economists 2018 Conference (IAME2018), held 11-14 September 2018, Mombasa, Kenya, 20 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "How individual factors contribute to the carbon footprint associated with international maritime container supply chains? This is the key question of the latest port study co-authored by PortEconomics members Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola and Theo Notteboom. The authors advance their research providing four key contributions: Identify six key contributing factors to container shipping emissions; Develop a model to isolate the contribution of individual factors; Apply the model to long-term emissions associated to 187 container services deployed in 2007 and 170 services in 2016; Discuss how their results can be used by shippers/logistics service providers to design low-carbon global supply chains."

Kiron Chatterjee, Phil Goodwin, Tim Schwanen, Ben Clark, Juliet Jain, Steve Melia, Jennie Middleton, Anna Plyushteva, Miriam Ricci, Georgina Santos and Gordon Stokes, Young People's Travel - What's Changed and Why? Review and Analysis. Report to Department for Transport. The Centre for Transport & Society, UWE Bristol and Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford, January 2018, 86 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Young adults in Great Britain and other countries are driving less now than young adults did in the early 1990s. The Department for Transport (DfT) commissioned the Centre for Transport and Society (UWE, Bristol) and the Transport Studies Unit (University of Oxford) to carry out a systematic assessment of available evidence on the subject, both by review of UK and overseas published literature, and by new secondary analysis of existing UK data sets. The study sought to address the questions: In what ways have changes in young people's social and economic conditions, and lifestyles and attitudes impacted on their travel behaviour? How might those drivers, or other anticipated changes, be expected to impact their future travel demand? The evidence has been evaluated on the basis of an extensive review of both transport-specific and wider social science literature in the UK (and other countries where, despite national differences, the trends show many similar patterns), and new analysis of data from the National Travel Survey (NTS) (1995-2014), the Census (2001 and 2011) and Understanding Society (five waves from 2009/10 to 2013/14)."

E. Pisoni, P. Christidis, P. Thunis, M. Trombetti, Evaluating the impact of "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" on urban background air quality. Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 249-255 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Air quality in European cities is still a challenge, with various urban areas frequently exceeding the PM2.5 and NO2 concentration levels allowed by the European Union Air Quality Standards. This is a problem both in terms of legislation compliance, but also in terms of health of citizens, as it has been recently estimated that 400 to 450 thousand people die prematurely every year due to poor air quality. Air quality in cities can be improved with a number of interventions, at different sectoral (industry, traffic, residential, etc) and geographical (international, European, national, local, etc.) levels. In this paper we explore the potential of city level plans to improve mobility and air quality (excluding electro-mobility options, not considered in this study). We applied the "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" (SUMPs) framework to 642 cities in Europe and modelled how the measures they include may impact at first on mobility and emissions at urban level, and then on urban background concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. Results show that annual averages moderately improve for both pollutants, with reductions of urban background concentrations up to 2% for PM2.5 and close to 4% for NO2. The impact on NO2 at street level (that will be higher than on urban background) is not evaluated in this work. The air quality improvement of the simulated SUMP would only partially alleviate air quality problems in urban areas, but such a reduction in the emissions of air pollutants should still be considered as a positive result of SUMPs, given that they correspond to a set of low-cost measures that can be implemented at local level. Furthermore, the introduction of electro-mobility options (not considered here) would increase the impact on air quality. Other types of benefits, such as reduced fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, higher impact at street level or accident rates reduction further add to the overall positive impact."

Anne Durand, Lucas Harms, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Toon Zijlstra, Mobility-as-a-Service and changes in travel preferences and travel behaviour: a literature review. KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, The Hague, September 2018, 57 p. [formato PDF, 978 kB]. "Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), a transport concept integrating various mobility services into one single digital platform, elicits high expectations as a means of providing customised door-to-door transport solutions. To date, the frequent claims about the positive contributions MaaS will make towards achieving sustainability goals rely on a scattering of limited yet insightful research findings. Many research questions remain unanswered, however. Are people willing to accept MaaS as a new transport service (on a daily basis)? The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis looked for answers by means of an extensive research program."

Armando Cartenì, Maria Luisa De Guglielmo and Nicola Pascale, Congested Urban Areas with High Interactions Between Vehicular and Pedestrian Flows: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for a Sustainable Transport Policy in Naples, Italy. The Open Transportation Journal, 2018, Volume 12, 273-288 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. Open Access. " Introduction/Methods: A significant application of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan of Naples, in southern Italy, will be described with specific reference to design a sustainable transport scenario for one of the highest density and congested area of the city: Municipio square, in the centre of Naples, where the homonymous station of the Metro Line 1 was under construction. The particularity of this case study is that Municipio Square is a high dense population area characterized by multimodal traffic flows (vehicles and pedestrians) and a thousand of travellers who embark/disembark every day from the marina to the islands of the Naples Gulf (e.g. Capri, Ischia) and cruises around the Mediterranean Sea. Thousands of vehicles and people pass through the square every day, often slowing the vehicular flows. Starting from these considerations, a multi-scale modelling architecture (estimated ad-hoc for the specific case study) was proposed to better evaluate policy impacts (e.g., transport, social, environmental), applying both macroscopic and microscopic simulation models simultaneously to design a sustainable transport scenario in term of both geometrical and traffic solutions. Results: Six different design scenario were compared and the main results of the most significant one are described and discussed. The best project solution reduces the average travel time and the long queues thanks to a better distribution of the flows (both vehicles and pedestrians) in the broader area around of Municipio square. The simulation results also underlined the benefits for pedestrians related to the presence of different size of sidewalks and paths. Conclusion: Because of the realization of the new metro station will increase the pedestrian flows, the external layout of the square was designed, regarding infrastructures and paths, to minimize the conflicts and reduce the overall travel time. The proposed sustainable transport scenario was conceived in term of best geometrical devices and traffic solutions. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis was also proposed, according to the European guidelines, aiming in improving transport, urbanistic, artistic/cultural, aesthetic, economic and environmental aspects as well as liveability for citizens, transport users (public and private) and tourists."

Miguel Ángel Mozos-Blanco, Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), The way to sustainable mobility. A comparative analysis of sustainable mobility plans in Spain. Transport Policy 72 (2018) 45-54 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities and their evolution towards a more sustainable mobility represents nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011, the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of these plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on 38 Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The SUMPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. First, an analysis was made of the diagnosis of the mobility situation in each location according to the di- agnosis document included in many of the SUMPs. The second stage consisted on the analysis of the measures in the plan, considering sixteen indicators, such as accessibility, intermodality, pedestrians or design of public space. Finally, it was also determined whether the document included a monitoring plan, a budget and a timeline. Through the comparison of the results, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Miguel Ángel de los Mozos-Blanco, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans: A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution and Current Situation in Spain. 44th European Transport Conference, Barcelona (Spain) 5-7 Octubre 2016. 22 p. [formato Docx, 1,25 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities represent nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011 the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of this plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans carried out in 46 Spanish cities. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The analysis is structured into two main stages: In the first phase, the 46 SMUPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. In the second phase, a questionnaire was conducted with experts and other agents and stakeholders involved in the plans that have participated in the development and implementation of each of the plans, as engineers, politicians, NGOs, consultants, etc. This interview consists on a grid of questions, both qualitative and quantitative when possible, about surveillance, costs of the implemented actions or the elements of success, for example. These results allow us to verify and contrast the previous analysis with the experts' opinion and experiences. Finally, through the comparison of the results of both stages, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Urs Bolz, Öffentliche Veloverleihsysteme in der Schweiz. Entwicklungen und Geschäftsmodelle - ein Praxisbericht. Materialien Langsamverkehr Nr. 137. Bundesamt für Strassen, ASTRA, Bereich Langsamverkehr und historische Verkehrswege, Bern, Juni 2018, 43 p., [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "2018 zeichnet sich bei den Veloverleihsystemen in der Schweiz ein Entwicklungsschub ab. Nach längeren Rechtsverfahren starteten die Städte Zürich und Bern ihre Systeme mit je über 2000 Velos, und auch in anderen Städten sind Beschaffungsverfahren im Gange oder in Planung. Parallel dazu drängen verschiedene Anbietende mit stationsungebundenen Veloverleihangeboten (sogenannten Free-Floating-Systeme) auf den Markt, die zum Teil etablierte Systeme konkurrenzieren. Der vorliegende Berichts ist eine Bestandsaufnahme aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen mit der Einführung, Gebrauch und Betrieb von Veloverleihsystemen in Schweizer Städten. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den neuen Erkenntnissen aus diesen Projekten, mit Einschluss der sich stellenden rechtlichen Fragen."

Burkhard Horn, Alexander Jung, Bikesharing im Wandel. Handlungsempfehlungen für deutsche Städte und Gemeinden zum Umgang mit stationslosen Systemen. Agora Verkehrswende, Berlin, Juni 2018, 36 p., [formato PDF, 998 kB]. "Bikesharing stellt einen wichtigen Baustein eines nachhatigen urbanen Mobilitätskonzeptes dar. Es kann in relevantem Umfang zur Reduzierung des innerstädtischen Autoverkehrs beitragen, insbesondere als Teil inter- und multimodaler Wegeketten in Verknüpfung mit dem Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV) für die erste oder letzte Meile sowie beim Zurücklegen kurzer Alltags- und Freizeitwege. Dies gilt grundsätzlich auch für die neuen stationslosen Systeme von Anbietern vor allem aus Ostasien, die seit 2017 verstärkt auf den deutschen Markt drängen. Vor allem für kleine und mittelgroße Städte sowie peripherere Lagen von Großstädten bieten sie neue Chancen für ein breiteres Sharing-Angebot, aber auch in größeren Städten können sie sich als komplementäres Angebot zu bestehenden Systemen eignen. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit den neuen Systemen haben allerdings auch gezeigt, dass ein gewisses Maß an Steuerung durch die Kommunen erforderlich ist: Nur so lassen sich ihre Potenziale gezielt nutzen und die erkennbar gewordenen Herausforderungen (etwa die Übernutzung des öffentlichen Raums oder betriebliche Probleme) bewältigen. Entscheidend für den Erfolg stationsloser Bikeshar­ing-Systeme auch aus kommunaler Sicht ist die enge Kommunikation und Kooperation zwischen der öffentlichen Hand und den Anbietern. Ergebnis dieser Zusammenarbeit sollte möglichst eine Vereinbarung sein, die wesentliche Elemente des Aufbaus und des Betriebs des jeweiligen Systems möglichst verbindlich regelt (soweit möglich auch rechtlich, etwa über Sondernutzungsregelungen) und dessen Einbindung in das gesamtstädtische Mobilitätskonzept sicherstellt. Die Städte und Gemeinden können diesbezüglich auch Anreize setzen. Die vorliegende Handreichung enthält Anforderungen und zahlreiche Hinweise zur Ausgestaltung solcher Vereinbarungen. Jede Kommune kann dabei eine spezifische, auf die lokalen Verhältnisse angepasste Lösung entwickeln. In die Handlungsempfehlungen ist eine Reihe von Erkenntnissen eingeflossen, die sich aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen verschiedener Städte und Gemeinden ergeben haben. Die Handlungsempfehlungen sind mit entsprechenden Praxisbeispielen hinterlegt. Allerdings liegen bislang nur wenige auch längerfristige Erfahrungen und empirisch belastbare Evaluierungen zur Wirkung der stationslosen Bikesharing-Systeme vor. Hier besteht Forschungsbedarf. Dies gilt auch in Hinblick auf den Rechtsrahmen, dessen zielgerichtete Veränderung den Abschluss belastbarer Vereinbarungen und Verfahren deutlich erleichtern könnte."

Bernd Herzog-Schlagk, Schritte zur Einführung einer kommunalen Fußverkehrsstrategie. Handlungsleitfaden. Fachverband Fußverkehr Deutschland FUSS e.V., Berlin, Juli 2018, 31 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "Der Leitfaden entstand auf der Grundlage von: zahlreichen Befragungen von Fußgängerinnen und Fußgängern verschiedener Alters- und Zielgruppen sowie von Fachleuten; Interviews mit Verbändevertreterinnen und -vertretern; intensiven Diskussionen in den drei Sitzungen des Projekt-Fachbeirates; Verwaltungsgesprächen in fünf Modellstädten und weiteren Kontaktstädten; Gesprächen und Erfahrungen im Rahmen von zwölf kommunalen Workshops; Recherchen zur Vorgehensweise in Städten, die sich eine Fußverkehrsförderung zum Ziel gesetzt haben (Konzept-Beispiele); Erfahrungen bei Ortsbegehungen und Fußverkehrs-Checks in fünf Modell- und einigen weiteren Kontaktstädten. In den Jahren 2016 bis 2018 waren insgesamt etwa 700 Menschen daran beteiligt, herauszufinden, wie eine strategische Förderung des Zufußgehens aussehen sollte und was deshalb in diesem Handlungsleitfaden zumindest auch als Thema benannt werden müsste. Dabei ging es nicht darum, ein völlig neues Konzept zu entwickeln, vielmehr soll der Handlungsleitfaden die vorhandenen Ansätze darlegen und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen ableiten."

Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders and Karst Geurs (University of Twente), An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 540 kB]. Open Access. "Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called 'solar-powered e-bike'. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes' and solar-powered e-bikes' users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, The continued transition to electric vehicles in U.S. cities. White Paper. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), Washington DC, July 2018, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "This paper analyzes electric vehicle market development in the U.S. and the actions that are driving it. The report catalogues forty unique city, state, and utility electric vehicle promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2017. The work identifies exemplary practices and discerns connections between various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are plug-in electric."

Mobike, How Cycling Changes Cities. Insights on how bikesharing supports urban development. Mobike's Second White Paper. Mobike, 2018, 32 p., [formato PDF, 7,3 MB]. "Through big data analysis using innovative IoT technology, and a sophisticated artificial intelligence platform - Mobike are able to gain insight into how cycling becoming more accessible in our cities can impact and change our cities for the better; and thereby significantly improves the quality of life of their residents. This most recent white paper focuses on 12 major Mobike cities across 4 continents: London, Shanghai, Singapore, Milan, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen. Washington D.C., Sapporo, Berlin and Sydney."

Hwajin Kim, Yooncheong Cho, Analysis of the Bicycle-Sharing Economy : Strategic Issues for Sustainable Development of Society. Journal of Distribution Science, 2018, vol.16, no.7, pp.5-16 (12 p.), [formato PDF, 286 kB]. Open Access. "Purpose. This study posits that sustainable mobility of the sharing economy plays a key role to consider environment benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the bicycle-sharing economy as an emerging and alternative mode of transportation service and provide managerial and policy implications. The bicycle-sharing economy is still at an early stage of introduction as a transportation mode, while the governmental sector is promoting public bicycle-sharing to encourage bicycle as a substitute for private cars. Research design, data, and methodology. This study analyzed the current status of bicycle sharing programs through a survey that was distributed randomly to users and non-users across the country. Using factor analysis, satisfaction and loyalty for the existing users and intention to use and expected satisfaction for the potential users were examined in relation to utility factors. Results. The results show that economic utility affects satisfaction for user, while storage, mobility, and economic utility affects intention to use for potential users. The findings of this study indicate that in order to promote a bicycle-sharing scheme, it would be better to focus on the scheme's economic advantage to be truly effective. Conclusions. The findings of the study could be applicable to future directions of the sharing economy as a means to achieve the sustainable development of society."

Manfred Lenzen, Ya-Yen Sun, Futu Faturay, Yuan-Peng Ting, Arne Geschke and Arunima Malik, The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, volume 8, pages 522-528 (2018) [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions."

Liu Shaokun, Can Chinese Cities Leave the Car Behind? Gridlock, Pollution and the Future of Public Transportation. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, Volume 16, Issue 14, Number 2, Jul 15, 2018, pp. 1-9 [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "For years, China's city planners have prioritised cars, but they're now taking a different route. Investing in public transport, supplemented by the electric bike and shared bike, are among the ways Chinese cities are trying to minimise car use."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens, Alexander Boden and Paul Bossauer, Unintended Effects of Autonomous Driving: A Study on Mobility Preferences in the Future. Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2404 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 880 kB]. Open Access. "Innovations in the mobility industry such as automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions by allowing the traffic to flow more freely and reducing the number of vehicles according to some researchers. However, the effectiveness of these sustainable product and service innovations is often limited by unexpected changes in consumption: some researchers thus hypothesize that the higher comfort and improved quality of time in driverless cars could lead to an increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles. So far, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting either one or other of these hypotheses. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as indicators for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 participants in Germany. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether conventional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, the findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more emphasis should be placed in making public transport more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Richard Larouche, George Mammen, David A. Rowe and Guy Faulkner, Effectiveness of active school transport interventions: a systematic review and update, BMC Public Health (2018) 18:206 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 785 kB]. Open Access. "Background: Active school transport (AST) is a promising strategy to increase children's physical activity. A systematic review published in 2011 found large heterogeneity in the effectiveness of interventions in increasing AST and highlighted several limitations of previous research. We provide a comprehensive update of that review. Methods: Replicating the search of the previous review, we screened the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Sport Discus and National Transportation Library databases for articles published between February 1, 2010 and October 15, 2016. To be eligible, studies had to focus on school-aged children and adolescents, include an intervention related to school travel, and report a measure of travel behaviors. We assessed quality of individual studies with the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool, and overall quality of evidence with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We calculated Cohen's d as a measure of effect size. Results: Out of 6318 potentially relevant articles, 27 articles reporting 30 interventions met our inclusion criteria. Thirteen interventions resulted in an increase in AST, 8 found no changes, 4 reported inconsistent results, and 5 did not report inferential statistics. Cohen's d ranged from -0.61 to 0.75, with most studies reporting "trivial-to-small" positive effect sizes. Three studies reported greater increases in AST over longer follow-up periods and two Safe Routes to School studies noted that multi-level interventions were more effective. Study quality was rated as weak for 27/30 interventions (due notably to lack of blinding of outcome assessors, unknown psychometric properties of measurement tools, and limited control for confounders), and overall quality of evidence was rated as low. Evaluations of implementation suggested that interventions were limited by insufficient follow-up duration, incomplete implementation of planned interventions, and limited access to resources for low-income communities. Conclusions: Interventions may increase AST among children; however, there was substantial heterogeneity across studies and quality of evidence remains low. Future studies should include longer follow-ups, use standardized outcome measures (to allow for meta-analyses), and examine potential moderators and mediators of travel behavior change to help refine current interventions."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2016-2017, Roma, 2018, IPZS, 486 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB].

David Banister (University of Oxford), Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The case of High Speed 2. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR), 18(3), 2018, pp.262-275 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 218 kB]. "T he achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of UK transport policy (2010-2015) where revenue support has been cut, but capital expenditure has increased, and it comments on the difficulties of making decisions on large scale transport infrastructure projects in the absence of a NSTS. The recent policy statements and initiatives on transport and sustainability are covered, looking backwards and forwards. It then takes the case of High Speed 2 (HS2) and identifies five main narratives in the debates over the arguments in support of this huge investment. It seems that sustainable transport has not been a central part of that debate, and there is a need to reframe the discussion on HS2, as part of a NSTS."

Maude Luggen Risse, Pascal Regli, Jenny Leuba, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgänger Zählen. Zählsysteme für den Fussverkehr und ihre Anwendung. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, Juni 2018, 3ü p. [formato PDF, 26,8 MB]. "Wie viele Fussgänger queren eine Strasse? Wie viele kommen vom Bahnhof? Wie viele in der Spitzenstunde? Wie viele halten sich auf einem Platz auf? Wie gross sind die Unterschiede zwischen den Wochentagen? Diese und weitere Fragen wurden an einer Fachtagung - organisiert von Fussverkehr Schweiz, mit Unterstützung des Bundesamtes für Strassen - in Biel diskutiert."

European Court of Auditors (Corte dei Conti Europea), A European high-speed rail network: not a reality but an ineffective patchwork. Special Report N. 19/2018. European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg, 2018, 103 p. [formato PDF, 9,1 MB]. "Since 2000, the EU has been investing €23.7 billion into high speed rail infrastructure. There is no realistic long term EU plan for high speed rail, but an ineffective patchwork of national lines not well linked since the European Commission has no legal tools and no powers to force Member States to build lines as agreed. Cost-efficiency is at stake, because not everywhere very high speed lines are needed, as the cost per minute of saved travel time is very high, going up to €369 million, and as the average speeds only amount to 45 % of the maximum capacity, while cost overruns and construction delays are the norm rather than the exception. Sustainability is low, effectiveness of the investments is lacking and EU added value is at risk with three out of seven completed lines having low passenger numbers leading to a high risk of ineffective spending of €2.7 billion EU co-funding. Moreover, nine out of 14 lines and stretches have insufficient high numbers of passengers, and 11 000 national rules still exist, although the Court already asked in 2010 to lift these technical and administrative barriers."

Chris N. Le Fevre, A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine transport fuel. OIES PAPER: NG 133. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK, June 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. This in part is due to the relatively poor data quality on marine fuel usage but primarily a reflection on the still early nature of market development and uncertainties over alternative fuel options. This paper, which is a follow up to an earler study published in 2013, aims: to assess the most promising sectors for LNG in marine transportation in global shipping markets; to derive a set of metrics that could be used to generate forecasts of LNG demand in the marine sector and to assess the validity of current forecasts; to assess the current state and planned state of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development; to briefly mention the comparative prospects for LNG in land-based transport. The paper concludes that the shipping sectors that are likely to be more promising for LNG include ro-ro ferries, cruise ships, bulk carriers, large container vessels, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, LNG tankers. It would also appear that because of the costs of retrofitting, most LNG-fuelled ships will be newly built and owners/operators are unlikely to commit without concluding a long-term supply contract covering both pricing and physical delivery. LNG suppliers which are prepared to conclude such contracts will provide an important stimulus to the market. The lead times involved and the relatively low capital cost of infrastructure suggest that refuelling capacity is unlikely to be a constraint. A review of recent forecasts suggest that global demand will be in the range of 25 to 30 mtpa of LNG by 2030. The paper describes how many new or converted vessels fuelled by LNG would be required to reach this level, how it might be achieved and where the main obstacles to uptake are likely to occur. It concludes, that on balance, a demand level of around 15 mtpa (excluding LNG tankers) by 2030 is a more realistic prospect at present."

Francesco Asdrubali, Stefano Carrese, Sergio Maria Patella, Leonardo Sabatini (Roma Tre University), Development of Electric Urban Mobility: Comparative Research and Preliminary Survey. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 9 p. [formato PDF, 422 kB]. Open Access. "The growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions at the international level have shifted American and European policies to invest in sustainable mobility. Although substantial steps have been made in recent years, electric mobility is still not an integral part of today's transport systems. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative overview of the Italian approach to electric mobility and to define future approaches that could be used. Our research used a web-based survey, applying standard statistical methods to data processing. From these results we defined the playing field of the current results, and the variables for the future development of electric urban mobility. This analysis has shown a gap in the knowledge of the results reached in recent years by consumers and displayed an interest in new types of ecological fuels. Regarding Italian policies, it is clear that major efforts in economic and infrastructural facilitations are needed. In addition, this analysis can be used in the future to check for any developments and to generate a larger dataset with other partners."

Eunice O. Olaniyi, Sina Atari, Gunnar Prause (Tallinn University of Technology), Maritime Energy Contracting for Clean Shipping. Transport and Telecommunication, 2018, volume 19, no. 1, 31-44 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "To reduce the Sulphur emission from shipping and ensure clean shipping, a number of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) were enforced in special areas around the globe. From 2015, in SECA, ship owners are not allowed to use fuel with more than 0.1% Sulphur content. One of the major concerns for the SECA regulation is that maritime stakeholders have had to take into consideration the costs as well as the tolerable risks of their compliance investment options. Besides that, low freight rates have increased the competition and had caused financial pressure on ship owners so that lower capital reserves and low credibility levels limit the manoeuvring space for investment activities. The indications from BSR after 2015 showed that the low fuel price has eased the economic effects of the SECA regulation and as a result, most ship owners have delayed their investment decisions. Even though the postponement of emission abatement techniques seems to have reduced the compliance expenses for SECA, they, however, did not improve the position of shipowners relative to their competitors. Consequently, new policy instruments to stimulate innovation, to raise competitiveness and to comply with the new environmental regulations are needed. It would have been easier to hedge fuel price volatility and offer maritime logistics services for a lower price, but to be able to ensure sustainable results in long-term, maritime stakeholders must be ready to device astute strategies that can propel them to unparalleled advantage. This research first appraised the investment risks and payback period associated with the scrubber using different capital budgeting methods. It further illustrated the Maritime Energy Contracting (MEC) model as a market mechanism for the delivery of a cost-effective emission reduction using the scrubber technology as well as an instrument to realise a competitive advantage for ship operators. The results are empirically validated by case studies from BSR."

Anna Kramers, Tina Ringenson, Liridona Sopjani and Peter Arnfalk, AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport. Creating a framework to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 30, 2018, p. 1-16 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 504 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article."

Jeroen Kloeke (TU Delft), Identifying the barriers for diffusion of stationary car sharing in the Netherlands using an innovation system approach. Scientific paper. TU Delft, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Privately owned cars are causing negative externalities like pollution, CO2 emissions and extensive use of public space. Car sharing can be seen as a solution to reduce these negative externalities. Still, a rapid transition from privately owned cars to shared cars is not taking place, given the number of shared cars in the Netherlands. An innovation system methodology is applied to identify the blocking mechanisms for diffusion of car sharing in the Netherlands. Assessing the performance by the stakeholders showed that car sharing has difficulty in competing with existing mobility solutions, such as the private car or public transport. Besides, there are also difficulties in turning knowledge, networks and markets in viable car sharing concepts. Barriers found in the innovation system for car sharing in the Netherlands perceived by all stakeholders are the lack of profitability of business models, limited accessibility/interoperability of car sharing services and an unequal fiscal level playing field for automobility. Future research should lead to identification of effects of solutions aimed at reducing these barriers."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens and Paul Bossauer, Shared Autonomous Vehicles: Potentials for a Sustainable Mobility and Risks of Unintended Effects. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 52, 2018, p. 258-269 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 325 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "Automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions through a more efficient flow of traffic and a reduction in the number of vehicles. An increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles is also conceivable due to higher comfort and improved quality of time using driverless cars. So far, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis is missing. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as an indicator for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 German participants. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether traditional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more effort should be placed in making public transportation more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Michael Traut, Alice Larkin, Kevin Anderson, Christophe McGlade, Maria Sharmina & Tristan Smith, CO2 abatement goals for international shipping. Climate Policy, 2018, (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016, sets the ambitious climate change mitigation goal of limiting the global temperature increase to below 2°C and ideally 1.5°C. This puts a severe constraint on the remaining global GHG emissions budget. While international shipping is also a contributor to anthropogenic GHG emissions, and CO2 in particular, it is not included in the Paris Agreement. This article discusses how a share of a global CO2 budget over the twenty-first century could be apportioned to international shipping, and, using a range of future trade scenarios, explores the requisite cuts to the CO2 intensity of shipping. The results demonstrate that, under a wide range of assumptions, existing short-term levers of efficiency must be urgently exploited to achieve mitigation commensurate with that required from the rest of the economy, with virtually full decarbonization of international shipping required as early as before mid-century."

Mario Cavargna, Massimo Zucchetti, The High-Speed Rail Handbook: a Technical Guide. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Science (IJEES), Vol. 8 (3): 515-530 (2018) (16 p.) [formato PDF, 644 kB]. "The project of the new railway line Turin Lyon is an exemplary case of unnecessary work. It should overlap a railway tunnel and an international railway line with modern features; traffic data show since 2000 a collapse of road and rail movements along the corridor Italian French interested; after 14 years of experimentation its modal transfer capacity has always given negative results; the new line would not be interoperable with the rest of the Italian and French network because it has its own, even different, links between the Italian and the French of the same line. The studies carried out on the energy consumption and CO2 production of the Turin Lyon in the construction phase, which requires the excavation of 42 million cubic meters of rock, and the management of energy consumption of the ventilation and refrigeration of the base tunnel, give a negative energy balance for the new work. Finally, because the size of the necessary works and their enormous cost would have very heavy effects on the environment and on the resources to be dedicated to the critical issues of the remaining national network and to the real needs of citizens."

Nic Lutsey, California's continued electric vehicle market development. Briefing. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), May 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "This briefing provides an update on the growth in electric vehicle sales in California through 2017. It quantifies electric vehicle market growth across California local markets, provides broader U.S. market comparisons, and describes these developments in the context of California's 2025-2030 goals."

Tracy McMillan, Ana Lopez, Jill Cooper, Safe Routes for Older Adults. UC Berkeley Research Reports. UC Berkeley SafeTREC, April 2018, 22 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "This guide provides communities with background information on walking and bicycling safety for older adults and tools to make transportation in California communities age-friendly for all."

Caroline Rodier (University of California, Davis), Travel Effects and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automated Vehicles. A White Paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, April 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 897 kB]. "In much the same way that the automobile disrupted horse and cart transportation in the 20th century, automated vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to disrupt our current system of transportation and the fabric of our built environment in the 21st century. Experts predict that vehicles could be fully automated by as early as 2025 or as late as 2035. The public sector is just beginning to understand AV technology and to grapple with how to accommodate it in our current transportation system. Research on AVs is extremely important because AVs may significantly disrupt our transportation system with potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on our society and our environment. However, this research is very hard to do because fully AVs have yet to travel on our roads. As a result, AV research is largely conducted by extrapolating effects from current observed behavior and drawing on theory and models. Both the magnitude of the mechanism of change and secondary effects are often uncertain. Moreover, the potential for improved safety in AVs drive the mechanisms by which vehicle miles traveled (VMT), energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may change. We really don't know whether AVs will achieve the level of safety that will allow for completely driverless cars, very short headways, smaller vehicles, lower fuel use, and/or reduce insurance cost. We don't know whether AV fleets will be harmonized to reduce energy and GHG emissions. In this white paper, the available evidence on the travel and environmental effects of AVs is critically reviewed to understand the potential magnitude and likelihood of estimated effects. The author outlines the mechanisms by which AVs may change travel demand and review the available evidence on their significance and size. These mechanisms include increased roadway capacity, reduced travel time burden, change in monetary costs, parking and relocation travel, induced travel demand, new traveler groups, and energy effects. They then describe the results of scenario modeling studies. Scenarios commonly include fleets of personal AVs and automated taxis with and without sharing. Travel and/or land use models are used to simulate the cumulative effects of scenarios. These models typically use travel activity data and detailed transportation networks to replicate current and predict future land use, traffic behavior, and/or vehicle activity in a real or hypothetical city or region."

Daniele Codato, Diego Malacarne, Guglielmo Pristeri, Salvatore Pappalardo, Massimo De Marchi (University of Padova), Towards a more Liveable and Accessible Cycle Path Network in Padova: a Participatory Mapping Process. REAL CORP 2018 Proceedings, Vienna, 4-6 April 2018, 471-477 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 927 kB] "With the advent of climate-related issues and low-carbon economy, networks of cycle paths and tracks are becoming a more and more relevant mobility infrastructure for cities. However, mapping their critical points in order to fix them to improve liveability and accessibility can be difficult. One solution may be to combine digital technologies and users' knowledge, using the methods of participatory mapping. The first experiences in participatory GIS, in which geo-information technologies are used in support of collection, creation and sharing of spatial information by non-skilled social actors, date back to the nineteen- eighties. This bottom-up approach saw a strong evolution in recent years, even in the European urban context, thanks to the constant development of digital technologies and to the increasing opportunities for citizens to access the web. Free and open geographic data, by means of Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), facilitate the citizens' involvement and participation in urban planning and management. This is the framework behind PISTE riCICLABILI, an innovative project by the University of Padova started in autumn 2016 and aiming at the following goals: a participatory mapping of critical issues of the urban cycle path network and the implementation of an open source geo-portal for collecting and sharing geo-referenced reports. Within the workflow developed for this project, spatial information has been collected in two different ways: on the one hand, using printed city maps during public events, where involved citizens marked the cycle paths issues with pins; on the other hand, through a mobile geo-app. In the second case, Open Data Kit (ODK) was used. It is a combination of free and open source tools enabling everyone to create a form to be filled in with a smartphone in the field, and to send geo-referenced reports to a server. Mobile data were collected using the GeoODK Collect Android app, then aggregated and periodically exported, reprocessed and released through the open source webGIS platform Lizmap. First results of the process, which experienced a growing participation by citizens, consist of over 300 collected critical points. Through the analysis of these data it is possible to have a first overview on the main problems of bicycle mobility in Padova, their spatial implications and citizens' suggestions to improve human-oriented places. This contribution presents the mapping and data spreading workflow, together with results achieved and possible future development, with the aim to share a promising tool to improve urban sustainable mobility."

Kees van Goeverden, Gonçalo Correia (Delft University of Technology), Potential of peer-to-peer bike sharing for relieving bike parking capacity shortage at train stations: an explorative analysis for the Netherlands. EJTIR 2018 (in print), 19 p., [formato PDF, 647 kB]. "In the Netherlands, many (mainly larger) train stations suffer from capacity shortages for bicycle parking as the result of a large increase in the use of the bicycle as a feeder mode. Sharing of parked bicycles with arriving train passengers who are in need of a bicycle for some time would decrease the number of parked bicycles and reduce the capacity shortage. The paper explores to which extent sharing of these bicycles relieves the capacity problem by investigating the maximum potential for reducing the peak of parked bicycles. This is the potential of the case when all considered participants (bicycle owners and those who are in need for a bicycle) are willing to share. The analyses are based on data of the Dutch National Travel Survey. The main result is that the potential is likely to be modest. The estimated maximum is for the large stations between 13% and 50%, the actual potential is likely to be significantly lower. The large range for the maximum can partly be explained by the uncertainty about the number of arriving train passengers that might shift to the bicycle for the last mile if sharing increases bicycle availability. A second result is that sharing can have a significant effect on the distribution of parked bicycles over the day. The current peak halfway the day can turn into a dip between two peaks in the traditional morning and evening peak hours."

Fuelling Maritime Shipping with Liquefied Natural Gas. The Case of Japan. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2018, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a ship fuel is expected to increase significantly from its current marginal share in the coming years. This will require new facilities where ships can take on board the LNG. Japan is positioning itself as a potential hub in Asia for LNG refuelling. This study assesses the factors that will influence the realisation of that ambition."

Rachel Aldred, Luke Best, Phil Jones, Cyclists in shared bus lanes: could there be unrecognised impacts on bus journey times?. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, Paper 1600072, 17 p. [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. "This paper contributes to debates around improving the modelling of cycles, through an exploratory case study of bus-cycle interactions in London. This case study examines undocumented delays to buses caused by high volumes of cyclists in bus lanes. It has generally been assumed that cyclists do not noticeably delay buses in shared lanes. However, in many contexts where cyclists routinely share bus lanes, cyclist numbers have historically been low. In some such places, bus lanes are now seeing very high volumes of cyclists, far above those previously studied. This may have implications for bus - and cycle - journey times, but traditionally traffic modelling has not represented the effects of such interactions well. With some manipulation of parameters taken from models of other cities, the model described here demonstrates that cycles can cause significant delays to buses in shared lanes, at high cycling volumes. These delays are likely to become substantially larger if London's cycling demographic becomes more diverse, because cyclist speeds will decline. Hence bus journey time benefits may derive from separating cycles from buses, where cycle flows are high. The project also suggests that microsimulation modelling software, as typically used, remains problematic for representing cyclists."

European Environment Agency, National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe, 2018. EEA Report n.1/2018. EEA, Copenhagen, 2018, 84 p. [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "The EEA report "National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe 2018," is the first review of how the 33 EEA member countries (including the 28 European Union Member States) have assessed the risks from climate change, and how they used this information in developing adaptation policies to address these risks. Adaptation is key to ensure that the EU as a whole is better prepared to handle the impacts of heat waves, floods, droughts and storm surges. The report is based on a survey which was completed by 24 of the 33 EEA member countries. Information for additional countries was gathered from Climate-ADAPT - the European climate adaptation platform - and other public sources of information. The report aims to promote a better understanding among experts and policymakers involved in adaptation planning. The findings will contribute to better informed decision making and adaptation in key vulnerable sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity protection, spatial planning and infrastructure development. They will also help inform the European Commission's on-going evaluation of the EU Adaptation Strategy."

Decarbonising Maritime Transport. The Case of Sweden. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden's efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry and sheds light on remaining challenges and potential solutions to achieve zero-carbon shipping."

Transport & Environment, How to get rid of dirty diesels on city roads. Analysis of diesel restriction measures in European cities to date. T&E Air Pollution and Low Emission Zones Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, March 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 377 kB]. "This paper analyses low emission zones and congestion charges in 11 European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Berlin, Brussels, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Oslo, Paris and Stockholm. There are large differences in the environmental zones implemented so far. Some policies permanently exclude polluting vehicles and are intended to drive modal shift to cleaner transportation options. Others are of temporary nature in response to hazardous air pollution episodes."

Thomas Schweizer, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgängerunfälle in der Schweiz 2008 - 2017. Faktenblatt 03 / 2018. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, 2018, 11 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Während die Zahl der schweren Strassenverkehrsunfälle in den letzten 10 Jahren insgesamt gesunken ist, konnte bei den Fussgängerinnen und Fussgängern bis 2013 leider keine entsprechende Abnahme verzeichnet werden. Der Anteil der Fussgängerunfälle am Gesamttotal aller Unfälle nahm somit zu. Bei den Getöteten ist der Anteil der Fussgänger in den letzten 10 Jahren starken Schwankungen unterworfen. Seit 2014 bleibt aber der Anteil der Fussgänger an der Gesamtzahl der Verunfallten Personen konstant, desgleichen bei den Schwerverletzten."

Mingyang Hao, Toshiyuki Yamamoto (Nagoya University), Shared Autonomous Vehicles: A Review Considering Car Sharing and Autonomous Vehicles. Asian Transport Studies, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2018), 47-63 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 278 kB]. "In recent years, the transformation in transportation mobility has seen an acceleration in numbers of studies establishing a sustainable, smooth and cost-efficient system by applying automated concepts to the conventional car-sharing system. The development from a personally owned vehicle-oriented scheme to shared automated transit provides us informative images to the optimal stage of the transportation mobility. This study aimed to find the gaps in impacts and features, demand and performance studies of SAVs by a systematic approach when looking at the corresponding aspects of car sharing in AVs and SAVs. This is the first attempt to review SAV studies and the author illustrates the importance of this research by demonstrating impacts and features of SAVs, future research aspects of demand analysis, as well as the research trend of performance studies on SAVs."

Armando Carteni (University of Naples Federico II), A Cost-Benefit Analysis Based on the Carbon Footprint Derived from plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses for Urban Public Transport Services. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, v.14, 2018, 125-135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "Sustainable mobility and green development are based on the achievement of three goals: environment, society and economy. This means that a sustainable plan/project must be, at the same time, equitable, viable, and bearable. In urban areas, the transport sector significantly impacts with respect to both fuel consumption and environmental emissions. At this aim, planning policies aimed at reducing these negative impacts are very important. Many researches cover the problem of perform rational decisions to improve the transportation sector. One of the most useful quantitative methods to evaluate rational project solution is the cost benefit analysis. In literature the 'traditional' cost benefit analysis not always take into account the overall carbon footprint of a transport project/policy. The carbon footprint is the total (direct and indirect) amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by a project/policy/service expressed as the overall amount of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted. Moreover, the recent economic crisis has made necessary also to generate a 'profit' from transport services/infrastructures, as well as positive impacts for users and for environment. Starting from these considerations the aims of this paper were: i) to evaluate if the use of hybrid electric buses for a new urban public transport services could produce profit for a private/public transport operator; ii) to develop a cost benefit analysis explicitly considering the overall carbon footprint (and not only the local impacts) produced by this vehicle technology. The case study was a new urban bus line designed in a medium size city, Salerno, in Italy. The results of the study underline that the use of hybrid electric buses could produce a profit for private/public transport operators and the analysis based on the overall carbon footprint allow to better estimate the (positive) impacts deriving from the use of this vehicle technology. Since the hybrid electric buses have a carbon footprint 12/18% lower than a traditional bus, an urban transportation service based on this type of technology allows to obtain grater benefits up to +82% against a traditional one."

Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti (a cura di), MobilitAria 2018. Qualità dell'aria e Politiche di mobilità nelle 14 grandi città italiane tra il 2006 e il 2016. Rapporto del Kyoto Club e dal CNR-IIA. Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), Kyoto Club, Roma, febbraio 2018, 128 p. [formato PDF, 67,7 MB]. "Il rapporto MobilitAria 2018 ha l'ambizione di realizzare un quadro complessivo dell'andamento della qualità dell'aria e della mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città italiane nel decennio 2006- 2016. Lo studio è stato realizzato da un gruppo di esperti del CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) e di Kyoto Club, Gruppo Mobilità Sostenibile, prendendo come riferimento l'area comunale di ogni Città Metropolitana. Le città sono Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Roma, Torino, Venezia."

Wei-Shiuen Ng and Ashley Acker, Understanding Urban Travel Behaviour by Gender for Efficient and Equitable Transport Policies. Discussion Paper No. 2018-01. International Transport Forum, Paris, France, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Gender is one of the key socio-demographic variables that can influence travel behaviour, but it is often the least understood. Understanding travel behaviour by gender will help better design transport policies that are efficient and equitable. Due to the gendered division of work in households, women often have multiple tasks and activities. As a result, women are more likely to have shorter commute distances, to chain trips, to have more non-work related trips, to travel at off-peak hours, and to choose more flexible modes. This study examines travel behaviour by gender in eight different cities, across three different continents, focusing on transport mode, trip purpose, travel distance and departure time for Auckland, Dublin, Hanoi, Helsinki, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon and Manila. The most common trends found in the cities are that women tend to travel shorter distances and prefer public transport and taxi services to cars more than men."

Heejung Jung, Chengguo Li (University of California at Riverside), Emissions from Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions. A Research Report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The study found that the frequency and duration of re-ignition events vary depending on the type of HEV. Prius showed more frequent re-ignition events compared to Sonata for both city and highway driving conditions. Prius re-ignited almost every one minute while Sonata re-ignited every two minutes on average during the city driving condition. Re-ignition events affected emissions profiles significantly during the city driving condition. As a result, the Prius showed higher NOx emissions during the city driving condition while the Sonata showed higher NOx emissions during the cold-cold start and highway driving condition. Future studies should include more vehicles to understand whether the re-ignition events are vehicle specific or technology specific."