VAI A: DOCUMENTI 2000-2017

vai al 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018


Nunzia Carbonara, Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli, Umberto Panniello, Davide De Vita (Polytechnic University of Bari), Embracing New Disruptions: Business Model Innovation in the Transition to Mobility as a Service (MaaS). Journal of Cleaner Production (2024) 142744 (39 p.) [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "A decade ago, Mobility as a Service (MaaS) has emerged as a revolutionary concept destined to change the traditional transport paradigm. Indeed, MaaS envisions an integrated and on-demand transportation ecosystem where users have access to a variety of mobility options via a unified digital platform that centralizes information, ticketing, and payment systems for different service providers. Recognizing its disruptive potential, in this paper we examinate the effects of MaaS introduction in the market, with a particular focus on businesses within the industry. Specifically, we aim at investigating the dynamic nature of business model innovation within the MaaS business ecosystem, thus capturing the changes, adaptations, and innovations that organizations have undergone, providing valuable insights into the new value creation, capture and delivery mechanisms that have emerged. To achieve these goals, we have employed an inductive, multiple case study approach, focusing on a total of six renowned organizations representing two key actor categories within MaaS ecosystems: service providers and technology providers. Our findings reveal that, despite their heterogeneity, both service and technology providers have adopted similar strategies in their transition to MaaS. Utilizing the value creation, capture, and delivery framework we developed distinct models for each of these categories. We have identified common firm-specific mechanisms which have been categorized into broader macro-level mechanisms of value creation, capture, and delivery, drawing from existing literature. The findings of this study contribute to the ongoing academic literature related to MaaS and to business model innovation. Furthermore, they offer valuable practical insights for managers and policymakers, providing a guidance for strategic decision-making aimed at fostering the development and sustainability of innovative MaaS systems."

Bingyuan (Amelia) Huang, Hans Wüst, Mathijs de Haas (KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis), Assessing the E-bike trends and impact on sustainable mobility: A national-level study in the Netherlands. Journal of Cycling and Micromobility Research 2 (2024) 100027 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "Over the past decade, e-bikes have become increasingly popular, sparking interest in their potential replacement for car use and benefit for the environment. However, many studies on e-bike development and their substitution effects exhibit limitations. These include a lack of modeling on e-bike trend development, inadequate assessments of their impact on national-level mobility, a predominant focus on commuting, and a lack of foresight into future e-bike substitution effects. Our research introduces an innovative approach to model e-bike development, employing a multilevel Richards growth curve model fitted within a hierarchical Bayesian framework using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) method. Further, we incorporate an intention-based method to delve into the potential of e-bikes in stimulating sustainable mobility in the Netherlands. Our findings highlight an ongoing increase in e-bike distance share, with marked gender and generational differences in growth patterns. Notably, women have higher e-bike usage than men, and this gap is narrowing for older age groups while widening among younger demographics, suggesting that younger people may adopt e-bike usage differently than older generation. E-bike ownership strongly reduces the conventional bicycle use and, to a lesser extent, car and public transport use, especially for commuting. This study provides insight into whether and to what extent e-bikes substitute for car use and other modes of transportation, and how the expected growth in e-bike use in coming years may impact national mobility in the Netherlands."

Antonio Comi, Antonio Polimeni, Assessing potential sustainability benefits of micromobility: a new data driven approach. Eur. Transp. Res. Rev. 16, 19 (2024) (20 p.) [formato PDF, 3,0 MB]. Open Access. "Promoting the shift from private cars to micromobility (e.g., bike, e-bike, scooter) can represent a valuable action to improve city sustainability and liveability. Micromobility can help to replace trips by individual private cars (e.g., daily short round trips) as well as to improve coverage and accessibility of transit services, and, subsequently, to reduce the traffic impacts (e.g., pollutant emissions). It can be seen as a potential solution to move people more efficiently in urban areas, as well as to push people towards a more active mobility behaviour, contributing to the well-being goals. In this context, the paper, rather than inferring the users' propensity to change their travel mode, proposes a methodology to identify car trips that can be considered the most compatible with micromobility. Estimation of the potential demand (e.g., the upper level of car trips that could be replaced by micromobility) is carried out by exploiting the opportunity offered by floating car data (FCD) for characterising car trips. Its goodness is therefore evaluated through an application to a real case study (i.e., the city of Trani, Apulia Region, Southern Italy), divided into seventy traffic zones, and where a FCD dataset of about 5,200 trips was available. The FCD allowed the car trips to be characterised (e.g., origin and destination, path features) instead of using the traditional surveys. The results indicate that a significant share of daily car trips can be substituted (i.e., the most compatible) by micromobility (31% of car round trips in the case study), with considerable potential environmental gains (traffic emission reduction; less than 21% of total emissions from private cars). Results can be of interest to local authorities in integrating micromobility in urban mobility planning and promoting new sustainable transport alternatives, as well as to transport companies for designing new appeal services. The developed methodology is parametric and uses easy-to-obtain data available worldwide; thus, it can be easily transferred to other city contexts."

V Teodoraşcu, N V Burnete and N Burnete (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca), Review of PEDELECS as an alternative to conventional means of urban transportation. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1303 012005 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Sustainable transportation solutions are more crucial than ever because of the pressing need to increase resource efficiency while lowering greenhouse gas emissions. The most recent advancements in the e-cycle sector have made a significant contribution to this goal and have attracted the interest of numerous businesses that offer mobility services. This paper discusses the main topics surrounding pedal electric cycles (PEDELECS) with an accent on a niche application, namely e-cargo cycles. The paper highlights not just the defining characteristics of these categories, but also other relevant aspects such as barriers to market penetration, general legislation, benefits for specific applications, as well as the significance of incentives, local infrastructure, and urban policies. Based on the available literature, it can be concluded that PEDELECS have a considerable potential to contribute to sustainability goals in urban areas due to their numerous benefits (functionality without emissions, less space occupied on roads, ability to access destinations with increased precision, ability to travel in car-restricted areas, lower costs compared to conventional vehicles, added health benefits to the users, versatility etc.). However, there are also significant challenges and barriers that must be overcome before they can see widespread adoption."

Nadia Giuffrida, Anna Molter, Francesco Pilla, Páraic Carroll, Michele Ottomanelli, On the equity of the x-minute city from the perspective of walkability. Transportation Engineering (2024) (18 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Walkability and equity in transport are crucial aspects of sustainable mobility and social well-being. The x-minute city concept emphasizes the importance of walkability, by fostering the design of a city where people can easily access their daily needs aiming to reduce reliance on private cars. However, such approaches, which generally rely on the idea of an "average resident" can ignore inequalities amongst people and fail to achieve the goal of building urban environments where everyone can participate in city life regardless of their socio-economic characteristics and vulnerability. In this study we propose an approach to assess the equity of the x-minute city, highlighting the limitations of the current application of the concept. The approach includes the computation of x-minute thresholds based on the walkability of pedestrian paths and considering different users' needs. Home to school trips and social trips are taken as a reference; equity metrics such as the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index are used to assess how the x-minute city concurs with the transport equity of a city. The results of the assessment can help identify potential disparities in access to key destinations among different user groups, and support evidence-based policy recommendations to promote equitable transportation options. The case study of Bari, Italy, is used to illustrate the application of the method; however, the proposed approach can be replicated in different contexts, contributing to the ongoing discourse on walkability and equity in transport."

David Kohlrautz and Tobias Kuhnimhof (RWTH Aachen University), Bicycle Parking Requirements in City Building Codes and Their Potential to Promote Sustainability. Sustainability 2024, 16(6), 2531 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 772 kB]. Open Access. "Bicycle parking requirements in building codes are an important tool for promoting cycling, as several studies have shown that the provision of secure parking increases cycling rates and contributes to sustainability. However, bicycle parking requirements are not comprehensive across the EU and vary widely within countries and between municipalities, which question what aspects they should consider. This paper analyzes the literature and guidelines on parking requirements and compares their implementation in ten German and four international cities both qualitatively, examining specific requirements for parking facilities, and quantitatively, examining the number of spaces required. The results show that most guidelines set comparable standards in terms of quality and quantity. However, the quality standards defined in the actual building codes are heterogeneous. While most cities require features such as the ability to lock the bicycle frame, they do not adequately address different user groups and insufficiently consider e-bike charging infrastructure. Most cities meet the guidelines for the required number of bicycle parking spaces, but lack a clear rationale based on local conditions, which can lead to an unsustainable under- or oversupply. In summary, cities do not fully utilize the potential of parking requirements to promote cycling because of incomplete qualitative standards."

Samuel Nello-Deakin, Alexandra Bretones Diaz, Oriol Roig-Costa, Carme Miralles-Guasch, Oriol Marquet (Autonomous University of Barcelona), Moving beyond COVID-19: Break or continuity in the urban mobility regime?. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 24 (2024) 101060 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. Open Access. "Upon its irruption in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic spurred a flurry of reflection on its potential long-term effects on urban mobility. Despite widespread speculation about the likely permanent impacts of the pandemic on urban mobility, few academic accounts have re-examined the extent to which these speculations were warranted once the pandemic is over. To this end, the present article explores the retrospective perceptions of key stakeholders regarding the long-term impacts of the pandemic on the urban mobility regime, through a qualitative case study of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region, involving 22 semi-structured interviews. Approaching urban mobility through the lens of sociotechnical regimes and the multilevel perspective (MLP), we identify key perceived changes to the urban mobility regime in the aftermath of the pandemic, as well as four main obstacles to effecting transformative change towards sustainable urban mobility during the "window of opportunity" created by the pandemic. Our findings suggest that the pandemic has generally not led to significant changes in the urban mobility regime, with two key exceptions: the normalisation of teleworking, and the consolidation of tactical urbanism approaches to street redesign. These findings confirm the obduracy of the existing urban mobility regime, while pointing to promising inroads which might result in the transformation or destabilization of the current regime."

Barouch Giechaskiel, Theodoros Grigoratos, Marcel Mathissen, Joris Quik, Peter Tromp, Mats Gustafsson, Vicente Franco and Panagiota Dilara, Contribution of Road Vehicle Tyre Wear to Microplastics and Ambient Air Pollution. Review. Sustainability 2024, 16, 522, 31 p. [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "Tyre particles are generated by shear forces between the tread and the road or by volatilisation. Tyre abrasion (wear) contributes from one-third to half of microplastics unintentionally released into the environment. The major part ends up in the soil, a considerable amount is released into the aquatic environment, and a small percentage becomes airborne. Nevertheless, tyre abrasion contributes to 5-30% of road transport particulate matter (PM) emissions. This corresponds to approximately 5% of total ambient PM emissions. The particle mass size distribution peak at around 20 to 100 μm, with a second peak in the 2-10 μm range. A nucleation mode has been reported in some studies. The absolute abrasion levels depend on the tyre, vehicle, and road characteristics, but also on environmental conditions and driving style. Most tyre particle emission factors in the literature are based on data prior to the year 2000. We aggregated recent studies and found a mean abrasion of 110 mg/km per vehicle or 68 mg/km/t for passenger cars (based on approximately 300 measurements). Based on a limited number of studies, the PM10 emissions were 1.4-2.2 mg/km per tyre. On the other hand, the particle number emissions were in the order of 10 10 #/km per tyre. The ratio of PM10 to total abrasion was found to be 2.5% on average. Finally, the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was calculated to be around 40%. Various mitigation measures for tyre particle pollution could be envisaged; the most direct is the limitation of the tyre abrasion rate, as proposed by the European Commission for the Euro 7 regulation. Other regulatory initiatives are also discussed."

Ellen Lagrell (University of Gothenburg), How can ridesharing be facilitated in car dependent practices? Insights from carless participants in organized leisure. Travel Behaviour and Society 35 (2024) 100737, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. This paper contributes a hitherto overlooked perspective on leisure practices-as-entities, and as performed by the carless, to understand and facilitate the conditions for related shared mobility. It identifies how organized car dependent leisure practices can be performed more sustainably by means of ridesharing. Applying a social practice perspective, car use is viewed as bundled with leisure practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 25 carless practitioners of scouting, orienteering, and children's soccer in Sweden, we seek to determine the procedures and frictions of ridesharing, and how it can be facilitated. The findings show that ridesharing occurs and is mediated by digital tools in all three studied practices. Notable variations and sources of friction relate to whether ridesharing is collectively or individually coordinated, which is connected to the meanings and competences of the leisure practices themselves. The paper illustrates that, to facilitate ridesharing, competences beyond the management of digital tools are needed. More concretely, the promotion of ridesharing as part of a more formalized exchange within clubs and associations for organized leisure is suggested. Carless performers of car dependent practices illustrate potential "proto-practices" beyond the private car."

Iria Lopez-Carreiro, Andres Monzon and Elena Lopez (Transport Research Center (TRANSyT), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Assessing the intention to uptake MaaS: the case of Randstad. Review. European Transport Research Review, 16, 2 (2024), 21 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) has recently gained popularity as an opportunity to encourage a more sustainable mobility model and improve urban liveability. Today, it is still uncertain if travellers are willing to uptake MaaS and transform their habits. In the paper, we explore individuals' behavioural intention based on a survey comprising 418 respondents in the metropolitan area of Randstad (The Netherlands). The application of a Structural Equation Model allows to uncover a series of explanatory (attitudinal and personality) factors relevant for MaaS acceptance. Then, a cluster analysis determines four profiles of travellers in relation to their intention to embrace this new solution: 'Short-duration commuters', 'Active travellers', 'Traditional car-supporters', and 'MaaS admirers'. Overall, we identify three main barriers for the potential adoption of MaaS: low willingness to combine different modes of transport, low affinity with technology, and low reliability on the new mobility services. We also recognise that low environmental concerns seem to frustrate individuals' innovativeness."


Andoni Kortazar, Gorka Bueno, David Hoyos (University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU), Is high-speed rail a sustainable mobility option? A life-cycle assessment of the Basque Y project in Spain. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 103 (2023) 107276, 15 p. [formato PDF, 4,7 MB]. Open Access. The Basque Y High Speed Rail connection between Madrid and the Basque Autonomous Community is, quite exceptionally, a mixed freight and passengers HSR line, that has been presented as a fundamental step towards a more sustainable mobility. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to assess the environmental performance of the line throughout its lifetime, based on the latest data available, including both construction and maintenance burdens. Results show that this new corridor is not justified in terms of reducing emissions and energy consumption, mainly due to its low transport density. It also has a negligible impact on Spanish current low rail freight traffic. We conclude, therefore, that Spain needs to reconsider its AVE network expansion if aiming at increasing rail's modal share and meeting the emissions targets set by the EU. From a policy perspective, many information inconsistencies have been found regarding the demand projections of freight transport, which cast serious doubt about the decision-making process behind Trans-European transport projects."

Amela Ajanovic (Vienna University of Technology, TU Wien), Electricity vs hydrogen in the transition towards sustainable mobility. Oxford Open Energy, oiad013, 2023, 13 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "Currently, the transport and automotive industry sectors are at a crossroads moving away from fossil fuels to various alternatives increasing the global competition on vehicle markets and for resources. Over the last years, electrification of mobility has emerged as one of the major strategies which accompanied with supporting measures has led to rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles. Recently, hydrogen and hydrogen derivates as alternative fuels have also gained more interest and are considered to grow substantially in near future as their production costs are decreasing. Here we discuss the electric and hydrogen pathways towards zero-emission vehicles and sustainable mobility focusing on their benefits and challenges in the transition. We conclude that the future relevance of zero-emission vehicles will be heavily dependent on the policy framework, investments, and long-term visions."

Jagienka Rześny-Cieplińska, Overview of the practices in the integration of passenger mobility and freight deliveries in urban areas. Case Studies on Transport Policy 14 (2023) 101106 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 5,4 MB]. Open Access. "Urban transport has been one of the most crucial and challenging issues. Moreover, it is a catch-all term that discusses the ease and speed with which passengers and goods move around urban spaces. With cities getting more populated and crowded, new challenges for transportation that impact how to design and build urban locations appear. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the practices and approaches employed in integrating passenger mobility and freight deliveries in urban areas. The article highlights this integration's potential benefits and challenges by conducting a systematic literature review covering scientific sources published in journals from 2018 to 2022. The article explores various integration aspects, including infrastructure development, shared mobility, last-mile optimization, and the role of technology and data analytics. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration and partnerships between stakeholders and the need for comprehensive policies and regulations to facilitate seamless integration. The review underscores the positive impacts of integration, such as reduced congestion, improved resource utilization, and enhanced sustainability. The article concludes by encouraging further research and implementation of integrated urban transportation strategies to create sustainable, efficient, and livable cities for the future."

Axhausen, Kay W. (ETH Zurich), How to model the E-Bike City?. Presentation (slides), Seminar "From Traffic Modeling to Smart Cities and Digital Democracies", Zurich, Switzerland, October 9, 2023. IVT, ETH Zurich, 2023, 27 slides [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access.

Fanchao Liao, Jaap Vleugel, Gustav Bösehans, Dilum Dissanayake, Neil Thorpe, Margaret Bell, Bart van Arem, Gonçalo Homem de Almeida Correia, Mode substitution induced by electric mobility hubs: results from Amsterdam. arXiv:2310.19036 [econ.GN] 2023, 37 p. [formato PDF, 548 kB]. "Electric mobility hubs (eHUBS) are locations where multiple shared electric modes including electric cars and e-bikes are available. To assess their potential to reduce private car use, it is important to investigate to what extent people would switch to eHUBS modes after their introduction. Moreover, people may adapt their behaviour differently depending on their current travel mode. This study is based on stated preference data collected in Amsterdam. We analysed the data using mixed logit models. We found users of different modes not only have a varied general preference for different shared modes, but also have different sensitivity for attributes such as travel time and cost. Compared to car users, public transport users are more likely to switch towards the eHUBS modes. People who bike and walk have strong inertia, but the percentage choosing eHUBS modes doubles when the trip distance is longer (5 or 10 km)."

Kyuhyun Lee, Ipek Nese Sener, E-bikes Toward Inclusive Mobility: A Literature Review of Perceptions, Concerns, and Barriers. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 22 (2023) 100940 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 551 kB]. Open Access. "There is a growing consensus that e-bikes hold potential as an inclusive mobility option for all, including people with disabilities and older adults. However, the e-bike platform lacks discussion as a viable option for people with different abilities. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap, and in doing so, help realize the potential of e-bikes for all users. We reviewed the literature to understand people's e-bike perceptions and any concerns and barriers that may be delaying the adoption of e-bikes among marginalized populations in the United States. The findings suggested that disabilities and advanced age negatively affected the way people perceive e-bikes. Conversely, positive perceptions were shaped by various factors including e-bike experience, personal cycling history, and openness to innovative technology. Significant concerns about e-bikes included safety, security, social stigma imposed on electric assistance, and loss of disability benefits. Along with these concerns, lack of knowledge, misperceptions, limited access, high purchase costs, and inadequate infrastructure were identified as major deterrents to adopting e-bikes. The findings also highlighted the need for programs, policies, and education to promote the acceptance of e-bikes as mobility aids. Further research should prioritize people with disabilities and older adults who lack e-bike experience and explore the perceptions of key stakeholders whose perspectives directly influence the wider adoption of e-bikes, including transportation planners, health professionals, families, and caregivers."

Raquel Soriano-Gonzalez, Elena Perez-Bernabeu, Yusef Ahsini, Patricia Carracedo, Andres Camacho and Angel A. Juan, Analyzing Key Performance Indicators for Mobility Logistics in Smart and Sustainable Cities: A Case Study Centered on Barcelona. Logistics 2023, 7(4), 75 (20 p.) [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. Open Access. "Background: This article identifies and examines key performance indicators (KPIs) related to citizen mobility logistics in smart and sustainable urban areas. It begins with a comprehensive literature review to identify essential KPIs, offering valuable insights for both public and private stakeholders, including policymakers and mobility service providers. Drawing from various mobility projects in smart cities, the study extracts common KPIs and best practices. The focus of the paper then turns to Barcelona, Spain, where KPIs that matter most are analyzed. Methods: Using open data from the city council spanning from 2017 onwards, the study provides insights into the evolving mobility logistics landscape. KPIs from other European cities are also considered by utilizing similar open data sources. This comparative analysis provides valuable benchmarks and reveals disparities in mobility logistics. Throughout this investigation, the paper emphasizes the role of data quality in KPI selection. Results: Reliable open data significantly influence indicator choices and present challenges when comparing cities. Remarkably, the findings consistently highlight environmental data as an area requiring attention in sustainable mobility logistics. Conclusions: This paper makes contributions by identifying and examining KPIs relevant to citizen mobility logistics in smart and sustainable urban areas. It offers insights by applying these KPIs to Barcelona and conducting comparative analyses with other European cities. These findings serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, city planners, and mobility experts."

Aurelia Kammerhofer, Florian Pühringer, Leo Kostka, Martin Berger, Understanding Spatio-Temporal Usage Patterns of Cargo Bike Sharing to Foster Market Diffusion. Reviewed paper. Proceedings/Tagungsband REAL CORP 2023, Ljubljana, 18-20 September 2023, 12 p. [formato PDF, 511 kB]. "Cargo bikes promote urban resilience as they ensure a local supply of goods, can be used flexibly, are reliable and require low energy, and can even be driven by muscle power. Further, they contribute to socially inclusive mobility. Although driving cargo bikes may require some training, they do not require a driving licence and can be available for different income ranges (e.g. in the form of cargo bike sharing). Thus, they also contribute to health-promoting mobility. Cargo bike sharing is a relevant solution to offer households a practical, environmentally friendly and cheaper mode of transport. According to public welfare-oriented goals, cargo bike sharing is often provided on behalf of, or with (financial) public sector support, in cooperation with residential developers or based on voluntary work in Austria and Germany. However, peer-to-peer cargo bike sharing offers and host-based sharing systems often do not meet all the criteria attributed to shared mobility services. In order to reach the full potential of cargo bike sharing, a better understanding of spatio-temporal usage patterns is needed to foster a shift towards higher quality service provision, especially regarding tailor-made services for different user groups. The following article investigates the role of availability and type of service provision by evaluating booking data and spatio-temporal data in three case studies. GPS tracking is rarely used to better understand cargo bike usage, but it reveals further knowledge of the characteristics of users and their spatial usage patterns. Based on three use cases, usage, users and spatial patterns of cargo bike sharing usage are analysed, the respective potentials are shown, and the added value of spatial data collection is discussed."

Linda Dörrzapf, Lukas Tanzer, Arthur Kammerhofer, Richard Preißler, Martin Berger, Increase Occupancy Rate in Passenger Cars - Potentials of Awareness Raising for Carpooling. Reviewed paper. Proceedings/Tagungsband REAL CORP 2023, Ljubljana, 18-20 September 2023, 11 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Transport is responsible for 30% of Austria's CO2 emissions. Of these, 17.13% are caused by passenger cars. Car traffic (kilometres driven) has increased significantly in recent years, while at the same time, the occupancy rate is continuously decreasing and is currently only 1.15 persons per car in Austria. Due to the traffic load and the associated negative environmental impacts, there is a great need to increase the occupancy rate in passenger cars. The shared mobility concept of carpooling offers starting points to counteract this trend. In this context, carpooling in particular shows great potential for reducing the volume of traffic. Carpooling reduces emissions and lowers the risk of accidents, and an improvement of occupancy rate of cars can reduce traffic by up to 10%. However, the "critical mass" of carpooling platforms is often not reached and there is a lack of adequate advertising and communication measures. Traditional advertising channels such as print rarely reach the entire target group in the shared mobility sector and digital advertising channels miss internet-averse target groups who hardly use social media. This article is therefore dedicated to the evaluation of an advertising campaign that aims to increase awareness and acceptance of the accelerated use and market penetration of carpooling offers. By means of a digital display placed at the side of the road, attention was drawn to the degree of occupancy by means of various statements - with the aim of triggering a rethink in the direction of carpooling. Based on a preliminary survey, the perception and acceptance were surveyed using feedback from passers-by and app users. The main finding is that many car drivers noticed the display and rated it as positive. Ultimately, however, only a small number of people could be motivated to use carpooling or to give other people a ride. The main barriers to use carpooling are the lack of schedule flexibility, reliability of passengers and loss of time."

Thomas Vanoutrive, Huib Huyse, Revisiting modal split as an urban sustainability indicator using citizen science. Cities 143 (2023) 104592 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 829 kB]. Open Access. "This paper discusses three uses of modal split indicators, and illustrates how it evolved from a technical, intermediate step in transport analysis, over a measure of transport system efficiency to a symbolic urban sustainable mobility indicator. A framework which includes 11 factors is presented and applied to the different uses of the modal split indicator. Besides the comparison of the three main uses of modal split in research and practice, this contribution focuses on a citizen science project (Straatvinken) in the region of Flanders, Belgium. In this project thousands of citizens carry out traffic counts. While the project was initially set up to monitor modal split targets in the urban area of Antwerp, the emphasis shifted towards street liveability. This is visible in the fact that the citizen science project added a narrative-based liveability survey to capture experiences with and evaluations of the liveability at street level. The case illustrates that citizen science is, besides a tool to address data gaps, also an approach to increase the validity of indicators. The reason is that citizen science, which seems to be underexplored in transport studies, differs in what gets measured, how it is measured and why. This approach has proven to provide a fine-grained, integrated assessment of street-level changes in the composition and intensity of the traffic and their effects on the perceived liveability. We argue that it strengthens and complements traditional modal split measurements at the regional or urban level, which typically rely on the modelling of individual mobility behaviour based on household travel surveys. Traditional approaches allow observing broad trends in mobility choices at the regional level, but they do not provide insights in how those individual choices translate into effects at street level. Although often initiated out of certain sustainability concerns, existing modal split models do not reveal how an observed modal shift at the regional level affects the perceived liveability or sustainability at street level."

Sasha Khomenko, Enrico Pisoni, Philippe Thunis, Bertrand Bessagnet, Marta Cirach, Tamara Iungman, Evelise Pereira Barboza, Haneen Khreis, Natalie Mueller, Cathryn Tonne, Kees de Hoogh, Gerard Hoek, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Jos Lelieveld, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Spatial and sector-specific contributions of emissions to ambient air pollution and mortality in European cities: a health impact assessment. Lancet Public Health 2023; 8: e546-58 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 9,6 MB + Supplementary Material]. Open Access. "Background: Ambient air pollution is a major risk to health and wellbeing in European cities. We aimed to estimate spatial and sector-specific contributions of emissions to ambient air pollution and evaluate the effects of source-specific reductions in pollutants on mortality in European cities to support targeted source-specific actions to address air pollution and promote population health. Methods: We conducted a health impact assessment of data from 2015 for 857 European cities to estimate source contributions to annual PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations using the Screening for High Emission Reduction Potentials for Air quality tool. We evaluated contributions from transport, industry, energy, residential, agriculture, shipping, and aviation, other, natural, and external sources. For each city and sector, three spatial levels were considered: contributions from the same city, the rest of the country, and transboundary. Interpretation: We estimated source-specific air pollution health effects at the city level. Our results show strong variability, emphasising the need for local policies and coordinated actions that consider city-level specificities in source contributions."

ITF, Shifting the Focus: Smaller Electric Vehicles for Sustainable Cities. Corporate Partnership Board Report. (International Transport Forum Policy Papers, No. 123). International Transport Forum, Paris, September 2023, 71 p. [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. "This report identifies emerging electric vehicle (EV) types and use cases that could form the backbone of a more sustainable, electric future for urban passenger and freight transport. It explores urban EV use cases: electric "car-like" light vehicles, including micro cars and micro EVs; two- and three-wheelers; shared electric mobility, including shared vehicle fleets, ridesourcing and micro-transit services; electric public transport buses; e-cargo bikes and electric light commercial vehicles. The report compares the sustainability impacts of two scenarios that follow different electrification pathways. The like-for-like pathway assumes that vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE) will be replaced with electricity-powered equivalents. In the broader uptake pathway, electric vehicle uptake involves a shift to emerging smaller vehicle types and shared use cases. The report also explores the impacts of three additional scenarios, reflecting different degrees of policy ambition for EV uptake by 2030. It does so by calculating the electricity demand, charging infrastructure needs and local pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for low, medium, and high levels of electrification. Finally, the report offers recommendations for supporting sustainable EV uptake in cities. The study builds on an expert workshop and qualitative and quantitative analysis. The latter relies on the ITF urban agent-based model developed for the Greater Dublin area, which is used to simulate vehicle use and charging patterns."

Daniel De Wolf, Yves Smeers, Comparison of Battery Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell Vehicles. (Brief Report). World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(9), 262 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 654 kB]. Open Access. "In the current context of the ban on fossil fuel vehicles (diesel and petrol) adopted by several European cities, the question arises of the development of the infrastructure for the distribution of alternative energies, namely hydrogen (for fuel cell electric vehicles) and electricity (for battery electric vehicles). First, we compare the main advantages/constraints of the two alternative propulsion modes for the user. The main advantages of hydrogen vehicles are autonomy and fast recharging. The main advantages of battery-powered vehicles are the lower price and the wide availability of the electricity grid. We then review the existing studies on the deployment of new hydrogen distribution networks and compare the deployment costs of hydrogen and electricity distribution networks. Finally, we conclude with some personal conclusions on the benefits of developing both modes and ideas for future studies on the subject."

Rich C. McIlroy (Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton), "This is where public transport falls down": Place based perspectives of multimodal travel. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour 98 (2023) 29-46 (29 p.) [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. Open Access. "No single transport mode can replace the private car in terms of its support for flexible mobility. Combinations of multiple transport modes are required. If we are to contribute to reduced car dependency it is crucial that we understand what makes such multi-modal journeys difficult. Despite large bodies of literature on mode choice and on perceptions and experiences of various travel modes, few scholars have looked specifically at journeys that combine more than one transport mode. This research fills that gap, taking a qualitative approach to explore end-user perspectives of the challenges therein. Specifically, it focusses on the barriers people in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas perceive when thinking about combining two or more transport modes in a single journey. Thematic analysis of the responses of 146 participants of a series of asynchronous online focus groups revealed an overall picture of challenges shared, with some differences in the relative importance of different barriers for those in different locations. The time incurred, the difficulties in synchronising timetables, and the criticality of each leg's reliability are core barriers for all, while those in rural areas are more affected by basic service provision and the physical linking of different modes. Of greater significance for urban and peri-urban residents were the complexities around planning a multi-modal journey where there are multiple options available, as well as the facilities available at stations and stops. Results are discussed in terms of interventions that could help people in different residential settings use their car less."

Jens S. Dangschat & Andrea Stickler, Does automation strengthen the 'system of automobility'? Critical considerations and alternatives to connected and automated vehicles. Applied Mobilities, 2023, 21 p. [formato PDF, 840 kB]. Open Access. "Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) are at the centre of considerations for future mobility systems and are seen as a potentially powerful solution to current transport problems. Accordingly, the debate on governance strategies and in engineering is determined by technological possibilities to overcome these problems. However, various studies show that CAVs will solve transport problems under certain conditions only. On the contrary, without respective governance strategies CAVs will (re-)produce and reinforce social and socio-spatial inequalities. Moreover, by reinventing the privately-owned automobile, CAVs could strengthen the societal formation of automobility. Therefore, alternative developments need to be considered, especially those that are not primarily linked to new technologies, but reflect on wider processes of economic, political and cultural transformation. Finally, this leads us to challenge the dominant technocratic approach in the current political debate on the future of mobility."

Michael Bissel (Technical University of Berlin), A Public Transport Ticket that Moved a Country: Assessing the Value of the German 9-Euro-Ticket as a Socio-Technical Experiment. Findings, August 2023, 8 p. [formato PDF, 482 kB]. Open Access. "This paper examines the German 9-Euro-Ticket from summer 2022 as a socio-technical experiment. Based on a systematic literature review of evaluations and accompanying research, three categories of learning processes are distinguished. The results suggest that the 9-Euro-Ticket enabled technological, social and institutional learning. Thus, the study provides a new perspective on this temporary policy and underscores the value of experimentation as a governance tool for the transition to sustainable mobility. This value goes beyond the direct traffic-related impact: The contribution of the 9-Euro-Ticket to a new stable configuration, the 'Germany ticket', is identified as the main output."

Yushan Zhang, Dena Kasraian, Pieter van Wesemael (Eindhoven University of Technology), Built environment and micro-mobility: A systematic review of international literature. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 16(1), 2023, 293-317 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "Recent innovations in business models and technology have brought out new mobility systems, including shared and electric micro-mobility. A rapidly expanding strand of literature mirrors the micro-mobility's exponential growth and popularity. While many studies analyze micro-mobility from operations, management and user perspectives, fewer works investigate the micro-mobility and built environment (BE) relationship. This paper systematically reviews the descriptive and empirical studies that investigate this relationship. It analyzes whether, similar to other transportation modes, micro-mobility (e.g., bike-sharing schemes and e-bikes/e-scooters) can potentially influence three BE aspects: urban design, land use, and transportation system. Furthermore, it outlines the recommended changes in the BE to support the micro-mobility and/or enhance the quality of the environment for non-users. This paper investigates the BE and micro-mobility relation at the three levels of node (e.g., the emergence of docking stations and parking stops), link (e.g., the street-level conflicts with walking/cycling/vehicle lanes) and network (e.g., infrastructure network creation and catchment area shifts). In addition, this relation is explored over time, based on the development stage of micro-mobility, the BE aspect (urban design, land use, or transport system), and spatial context (urban or rural). The findings are relevant for urban and transport planners, designers, researchers, policy makers and public authorities. They contribute to a much-needed evidence base for effective design and policy recommendations to accommodate micro-mobility in the BE to achieve a safe and inclusive public space."

Millie Mitchell and Oriane Nermond (Centre for London), Moving with the Times: Financial incentives for sustainable travel. Part 1: How can financial incentives encourage sustainable and active travel?. Centre for London, London, 2023, 40 p. [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "Encouraging more Londoners to travel using active and sustainable modes is critical if London is to achieve its 2030 net-zero carbon emissions target. This can also improve Londoners' health and reduce congestion, air pollution and road accidents. To encourage modal shifts, policymakers can use different instruments including infrastructure investments, regulations, education and nudges, and financial incentives. This report focuses on how financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage modal shifts."

Andrea Mio, Elena Barbera, Alessandro Massi Pavan, Romeo Danielis, Alberto Bertucco, Maurizio Fermeglia, Analysis of the energetic, economic, and environmental performance of hydrogen utilization for port logistic activities. Applied Energy 347 (2023) 121431 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. "Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier and storage medium that may be employed in a variety of applications. According to the industrial processes used for its production, hydrogen may be labelled using different colours: (i) grey hydrogen, produced from natural gas using steam methane reforming (SMR), (ii) blue hydrogen, like the grey one, but with carbon capture and storage (CCS), (iii) green hydrogen, produced by water electrolysis using electricity from renewable s ources only, (iv) "grid" hydrogen, produced by electrolysis using grid electricity. In this study, process simulation is used to solve material and energy balances, as well as to estimate capital and maintenance costs for each technology investigated. Then, process simulation outcomes are used to estimate three key performance indicators focusing on sustainability issues: the Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI), the Levelized Cost of Hydrogen (LCOH) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). With reference to the case study of the Trieste port in Italy, the potential of synthesizing and utilizing hydrogen to fuel transportation activities within a port is examined. Based on the daily hydrogen consumption in fuel cells installed on locomotors and trucks, the design of the different processes considered is carried out, as well as their comparison in terms of EROEI, LCOH, and LCA. Furthermore, LCA and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) evaluations for various hydrogen-fueled vehicles within the port are presented and compared to diesel-fueled ones to determine the impact of fuel-cell vehicles during operations. Results show that EROEI of hydrogen produced by electrolysis is larger than that produced by SMR with or without CCS. The LCOH for grey hydrogen is of the same order of magnitude of that of green or grid ones. The hydrogen compression step to 300 bar impacts on both energetic and economic performances. LCA indicates that the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of green hydrogen is at least half with respect to blue hydrogen, however other impact categories are less favourable. On the other hand, the TCO of hydrogen-fueled vehicles is higher than that of diesel-fueled ones, mainly because of the higher purchase costs. It is concluded that the methodology proposed in this paper, based on the evaluation of indicators at the design stage, is suitable for comparing hydrogen production processes. In addition, it is a powerful tool for policy decision-makers in defining the strategies for the development of hydrogen-based transport systems in port operations."

Andrea Mio, Elena Barbera, Alessandro Massi Pavan, Alberto Bertucco, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sustainability analysis of hydrogen production processes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2023 (in press), (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. "Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier and storage medium that is expected to have a key role in the energy transition, as it can be employed in a variety of applications. Hydrogen can be produced from different feedstocks and using different processes. Based on the production technology used, hydrogen is conventionally identified by a color. In this work, we compare different hydrogen generation processes: (i) green hydrogen, obtained by electrolysis of water using electricity from floating photovoltaic platforms, (ii) grid hydrogen, also obtained by electrolysis but using grid electricity, (iii) grey hydrogen, produced from natural gas using steam reforming and (iv) blue hydrogen, which is similar to grey hydrogen, but uses hot potassium carbonate as the solvent for carbon capture and storage. The paper considers the production of hydrogen necessary for 2 trips per day of a medium size ferryboat to navigate full electric for 7 h in the Adriatic Sea. Process simulation is applied to solve material and energy balances for each process investigated, as well as for the evaluation of capital and operating costs. Process simulation outcomes are then used to estimate three key performance indicators focused on energetic, economic, and environmental sustainability issues: the energy return on energy invested, the levelized cost of hydrogen, and the life cycle assessment. The energy indicator for grid and green hydrogen has a value of 13.39-14.29, versus a value of 4.59-5.48 for other hydrogen production methods from natural gas. The cost for green hydrogen is slightly higher (8.76) compared to the blue hydrogen (5.50) however green hydrogen has a much lower impact to the environment. Considering the combined results obtained by all the indicators, it is concluded that the most sustainable hydrogen production method is green hydrogen."

Roger Pyddoke (VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Comparison of policies for increasing sustainable transport mode shares in Swedish cities. (VTI Working Paper 2023:9). Stockholm: VTI, 2023, p. 29 [formato PDF, 537 kB]. "The EU is currently promoting sustainable mobility in its cities. This promotion can take the form of subsidies for cycling and public-transport infrastructure. This paper compares existing Swedish policy instruments for promoting more sustainable transport: government subsidies to infrastructure for sustainable modes in the form of city environmental agreements (CEAs), congestion and parking charges and a hypothetical incentive to reduce the mode share of cars. Analyses of the CEAs indicate that they do not reliably affect mode choice. The results for congestion and parking charges, on the contrary, indicate that these have a substantial potential to shift mode choices and improve welfare by pricing external costs. The outcomes of the hypothetical incentive based on achieved effects will depend on the extent to which cities are willing to use externality pricing and to which citizens are willing to change modes. The management and evaluation of this hypothetical incentive poses considerable requirements on data and estimations of a counter factual outcomes without incentives, and its necessary costs. Provided these requirements can be met, the incentive model appears to be a possible instrument for stimulating cities to move faster towards sustainable transport."

Jasper Faber, Daan van Seters, Peter Scholten, Shipping GHG emissions 2030. Analysis of the maximum technical abatement potential. Report. Delft, CE Delft, June 2023, 12 p. [formato PDF, 558 kB]. "The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is concluding its revision of the Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships in July 2023. A major issue in the revision is the question whether to set an emission reduction target for 2030 and if so, how high it should be. As an input to the debate, CE Delft has modelled the maximally technically achievable reduction potential for the sector with its CE-Ship model. Assuming that ships take all possible technical abatement measures available, including the maximal deployment of wind-assisted technology, reduce their speed by 20-30% and use 5-10% zero-GHG fuels, we find that the emissions of international shipping can be reduced by 28-47% by 2030, relative to 2008. Such a reduction would increase shipping costs by 6-14% on average, relative to BAU. About half of the emission reductions result from lower speeds and other operational measures, a quarter from wind-assisted propulsion and other technical measures and another quarter from using zero and near-zero GHG fuels."

Rosemary C Chamberlain, Daniela Fecht, Bethan Davies, Anthony A Laverty, Health effects of low emission and congestion charging zones: a systematic review. Lancet Public Health 2023; 8: e559-74 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 680 kB]. Open Access. "Low emission zones (LEZs) and congestion charging zones (CCZs) have been implemented in several cities globally. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effects of these air pollution and congestion reduction schemes on a range of physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, IDEAS, Greenfile, and Transport Research International Documentation databases from database inception to Jan 4, 2023. We included studies that evaluated the effect of implementation of a LEZ or CCZ on air pollution-related health outcomes (cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, birth outcomes, dementia, lung cancer, diabetes, and all-cause) or road traffic injuries (RTIs) using longitudinal study designs and empirical health data. Two authors independently assessed papers for inclusion. Results were narratively synthesised and visualised using harvest plots. Risk of bias was assessed using the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiological studies. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022311453). Of 2279 studies screened, 16 were included, of which eight assessed LEZs and eight assessed CCZs. Several LEZ studies identified positive effects on air pollution-related outcomes, with reductions in some cardiovascular disease subcategories found in five of six studies investigating this outcome, although results for other health outcomes were less consistent. Six of seven studies on the London CCZ reported reductions in total or car RTIs, although one study reported an increase in cyclist and motorcyclist injuries and one reported an increase in serious or fatal injuries. Current evidence suggests LEZs can reduce air pollution-related health outcomes, with the most consistent effect on cardiovascular disease. Evidence on CCZs is mainly limited to London but suggests that they reduce overall RTIs. Ongoing evaluation of these interventions is necessary to understand longer term health effects."

Greenpeace, Climate & Public Transport Tickets in Europe. A Greenpeace ranking of 30 European countries and their capitals. 1st edition. Greenpeace Central and Eastern Europe, Vienna, Austria, May 2023, 45 p., [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. "What is the current situation in the different European countries and capitals in terms of public transport affordability, and how far away are we from these climate tickets, across Europe? Could climate tickets be implemented in European countries, and how? What would be the benefits of such tickets? To help answer these questions, Greenpeace gathered data on 30 European countries and their capitals. Countries and capitals were then ranked on 4 criteria: simplicity of the ticketing system, full-price long-term tickets, discounts for socially disadvantaged groups (students, families, the elderly, the unemployed, refugees, people with disabilities, etc.) and the VAT rate on public transport tickets. This report shows that climate tickets promoting public transport use are gaining ground in Europe. The time is right for political measures to tackle the cost-of-living crisis that people can rally behind and that draw on common European values of peace, equality, freedom of movement and sustainability."

Andrea Poggio, responsabile mobilità Legambiente Biocarburanti, falsi rinnovabili. Il biodiesel è greenwashing, costa di più e aumenta le emissioni di CO2 dei trasporti. Report. Legambiente, Roma, 10 giugno 2023, 8 p. [formato PDF, 809 kB]. "Report in cui si documenta che l'80% del biodiesel immesso sul mercato in Italia nel 2021 deriva da olio di palma (vietato da quest'anno) e da "finte" biomasse di scarto come UCO (oli alimentari usati) cinesi e da grassi animali di categoria non ammessa, per sfruttare la "doppia contabilità" (doppio valore economico) nel mercato dei carburanti."

Yves Crozet, Paolo Beria, Heike Link, Thierry Vanelslander, The Promises of European Rail. Report. Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE), Brussels. June 2023, 116 p., [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. "Rail transport is presented within the European Union as a major lever in the decarbonisation of transport. It is indeed one mode of transport which is not heavily dependent on fossil fuels, and which is characterised by increasing returns. In terms of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants, but also in terms of accidents, space consumption and negative effects on biodiversity, it is the most environmentally friendly mode of transport. However, despite these obvious advantages for passengers and freight, the development of European rail transport faces the equivalent of the glass ceiling. This report, led by Yves Crozet with the support of Paolo Beria, Heike Link and Thierry Vanelslander, identifies several challenges and highlights important gaps between the ambitions Europe has for its rail sector and the policies and financing required to meet them. On this basis, the report presents policy recommendations and ideas for new forms of financing, drawing from national case studies on Belgium, France, Germany, and Italy."

Katarzyna Turoń, János Tóth, Innovations in Shared Mobility - Review of Scientific Works. Smart Cities 2023, 6(3), 1545-1559 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 659 kB]. Open Access. "Shared mobility is developing at a very fast pace around the world, becoming an alternative to classic forms of travel and, according to the public, providing innovative services. In recent years, these innovative services have also gained wide interest among scientists from a multicriteria point of view. However, among the topics and reviews in the literature, no review paper considering shared mobility in terms of innovation was identified. This article's research objective was to indicate the perception of innovation in shared mobility in scientific works. The results indicate that innovations in shared mobility are a niche topic considered in few scientific works. What is more, in most cases, shared mobility services are perceived as innovative in themselves without detailed service analysis. Moreover, the issues of open innovation, which are closely related to the concept of accessible Mobility as a Service system and smart cities, are often overlooked. In addition, there was no work identified that fully referred to all areas of innovative service. The article supports researchers in the determination of further research directions in the field of shared mobility and fills the research gap in the field of knowledge about open innovation, especially in the context of the development of shared mobility services in smart cities."

Lisa Winkler, Drew Pearce, Jenny Nelson, Oytun Babacan, The effect of sustainable mobility transition policies on cumulative urban transport emissions and energy demand. Nature Communications 14, 2357 (2023) (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "The growing urban transport sector presents towns and cities with an escalating challenge in the reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we assess the effectiveness of several widely considered policy options (electrification, light-weighting, retrofitting, scrapping, regulated manufacturing standards and modal shift) in achieving the transition to sustainable urban mobility in terms of their emissions and energy impact until 2050. Our analysis investigates the severity of actions needed to comply with Paris compliant regional sub-sectoral carbon budgets. We introduce the Urban Transport Policy Model (UTPM) for passenger car fleets and use London as an urban case study to show that current policies are insufficient to meet climate targets. We conclude that, as well as implementation of emission-reducing changes in vehicle design, a rapid and large-scale reduction in car use is necessary to meet stringent carbon budgets and avoid high energy demand. Yet, without increased consensus in sub-national and sectoral carbon budgets, the scale of reduction necessary stays uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain we need to act urgently and intensively across all policy mechanisms available as well as developing new policy options."

Zhenzhou Yuan, Xiaojing Yuan, Yang Yang, Jinjie Chen, Yingjie Nie, Meng Cao and Long Chen, Greenhouse gas emission analysis and measurement for urban rail transit: A review of research progress and prospects. Review. Digital Transportation and Safety 2023, 2(1):36-51 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. Rail transit plays a key role in mitigating transportation system carbon emissions. Accurate measurement of urban rail transit carbon emission can help quantify the contribution of urban rail transit towards urban transportation carbon emission reduction. Since the whole life cycle of urban rail transit carbon emission measurement involves a wide range of aspects, a systematic framework model is required for analysis. This research reviews the existing studies on carbon emission of urban rail transit. First, the characteristics of urban rail transit carbon emission were determined and the complexity of carbon emission measurement was analyzed. Then, the urban rail transit carbon emission measurement models were compared and analyzed in terms of the selection of research boundaries, the types of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions calculation, and the accuracy of the measurement. Following that, an intelligent station was introduced to analyze the practical application of digital collaboration technology and energy-saving and carbon-reducing system platforms for rail transit. Finally, the urgent problems and future research directions at this stage were discussed. This research presents the necessity of establishing a dynamic carbon emission factor library and the important development trend of system integration of carbon emission measurement and digital system technology."

Flavio Bertini, Taron Davtian and Rajesh Sharma, Understanding cycling mobility: Bologna case study. Computational Urban Science (2023) 3:3 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 4,7 MB]. Open Access. Understanding human mobility in touristic and historical cities is of the utmost importance for managing traffic and deploying new resources and services. In recent years, the need to enhance mobility has been exacerbated due to rapid urbanisation and climate changes. The main objective of this work is to study cycling mobility within the city of Bologna, Italy. We used six months dataset that consists of 320,118 self-reported bike trips. First, we performed several descriptive analysis to understand the temporal and spatial patterns of bike users for understanding popular roads and most favourite points within the city. The findings show how bike users present regular daily and weekly temporal patterns and the characteristics of their trips (i.e. distance, time and speed) follow well-known distribution laws. We also identified several points of interest in the city that are particularly attractive for cycling. Moreover, using several other public datasets, we found that bike usage is more correlated to temperature and precipitation and has no correlation to wind speed and pollution. We also exploited machine learning approaches for predicting short-term trips in the near future (that is for the following 10, 30, and 60 minutes), which could help local governmental agencies with urban planning. The best model achieved an R square of 0.91 for the 30-minute time interval, and a Mean Absolute Error of 2.52 and a Root Mean Squared Error of 3.88 for the 10-minute time interval."

Henrik Gillström, Regional Electrified Logistics. Review of research projects, academic publications, and perspective from the industry. Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköping, Sverige, 2023, 25 p. [formato PDF, 461 kB]. This review is part of the Swedish research project Regional Electrified Logistics (REEL) and the work package 1.2: Business models and financing models. Electrification of the freight sector is a fast-developing area and viewed as an important step in reducing the sector's climate impact. However, there are several limiting factors that hinder large-scale transition. The REEL project, which focuses on regional electric deliveries, strives to build knowledge together with the industry and academia to overcome barriers surrounding the area. REEL is a national initiative and is led by CLOSER and is financed by the program strategic vehicle research and innovation (FFI). Well-thought-out business models and financing models are vital for any organization to secure long-term viability. Business models can be described as a plan for how organizations make business and with who, and include the value offered to the customers, who the partners are, and the cost structure. In the case of electrification of freight transport, business models have an important role since it addresses many of the uncertainties associated with the transition. For example, understanding the cost structure with higher investment costs, what type of value can be offered to the customers, and what role will new actors take in the transport system. This review consists of three separate parts: Review of research projects; Review of academic publications; Challenges and trends from the perspective of the industry. The review addresses research projects that are similar to REEL, to investigate their focus and results. The review of academic publications is a structured literature review that aims to describe how business models have been considered for electrification of freight transport. The last section, challenges and trends from the perspective of the industry, addresses aspects that representatives from partner companies within REEL have highlighted."

Margarita MartÍnez-DÍaz and Rosa Arroyo, Is Cycling Safe? Does It Look like It? Insights from Helsinki and Barcelona. Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 905 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 663 kB]. Open Access. Cycling constitutes a clean, healthy, and low-cost mode of transport. Therefore, the promotion of cycling is currently one of the main goals of administrations around the word. Former studies have shown that safety perception plays a fundamental role in the acceptance of bikes as a habitual mode of transport. In this context, this research aims to determine which variables and actions can give rise to this feeling of safety and, therefore, collaborate in the modal shift towards a more sustainable mobility. For this purpose, different strategies have been developed in two different contexts, Helsinki and Barcelona, using two different methodologies, namely expert interviews and analysis of survey data. Particularly, the methodology of analysis used includes descriptive statistics and path analysis. Results point out that safety perception highly depends on trip purpose, as significant differences are observed for daily users compared to those who cycle for sport reasons. Demographic characteristics (age, gender, etc.) and use patterns are also associated with different perceptions of safety and different behaviors. However, for any cyclist, the quality of the available infrastructure significantly influences his/her safety perception. Thus, the provision of good quality and well-structured cycling infrastructure is the most important initiative to promote cycling."


Giuseppe Catalano, Maria Teresa Di Matteo, Davide Ciferri, Mirella Lembo, Investimenti e Riforme del PNRR per la Portualità. Rapporto. Ministero delle Infrastrutture e della Mobilità Sostenibili, Roma, 2022, 190 p. [formato PDF, 54,0 MB]. "Complessivamente, sono previsti interventi in 47 porti localizzati in 14 regioni e di competenza di 16 Autorità di Sistema Portuale (AdSP). Il 46,9% degli investimenti va ai porti del Mezzogiorno, il 37,7% a quelli del Nord e il restante 15,4% a quelli del Centro Italia. A livello regionale, i porti della Liguria e della Sicilia sono i principali beneficiari: alla Liguria sono stati assegnati circa 2,7 miliardi di euro, di cui 600 milioni per la nuova diga foranea di Genova, alla Sicilia circa 1,1 miliardi. Gli investimenti sono accompagnati da numerose riforme riguardanti l'organizzazione delle attività portuali, la semplificazione e la digitalizzazione delle operazioni logistiche, le regole del trasporto marittimo."

Marion Leroutier, Philippe Quirion, Air pollution and CO2 from daily mobility: Who emits and Why? Evidence from Paris. Energy Economics 109 (2022) 105941 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Urban road transport is an important source of local pollution and carbon emissions. Designing effective and fair policies tackling these externalities requires understanding who contributes to emissions today. We estimate individual transport-induced pollution footprints combining a travel demand survey from the Paris area with NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 emission factors. We find that the top 20% emitters contribute 75%-85% of emissions on a representative weekday. They combine longer distances travelled, a high car modal share and, especially for local pollutants, a higher emission intensity of car trips. Living in the suburbs, being a man and being employed are the most important characteristics associated with top emissions. Among the employed, those commuting from suburbs to suburbs, working at a factory, with atypical working hours or with a manual, shopkeeping or top executive occupation are more likely to be top emitters. Finally, policies targeting local pollution may be more regressive than those targeting CO2 emissions, due to the different correlation between income and the local pollutant vs. CO2 emission intensity of car trips."

Transport & Environment, Cost of clean shipping is negligible. Case study for 6% green e-fuels and stringent ETS. Briefing, executive summary. Transport & Environment, Brussels, June 2022, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "This briefing assesses the likely cost increase in seaborne transport in a hypothetical fully decarbonised scenario and, more specifically, if the ambition of the proposed FuelEU Maritime (FEUM) and the Maritime ETS is substantially strengthened. The briefing assesses the likely cost impact of increasing the overall 2030 fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity target under FEUM from -6% to -14%, mandating an additional 6% sub-quota for renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBOs, or e-fuels) and incorporating a well-to-wake (WtW) CO2 equivalent emissions into the maritime ETS, which currently only covers tank-to-wake (TtW) CO2 emissions. Based on a real-world example of a voyage of an average large container vessel sailing between China and Belgium, the analysis concluded that the likely impact on seaborne transport costs would be negligible."

J.S. Horjus, K. Gkiotsalitis, S. Nijënstein, K.T. Geurs, Integration of shared transport at a public transport stop: mode choice intentions of different user segments at a mobility hub. Journal of Urban Mobility 2 (2022) 100026 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "To create an integrated transport system that can compete with and reduce private car usage, we need a better understanding of the transport and user characteristics that relate to people's intentions to use shared and public transport at a mobility hub. For this purpose, this paper describes the results of a survey surrounding the case study of Leyenburg, The Hague in which a scenario of integrating shared mobility at an existing public transport stop is proposed. This study investigates the intention to use shared modes and public transport in a multimodal transport network and the factors and user characteristics that affect this intention. As digital technologies become important in the integration of modalities by offering digital planning and payment options, concerns regarding digital exclusion in transport services are growing. In this paper we developed a digital skills measure to reflects one's ability to perform tasks that are inherent to the digital services seen in the transport sector. Using an ordinal logistics regression analysis, the study has found that the intention to use shared transport is higher for people who are younger, have a high level of education and a high level of digital skills. In addition, having prior experience with shared transport in the past year and currently using multiple means of transportation during the trip are positively affecting the intention to use shared transport. The intention to combine shared transport with the bus or tram during a trip is similar to the intention to use shared transport and is related to similar characteristics, except for education. The intention to use the bus or tram is found to be mainly related to current transport usage and trip-specific factors and not to other user characteristics. For transport providers, the results provide evidence that offering shared motor scooters and bicycles would be an attractive option for young and highly-educated users who intend to combine the use of shared and public transport."

Fabienne Cantner, Nico Nachtigall, Lisa S. Hamm, Andrea Cadavid, Lennart Adenaw, Allister Loder, Markus B. Siewert, Sebastian Goerg, Markus Lienkamp, Klaus Bogenberger (TUM Technical University of Munich), A nation-wide experiment: fuel tax cuts and almost free public transport for three months in Germany - Report 2 First wave results. Preprint. arXiv:2206.10510, June 23, 2022, 13 p. [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. "In spring 2022, the German federal government agreed on a set of measures that aim at reducing households' financial burden resulting from a recent price increase, especially in energy and mobility. These measures include among others, a nation-wide public transport ticket for 9 EUR per month and a fuel tax cut that reduces fuel prices by more than 15%. In transportation research this is an almost unprecedented behavioral experiment. It allows to study not only behavioral responses in mode choice and induced demand but also to assess the effectiveness of transport policy instruments. We observe this natural experiment with a three-wave survey and an app-based travel diary on a sample of hundreds of participants as well as an analysis of traffic counts. In this second report, we update the information on study participation, provide first insights on the smartphone app usage as well as insights on the first wave results, particularly on the 9 EUR-ticket purchase intention."

Alexandra S. Penn, Suzanne E. Bartington, Sarah J. Moller, Ian Hamilton, James G. Levine, Kirstie Hatcher and Nigel Gilbert, Adopting a Whole Systems Approach to Transport Decarbonisation, Air Quality and Health: An Online Participatory Systems Mapping Case Study in the UK. Atmosphere 2022, 13(3), 492 (35 p.) [formato PDF, 19,3 MB]. Open Access. "In a drive to achieve net zero emissions, U.K. transport decarbonisation policies are predominantly focussed on measures to promote the uptake and use of electric vehicles (EVs). This is reflected in the COP26 Transport Declaration signed by 38 national governments, alongside city region governments, vehicle manufacturers and investors. However, emerging evidence suggests that EVs present multiple challenges for air quality, mobility and health, including risks from non-exhaust emissions (NEEs) and increasing reliance on vehicles for short trips. Understanding the interconnected links between electric mobility, human health and the environment, including synergies and trade-offs, requires a whole systems approach to transport policymaking. In the present paper, we describe the use of Participatory Systems Mapping (PSM) in which a diverse group of stakeholders collaboratively constructed a causal model of the U.K. surface transport system through a series of interactive online workshops. We present the map and its analysis, with our findings illustrating how unintended consequences of EV-focussed transport policies may have an impact on air quality, human health and important social functions of the transport system. We conclude by considering how online participatory causal modelling techniques could be effectively integrated with empirical metrics to facilitate effective policy design and appraisal in the transport sector."

C. Castillo, M. Viu-Roig, E.J. Alvarez-Palau (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya), COVID-19 lockdown as an opportunity to rethink urban freight distribution: Lessons from the Barcelona metropolitan area. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 14 (2022) 100605 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 592 kB]. Open Access. "The COVID-19 health crisis has had a strong impact on societies around the world, affecting both the health of populations and countries' economies. While lockdowns imposed to stop the spread of infection reduced urban mobility and had a positive impact on air quality, lowering the emission of polluting particles and greenhouse gases, they had the opposite effect on urban freight distribution (UFD). With the population remaining at home, ecommerce-driven shipments surged, and total freight traffic increased. In order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the aim of this study was to identify the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on the daily operation of the region's main logistics agents. Lessons learned from this cyclical scenario could be used to define more sustainable public policies regarding UFD in the post-COVID era. To meet the above objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with public administrations and private operators, before being transcribed and encoded for later analysis. The results of our study show that common problems in UFD, such as traffic congestion or problems finding parking in the loading and unloading (L/U) zones, temporarily disappeared during the lockdown phase. Delivery times were consequently reduced, despite an increase in operations due to ecommerce. In addition, the public administrations took advantage of this situation to adapt the urban space and force a transition towards new delivery systems, such as cargo-bikes, to guarantee sustainable last-mile operations in specific zones."

Decarbonizzare i trasporti. Evidenze scientifiche e proposte di policy. Primo Rapporto elaborato dagli esperti della Struttura Transizione Ecologica della Mobilità e delle Infrastrutture (STEMI) del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e della Mobilità Sostenibili (MIMS). MIMS, Ministero delle Infrastrutture e della Mobilità Sostenibili, aprile 2022, 100 p. [formato PDF, 5,0 MB]. "Il primo Rapporto realizzato dalla struttura istituita nel 2021 dal Ministro risponde alla necessità di fornire una base conoscitiva solida, fondata sullo stato della ricerca in tema di tecnologie per la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti, per assumere le decisioni politiche più opportune per accelerare la transizione ecologica e il raggiungimento degli obiettivi di riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 ed inquinanti con il miglior rapporto costi-benefici, nonché il rafforzamento della competitività dell'economia italiana e il miglioramento della qualità della vita dei cittadini. Il Rapporto STEMI si articola in varie sezioni dedicate alle diverse modalità di trasporto - automobili, veicoli commerciali, autobus per trasporto pubblico locale, treni, navi, aerei - e analizza le tecnologie disponibili e le infrastrutture necessarie alla decarbonizzazione in termini di efficienza, costo, potenzialità di riduzione delle emissioni e scalabilità industriale nel contesto italiano."

Lisa Ruhrort Can a rapid mobility transition appear both desirable and achievable? Reflections on the role of competing narratives for socio-technical change and suggestions for a research agenda. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 2022 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 616 kB]. Open Access. "As research on socio-technical transitions has repeatedly shown, positive or negative narratives can play a key role in galvanizing public support for or resistance against socio-technical transitions. In the mobility sector, many countries have recently seen some indications of beginning socio-technical change dynamics. In the case of Germany, key practices of a low-carbon transport system - such as cycling, substitution of travel through home office or 'shared mobility services' - are moving from niches to mainstream, while grassroots initiatives are successfully demanding improvements for cycling and walking. In this dynamic situation competing narratives of change begin to emerge, which claim to define what a transition towards 'sustainable' mobility should look like and how it could be accomplished. Against the backdrop of these recent discursive shifts the article highlights three key conflictual dimensions, along which competing narratives of a mobility transition in Germany, but also in other European countries, are likely going to diverge. The article suggests that research into mobility transitions should focus on the intensifying discursive struggles, in which different social groups with highly differing power will attempt to shape the broader socio-technical vision of a 'sustainable' mobility future."

Ronik Ketankumar Patel, Roya Etminani-Ghasrodashti, Sharareh Kermanshachi, Jay Michael Rosenberger, Ann Foss (University of Texas at Arlington), Mobility-on-demand (MOD) Projects: A study of the best practices adopted in United States. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 14 (2022) 100601 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "The growth of mobility on demand (MOD) services has raised partnership opportunities between transit agencies and transportation network companies (TNCs) in the US. However, there is still a need to recognize how MOD programs confront different challenges during the implementation of pilot projects, and to what extent they are successful in promoting mobility efficiency and providing multiple mobility options. This study aims to evaluate the potential opportunities of public-private partnerships for MOD planning while presenting an overview of the challenges and lessons learned during the implementation of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Sandbox Program projects. Following a comprehensive review of MOD's background, we identify the goals and scopes of the 11 FTA Sandbox Program projects. The programs are classified into four categories: service to people with disabilities, first/last mile solutions, mobile application targeting one non-transit mode, and mobile application to integrate public and private transportation services on one app. Emphasizing particular FTA Sandbox Program projects, we determine the challenges and technical lessons learned during the implementation of the programs. Finally, this study identifies fundamental factors to a well-integrated public transit system that uses app-based on-demand technology. Our findings provide new insights, which could reinforce future partnerships among public-private transportation services."

Hyunhong Choi, Stephen Youngjun Park, HyungBin Moon, The shared mobility services ban in South Korea: Consumer preferences and social opportunity cost. Travel Behaviour and Society 28 (2022) 214-226 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. "With the advancement of information and communication technologies and the emergence of sharing economy, various shared mobility services have been introduced in many countries and some are achieving rapid growth. However, in South Korea, shared mobility services that were once introduced are now banned by laws and regulations following extreme opposition from taxi drivers and heated social conflict. This study analyzed consumer preferences for key technological and non-technological attributes that consists vehicle-based mobility services to investigate the social cost related to the ban. To be specific, this study evaluated the social opportunity cost of the ban on shared mobility services in South Korea and investigated the impact of potential options that may improve existing mobility services and minimize costs for various demographic groups. The results show that carpooling and professional ride-hailing services could assume significant amount of taxis' current market share if they were fully available. This implies that significant social opportunity cost may be incurred from the ban as consumers are unable to use the services they want. In particular, females tended to have a higher cost than males, and the cost appeared to increase by age. The choice probability for banned mobility services (social opportunity cost) of the female older adult is the highest (73.8%) among consumer groups. Moreover, this study suggests that providing incentives to induce taxis' electrification and strictly regulating and managing taxi drivers' service quality could be a useful strategy for policymakers to minimize the social costs of the ban on shared mobility services."

Jonne Silonsaari, Mikko Simula, Marco Te Brömmelstroet, Sami Kokko, Unravelling the rationalities of childhood cycling promotion. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 14 (2022) 100598 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Open Access. "Decrease of children's independent mobility (CIM) has worried academics, policymakers, educators and other professionals for decades. Research and policy often emphasise that promoting children's physically active and independent transport modes as cycling is important to achieve better public health, solve environmental challenges and increase related economic benefits. Yet, cycling promotion is not a neutral process and all promotion efforts are derived from latent notions of 'cyclists' and 'cycling'. This paper discusses different rationalities of childhood cycling promotion and the representations of 'children' as independent 'cyclists' they entail. We argue that in order to efficiently promote cycling across contexts, we should better understand children's cycling experiences and meanings they ascribe to it and how their mobilities emergence in the flux of social, institutional and political relations. By applying action research to a local cycling promotion project in Finland we explore how instrumental, functional and alternative rationalities emerged and resulted in differing representations of children as cyclists. While all rationalities played a role in different stages of the project, the results highlight that alternative rationalities as children's autonomy, positive emotions and friendships were considered the most important drivers of new cycling practices among project participants. In conclusion we propose children's autonomous mobility as the most appropriate term to depict their cycling and other self-imposed (but relational) mobility practices."

Mascha Brost, Simone Ehrenberger, Isheeka Dasgupta, Robert Hahn, Laura Gebhardt, The Potential of Light Electric Vehicles for Climate Protection through Substitution for Passenger Car Trips - Germany as a Case Study. Final Report of the LEV4Climate Study. German Aerospace Center (DLR), March, 24th 2022, 37 slides [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. " Light Electric Vehicles (LEVs) have great potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and thus contribute to climate protection. Half of the kilometres currently driven by car in Germany could theoretically be covered by LEVs. This would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 40 percent compared to car trips. That would mean around 57 million tonnes less emissions per year. This is the conclusion of a study conducted by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) on behalf of LEVA-EU, the association representing the interests of light electric vehicles. For their study, researchers from the DLR Institutes of Vehicle Concepts and Transport Research considered the entire portfolio of light electric vehicles. These range from e-scooters, e-bicycles and e-cargo bicycles, electric scooters and motorcycles to three- and four-wheeled small L7e class cars."

Carina Goldbach, Jörn Sickmann, Thomas Pitz, Tatjana Zimasa (Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences), Towards autonomous public transportation: Attitudes and intentions of the local population. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 13 (2022) 100504 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 491 kB]. Open Access. "Public autonomous vehicles (AVs) have a high potential to solve traffic related problems and environmental challenges. However, without the passengers' acceptance, the potential to achieve these benefits will not be fulfilled. Therefore, this paper is focused on the factors that influence the acceptance of such vehicles and investigates how much the acceptance varies if different levels of supervision are provided. An online survey was conducted and factors like trust and experience were found to impact on the stated intention to use a self-driving bus. Additionally, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) factors, such as, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and social influence were found to impact user intentions. Interestingly, socio-demographic factors appeared to be determinants of the acceptance of public AVs only if an employee was no longer present in the bus. The study highlighted the importance of paying sufficient attention to qualitative psychological factors, next to classic instrumental attributes like travel time and costs, before and during the implementation of public AVs. As experience was found to be a relatively robust factor in explaining public AV acceptance, we expect that preferences towards autonomous public transportation evolve along with the transition from hypothetical scenarios to demonstration pilots, to their deployment in regular operations. We therefore recommend the extension of this research to revealed preference studies, thereby using the results of field studies and living labs. Policy makers and researchers should allow users to access public AVs in test phases, so that users can generate positive experiences. This is expected to reduce future efforts of encouraging the use of this new technology, before its implementation."

Ortega Hortelano, A., Tsakalidis, A., Haq, A., Gkoumas, K., Stepniak, M., Marques Dos Santos, F., Grosso, M. and Pekar, F., Research and innovation in car sharing in Europe. EUR 30998 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Ispra, 2022, 75 p. [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. Open Access. "This report provides a comprehensive analysis of R&I related to car sharing in Europe. The assessment follows the methodology developed by the European Commission's Transport Research and Innovation Monitoring and Information System (TRIMIS). The report critically assesses research by thematic areas, highlighting recent technological and other developments and future needs. The projects were grouped according to six key thematic areas: Better understanding of impacts (economy, environmental); User behaviour and acceptance of car sharing schemes; Information Technology development: apps, websites, connected cars; Vehicle technology: electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, ergonomics, automated vehicles; Development and implementation; and Others: stakeholder engagement, regulations, and policies. Three main findings arise. First, most of the projects target urban environment, which makes sense from the industry point of view and potential users. Second, there has been an increase in funding support for car sharing schemes in the recent years , especially through R&I projects focusing on the development of Information Technology (IT) solutions: apps, websites, connected cars, etc. Finally, countries with significant public investments in R&I and a substantial transport industry, as well as consultancy and IT related companies, appear well placed to adopt car sharing schemes."

Jens Schippl, Bernhard Truffer, Torsten Fleischer, Potential impacts of institutional dynamics on the development of automated vehicles: Towards sustainable mobility?. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 14 (2022) 100587 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "Most experts agree that automated vehicles (AV) will be commercialized sooner or later and that this will lead to far-reaching changes in the mobility system. However, it is still open whether these developments will lead to more sustainable transport systems. AVs may render private car ownership more attractive and therefore intensify car-oriented mobility patterns, or may increase the attractiveness of public transport when mostly used as robo-taxis. Once development has started to move in a specific direction, self-reinforcing dynamics and path-dependencies may unfold. Therefore, it is important to analyze which factors may influence the direction of path-dependencies. We argue that understanding emerging path-dependencies requires an understanding of the interrelated technical, economic and societal dynamics. We draw on recent insights into societal dynamics in sociotechnical regimes, drawn from sustainability transition research, to identify potential development trajectories of automated driving due to changes in what is conceptualized as normative-cognitive institutions. We introduce an approach to map such institutional dynamics based on recent data from developments in the German mobility sector. Results demonstrate that the direction of future AV pathways may depend on such institutional developments. Both a reinforcing and a disruptive pathway are plausible. Governance strategies that aim to tap the potential of AVs in supporting sustainable urban mobility should consider institutional dynamics more explicitly."

Robert Hrelja & Tom Rye, Decreasing the share of travel by car. Strategies for implementing 'push' or 'pull' measures in a traditionally car-centric transport and land use planning. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2022, 14 p., [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. DOI: "This paper analyzes strategies that can be successfully pursued to implement measures to reduce car traffic in what has traditionally been a very car-centric planning praxis. Analytically, the paper use path dependency theory to provide an understanding of why certain types of measure are not implemented in cities on as widespread a basis as policy objectives may require, and to understand how transport planning path dependence in urban authorities might be changed. Empirically, the analysis builds on a comparative case study of transport and land use planning in Swedish cities. The most effective strategies do not appear to be radical policies leading to fast implementation of goals about sustainable transport, for example by implementing very car restrictive measures, even in the face of resistance from the public and from within the city administration. The results support an approach that from a strategy making perspective can be understood as an institutionalizing process by which internal organizational and external public support for car restrictive and potentially controversial measures are built. Implementation may be achieved by building new institutions within city administrations, where routines and norms gradually change so that car restraint measures gradually become part of the normal way of doing transport planning. This then starts to lock-in certain patterns of travel and make further car restraint measures more feasible and institutionalized as part of a standard menu of measures that cities use, and not something out of the order."

International Transport Forum (ITF), Mode Choice in Freight Transport. ITF Research Reports. OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2022, 86 p. [formato PDF, 9,4 MB]. Open Access. "This report examines why freight carriers and shippers choose one transport mode over others. It analyses the main determinants for using road, rail, inland waterways, coastal shipping or pipelines to move goods and assesses government policies to influence it. The study also reviews how shifting freight to more sustainable modes could reduce the contribution of goods transport to climate change and provides recommendations for more effective policies. The role of mode choice in alleviating congestion and making goods transport safer is also addressed. Three case studies from China, Canada and the Netherlands highlight modal-shift policies."

Carlo Amendola, Simone La Bella, Gian Piero Joime, Fabio Massimo Frattale Mascioli and Pietro Vito, An Integrated Methodology Model for Smart Mobility System Applied to Sustainable Tourism. Adm. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 40 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "This work aims to analyze the impact of technological eco-innovation on the modernization and development of a local area. The role of eco-innovation would be to stimulate an innovative environment and spur a development of the territory and economic districts, and the diffusion of said particularities among wider geographic contexts, hence allowing a globalization model more observant of local specificities, and thus an open system able to develop economic and cultural exchange respecting local particularities. In recent years, smart city has asserted itself as a general model for the city of tomorrow, and sustainability has become a focal point in urban development policies. In this paper, we investigate how an integrated and intermodal methodology for the development of smart mobility systems - the European project "Life for Silver Coast" - is impacting the modernization and development of an Italian coastal area in Tuscany. The main focus of our paper is to understand how an integrated mobility network allows a transition toward a sustainable form of social relationship and a new economic pattern and could represent the starting point for a spatial, relational and institutional reorganization process that would lead to a change in the production and management dynamics of the local ecosystem concerning cultural, social and economic issues."

Mauricio Orozco-Fontalvo, Luis Llerena and Victor Cantillo, Dockless electric scooters: A review of a growing micromobility mode. Review. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (2022) DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2022.2044097 (17 p.), [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "Electric Micromobility (EM) and the use of dockless shared electric scooters (DSES) has rapidly grown in many cities worldwide. They are promoted as an accessible, low-emissions, versatile, and low-effort alternative. This article conducts a systematic review of DSES, considering their evolution, operation, regulations, user profile, environmental impact, safety, and pricing. The review shows age, income, and gender gaps among their users as most of them are young, male, high-income adults. DSES adopters come mainly from public transport, walking, and cycling. Their environmentally friendly label needs to be analyzed according to the city's context; their distribution and collection logistics impacts, and the vehicle's service life. The review shows significant differences in the way cities have regulated the service. One of the most significant potential contributions from DSES to urban mobility is the possibility to be integrated with public transport, implementing the Mobility-as-a-Service concept."

Andreas Nikiforiadis, Lambros Mitropoulos, Pantelis Kopelias, Socrates Basbas, Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Sofia Kroustali, Exploring mobility pattern changes between before, during and after COVID-19 lockdown periods for young adults. Cities 125 (2022) 103662 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "The paper aims to investigate changes in travel behavior due to COVID-19 focusing in one of the most active social groups in Greece. A questionnaire survey was conducted and 306 young adults (age 18-34 years) living in various Greek cities responded. The survey collected information about travel-related preferences before, during and after the 1st lockdown and during the 2nd lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. City attributes of the respondent's residency location before and after the 1st lockdown were collected. The data are analyzed descriptively and through statistical modelling techniques. During the 1st lockdown an important increase in physical exercise frequency was observed, but this increase was not permanent. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in essential reductions in the frequency of public transport use and in an increase of walking frequency. The public transport use reduction was mainly attributed to people that had access to a private car and after the 1st lockdown moved to a smaller city. On the other hand, the changes in walking frequency are closely linked to the city's attributes. Useful policy implications are being derived about how the pandemic can assist in promoting sustainable urban mobility goals."

João Filipe Teixeira, Cecília Silva, Frederico Moura e Sá, The role of bike sharing during the coronavirus pandemic: An analysis of the mobility patterns and perceptions of Lisbon's GIRA users. Transportation Research Part A 159 (2022) 17-34 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "COVID-19 has dramatically impacted urban mobility, of which public transport (PT) has been particularly affected. With PT ridership plummeting due to infection fears and many people returning to work, there is a danger of a steep rise in car use that would exacerbate environmental and health problems. Therefore, other modes such as bike sharing should be considered as potential alternatives during the coronavirus pandemic. This study focuses on assessing how coronavirus has impacted bike sharing by implementing a travel behaviour survey to the users of GIRA, the bike sharing system (BSS) of Lisbon. While the coronavirus has led some to decrease the frequency of use or quit the system, other users have increased the usage or joined GIRA during the pandemic. Furthermore, most users who have quit or decreased the usage of GIRA justify their decision not so much on avoiding the risk of infection (although for some it is an important reason) but on having stopped commuting due to COVID-19. The survey has also revealed substantial changes not only on the usage patterns of GIRA users but also on their relationship with other modes of transport. While before the pandemic, most respondents were shifting from PT to GIRA, that percentage has declined, with an increase on the share of users replacing walking, private car, and personal cycling. Moreover, the motivations for using bike sharing related with avoiding PT and maintaining a social distance during the trip have gained more relevance. Concurrently, the perceived safety of using PT has drastically declined, and while the perceived safety of using GIRA has also decreased it was in a much smaller scale. Policy insights can be derived from this research on how bike sharing can contribute to a more sustainable and resilient urban transport system. During infectious public health crises such as COVID-19, BSS can be a viable transport alternative, not only providing the population with an affordable mode of transport where social distancing can be maintained in most of the trip but also mitigating a modal shift from PT to the private car."

Sina Selzer, Martin Lanzendorf (Goethe University Frankfurt/Main), Car independence in an automobile society? The everyday mobility practices of residents in a car-reduced housing development. Travel Behaviour and Society 28 (2022) 90-105 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Lately, transport researchers and practitioners are showing renewed interest in car-reduced neighborhoods and their residents' mobility to investigate possible factors influencing sustainable transport. With a biographically inspired practice-theoretical approach, this study considers the 'context of travel behavior' and, thus, focuses on mobility as a 'practice' in order to improve the understanding of everyday mobility as well as the potential and limitations of implementing car-reduced housing. Based on qualitative interviews with residents of two German car-reduced neighborhoods, we first identify different compositions of materials, competences, and meanings (including the feelings and emotions) of car-(in)dependent mobility practices. Second, we discover the personal, social, temporal, and socio-structural circumstances of the residents' travel behavior alongside 'practice bundles' that interact with car-(in)dependent mobility. Finally, our findings indicate, on the one hand, that the car-centric material context outside car-reduced neighborhoods, the incorporation of private car driving with the practice of everyday life, and the affective satisfaction with car use and ownership negatively influence car independence. On the other hand, our results highlight that residential location and its materiality in the case of car-reduced housing developments, as well as the personal-temporal and socio-cultural contexts of their residents' mobility practices stabilize and support car independence and low-carbon mobility."

Uta Burghard, Aline Scherrer (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovations Research), Sharing vehicles or sharing rides - Psychological factors influencing the acceptance of carsharing and ridepooling in Germany. Energy Policy 164 (2022) 112874 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "Shared mobility has the potential to reduce private car use and can thereby contribute to a mobility transition which reduces energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, shared mobility services still have a niche existence - even in major cities. If the goal is to establish shared mobility as a significant part of the mobility system, a key question is which factors determine the acceptance of individual services. Can perceived innovation-specific factors that can be more directly influenced by policies explain differences in attitudes and acceptance or does the explanatory power lie with psychological dispositions that are more difficult to change by policies? Do these factors apply in general or differ between different sharing services? We investigate these questions based on a survey study in major German cities to analyse the acceptance of two car-based shared mobility services, carsharing and ridepooling, in society (N = 1,531). The data analysis based on two path models shows that perceived compatibility with daily life is the most important factor related to the acceptance of carsharing and ridepooling. Perceived ease of use positively affects the general attitude towards both services. We conclude that our findings offer potential intervention routes for policies that increase the acceptance of shared mobility. The prerequisites for the services to contribute to a reduction in energy consumption in the transport sector are also discussed."

Clare Brown, Michael Hardman, Nick Davies and Richard Armitage, Mobility as a Service: Defining a Transport Utopia. Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 300-309 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 496 kB]. Open Access. "Having been widely acknowledged as enabling access to education, employment, leisure and social activities, transport choices are also the cause of many challenges cities face. Recognising that change is needed, planners and policymakers are considering alternative methods of planning and delivering transport. Mobility as a Service (or MaaS) is one such idea that has gained traction with academics and professionals alike. Hailed as the answer to integrating complex transport systems, MaaS has yet to be implemented at scale in urban transport systems due in part to the lack of an agreed conceptual definition, the top-down approach to implementing what is meant to be a more personalised method of accessing transport, and the lack of local promoters (in comparison to global corporations and lobbyists). This article reflects on the current barriers to defining MaaS, considers how a novel public engagement approach could be used to create local definitions that support citizen engagement, and suggests a route forward for future research."

Karolina Isaksson, Jens Alm, Establishing bicycle logistics in urban areas - Experiences from entrepreneurs and local policy actors. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 13 (2022) 100556 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 477 kB]. Open Access. "This paper aims to deepen the insights into specific policy and planning prerequisites that affect how bicycle logistics services can be initiated and established in urban environments. Empirical data consist of policy documents and qualitative interviews with bicycle logistics entrepreneurs and local policy actors from four Swedish municipalities which are all known for their ambitious strategies for sustainable transport. The paper leads to insights into a variety of challenges facing the introduction of bicycle logistics in urban environments but points also to possibilities and key issues for the further development of these types of concepts. Among these are the importance of targeted initiatives and support for new concepts for sustainable urban freight, but also conscious strategies for infrastructure development and a more well-informed use of public procurement processes. In addition, the study confirms the importance of norms, attitudes and knowledge among policy makers, planners and potential customers about bicycle logistics and its potential for urban areas."

Veronica A Southerland, Michael Brauer, Arash Mohegh, Melanie S Hammer, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Joshua S Apte, Susan C Anenberg, Global urban temporal trends in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and attributable health burdens: estimates from global datasets. Lancet Planet Health 2022; 6: e139-46 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access.. "Background: With much of the world's population residing in urban areas, an understanding of air pollution exposures at the city level can inform mitigation approaches. Previous studies of global urban air pollution have not considered trends in air pollutant concentrations nor corresponding attributable mortality burdens. We aimed to estimate trends in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and associated mortality for cities globally. Methods: We use high-resolution annual average PM2.5 concentrations, epidemiologically derived concentration response functions, and country-level baseline disease rates to estimate population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations and attributable cause-specific mortality in 13.160 urban centres between the years 2000 and 2019. Findings: Although regional averages of urban PM2.5 concentrations decreased between the years 2000 and 2019, we found considerable heterogeneity in trends of PM2.5 concentrations between urban areas. Approximately 86% (2.5 billion inhabitants) of urban inhabitants lived in urban areas that exceeded WHO's 2005 guideline annual average PM2.5 (10 µg/m3), resulting in an excess of 1.8 million (95% CI 1.34 million-2.3 million) deaths in 2019. Regional averages of PM2.5-attributable deaths increased in all regions except for Europe and the Americas, driven by changes in population numbers, age structures, and disease rates. In some cities, PM2.5-attributable mortality increased despite decreases in PM2.5 concentrations, resulting from shifting age distributions and rates of non-communicable disease. Interpretation: Our study showed that, between the years 2000 and 2019, most of the world's urban population lived in areas with unhealthy levels of PM2.5, leading to substantial contributions to non-communicable disease burdens. Our results highlight that avoiding the large public health burden from urban PM2.5 will require strategies that reduce exposure through emissions mitigation, as well as strategies that reduce vulnerability to PM2.5 by improving overall public health."

Alexandra König, Laura Gebhardt, Kerstin Stark and Julia Schuppan (German Aerospace Center), A Multi-Perspective Assessment of the Introduction of E-Scooter Sharing in Germany. Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2639 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 543 kB]. Open Access. "Electric scooter sharing (e-scooter sharing) is a new urban micro-mobility service that is expected to shape individual urban mobility. The introduction of e-scooter sharing systems poses challenging questions for cities and transportation planners regarding their effects on their transportation system. This study addresses the question concerning the strategies which are applied for the introduction of e-scooter sharing systems in different operation areas in Germany. An interview study with 21 stakeholders with different backgrounds (local transport authorities, public transport providers, e-scooter sharing operators, municipalities, associations, planning offices and consulting companies, and other mobility providers) was conducted to reflect upon the introduction of e-scooter sharing systems in Germany and stakeholders' involvement in planning. The qualitative content analysis provides insights into the stakeholders' assessment of the introduction process and thus contributes to a multi-perspective understanding on the topic. Derived hypotheses and recommendations further contribute to knowledge sharing and learning from experience. The paper concludes with a description of three introduction styles: protective, pro-active, and laissez-faire."

Fernando Gil-Alonso, Cristina López-Villanueva and Jenniffer Thiers-Quintana (Universitat de Barcelona), Transition towards a Sustainable Mobility in a Suburbanising Urban Area: The Case of Barcelona. Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2560 (32 p.) [formato PDF, 7,7 MB]. Open Access. "This article aims to address the apparent contradiction between the urban demographic and migratory trends and the transition towards a more sustainable mobility that local and metropolitan governments seek. To that end, it uses the case of Barcelona, and its metropolitan area during the first decades of the 21st century, characterized by suburbanisation and gentrification. Employing demographic, mobility and transport, and air quality statistics, we intend to analyse: (a) the spatial demographic trends in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (AMB), particularly regarding the core and periphery population growth or decline; (b) trends in daily mobility and how the public and private transport mix has changed; and (c) pollution data changes confirming the success or failure of the private vehicle reduction policy. Findings confirm our initial hypothesis: the slow but steady transition towards sustainable forms of mobility in the core city and the dense contiguous municipalities is counterbalanced by what occurs in the peripheral suburbs. There, the use of private vehicles is still preeminent and growing. Nevertheless, the air quality has improved in the most central municipalities of the AMB (for which data are available), even if not all parameters have seen a similar pollution reduction."

Paula Kuss, Kimberly A. Nicholas (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies), A dozen effective interventions to reduce car use in European cities: Lessons learned from a meta-analysis and Transition Management. Case Studies on Transport Policy (2022), doi: (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Transitioning to fossil-free transport and reducing car use are necessary to meet European and national climate goals. Cities are promising leverage points to facilitate system transitions by promoting local innovation and policy experimentation. Building on transition management, we developed a knowledge base for the implementation of transition experiments to reduce city-level car use. From screening nearly 800 peer-reviewed studies and case studies, including in-depth analysis of 24 documents that met quality criteria and quantitatively estimated car use reduction, we identify 12 intervention types combining different measures and policy instruments that were effective in reducing car use in European cities. Most interventions were led by local government, planned and decided in collaboration with different urban stakeholders. We evaluated the potential of the identified intervention types to be implemented in a pilot study of Lund, Sweden, using three criteria from Transition Management of novelty, feasibility, and suitability, as assessed by interviews with local experts. We recommend three transition experiments to reduce local car use in Lund: Parking and Traffic Control, Workplace Parking Charge, and Mobility Services for Commuters. We suggest practitioners follow our method to identify effective and locally suitable interventions to reduce car use, and future research quantify the effectiveness of interventions to reduce car use using the standardised outcome measure of annual passenger kilometres travelled by car.

Simen Rostad Sĉther (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Mobility at the crossroads - Electric mobility policy and charging infrastructure lessons from across Europe. Transportation Research Part A 157 (2022) 144-159 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "The transportation sector accounts for a significant part of European emissions and is one of the few sectors with rising emissions. Thus one crucial part of the European strategy to reduce overall emissions is a shift, in the transportation sector, to low-emission mobility and electric mobility in particular. As European governments and policymakers consider feasible ways of supporting the transition, one central question is whether the policies and actions they enact should aim for creating incremental or structural change, here operationalized as personal incentives vs. charging infrastructure. Therefore, this analysis investigates the effects of electric mobility policies and charging infrastructure on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market shares in Europe from 2009 to 2019. Charging infrastructure, and fast charging infrastructure in particular, demonstrate by far the strongest and most robust results of the analysis, having a significant positive effect on PEV market shares in all models. The analysis also suggests that purchase incentives, ownership tax benefits, and the policy packages for electric mobility tested have a positive and significant effect on PEV adoption. However, these effects are notably weaker and exhibit far less robust findings across the models in the analysis. Thus, while the study cannot conclusively come down on the side of infrastructure over personal incentives, it persuasively points to the crucial importance of charging infrastructures for the electrification of transportation. Theoretically, this makes sense - personal incentives will increase the market shares of PEV, but only incrementally, running the risk of merely supplementing the old fossil fuel-based transportation system rather than replacing it. Charging infrastructure on the other hand creates the potential for structural change, implying that a more active and coordinated build-out of charging infrastructure is needed to ensure a rapid transition to low-emission mobility."

Lucina Caravaggi, Cristina Imbroglini and Anna Lei (Sapienza Università di Roma), Rome's GRAB - Great Bicycle Ring Route - As Complex Landscape Infrastructure. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1023 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 5,8 MB]. Open Access. "This paper aims to describe the design strategy adopted in Rome to support and enhance sustainable mobility. It is a strategy aimed at promoting new green infrastructures for urban accessibility, daily sports practice and social inclusion in a historic city, stratified and not very inclined to change. Therefore, the dissemination of this experience is useful for planning a sustainable future for heritage cities that ensures an appropriate and equitable balance between conservation and development. Sustainable mobility is now considered one of the most important challenges for metropolitan areas and large conurbations. In these terms, Rome is a weak city. The city's great bicycle ring route (GRAB), an integral part of the Extraordinary Tourism Mobility Plan 2017-22, is a key infrastructure for increasing more sustainable and healthier modes of travel, even on a local scale. The GRAB project, whose complex infrastructure provides multiple services, differs from a simple cycle path network. Its complexity refers to an ability to attract different types of users in different types of urban contexts-historical settings, monuments, newer neighborhoods and areas of contemporary urbanization. The project results can be measured first in relation to its progress (already funded, in the executive planning phase, with the approval of the first construction sites expected by 2022). A second important result is the participation of institutional bodies and citizens' associations, which will oversee the construction and maintenance work as well as infuse into the project a constant vitality, in a true civic ecology perspective. Third, the results are important for enhancing metropolitan area accessibility and the environmental and social re-activation of the areas crossed, achieved directly and through the project's realization. The GRAB strategy belongs to the new generation of landscape projects that have radically changed the priorities and hierarchies of intervention in the contexts of contemporary urbanization. These projects are based on the ecological analysis of the context but are located close to the fluctuating dynamics of contemporary metropolises and the problems of exclusion and marginality - both spatial and social - linked to the very rapid ecological, economic and demographic transformations."

Daniel L. Marques and Margarida C. Coelho (University of Aveiro), A Literature Review of Emerging Research Needs for Micromobility-Integration through a Life Cycle Thinking Approach. Review. Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 135-164 (30 p.) [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. Open Access. "Micromobility is an increasingly attractive option, particularly over short distances. Walking, biking, and other modes of transport, such as e-scooters, are gaining popularity. Furthermore, a trend is emerging to introduce appealing items onto the market that incorporate new/more sustainable materials to improve wellbeing. Significant research questions concern the understanding of emerging research needs and the environmental, social, and economic effects of sustainability in the micromobility transport system, specifically because of developing and implementing new products, boosting the safety and comfort of ergonomic personal mobility devices (PMDs), and assuring security and privacy while digitalization arises. Such research topics can raise policymakers' and the public's awareness while providing impactful information for decision-makers. This paper provides a literature review of the most recent research on micromobility-related topics. It uses scientific databases, a keywords list, and defined inclusion criteria to select data, analyze content, and perform a bibliometric analysis. The findings highlight the significance of using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools together with other methodologies to aid in the evaluation of urban complexity. Finally, using a life cycle thinking (LCT) approach, we propose a framework for comprehensively integrating identified research needs."

Christian Schindler (RWTH Aachen University), The Aachen Rail Shuttle ARS - Autonomous and energy self-sufficient feeder transport. Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management 21 (2022) 100299 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. Open Access. "This article is about a research and development project that deals with the rail bus of the 3rd generation. The vehicle concept is aimed to be energyself-sufficient and locally emission free. It has the dimensions of a standard city road bus and is designed to operate autonomously on sight in rural areas. The Aachen Rail Bus (ARS) is intended to provide a significantly better service by shorter headways in order to attract more passengers from the countryside to the rail. The research challenges are to prove that the ARS can operate at line of sight, that the energy storage system is suitable for the proposed operation concept and that the passive safety system protects the light and relatively weak passenger compartment, which shall be easily exchangeable by an adequate interface to the chassis that includes all technical equipment.!

Natalie Gravett, Luis Mundaca (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University), Assessing the economic benefits of active transport policy pathways: Opportunities from a local perspective. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 11 (2021) 100456 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 8,8 MB]. Open Access. "Combined with concerns about climate change, air pollution and human health, the COVID-19 pandemic has renewed the use of and policy interest in active transport (AT) modes, namely cycling and walking. However, we note a high degree of uncertainty and lack of assessments addressing the economic benefits of AT policies; particularly when they are used as a mix of policies at the local level. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. We use the city of Oxford as a case study and apply the WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool and different baselines to assess four policy packages promoting a mode shift to AT for the 2030-2050 period. In total, 312 policy scenarios were produced and analysed. Results show that a policy mix that maximises economic benefits entails bike-sharing, cycle parking, training and education, low traffic neighbourhoods, e-bike grants, a workplace parking levy and increased use of a 'cycle-to-work' Scheme. Considering the health impacts from increased physical activity and avoided CO2 emissions, benefits are estimated in the range of: 62-256 prevented premature deaths; 18-50 million tonnes of avoided CO2e emissions; resulting in a total gross benefit of €3.45-11.28 billion. These impacts remain high and robust when key input parameters are tested via a sensitivity analysis. We conclude that investing in AT policy measures represents a multi-faceted low-carbon opportunity that should not be missed by policymakers."

Pol Camps-Aragó, Laura Temmerman, Wim Vanobberghen and Simon Delaere (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Encouraging the Sustainable Adoption of Autonomous Vehicles for Public Transport in Belgium: Citizen Acceptance, Business Models, and Policy Aspects. Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 921 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. Open Access. "Several mobility-related issues persist in and around urban areas. Autonomous vehicles promise substantial environmental, safety, and economic benefits but may also cause unintended adverse effects that stem from single-passenger mobility becoming more affordable and accessible. While using them for public transport (i.e., autonomous shuttles) can help avoid such downsides, there are many challenges to their adoption, particularly ones that are related to citizen acceptance and economic aspects. Based on a novel survey of Brussels' citizens, we provide insights from user opinions on last-mile autonomous shuttle services and analyze the effect of various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors affecting such acceptance. Our respondents exhibit an overall positive acceptance albeit with a limited willingness to pay for it. In addition, based on expert interviews, we provide a discussion on appropriate business models and policy recommendations to help ensure the timely adoption of AVs in Belgium that adapts to mobility needs and policy goals."

Lamia Abdelfattah, Diego Deponte, Giovanna Fossa, The 15-minute city as a hybrid model for Milan. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment 2022, 71-86 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. Open Access. "With a special focus on Milan, we explore the interpretation of the 15-minute city as a hybrid model, where soft mobility is integrated in a holistic urbanism approach. Contemporary urban challenges, synthetized in the 15-minute city model, look for a sustainable "proximity mix": mix of uses (overcoming rigid zoning and building codes), mix of inhabitants and users, mix of time schedules and multi-purpose open space. The proposed hybrid approach considers the living-working urban experience as a whole: it proposes to consider, as a starting point for measuring the timeframe of 15 minutes, not only homes but workplaces as well. It welcomes innovative working facilities among those to be considered as essential services reachable within the 15-minute walking timeframe and it integrates open spaces within urban infrastructures by mixing the neighborhood "eco-system" - both of environment and mobility - and designing them around the central role of walking."

Stefan Gössling, Jessica Kees, Todd Litman, The lifetime cost of driving a car. Ecological Economics 194 (2022) 107335 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 722 kB]. Open Access. The car is one of the most expensive household consumer goods, yet there is a limited understanding of its private (internal) and social (external) cost per vehicle-km, year, or lifetime of driving. This paper provides an overview of 23 private and ten social cost items, and assesses these for three popular car models in Germany for the year 2020. Results confirm that motorists underestimate the full private costs of car ownership, while policy makers and planners underestimate social costs. For the typical German travel distance of 15,000 car kilometers per year, the total lifetime cost of car ownership (50 years) ranges between €599,082 for an Opel Corsa to €956,798 for a Mercedes GLC. The share of this cost born by society is 41% (€4674 per year) for the Opel Corsa, and 29% (€5273 per year) for the Mercedes GLC. Findings suggest that for low-income groups, private car ownership can represent a cost equal to housing, consuming a large share of disposable income. This creates complexities in perceptions of transport costs, the economic viability of alternative transport modes, or the justification of taxes."


Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Julio C. Lopez Lizarraga (Budapest University of Technology and Economics), Exploring user requirements and service features of e-micromobility in five European cities. Case Studies on Transport Policy 9 (2021) 1531-1541 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. Open Access. "This research was specifically aiming to understand the current travel behavior of individuals in five different locations related to e-micromobility. The basis of the analysis was a well-designed survey built to extract objective trip information when using e-micromobility, and subjective information of individual perspectives towards the service. The survey was mainly focusing on service usage, customer satisfaction, and trip combinations, with a specific focus on knowledge about regulations. In general, travelers are familiar with e-micromobile services and regulations, but they primarily use them for leisure trips as short-term renting, not on a regular basis. It seems that most users would shift from walking and public transport modes. The main benefits of e-micromobility are its flexibility and speed, while the concerns cover potential conflicts with other road users, safety issues, and incorrect parking of e-micromobility vehicles. Comparing and analyzing the results among the chosen cities helped understanding the strengths and weaknesses of e-micromobility, as well as the potential of new mobility services. We also aimed to analyze future implications, which supports long-term policy making and potential effects on the transportation network and city structure."

Paola Pucci (Politecnico di Milano), Spatial dimensions of electric mobility - Scenarios for efficient and fair diffusion of electric vehicles in the Milan Urban Region. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2020.103069 Cities 110 (2021) 103069 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 6,7 MB]. The spread of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and the diffusion of the digital sharing mobility service are conditions capable of producing significant impacts on the urban environment and mobility practices. Literature mainly focuses on the technical, safety, regulatory and commercial aspects of Electric Vehicles; less attention has been paid to the contextual conditions (settlements, endowments, mobility practices), individual preferences, lifestyle and attitudinal factors, able to guarantee an efficient and fair diffusion of electric mobility in terms of use of the energy and urban resources, as well as access to urban opportunities. Based on this, the paper investigates the spatial pattern of potential demand for electric vehicles in the Milan Urban Region (North Italy), and its relevance in defining diversified and site-based EV policies for promoting a fair transition towards low carbon mobility. For analysing the relationships between electric mobility, local socioeconomic and settlement features and mobility practices, a multicriteria analysis has been carried out, processing variables that describe the contextual conditions and the propensity towards the adoption of EVs. The empirical application offers four scenarios for identifying different intensities, modes and speeds in the diffusion of EVs, in order to orient policy-making processes to support a sustainable mobility transition."

Yuxuan Wang, Jiaming Wu, Kequan Chen, Pan Liu, Are shared electric scooters energy efficient?. Communications in Transportation Research 1 (2021) 100022, 11 p. [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Shared electric scooters (e-scooter) are booming across the world and widely regarded as a sustainable mobility service. An increasing number of studies have investigated the e-scooter trip patterns, safety risks, and environmental impacts, but few considered the energy efficiency of e-scooters. In this research, we collected the operational data of e-scooters from a major provider in Gothenburg to shed light on the energy efficiency performance of e-scooters in real cases. We first develop a multiple logarithmic regression model to examine the energy consumption of single trips and influencing factors. With the regression model, a Monte Carlo simulation framework is proposed to estimate the fleet energy consumption in various scenarios, taking into account both trip-related energy usage and energy loss in idle status. The results indicate that 40% of e-scooter battery energy was wasted in idle status in the current practice, mainly due to the relatively low usage rate (0.83) of e-scooters. If the average usage rate drops below 0.5, the wasted energy could reach up to 53%. In the end, we present a field example to showcase how to optimally integrate public transport with e-scooters from the perspective of energy efficiency. We hope the findings of this study could help understand and resolve the current and future challenges regarding the ever-growing e-scooter services."

Vasja Roblek, Maja Meško and Iztok Podbregar, Impact of Car Sharing on Urban Sustainability. Review. Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 905 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The article gives us an insight into the key issues of car sharing and its impact on urban sustainability. A selection of 314 articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the Scopus database were analysed using Leximancer 5.0 for Automated Content analysis. A total of seven themes were identified explaining the researched topic of the car sharing situation in Europe, which are sharing, economy, model, systems, electrical car sharing, policy and travel. There are two ways of sharing owned cars in Europe; access to cars from the fleet of private organisations and P2P car sharing. Sustainable environmental solutions in the context of the electrification of cars are used. Car sharing usually takes place online and can be free or for a fee as defined by The European Economic and Social Committee. The article provides an overview of understanding the concept of urban car sharing in Europe."

Myriam Martone (Università Roma Tre), Wireless charging systems for electric vehicles - a critical review of the dynamic charging feasibility. Report. Transport Research Lab, Università Roma Tre, November 2021, 9 p. [formato PDF, 176 kB]. "In recent years, the transport system has been transforming through the introduction of new sustainable technologies, leading auto vehicles to be increasingly automated and independent. The promising technological innovation in the transportation field treated in this paper is the dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) of electric vehicles (EVs). The purpose of the paper is to evaluate if the WPT-based solution is advantageous in economic, logistical, and environmental terms, comparing to competing solutions based on conductive vehicle charging. Concretely, the paper provides a comprehensive review of the disruptive innovations that stand influencing the way of producing auto vehicles in developed economies. It discusses the parameters that can lead to the construction of the WPT system and presents an examination of the main advantages and main limitations of the application of the model".

Aljaž Plevnik, Tom Rye (edited by), Cross-Border Transport and Mobility in the EU. Issues and State of the Art. Italian and Slovenian versions included. (Studi e ricerche, 27). Edizioni Ca' Foscari - Digital Publishing, Venezia, 2021, 360 p. [formato PDF, 33 MB]. Open Access. "The path towards a barrier-free single European market requires that particular attention is paid to cross-border transport. In spite of the intense commitment and actions taken by the European Union as well as by national governments and regions, much remains to be done in order to dissolve all the barriers to cross-border mobility of people. Issues are not only infrastructural but also related to administrative and planning coordination. Cross-border mobility planning and management is therefore a central issue in European cohesion and single market development policies. This theme has therefore been the subject of an international workshop organized in late 2020 as part of the CROSSMOBY project, funded by the Interreg Italy-Slovenia V-A Programme 2014-2020. This book brings together some of the contributions from that conference. The aim of this book is to provide a systematic analysis of what has already been done and what are the next priorities. This book aims to take a first step in this direction, providing a series of contributions from both academic and practitioner on cross-border passenger transport and mobility. Such topic is here examined according to several different perspectives: from the framework of EU regulations and policies to the projects funded and implemented in the last EU Programming period on cross-border transport and mobility topic (2014-2020); from the application of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) to the recognition of the territorial context and the state of the art of strategic mobility planning in the municipalities of the Italy-Slovenia cross-border area."

World Health Organization, WHO global air quality guidelines. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, 2021, 300 p. [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. "New WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) provide clear evidence of the damage air pollution inflicts on human health, at even lower concentrations than previously understood. The guidelines recommend new air quality levels to protect the health of populations, by reducing levels of key air pollutants, some of which also contribute to climate change. Since WHO's last 2005 global update, there has been a marked increase of evidence that shows how air pollution affects different aspects of health. For that reason, and after a systematic review of the accumulated evidence, WHO has adjusted almost all the AQGs levels downwards, warning that exceeding the new air quality guideline levels is associated with significant risks to health. At the same time, however, adhering to them could save millions of lives. Every year, exposure to air pollution is estimated to cause 7 million premature deaths and result in the loss of millions more healthy years of life. In children, this could include reduced lung growth and function, respiratory infections and aggravated asthma. In adults, ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the most common causes of premature death attributable to outdoor air pollution, and evidence is also emerging of other effects such as diabetes and neurodegenerative conditions. This puts the burden of disease attributable to air pollution on a par with other major global health risks such as unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking. Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental threats to human health, alongside climate change. Improving air quality can enhance climate change mitigation efforts, while reducing emissions will in turn improve air quality. By striving to achieve these guideline levels, countries will be both protecting health as well as mitigating global climate change. WHO's new guidelines recommend air quality levels for 6 pollutants, where evidence has advanced the most on health effects from exposure. When action is taken on these so-called classical pollutants - particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), it also has an impact on other damaging pollutants. The health risks associated with particulate matter equal or smaller than 10 and 2.5 microns (µm) in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) are of particular public health relevance. Both PM2.5 and PM10 are capable of penetrating deep into the lungs but PM2.5 can even enter the bloodstream, primarily resulting in cardiovascular and respiratory impacts, and also affecting other organs. PM is primarily generated by fuel combustion in different sectors, including transport, energy, households, industry, and from agriculture. In 2013, outdoor air pollution and particulate matter were classified as carcinogenic by WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The guidelines also highlight good practices for the management of certain types of particulate matter (for example, black carbon/elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, particles originating from sand and dust storms) for which there is currently insufficient quantitative evidence to set air quality guideline levels. They are applicable to both outdoor and indoor environments globally, and cover all settings. "Air pollution is a threat to health in all countries, but it hits people in low- and middle-income countries the hardest," said WHO Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. "WHO's new Air Quality Guidelines are an evidence-based and practical tool for improving the quality of the air on which all life depends. I urge all countries and all those fighting to protect our environment to put them to use to reduce suffering and save lives."

Marko Germani, Dario Zanette, La dieta elettrica del traffico. Utili riflessioni per le associazioni ambientaliste interessate a gestire proattivamente l'imminente transizione energetica dei trasporti e per chiunque voglia saperne di più sulla mobilità presente e futura. Sapere, febbraio 2021, 22-27 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 867 kB]. Open Access. "Questo articolo nasce a seguito di una serie di ragionamenti fatti dagli autori (ciclisti urbani e automobilisti elettrici) nel corso degli anni, a loro volta frutto della perplessità nel vedere i vari movimenti ambientalisti avere posizioni labili, contraddittorie e inefficaci sul tema della mobilità sostenibile. Se da un lato la società civile sta lentamente prendendo coscienza dell'emergenza climatica, dall'altro c'è scarsa conoscenza delle soluzioni possibili e molta confusione sull'efficacia dei singoli strumenti. In particolare, se da una parte nell'ultimo decennio efficienza e risparmio energetico, produzione da rinnovabili e stoccaggio hanno avuto sviluppi impressionanti, dall'altra il marketing dell'industria automobilistica e petrolifera sta facendo notevoli sforzi per rallentare il più possibile l'abbandono del business as usual, gettando discredito su forme di mobilità diverse da quella automobilistica privata e su qualsiasi proposta radicale e necessaria per la salvaguardia dell'ecosistema in cui viviamo. È necessario un position paper del mondo ambientalista, unitario e basato sull'evidenza scientifica che tratti in modo obiettivo il tema del futuro dell'auto privata, evitando sia di minimizzare il problema che di finire in massimalismi sterili e irrealizzabili. I pensieri qui esposti vogliono essere uno spunto di dibattito per chi volesse fissare dei paletti ed essere parte attiva e propositiva nella necessaria e inevitabile trasformazione dello scenario italiano ed europeo della mobilità, senza però perdersi nel mare delle false alternative e del green washing (l'ecologismo di facciata) di certa industria."

Toke Haunstrup Christensen, Freja Friis, Marie Vang Nielsen, Car sharing schemes and MaaS: A study of shifting mobility practices from ownership to access. Proceedings from the Annual Transport Conference at Aalborg University, Vol. 28, No. 1 (2021), 5 p. [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "Transport levels and private car use continue to increase worldwide representing complex challenges to climate change mitigation and the liveability of cities. In recent years, interest has arisen in the concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as one possible path towards sustainable mobility futures. MaaS builds on the idea of a shift from private car ownership to a seamless and integrated system providing access to multimodal mobility options including public transport and shared mobility services like car and bike sharing. Currently, only few examples of MaaS schemes exist and knowledge of user experiences is limited. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how shared mobilities, like in MaaS, fit with the everyday life of citizens. Methodologically, the paper draws on insights from qualitative interviews with families using a car sharing scheme in Copenhagen. The interviews are informed by a practice theoretical approach to study the potential of integrating car sharing within the complex of social practices from which the everyday life consist. To inform the discussion of our empirical results, and their implications for future MaaS designs, we base our study on a literature review of existing studies of user experiences with MaaS and an analysis of user practice representations in existing MaaS trials. Our findings indicate three ways forward to promote MaaS as an alternative to private cars. First, future MaaS designs should aim to acknowledge the importance of the interconnections between mobility and other everyday practices. Second, the shift from ownership to access provides several positive benefits like modal flexibility and a new sense of freedom, which the future MaaS design should focus strategically on in order to challenge the ideals around individual ownership. Third, strategic interventions that privilege sustainable mobility solutions through effective initiatives such as road-pricing and physical limitations in private car traffic and parking are needed."

Piotr Szymanski, Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras, Giorgio Martini, Ferenc Pekar (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra), The future of road transport in Europe. Environmental implications of automated, connected and low-carbon mobility. Combustion Engines. 2021, 186(3), 3-10 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 410 kB]. Open Access. "The increasing efficiency of the transport system during the last 100 hundred years has fuelled and sustained the unprecedent economic growth of our society. It has shaped our livestyles and influenced the development of our cities and town. At the same time it has posed several challenges to our world as the provision of transport opportunities has heavily contribuitred to the depletion of natural resources, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Road transport in particular has had a major role into this. Several policies have been introduced during the last 50 years in the attempt to limit the impact of the transport system, but they have been effective only to a certain extent. During the last years, however, new technologies and social trends are promising to disrupt the transport system and make it substantially more efficient and more sustanable. The present paper discusses the possibile environmental impacts of some of the new technologies applied to transport, in particular highlighting how its complexity may jeopardize the possible improvements that the new technologies promise without properly governing their use."

Christian Brand, Evi Dons, Esther Anaya-Boig, Ione Avila-Palencia, Anna Clark, Audrey de Nazelle, Mireia Gascon, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Regine Gerike, Thomas Götschi, Francesco Iacorossi, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Francesca Racioppi, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Simona Sulikova, Sandra Wegener, Luc Int Panis, The climate change mitigation effects of daily active travel in cities. Transportation Research Part D 93 (2021) 102764 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is considered the most sustainable form of personal transport. Yet its net effects on mobility-related CO2 emissions are complex and under-researched. Here we collected travel activity data in seven European cities and derived life cycle CO2 emissions across modes and purposes. Daily mobility-related life cycle CO2 emissions were 3.2 kgCO2 per person, with car travel contributing 70% and cycling 1%. Cyclists had 84% lower life cycle CO2 emissions than non-cyclists. Life cycle CO2 emissions decreased by -14% per additional cycling trip and decreased by -62% for each avoided car trip. An average person who 'shifted travel modes' from car to bike decreased life cycle CO2 emissions by 3.2 kgCO2/day. Promoting active travel should be a cornerstone of strategies to meet net zero carbon targets, particularly in urban areas, while also improving public health and quality of urban life."

Fabio Borghetti, Cristian Giovanni Colombo, Michela Longo, Renato Mazzoncini, Claudio Somaschini (Politecnico di Milano), Development of a new urban line with innovative trams. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Vol 204 (2021) 167-178 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 621 kB]. Open Access. "The trend of the population increase combined with the global climate change and the rising energy prices make sustainable mobility a big issue for urban communities. Since in urban areas it is in act a process of infrastructure development, the modernization of Light Rail Vehicle (LRV), whose final purpose is to intensify the urban transport network in an environmentally friendly way (reduction of visual and noise pollution), will be chased too. This paper is focused on a study developed in the North of Italy (Brescia) and its target is to plan a new tramline without catenary to reduce the urban and architectural impact of infrastructure. In this way, it is possible to reduce the environmental impact especially in specific areas of an urban centre. The work analyses the use of the batteries and the main parameters to size the storage system technology in order to supply the tram correctly whenever it crosses the catenary free section."

Benedikt Krams, Martin Schiefelbusch, Sixten Schockert, Felix Schönhofen, Mit dem Bürgerbus in die Fahrplanauskunft. Webbasiertes Tool zur Integration von Linienverkehren in elektronische Fahrplanauskunftssysteme (Integration of community transport services into timetable information systems). Der Nahverkehr, 5/2021, p. 56-60 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "Citizen operated bus services are often not found in electronic time-tables. While larger transportation companies have the necessary know-how and technical resources, this is usually not the case with smaller providers. In the course of the "FEeoV" project, an easy to use web-based tool was developed for the acquisition and standardized processing of timetable data. The application was developed to accommodate the specific requirements of the volunteers, who will be using the data. The article describes the methodological and technological approach of the development with respect to the user group, its use in practice and gives an outlook on potential use cases and further development."

Emilio Ortega, Belén Martín, María Eugenia López-Lambas, Julio A. Soria-Lara, Evaluating the impact of urban design scenarios on walking accessibility: the case of the Madrid 'Centro' district. Sustainable Cities and Society 74 (2021) 103156 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 22,1 MB]. Open Access. "Walking accessibility planning is seen a powerful approach for moving towards sustainable mobility paradigms; however little attention is paid to determining which factors influence this accessibility and why. This paper addresses this gap between the theory and the practice, and evaluates how far variations in walking accessibility are related to four specific walking needs: attractiveness, comfort, safety, and ease-to-walk. Taking the 'Centro' district in Madrid (Spain) as a case study, exploratory scenarios are simulated by altering certain urban design factors for each walking need. Walking accessibility levels are calculated and compared across the exploratory scenarios to gain an insight into how each urban design factor affects walking accessibility. The results show a similar spatial pattern of accessibility for the four walking needs, with higher accessibility values in the north than in the south due to the greater density of destinations. Urban factors related to attractiveness and comfort are found to produce the most significant variations in walking accessibility. The paper concludes with a discussion on the practical usefulness of the findings, particularly in terms of prioritising urban design policies that increase walking accessibility levels."

Xiaoyun Zhao, Claudia Andruetto, Bhavana Vaddadi, Anna Pernestål (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), Potential values of maas impacts in future scenarios. Journal of Urban Mobility 1 (2021) 100005 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. " Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is considered a strategy that can provide potential solutions for a sustainable transport system. The current literature claims that MaaS can deliver net positive impacts for the transport system. However, whether these impacts are marginal or significant is unclear, as estimations typically are based on a few pilot tests. The lack of understanding of these impacts could create barriers for decision-making on policy and regulation in adopting MaaS strategy. The paper proposes a feasible evaluation to explore how and to what extent MaaS leads to, for example, reduced emissions, reduced fossil energy consumption, reduced car ownership and vehicle kilometres travelled on a large scale. The aim of this paper is to provide potential values of MaaS impacts based on analysis of future scenarios. The potential values of MaaS impacts can be used to support decision-making within both public organisations and among service developers for MaaS implementation and development."

International Transport Forum, Zero Carbon Supply Chains. The Case of Hamburg. International Transport Forum Policy Papers, No. 91. OECD, Paris, 2021, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "This report assesses the potential of zero carbon supply chains via a case study of the freight transport chain linked to the port of Hamburg. It analyses the initiatives taken by selected main stakeholders to decarbonise freight transport. In addition, it offers recommendations on how the move towards zero carbon supply chains could be accelerated. The analysis is based on desk research and interviews with the relevant stakeholders."

Erika Winquist, Marjatta Vahvaselkä, Matleena Vuola and Panu Sainio, Traffic microplastic - solutions to mitigate the problem : FanpLESStic-sea project report. Natural resources and bioeconomy studies 56/2021. Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, 2021, 25 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "Traffic microplastics, i.e. tyre and road wear particles, are reported as the largest group of microplastics entering the environment and finally the sea. Thus, it is most critical to decrease the amount of especially traffic related microplastics and here already a small relative decrease can be significant. The primary aim of the EU's 'Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy' is to reduce transport related GHG emissions by at least 90% by 2050 compared to 1990. However, a carbon neutral transportation system is not enough, also other traffic related contamination, such as tyre and road wear particles, should be considered. On the contrary, with increasing number of electric vehicles, even more attention should be paid to tyre wear. Electric cars can accelerate faster than many traditional cars, which may lead to increased tyre wear. In addition, electric cars are today generally heavier than cars that run on liquid fuels or gas, due to the weight of the batteries. The most efficient way to reduce the amount of tyre and road wear particles in the environment are through preventive methods. Factors that affect tyre and road wear are related to proper use of tyres, driving behaviour, and the characteristics of the tyres as well as road surfaces. These are all presented in this report in more detail. A good starting point to tackle the traffic microplastics' problem is all kind of public awareness raising campaigns. Some improvements might also need supportive policies for their realization. However, there is already a lot what we can do even without further technical development. But for successful implementation, commitment is needed from all stakeholders; policy makers, industry, municipalities and consumers."

Hermes Eduardo Nichele, Relations between cycling and healthcare network and the case of Curitiba. Cad. Metrop., São Paulo, v. 23, n. 52, pp. 993-1016, set/dez 2021 (24 p.) [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. Open Access. "In the present moment of the COVID-19 pandemic, which demands social distancing, the bicycle confirms itself as an advantageous alternative mode. This article reflects on the association between cycling and health through an index proposed to evaluate such association, the Index of Cycling Mobility in relation to the Healthcare Network (in Portuguese, IMCS). The theoretical framework presents the qualities of cycling and the principles that the planning of bike lanes must involve. As a case study, Curitiba's cycling network and its relation to Primary Care Units are analyzed through the IMCS, in the current and projected situations. The results show that Curitiba neglects cycling mobility and that the local healthcare system is practically inaccessible through the cycling network."

Gina Blazanin, Aupal Mondal, Katherine E. Asmussen, Chandra R. Bhat (The University of Texas at Austin), E-Scooter Sharing and Bikesharing Systems: An Individual-level Analysis of Factors Affecting First Use and Use Frequency. Technical paper. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, July 2021, 45 p. [formato PDF, 438 kB]. "Shared micromobility modes have increasingly penetrated the mobility environment of cities in the U.S. and the world over. At the same time, to best integrate these emerging modes within the fabric of the existing (and larger) transportation ecosystem, it is critical to understand how individuals may respond and "who" the likely users of these relatively new modes may be. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze first use and use frequency of two micromobility modes: E- scooter sharing systems (ESS) and Bike sharing systems (BSS). The model employs psycho-social constructs, built environment attributes, as well as individual-level demographics as determinants. In doing so, we explicitly recognize the role played by awareness/first use of new technologies as a cognitive antecedent to subsequent frequency decisions. The main data source for this analysis is drawn from a 2019 survey of Austin, Texas area residents. Our results highlight the importance of considering psycho-social attitudes to both gain better insights into the behavioral process leading up to ESS/BSS adoption/use as well as ensure an accurate data fit. In particular, there are distinctive pathways of adoption/use frequency for each of the ESS and BSS modes, but also complementary processes and behavioral spillover effects at play that warrant a joint modeling of the ESS and BSS modes. Our results suggest that addressing safety concerns of micromobility modes should be the top priority of providers and public agencies. Efforts solely directed toward extoling the "green" virtues of micromobility modes is likely to have limited returns."

Benedikte Wrålsen, Vanessa Prieto-Sandoval, Andres Mejia-Villa, Reyn O'Born, Magnus Hellström, Bernhard Faessler, Circular business models for lithium-ion batteries. Stakeholders, barriers, and drivers. Journal of Cleaner Production 317 (2021) 128393 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 651 kB]. Open Access. "Business models for the circular economy, or circular business models, is a growing field of research applied in various industries. Global sustainability trends, such as electrification of the transport sector and increased energy consumption from renewable sources, have led to rapid growth in the number of batteries produced, especially lithium-ion based batteries. Sustainable lifetime management, including end-of-life, needs development to avoid social and environmental harm and potentially to recapture economic value as the use of these batteries increases. Current research primarily focuses on technical and economic issues based on recycling and the second use of batteries rather than circular business models. This study's purpose is to explore the circular business models, drivers, barriers, and stakeholders required to enable value recapturing. The Delphi panel method was applied to communicate with battery experts from various disciplines. The study's findings reveal that the favored circular business model includes several circular strategies. According to the expert panel, the most critical driver is national and international regulations and policies; the most critical barrier is financial viability; the most critical stakeholders are governments and vehicle manufacturers."

Decarbonising transport: a better, greener Britain. Department for Transport, London, 2021, 220 p. [formato PDF, 15,1 MB]. This plan sets out the government's commitments and the actions needed to decarbonise the entire transport system in the UK. It includes: our pathway to net zero transport in the UK; the wider benefits net zero transport can deliver; the principles that underpin our approach to delivering net zero transport.

Glenn Lyons, Andrew Curry, and Charlene Rohr, Decarbonising UK Transport. Final report and technology roadmaps. Report to the UK Department for Transport. Mott MacDonald, London, March 2021, 116 p. [formato PDF, 4,7 MB]. "This is an independent report commissioned by the Department for Transport to inform its Transport Decarbonisation Plan. It considers what needs to be achieved over the next 30 years, in terms of technological solutions, to reduce and remove direct emissions from the UK's domestic transport sector across modes by 2050. It represents the view of Mott MacDonald and partners and is not government policy. This report sets out a series of seven roadmaps for decarbonising domestic transport in the UK. These roadmaps address: cars and light goods vehicles; buses; coaches; heavy goods vehicles; rail; domestic shipping; and domestic aviation. International aviation and shipping are not included within the scope of this study."

Peter Wild, Florian Mathys, Jing Wang (ETH Zurich), Impact of political and market-based measures on aviation emissions and passenger behaviors (a Swiss case study). Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 10 (2021) 100405 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 3,2 MB]. Open Access. "The global aviation industry has been increasingly urged to reduce their CO2 emissions. To achieve this, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have successfully adopted various operational, technological, and air traffic management/infrastructural measures. However, they have also implemented market-based regulatory measures, including the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Additionally, regional measures, such as the European emission trading system (ETS), nationwide political measures, such as flight taxes, and compensation programs by airlines also exist. Therefore, this study surveyed the impact of such measures, primarily on business travelers and their behavior, with a focus on Switzerland. Additionally, not only the impact of the first-last mile (airport access) was discussed, but also intermodal aspects like high-speed rails were debated. Results indicated that flight tax programs were found to have a weak impact on demand. The impact of COVID-19 was addressed and decreased travel frequency from COVID-19 may impact global flight emissions in the long term. Furthermore, passengers supported investments of flight-tax revenues in sustainable aviation technology; they did not support flight contingents. Conclusions are that taxes might generate additional airport traffic. An analysis about booking behaviors revealed fundamental differences in environmental terms. Finally, voluntary compensation was highly favored."

Anne Faxér, Linda Olsson (RISE Research Institutes of Sweden), Free-floating electric shared cars in Stockholm. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, MEISTER_H2020, Stockholm, January 2021, 19 p. [formato PDF, 737 kB]. "This report presents a study conducted by RISE and City of Stockholm as part of the Horizon 2020 project MEISTER. The aim was to increase knowledge of what possibilities and challenges that free- floating electric car-sharing entails, with a focus on how this service is used and how charging can be managed efficiently, to support City of Stockholm in their work with facilitating sustainable urban mobility."

Emanuele Fedele, Diego Iannuzzi, Andrea Del Pizzo (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples), Onboard energy storage in rail transport: Review of real applications and techno-economic assessments. IET Electr. Syst. Transp. 2021;1-31 (31 p.) [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "Despite low energy and fuel consumption levels in the rail sector, further improvements are being pursued by manufacturers and operators. Their primary efforts aim to reduce traction energy demand, replace diesel, and limit the impact of electrified overhead infrastructures. From a system-level perspective, the integration of alternative energy sources on board rail vehicles has become a popular solution among rolling stock manufacturers. Surveys are made of many recent realizations of multimodal rail vehicles with onboard electrochemical batteries, supercapacitors, and hydrogen fuel cell systems. The ratings, technical features, and operating data of onboard sources are gathered for each application, and a comparison among different technologies is presented. Traction system architectures and energy-control strategies of actual multimodal units are explored and compared with literature research. Moreover, the maturity and potential of recent technologies and alternative topologies of power converters for multimodal traction systems are discussed. Ultimately, onboard storage systems are compared with other solutions for energy-saving and catenary-free operation, with particular focus on their current techno-economic attractiveness as an alternative to diesel propulsion."

Aaron Kolleck, Does Car-Sharing Reduce Car Ownership? Empirical Evidence from Germany. Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7384 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "The sharing economy is making its way into our everyday lives. One of its business models, car-sharing, has become highly popular. Can it help us increase our sustainability? Besides emissions and vehicle miles traveled, one key aspect in the assessment regards the effect of car-sharing on car ownership. Previous studies investigating this effect have relied almost exclusively on surveys and come to very heterogeneous results, partly suggesting spectacular substitution rates between shared and private cars. This study empirically explores the impact of car-sharing on noncorporate car ownership and car markets in 35 large German cities. The analysis draws on publicly available data for the years 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2017, including, among others, the number of shared cars per operating mode (free-floating and station-based) and the number of cars owned and registered by private individuals (i.e., excluding company cars). We find that one additional station-based car is associated with a reduction of about nine private cars. We do not find a statistically significant relation between car ownership and free-floating car-sharing. Neither type of car-sharing appears to impact the markets for used and new cars significantly. Given the measurable impacts on car ownership levels, this result is surprising and invites future research to study car-sharing's impact on the dynamics of car markets"

Matthias Landgraf, Arpad Horvath, Embodied greenhouse gas assessment of railway infrastructure: the case of Austria. Environmental Research: Infrastructure and Sustainability, 2021, Accepted Manuscript, (41 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "This study assesses life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the entire railway infrastructure network of Austria, a first detailed study for a country, modelled through a top-down approach. Railway track is analysed for the first time in detail for a variety of specific boundary conditions using a bottom-up approach focusing on track renewal and maintenance. The methodology of standard elements allows for quantifying expected maintenance demands over the life cycle as well as determination of service life (SL). For this, the network is clustered into the main condition-affecting parameters and documented maintenance and renewal measures are analysed and interpreted accordingly to estimate future behaviour. This Austrian approach used for assessing life-cycle costs serves as input for evaluating environmental impacts, a novel model. Data were gathered via Environmental Product Declarations, governmental publications, and company-specific environmental reports to correspond to the standard supply chains of the Austrian Federal Railways' life-cycle (manufacturing, construction, maintenance, and reuse/recycling) infrastructure practices, and reflect actual transport distances, transport modes, the Austrian electricity mix, and emissions. The railway infrastructure causes 235,000 tonnes of CO2eq emissions per year (0.3% of Austria's total) based on the current infrastructure network, asset distribution, and renewal rates. Within railway infrastructure, the track (incl. rails, fasteners, sleepers and ballast) is the main contributor to GHG emissions with 55% of the total. The GHG emissions associated with the concrete tunnels are 16 times more GHG-intensive per kilometre per year than the railway track but supply only 22% of the total emissions. The railway infrastructure contributes an additional 141% of GHG emissions over emissions from passenger traffic, which is much higher than previously anticipated. In-depth analysis of railway track shows that concrete sleepers with under-sleeper pads come with lower environmental impacts than conventional concrete sleepers. Higher traffic loads as well as narrow curves cause a significant increase in environmental impacts. For rails in a straight section with a SL of 50 years and two grinding measures, the costs regarding GHG emissions amount to ¤6,500 (including the production, construction, and use phases) when calculating with a cost of ¤20 per tonne CO2eq on the market. Currently, this equals to around 5% of the economic costs, but this is expected to significantly increase as costs for environmental impacts are set to increase until 2050. Mitigation potential can be found in special rail steel production, reuse of materials, use of alternative fuels, and efficient maintenance strategies."

Marco Migliore, Gabriele D'Orso, Alessandro E. Capodici (University of Palermo), The Go2School project for promoting cycling to school: A case study in Palermo. Cleaner and Responsible Consumption 2 (2021) 100019 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "The identification of transport policy measures able to reduce the use of private cars for home-to-school travel is very relevant to reduce congestion during peak hours and to ensure that the areas around schools have livable environments. An action that policymakers could apply is promoting cycling to school through the introduction of bikesharing programs and creating safe routes to school through the construction of new cycle infrastructure. The aim of the paper has been, therefore, to assess if these policies could lead the high-school students to cycle to school, considering the city of Palermo as a case study. The goal is reached through the calibration of a modal choice model based on Stated Preference interviews. The costs that the local authority have to support have been compared with the benefits that the realization of new cycle paths entails in terms of the modal shift, reduction of car mileage and reduction of the externalities. According to the model, the construction of the new cycle paths will lead to an impressive increase in the use of the bicycle for home-to-school travel and also to greater use of public transport, due to the multimodality guaranteed by the bikesharing stations near the railway stations and tram stops."

Giacomo Falchetta, Michel Noussan, Electric vehicle charging network in Europe: An accessibility and deployment trends analysis. Transportation Research Part D 94 (2021) 102813 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 4,9 MB]. Open Access. "If coupled with a low-carbon electricity mix, electric vehicles (EVs) can represent an important technology for transport decarbonization and local pollutants abatement. Yet, to ensure large-scale EVs adoption, an adequate charging stations network must be developed. This paper provides the first comprehensive bottom-up analysis of the EV charging network in Europe. Combining a crowd-sourced database of charging stations with accessibility data and algorithms, we produce maps of the travel time to the most accessible EV charging station across Europe, we evaluate the charging points density and the number of active operators in different areas. We find that although recent years have witnessed a notable expansion of the EV charging network, stark inequalities persist across and within countries, both in terms of accessibility and of the charging points available to users. Our results allow for a better understanding of some of the key challenges ahead for ensuring mass EVs adoption throughout Europe and thus potentially reducing the environmental impact of the transport sector."

Miloš N. Mladenović, Noora Haavisto, Interpretative flexibility and conflicts in the emergence of Mobility as a Service: Finnish public sector actor perspectives. Case Studies on Transport Policy 9 (2021) 851-859 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 535 kB]. Open Access. "Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) is still largely under development, with high uncertainties of its societal implications. This development is happening across sectoral, multi-layered, and multi-actor networks. Previous case studies on understanding networked governance of MaaS inform us that there is a range of challenges in the current institutional arrangements, lack of shared MaaS vision, divergent interests, and even conflicts over roles and responsibilities. These case studies have used analytical frameworks based on socio-technical transitions theory, complemented with theories from institutional and business studies. This study focuses on Finland, aiming to provide additional insights about perspectives of non-commercial actors. In particular, we provide a more sophisticated understanding of underlying reasons for conflict and lack of cooperation concerning an understanding of MaaS, its implications, and associated governance actions. The applied analytical framework is building upon concepts from the philosophy and sociology of emerging technology, as well as the contemporary political theory of Chantal Mouffe. Interview findings from seventeen non-commercial organisations have been classified into five categories, namely definitions, operational and business aspects, user perspectives, systemic effects, and governance. Discussion of these interview findings focuses on the interpretative flexibility of MaaS and governance processes in the context of inherent conflict in the value-laden mobility domain. The paper concludes with outlining directions for further synthesis in developing analytical frameworks for studies of governance and responsible innovation in the domain of emerging mobility technologies."

Panrawee Rungskunroch, Zuo-Jun Shen, and Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Getting It Right on the Policy Prioritization for Rail Decarbonization: Evidence From Whole-Life CO2e Emissions of Railway Systems. Front. Built Environ. 7:638507 (2021) 5 p. [formato PDF, 590 kB]. Opinion article. Open Access. "In the past several years, global warming has caused essential issues that all sectors must respond immediately. The Paris Agreement has turned into a critical framework provoking public and private sectors worldwide (Dimitrov, 2016; Pye et al., 2017). One approach to solving this problem involves the use of green energies and reducing CO2 emitted from all sectors. Regarding the transportation sectors, it emitted CO2 above one-fourth of the global emission. A well-known problem with over emission is that some countries have inadequate public transportation and non-environmental policies. The low-fare service and high accessibility on public transit are major strategies to reduce emission from a private car (Krishnan et al., 2015; De Andrade and D'Agosto, 2016). These schemes eventually promote a long-term shift from self-vehicle to public transportation services. The United Kingdom government has been concerned with the global warming issue and provided new strategies to reduce CO2 emission in all sectors, such as launching new public transportation (Kaewunruen et al., 2018; Logan et al., 2020). Additionally, the United Kingdom's railway network is considered the lowest CO2 emission per passenger over other public services. Regarding the global climate policies, the United Kingdom government has still intended to cut off the railway's emission by replacing it with alternative fuels and changing the current diesel engine system toward the decarbonization concept, mainly reducing the emission from the operational process. Even though the CO2 emission from the railway's life cycle predominantly comes from the railway infrastructure, the United Kingdom government and rail sectors exceptionally focus on reducing those emissions from the operational stage. In this research, the authors believe that only promoting strategies to reduce CO2 in the operational process cannot bring the United Kingdom government to reach its targets by 2050. In contrast, the government should also consider other effective and practical strategies. In order to understand the amount of CO2 emission from the railway network, the research deeply examines the entire life cycle analysis (LCA) through the high-speed rail (HSR)'s infrastructure. This research aims to provide future strategies and policies to cut the CO2 off the railway network. Furthermore, the decarbonization concepts and practical approaches to the railway system have been stated in this study."

OTI Nord (Osservatorio Territoriale Infrastrutture), Rapporto 2020. A che punto siamo. OTI Nord (Osservatorio Territoriale Infrastrutture), gennaio 2021, 111 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "Nel 2001 nasceva OTI NordOvest, l'Osservatorio Territoriale Infrastrutture, su iniziativa di Assolombarda, di Confindustria Genova e dell'Unione Industriale di Torino, con l'obiettivo di monitorare lo stato di avanzamento dei progetti infrastrutturali strategici di questa parte del Paese. Nel 2021 l'Osservatorio amplia la sua rete di partner confindustriali grazie all'adesione di tutte le Confindustrie del Nord Italia: Confindustria Emilia-Romagna, Confindustria Friuli- Venezia Giulia, Confindustria Liguria, Confindustria Lombardia, Confindustria Piemonte, Confindustria Trento, Assoimprenditori Alto Adige e Confindustria Veneto, dando al progetto un pieno respiro nazionale. Le sette Regioni rappresentano 27 milioni di abitanti e ben 2,2 milioni imprese (pari al 42% del totale nazionale), le quali generano il 56% del PIL e il 70,4% dell'export italiano. Con l'ampliamento a tutto il nord Italia e con il continuo aggiornamento dei contenuti, il nuovo sito di OTI Nord e il nuovo rapporto annuale diventano veri e propri strumenti di coordinamento e monitoraggio sull'avanzamento delle opere, con particolare attenzione al rispetto delle tempistiche e alla segnalazione di eventuali emergenze e criticità in caso di ritardi rispetto al cronoprogramma. Si ampliano i sistemi che compongono il mosaico infrastrutturale del Nord Italia, che diventano 15: Corridoio "Mediterraneo"; Corridoio "Reno-Alpi"; Corridoio "Baltico- Adriatico"; Corridoio "Scandinavo-Mediterraneo"; Corridoio "Tirreno-Brennero (TI.BRE)"; Sistema dei valichi alpini; Sistema portuale; Sistema aeroportuale; Sistema Pedemontano; Nodi metropolitani di Milano, Torino, Genova, Venezia, Bologna; Sistema degli interporti merci. Crescono a una settantina di opere anche i progetti prioritari monitorati e che ricadono all'interno di uno o più dei sistemi infrastrutturali identificati."

Isti Hidayati, Wendy Tan, and Claudia Yamu, Conceptualizing Mobility Inequality: Mobility and Accessibility for the Marginalized. Journal of Planning Literature. First Published May 4, 2021. (16 p.) [formato PDF, 317 kB]. Research Article. Open Access. "The burgeoning landscape of literature on mobility inequalities has led to discrepancies between a conceptual understanding of mobility inequalities and its implementation in planning practice. Reviewing 270 publications across five decades, this article identifies intrinsic and extrinsic factors and approaches for understanding and analyzing mobility inequality. Using two thought experiments to critically locate variations in factors and approaches, dilemmas and challenges in addressing mobility inequality for the marginalized are exposed. The article concludes with future research directions for investigating mobility inequality."

Danique Ton, Dorine Duives (Delft University of Technology), Understanding long-term changes in commuter mode use of a pilot featuring free e-bike trials. Transport Policy 105 (2021) 134-144 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 3,6 MB]. Open Access. "Globally, the need for more sustainable modes of transport is rising. One of the main contenders of the car is the electrical bike (e-bike). To promote the use of e-bikes, pilots are being organised worldwide (e.g. in the USA, Norway, and the Netherlands). Studies have shown that providing a free e-bike to people for a limited period of time changes their mode choice behaviour during the pilot period. Only few studies have also investigated the long-term effects of these free e-bike trial periods, which show increase in e-bike use in general. However, these studies have failed to investigate why some participants of the trials change behaviour on the long-term, whereas others continued their former behaviour. This study aims to bridge this gap. A pilot with e-bikes was organised at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, with the goal of reducing car use for commuter trips towards the university. Data was collected at various moments during and after the trial period to evaluate the long-term changes in commuting behaviour and to identify potential reasons for these changes. A total of 82 participants are included in this study. Overall, car use for commuting decreased from 88% before the pilot to 63% three months after the pilot. E-bike use went up from 2% to 18% in the same time period. A binary logistic regression model shows that the most important variables to explain the decrease in car use are 1) purchase of an e-bike, 2) the participant's perception regarding e-bike safety, and 3) the aim of the participant to use the pilot to change their current behaviour. Besides that, the most important predictor of increase in e-bike use is the purchase of an e-bike. Furthermore, participants identify the investment costs of an e-bike as the strongest reason for not purchasing an e-bike and, thus, not changing their commuting behaviour. Future pilot programs could consider the potential of incrementally purchasing an e-bike over a longer period of time, instead of at once, to increase e-bike adoption rate."

Caroline Zimm (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis), Improving the understanding of electric vehicle technology and policy diffusion across countries. Transport Policy 105 (2021) 54-66 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "The transport sector is particularly difficult to decarbonize. Use of electric vehicles (EV)-a potentially transformative and sustainable transport technology-can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, domestic fossil fuel demand, energy import dependency, and air pollution. Policies play an important role in the diffusion of new technologies, such as EVs, principally in their formative stage as they compete with an incumbent technology. However, great discrepancies exist across countries regarding EV support and uptake. EV diffusion is conceptualized as an outcome of policy diffusion based on national characteristics and international mechanisms. This study aims to explain the variation in EV policy diffusion across countries, by conducting an event history analysis on EV diffusion (EVs > 1% market share) between 2010 and 2017, using a sample of 60 countries. It identifies characteristics and mechanisms relevant to the novel technology's "formative phase", focusing on the formation of state goals, international diffusion, and local technology adoption and deployment. The empirical contribution lies in identifying and validating socioeconomic and political factors and the international mechanisms influencing a country's position on the diffusion curve. This can help improve scenarios via better reflecting EV diffusion."

Xiaojian Hu, Nuo Chen, Nan Wu, Bicheng Yin, The Potential Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Urban Air Quality in Shanghai City. Sustainability 2021, 13, 496 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. Open Access. "The Shanghai government has outlined plans for the new vehicles used for the public transportation, rental, sanitation, postal, and intra-city freight to be completely powered by electricity by 2020. This paper analyzed the characteristics of vehicle emissions in Shanghai in the past five years. The potential reduction in road traffic related emissions due to the promotion and application of electric vehicle in Shanghai was evaluated. The potential reduction was quantified by vehicular emissions. The vehicular emissions inventories are calculated by the COPERT IV model under the different scenarios, of which the results indicate that promoting electric vehicles is the efficient measure to control all road traffic related emissions and improve urban air quality. The results also provided basis and support for making policies to promote and manage electric vehicles."

Joel Wolff and Esko Hakanen (Aalto University), Managing the Disruption of Mobility Services: How to align the value propositions of key ecosystem players. Technology Innovation Management Review, 2021, 11(4): 13-25 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "Many industries nowadays are facing drastic changes that enable and require new forms of interdependencies that facilitate complex ecosystems of interconnected actors. This paper investigates such a transformation facing the mobility sector, as user-centric bundles of mobility services are being introduced and compiled, by referring to the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) concept. In the process, new value propositions arise that call for aligning the established players with new entrants. The implementation of MaaS is still in its infancy, and many open questions remain about how local authorities should support its emergence. One key challenge relates to decomposing the focal offering of the MaaS ecosystem into complementary value propositions for key players in the industry. This paper presents the results of a constructive design research project, building on interviews with a leading MaaS provider, as well as stakeholders representing national and local authorities in four European cities. The findings emphasize the need to balance a shared desire to disrupt conventional ways of offering mobility services against reluctance to overturn the industry's public and private incumbents. The co-design framework that results serves to summarize five steps that enable MaaS by guiding strategic interaction between local authorities and various players in the mobility ecosystem. In addition, the article builds on ecosystem research insights and emphasizes the need to align value propositions among multiple stakeholders. The study suggests that the mobility sector provides a prominent empirical context for future ecosystem research."

Carlo Tritto, Andrea Poggio, Il ruolo dell'idrogeno nel trasporto terrestre. Un briefing di Transport & Environment e Legambiente. Transport & Environment, Brussels, Legambiente, Roma, Aprile 2021, pp. 20 [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Raggiungere la neutralità climatica entro il 2050 è una sfida molto ambiziosa. Questo è particolarmente sfidante per il settore dei trasporti italiano che, nell'arco dei prossimi 30 anni, dovrà portare a zero le circa 108 milioni di tonnellate di CO2 che emette attualmente. La grande sfida si giocherà soprattutto nel trasporto stradale, che è responsabile dell'80% delle emissioni di CO2 da trasporti e per cui, in molti segmenti, esistono già alternative a zero emissioni per sostituire i mezzi inquinanti, come i veicoli elettrici e a idrogeno. Ciononostante, a causa della minore efficienza energetica, ammettere l'utilizzo dell'idrogeno in questo settore richiederebbe il doppio dell'energia da fonti rinnovabili per azzerare le emissioni. In quest'ottica, privilegiare le tecnologie a maggiore rendimento è fondamentale, specialmente se si considera che la quota di energie rinnovabili è e sarà nei prossimi anni ancora troppo piccola e preziosa per essere dissipata in processi inefficienti."

Yves Crozet, Jean Coldefy, Mobility as a Service (MaaS): a digital roadmap for public transport authorities. [Research Report]. CERRE (Centre on Regulation in Europe), Brussels, January 2021, pp. 62 [formato PDF, 2,8 MB]. "The mobility of people in urban areas is important, in the context of both the transition to climate neutrality and the impact of the digital revolution. As the title indicates, the themes of decarbonisation and digitalisation are also at the heart of this report. It follows on from the report that CERRE published in September 2019 on shared mobility and MaaS. While providing a perspective on the current potential of new mobility services, the report invited public transport authorities (PTAs) to show greater ambition in the digital field and its applications. This new report will deepen these recommendations with concrete content. It will present what could be the digital roadmap of the organising mobility authorities (OMAs), whose tasks exceed solely organising the traditional modes of public transport such as buses, tramways, metros, and trains."

Carlo Giglio, Roberto Musmanno and Roberto Palmieri, Cycle Logistics Projects in Europe: Intertwining Bike-Related Success Factors and Region-Specific Public Policies with Economic Results. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1578 (31 p.) [formato PDF, 777 kB]. Open Access. "The aim of this paper is to investigate whether and which specific, distinctive characteristics of European cycle logistics projects and the corresponding supporting policies have an impact on their economic performances in terms of profit and profitability. First, we identify project success factors by geographic area and project-specific characteristics; then, we statistically test possible dependence relationships with supporting policies and economic results. Finally, we provide a value-based identification of those characteristics and policies which more commonly lead to better economic results. This way, our work may serve as a basis for the prioritization and contextualization of those project functionalities and public policies to be implemented in a European context. We found that cycle logistics projects in Europe achieve high profit and profitability levels, and the current policies are generally working well and supporting them. We also found that profit and profitability vary across the bike model utilized: mixing cargo bikes and tricycles generates the highest profit and profitability, whilst a trailer-tricycle-cargo bike mix paves the way for high volumes and market shares."

Gaëlle Katharina Suermann, Katharina Thoms, Auxane Bonnet-Hévin, Max Floris van Geuns, Tax Incentives for Bicycle Commuting inthe Capital Region of Copenhagen. Public report - Commissioned by Supercykelstier. CBS Copenhagen Business School, Supercykelstier, Copenhagen, 2021, 39 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Denmark is considered a role model for cycling. However, tax incentives for bicycle commuting do not exist yet. In its development plan, the Capital Region of Copenhagen aims for 50% of all commuting trips to be by bicycle. Favorable infrastructural conditions are already in place, but the individual needs more incentives to choose the bicycle over the car. Supercykelstier, a cooperation between the Capital Region and 30 municipalities creating a network of cycle superhighways that provide better conditions for bicycle commuters, commissioned this study to find one or more viable tax solution(s) for incentivizing bicycle commuting in Denmark. Applying a best-in-class scan, five pioneer countries were selected that have been referred to as being successful in incentivizing bicycle commuting: United Kingdom, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Germany. For each country, the exact tax incentive schemes have been described and analysed, discussing the advantages and shortcomings, as well as some financial and non-financial costs and benefits. Qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured and open-ended interviews with country-specific experts about the schemes in place. In addition, online reports and websites about the background and performance of the different measures have been consulted. The main finding is that there are five different categories of tax incentive schemes that Denmark could implement or improve: a tax-free mileage allowance, a distance-flat mileage rate, a bicycle leasing scheme, company pool bikes, and a bicycle financing model."

Jia-Wei Hu, Felix Creutzig, A systematic review on shared mobility in China. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (2021), 16 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "The last decade witnessed a rapid rise in shared mobility in China. However, there is lack of understanding how the shared mobility market developed, how shared mobility reshapes daily travel patterns, and what shared mobility contributes, if at all, to environmental goals, and in particular climate change mitigation. Here, we systematically review the state of shared mobility in China, scoping 2541 English paper and 12,140 Chinese research papers. We differentiate between ride hailing, car sharing, and bike sharing and analyze the factors shaping shared mobility patterns from the four perspectives of consumers, service providers, the government, and the environment. We also elaborate on governance measures guiding shared mobility and investigate the impact of future shared mobility on a potential low-carbon transportation system transition, highlighting the key role of bike sharing and shared pooled mobility. We show that COVID-19 reduced demand for car hailing, but rendered bike sharing more popular. This work provides a systematic guidance for the future development of shared mobility, and its possibility to contribute to climate change mitigation."

Annina Thaller, Alfred Posch, Anna Dugan, Karl Steininger (University of Graz), How to design policy packages for sustainable transport: Balancing disruptiveness and implementability. Transportation Research Part D 91 (2021) 102714 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "In order to achieve emission reduction targets in the passenger transport sector, the demand side and especially the mobility behavior of consumers deserve special attention. It is unlikely that such behavior will change without significant political intervention, nor will single policy instruments be sufficient to induce the needed changes. In this study, therefore, we analyze the design of so-called disruptive policy packages required to drastically reduce passenger transport emissions in industrialized countries and illustrate it for the case of Austria. Our research approach consists of three methods: a literature review to develop a policy category system, expert interviews to build effective policy packages and a stakeholder workshop to identify the specific needs of different geographical areas. For the design of successful policy packages, we identify two critical dimensions, disruptiveness (having high-level and rapid effectiveness) and implementability. A well-balanced combination of diverse policy instruments is required to adequately address both dimensions."

Roberto Ruggieri, Marco Ruggeri, Giuliana Vinci and Stefano Poponi, Electric Mobility in a Smart City: European Overview. Energies 2021, 14(2), 315 (29 p.) [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. Open Access. "According to the United Nations (UN), although cities occupy only 3% of Earth's surface, they host more than half of the global population, are responsible for 70% of energy consumption, and 75% of carbon emissions. All this is a consequence of the massive urbanization verified since the 1950s and which is expected to continue in the coming decades. A crucial issue will therefore concern the management of existing cities and the planning of future ones, and this was also emphasized by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially in Goal 11 (Sustainable Cities and communities). Smart Cities are often seen as ideal urban environments in which the different dimensions of a city (economy, education, energy, environment, etc.) are managed successfully and proactively. So, one of the most important challenges cities will have to face, is to guide citizens towards a form of "clean" energy consumption, and the dimension on which decision-makers will be able to work is the decarbonization of transport. To achieve this, electric mobility could help reduce polluting emissions on the road. Within this research, the strategies that six Smart Cities (London, Hamburg, Oslo, Milan, Florence, and Bologna) have implemented to encourage the transition to this form of mobility have been studied. Through a systematic review of the literature (Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and through the study of the main political/energy documents of the cities, their policies on electric mobility have been evaluated. Then, for each city, SDG 11.6.2 was analyzed to assess the air quality in the last four years (2016-2019) and, therefore, the effectiveness of the policies. The analysis showed, in general, that the policies have worked, inducing reductions in the pollutants of PM2.5, PM10, NO2. In particular, the cities showed the most significant reduction in pollutant (above 20%) were Hamburg (-28% PM2.5 and -2%6 NO2), Milan (-25% PM2.5 and -52% NO2), and London (-26% NO2)."

Andrea Chicco, Marco Diana (Politecnico di Torino), Air emissions impacts of modal diversion patterns induced by one-way car sharing: A case study from the city of Turin. Transportation Research Part D 91 (2021) 102685 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "This paper aims to understand to which extent the spread of one-way car sharing in an urban area can contribute to limit air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions by diverting trips from existing travel means. Modal switch models informed the definition of five mobility scenarios in the city of Turin (Italy). Related emissions were quantified to understand how to maximise the positive environmental impacts of car sharing. Models' results indicate that the car sharing modal share might increase up to a maximum of 10%. The diverted travel demand is mainly subtracted from private cars, however environmental benefits are partially offset by switches from public transport and active modes. The planning scenario would lead to a reduction of the externalities related to the emissions produced by the whole transport system of 1% in terms of social costs. Such benefits can be increased up to 3.6% by promoting electric car sharing fleets."

Kostas Mouratidis, Victoria Cobeña Serrano, Autonomous buses: Intentions to use, passenger experiences, and suggestions for improvement. Transportation Research Part F 76 (2021) 321-335, 15 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Research on the use of autonomous vehicles as a mode of public transport in a city context is lacking. This paper focuses on the use of recently established autonomous buses (self-driving electric shuttle buses) running along a regular public transport line in a residential area of Oslo, Norway. We use a mixed-methods approach based on survey and interview data from two independent studies. The paper examines intentions to use autonomous buses before and after these were introduced in the case area as well as how passengers experience traveling by autonomous bus. Results show that the intention to use the autonomous buses was mostly positive both before and after using them. Most users felt safe while traveling by autonomous bus. Two suggestions for improvement made by the users were to: increase the speed and reduce the abrupt breaking of the autonomous buses. Overall, outcomes from this paper suggest that residents would be willing to use autonomous buses if these offer more frequent bus departures than the existing ones. However, as full automation has not been achieved yet and there is a host on board who can control the vehicle if necessary, passenger experiences and intentions to use should be reassessed with fully automated buses in future studies."


Kate Pangbourne, Miloš N. Mladenović, Dominic Stead, Dimitris Milakis, Questioning mobility as a service: Unanticipated implications for society and governance. Transportation Research Part A 131 (2020) 35-49 (35 p.) [formato PDF, 605 kB]. Open Access. "In this paper we focus on the development of a new service model for accessing transport, namely Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and present one of the first critical analyses of the rhetoric surrounding the concept. One central assumption of one prevalent MaaS conceptualization is that transport services are bundled into service packages for monthly payment, as in the telecommunication or media service sectors. Various other forms of MaaS are being developed but all tend to offer door-to-door multi-modal mobility services, brokered via digital platforms connecting users and service operators. By drawing on literature concerned with socio-technical transitions, we address two multi-layered questions. First, to what extent can the MaaS promises (to citizens and cities) be delivered, and what are the unanticipated societal implications that could arise from a wholesale adoption of MaaS in relation to key issues such as wellbeing, emissions and social inclusion? Second, what are de facto challenges for urban governance if the packaged services model of MaaS is widely adopted, and what are the recommended responses? To address these questions, we begin by considering the evolution of intelligent transport systems that underpin the current vision of MaaS and highlight how the new business model could provide a mechanism to make MaaS truly disruptive. We then identify a set of plausible unanticipated societal effects that have implications for urban planning and transport governance. This is followed by a critical assessment of the persuasive rhetoric around MaaS that makes grand promises about efficiency, choice and freedom. Our conclusion is that the range of possible unanticipated consequences carries risks that require public intervention (i.e. steering) for reasons of both efficiency and equity."

Till Bunsen and Pierpaolo Cazzola, How Urban Delivery Vehicles can Boost Electric Mobility. ITF Policy Papers No. 81. International Transport Forum, Paris, 2020, 58 p. [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. "This study explores how fleet operators, vehicle manufacturers and policy makers can scale up the electrification of light commercial vehicles (LCVs). The research focuses on challenges such as the limited number of available models, the small production scale, the current levels of battery costs and availability of charging infrastructure. It also compares life-cycle environmental impacts and total cost of ownership of alternative technology options for LCVs."

Massimo Stafoggia, Giorgio Cattani, Carla Ancona, Andrea Ranzi, La valutazione dell'esposizione della popolazione italiana all'inquinamento atmosferico nel periodo 2016-2019 per lo studio della relazione tra inquinamento atmosferico e COVID-19. Exposure assessment of air pollution in Italy 2016-2019 for future studies on air pollution and COVID-19. Epidemiol Prev 2020; 44 (5-6) Suppl 2:161-168 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. (free full text). "L'inquinamento atmosferico è una delle principali cause di morte in tutto il mondo, con effetti avversi legati a esposizioni sia a breve sia a lungo termine. Di recente è stato anche accostato alla pandemia COVID-19. Per analizzare questa possibile associazione a livello italiano, è necessario indagare tutta l'area della penisola, sia le zone urbane sia quelle non urbane. Si rileva quindi la necessità di uno strumento per la valutazione dell'esposizione, omogeneo e applicabile su tutto il territorio nazionale. Esistono già esperienze in Italia di modelli ad alta risoluzione spazio-temporale, per la stima del materiale particolato (PM), con l'uso di predittori spazio-temporali, dati satellitari, dati di monitoraggio della qualità dell'aria. Il presente lavoro completa la disponibilità di queste stime per gli anni più recenti (2016-2019) e viene applicato anche per stimare gli ossidi di azoto e l'ozono. La risoluzione spaziale è di 1x1 km. Il modello si conferma capace di catturare la variabilità del PM (R2=0,78 e 0,74 per PM10 e PM2,5, rispettivamente) e fornisce stime attendibili anche per l'ozono (R2=0,76); per l'NO2 le performance del modello sono inferiori (R2=0,57). Le stime modellistiche sono state utilizzate per calcolare la PWE (population-weighted exposure) come media annua pesata sulla popolazione residente in ogni singola cella, che rappresenta la stima dell'esposizione cronica all'inquinamento atmosferico della popolazione italiana. Queste stime sono pronte per essere utilizzate negli studi sull'associazione tra esposizione cronica all'inquinamento atmosferico e patologia COVID-19, così come per indagini sul ruolo dell'inquinamento dell'aria sulla salute della popolazione italiana. Air pollution is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with adverse effects related both to short-term and long-term exposure. It has also recently been linked to COVID-19 pandemic. To analyze this possible association in Italy, studies on the entire area of the peninsula are necessary, both urban and non-urban areas. Therefore, there is a need for a homogeneous and applicable exposure assessment tool throughout the country. Experiences of high spatio-temporal resolution models for Italian territory already exist for PM estimation, using space-time predictors, satellite data, air quality monitoring data. This work completes the availability of these estimations for the most recent years (2016-2019) and is also applied to nitrogen oxides and ozone. The spatial resolution is 1x1 km. The model confirms its capability of capturing most of PM variability (R2=0.78 and 0.74 for PM10 e PM2.5, respectively), and provides reliable estimates also for ozone (R2=0.76); for NO2 the model performance is lower (R2=0.57). The model estimations were used to calculate the PWE (population-weighted exposure) as the annual mean, weighted on the resident population in each individual cell, which represents the estimation of the Italian population's chronic exposure to air pollution. These estimates are ready to be used in studies on the association between chronic exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 pathology, as well as for investigations on the role of air pollution on the health of the Italian population."

Sylvaine Tuncer, Eric Laurier, Barry Brown, Christian Licoppe, Notes on the practices and appearances of e-scooter users in public space. Journal of Transport Geography 85 (2020) 102702 [formato PDF, 1,2 MB] [E-scooter, monopattino elettrico] "While the legalisation of and policies around e-scooters remain the cause of much debate worldwide, this article sheds lights on e-scooter users' current practices and their interactions with pedestrians in the city. Taking an ethnomethodological approach to public space and mobility, we use video recordings of e-scooter riders to show, firstly, how riders dismount and then move to acquire rights to continue moving, thereby 'playing' with traffic rules, in order to weave rapidly through congested urban environments. Secondly, we examine how e-scooter riders and pedestrians deal with the potentially unexpected appearance of e-scooters via displays of attention, adjustments of speed, and the relative rights and obligations established via category-relevant spaces. The findings offer insights into the integration of e-scooters as one of what may be many new forms of electric powered micro-mobility in urban space."

Veronica Aneris, Anna Donati, Recovery Fund Next Generation EU. Un Piano di Ripresa e Resilienza per la mobilità sostenibile in Italia. Rapporto. Kyoto Club, Transport & Environment, 11 dicembre 2020, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. "Nel documento vengono individuate le priorità di intervento per una riconversione green del sistema trasporti italiano. Le proposte presentate mettono al centro della ripresa cittadine e cittadini, la vivibilità delle loro città, la sicurezza dei loro spostamenti e la solidità futura del sistema produttivo industriale. Si chiedono €41,15 Miliardi di euro, circa il 20% del fondo, da investire per: - mobilità urbana e regionale (€29,7 mld), - elettrificazione (€7,95 mld) - messa in sicurezza delle infrastrutture stradali (€3,5 mld). Le risorse allocate ai singoli interventi in maniera del tutto qualitativa intendono offrire un ordine di grandezza delle priorità, alla luce delle criticità principali del settore, dei requisiti di base posti dall'Europa per l'accesso ai fondi e nell'ottica della green and just transition che è alla base del green deal europeo."

Paulo Cambra, Filipe Moura, How does walkability change relate to walking behavior change? Effects of a street improvement in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Journal of Transport & Health 16 (2020) 100797 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. "Introduction. Promoting walking has become a policy concern in the public health and transport fields. Street improvement interventions aimed at increasing walking require an assessment of their effectiveness in influencing walking behaviour. There is a current gap in understanding how the magnitude of a change in walkability relates to a change in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Methods. This study reports a before-after analysis of the effects of a built environment intervention in the walking behaviour of adults in Lisbon, Portugal. The Eixo Central project aimed at improving walking conditions by changing physical factors in three sites - two avenues connected by a plaza. Each site had particular and distinct improvement approaches. We performed a before-after walkability assessment of the intervention area using a validated methodology, a longitudinal analysis of the pedestrian volumes in the intervention sites and control areas, and a quasi-longitudinal survey on the walking experience of residents, workers and frequent visitors of the area. Results. The Eixo Central project improved overall walking conditions. Walkability scores point to changes of different magnitude in the walkability of each of the three sites. The results show a significant change in the sites' pedestrian volumes and walking experience between baseline and follow up, and a non-significant change in the control areas' pedestrian volumes in the same period. We found higher walkability changes to be associated with a higher increase in pedestrian volumes and to a higher positive influence in walking experience. Conversely, smaller scale walkability changes were associated with a less expressive change in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Conclusions. The results suggest that the scale of walkability change of environmental interventions is a significant factor in influencing walking behaviour. In this sense, smaller-scale interventions may be effective in improving the walking experience but not as effective in increasing walking activity."

Barbara Laa, Ulrich Leth (TU Wien), Survey of E-scooter users in Vienna: Who they are and how they ride. Journal of Transport Geography 89 (2020) 102874, 8 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. [E-scooter, trottinette, monopattino elettrico]. "In many cities around the world, electric (e-)scooters have emerged as a new means of transportation. They are often advertised as supporting modal shift towards more sustainable transportation and as a tool for enabling more equity in mobility. However, the environmental impact depends on how they are used and what kinds of trips they replace. Integration of e-scooters into urban transport systems also implicates discussions on fair road space allocation. In our study, we assess the socio-economic profiles and usage patterns of e-scooter users in Vienna, Austria. We differentiate between two basic groups of e-scooter users (renters and owners) and apply two different methods. Firstly, based on an online survey, we examine the age, gender and education of e-scooter users and we look into which kinds of trips (commuting, shopping or leisure) and which other means of transportation are replaced by e-scooter trips. Secondly, we analyse data from field observations at cycle paths in Vienna in order to determine the share of e-scooter riders and their gender distribution. We find that e-scooter users are more likely to be young, male, highly educated and residents of Vienna. According to the survey, there are considerable differences in usage between owners of private scooters and users of sharing schemes. Whereas in both groups, e-scooter trips mostly replace walking and public transport as a mode, e-scooter owners also show a considerable mode-shift from private car trips. These results implicate that e-scooter riders are additional users of cycling infrastructure. This puts further pressure on the current allocation of road space, which provides little space for active modes of transport. We conclude that city policies should address this competitive relationship adequately by allocating more space to safe and convenient cycling infrastructure and traffic-calmed zones. This could not only help ease the current challenges due to e-scooters but also provide better conditions for walking and cycling and thereby at the same time contribute to a more sustainable and equitable urban transport system."

Benoit Martin, Julien Pestiaux, Quentin Schobbens, Julie Emmrich and Markus Hagemann, A radical transformation of mobility in Europe: Exploring the decarbonisation of the transport sector by 2040. Explorative scenario and related policy packages. Climact / NewClimate Institute, September 2020, 101 p. [formato PDF, 5,8 MB]. "Climact and NewClimate Institute explored a future in which the EU effectively targets zero emissions by 2040 for the transport sector, in a study commissioned by Greenpeace. Radical change needs to happen now and all fronts to dacarbonise European mobility within 20 years - seeing that the sector accounts for more than a quarter of European emissions (27%). We present a decarbonisation pathway, highlight current policy gaps and propose required policy packages."

Jonn Axsen, Patrick Plötz and Michael Wolinetz, Crafting strong, integrated policy mixes for deep CO2 mitigation in road transport. Nature Climate Change (2020) (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Transport CO2 emissions continue to grow globally despite advances in low-carbon technology and goal setting by numerous governments. In this Perspective, we summarize available evidence for the effectiveness of climate policies and policy mixes for road transport relative to 2030 and 2050 mitigation goals implied by the Paris Agreement. Current policy mixes in most countries are not nearly stringent enough. We argue that most regions need a stronger, more integrated policy mix led by stringent regulations and complemented by pricing mechanisms as well as other efforts to reduce vehicle travel."

Toon Zijlstra, Anne Durand, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Lucas Harms, Early adopters of Mobility-as-a-Service in the Netherlands. Transport Policy 97 (2020) 197-209 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 3,7 MB]. Open Access. "The concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is rapidly gaining momentum. Parties involved are eager to learn more about its potential uptake, effects on travel behaviour, and users. We focus on the latter, as we attempt to reveal the profile of groups within the Dutch population that have a relatively high likelihood of adopting MaaS in the near future, apart from the actual supply side. MaaS is a transport concept integrating existing and new mobility services on a digital platform, providing customised door-to-door transportation options. Based on common denominators of MaaS as found in the literature, we have established five indicators to identify early adopters: innovativeness, being tech-savvy, needing travel information, having a multimodal mindset, and wanting freedom of choice. These five indicators are the building blocks of our Latent Demand for MaaS Index (LDMI), and were constructed using 26 statements and questions from a special survey conducted in 2018 among participants of the Netherlands Mobility Panel (MPN). The features derived from the MPN serve as independent variables in a regression analysis of the indicators used to ascertain the profile of early adopters. The results of our model indicate that early adopters are likely to be highly mobile, have a high socio-economic status, high levels of education and high personal incomes. Young people are more eager to adopt MaaS than older adults. Early adopters are healthy, active and frequent users of trains and planes. The characteristics of MaaS's early adopters overlap in numerous ways with those of innovative mobility services users and with the general characteristics of early adopters as found in innovation studies."

Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Conrado Braga Zagabria (Budapest University of Technology and Economics), Method development for workplaces using mobility plans to select suitable and sustainable measures. Research in Transportation Business & Management, in press (2020) 13 p. [format o PDF, 468 kB]. Open Access. "This paper aimed to provide a set of sustainable measures suitable for workplaces according to local requirements. To support this, a specific Transportation Demand Management strategy was applied, which is called Workplace Travel Planning. The result of such a Workplace Travel Plan is a package of measures implemented by an organization to encourage sustainable commuting. This research focused on two stages of the planning process: in the analysis stage, data were gathered from the stakeholders, and travel behavior was analyzed, while in the planning stage, a specific set of measures was proposed to the workplace. The selection of those measures relies on several aspects, such as existing workplace infrastructure, employer policies, employee requirements, local infrastructure, cost of implementation, level of sustainability. The mobility questionnaires are the instruments used to retrieve the input data used in the method, while the categorization of measures contributes to the next phase of the method serving as the output options. To each measure, factors, weights, and sustainability impacts were assigned. The connection of the phases was realized by creating the utility value of the measure, which enables the ranking of the measures. The approach provides a comprehensive framework of connecting employee requirements, employer willingness, and site-specific opportunities by defining a quantitative utility function, which results in a list of most suitable measures for a specific workplace."

Karin van Kranenburg, Yvonne van Delft, Anastasia Gavrilova, Robert de Kler, Caroline Schipper, Richard Smokers, Maarten Verbeek, Ruud Verbeek (TNO), E-fuels - Towards a more sustainable future for truck transport, shipping and aviation. Report. TNO, VoltaChem, Smartport, Delft, July 2020, 32 p. [formato PDF, 4 MB]. "To realise the targets of the Paris Climate Agreement, drastically greener modes of transport are needed. Smart mobility concepts, more efficient engines, battery electric vehicles and biofuels are often mentioned as applications. Electric vehicles can be considered the preferred solution for short distances and light vehicles (e.g. passenger cars, urban mobility concepts). Truck transport, shipping and aviation, meanwhile, are currently lagging behind when it comes to contributions to sustainable mobility. These modes of transport require energy carriers with a higher energy density, for which e-fuels and green hydrogen can be the solution. This whitepaper therefore focuses on the potential of e-fuels for three modes of transport: long-haul road transport, shipping (inland and short/long distances over sea) and aviation. The whitepaper discusses: why e-fuels offer an opportunity to reduce carbon emissions; which e-fuels are suitable for which modalities and what the necessary technological developments are; what the future costs throughout the value chain of the various e-fuels could be; what the requirements for renewable energy production and land use are when it comes to realising the large-scale implementation of e-fuel production; how the uptake of e-fuels can be accelerated by stakeholders and an adoption roadmap to get there."

Elena Alyavina, Alexandros Nikitas, Eric Tchouamou Njoya (University of Huddersfield), Mobility as a service and sustainable travel behaviour: A thematic analysis study. Transportation Research Part F 73 (2020) 362-381 (20 p.)[formato PDF, 2 MB]. Open Access. "Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a novel brand of transport that promises to replace private cars with multimodal personalised mobility packages enabled by a digital platform capable of integrating travel planning, booking and ticketing, and real-time information services. It is an intervention that through its digitisation, connectivity, information and sharing merits intends to inspire and support the transition to a more sustainable mobility paradigm. Recent research suggests, however, that the potential uptake of MaaS might not be overwhelming; current car drivers could face considerable difficulties in bypassing their personal car for it and, more worryingly, future MaaS users may substitute not only personal car trips but also public transport journeys with car-sharing and ride-sharing services. This means that MaaS might not be able to create travel behaviour change, and even if it does, the changes may not be always towards the right direction. Through conducting 40 semi-structured interviews in three different UK cities, namely London, Birmingham and Huddersfield, and employing a robust Thematic Analysis approach, this study explores the factors underpinning the uptake and potential success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism. The challenges and opportunities reflecting and affecting potential for responsible MaaS usage refer to five core themes Car Dependence; Trust; Human Element Externalities; Value; and Cost, each of them with distinctive and diverse dimensions. Policy-makers and mobility providers should realise that MaaS success relies on changing people's attitudes to private cars (something very challenging) and thus they should incentivise responsible MaaS use, promote public transport as its backbone, use public engagement exercises and trials to expose people to the concept and somewhat demonise private car ownership and car use."

Lynn Sloman and Lisa Hopkinson; with contributions from Phil Goodwin, Jillian Anable, Sally Cairns and Ian Taylor, The carbon impact of the national roads programme. Transport for Quality of Life, July 2020, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "New research by Transport for Quality of Life shows that the Government's flagship road investment strategy (RIS2) of £27 billion over 5 years threatens the UK's commitments on climate change. The report shows the roads programme will add 20 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to UK emissions from the Strategic Road Network (SRN) between now and 2032 whereas those emissions need to be cut by 167 million tonnes to meet climate targets."

Tryeste, FIAB, UISP, Legambiente, Fridays for Future Trieste, Bora.La, Zeno, Link Trieste e SPIZ, Proposte per un piano per la mobilita urbana post-Covid. Trieste. Trieste, maggio 2020, 52 p. [formato PDF, 5,8 MB]. Si tratta di un documento elaborato dalle associazioni dopo un processo partecipativo che ha visto il contributo di centinaia di cittadini, presentato al Comune di Trieste, con cui è in corso un tavolo tecnico di confronto sui provvedimenti proposti.

Axhausen, Kay W., Micromobility. The example of Switzerland. Emerging Mobility Systems and Services Seminar Series, University of Michigan EM4S webinar, July 2020, Presentation. IVT, ETH Zurich, 2020, 36 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. Open Access.

Mancini, L., Eslava, N. A., Traverso, M., Mathieux, F., Responsible and sustainable sourcing of batteries raw materials. Insights from hotspot analysis, corporate disclosures and field research. JRC Technical Report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, 124 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Used in e-mobility and electronics, batteries are essential to achieve the EU objective of decarbonisation of the economy and other challenges related to sustainable development. Several policy initiatives have been issued and others are under discussion to promote sustainable and competitive production of batteries in the EU. Recently, various stakeholders highlighted social risks related to supply chains of batteries and in particular in regard to the provision of raw materials. Cobalt is especially concerning when it comes to human rights abuses, child labour and life-threatening working conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). That country provides around 60 % of the global supply, a significant proportion of it originating from artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) operators. Reports from non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international organisations and media on this topic have increased in number since 2016, and the issue is now more visible than in 2007, when the first reports on the sector emerged. At the same time, responsible sourcing initiatives have been launched and implemented for cobalt and other materials, most of them aligned with the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] due diligence guidance for responsible supply chains of minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas (OECD Guidance). Among them, EU Regulation 2017/821 will require EU importers of tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold (3TG) to perform due diligence on their supply chain, according to the OECD Guidance. The strategic battery action plan proposed by the European Commission identifies some clear work streams on responsible sourcing. A battery-specific regulation including requirements for the ethical sourcing of materials is also currently under discussion."

Ana Horta, Automobility and Oil Vulnerability Unfairness as Critical to Energy Transitions. Nature and Culture, 15 (2) 2020, 134-145 (12 p.)[formato PDF, 152 kB]. "Climate policies in the European Union require a substantial reduction in carbon emissions from road transport. However, in the last decades the system of automobility has expanded considerably, establishing a process of path dependence that is very difficult to reverse. Changes in current patterns of automobility may increase oil vulnerability of citizens dependent on the use of the car, aggravating forms of social inequity. Based on an analysis of how television news framed a period of oil price rises in a country highly dependent on car use, the article shows that oil vulnerability may resonate with socially shared sociocultural meanings such as lack of trust in political leaders, which may aggravate the social perception of unfairness and compromise public support for energy transitions toward sustainability."

Legambiente, Più olio di palma nei motori che nei biscotti, la mappa degli impianti in Italia. Dossier. Legambiente, luglio 2020, 9 p. [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "Biocarburanti dieci anni in cui è prevalso il greenwashing: farci pagare la deforestazione del mondo con il pieno carburante e con le bollette elettriche. Senza dircelo. Oggi si può cambiare. Proposte a Parlamento e Governo."

Transport & Environment, More palm and rapeseed in our tanks than on our plates. Ten years of EU biofuels policy. Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, July 2020, 14 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "In these 10 years the EU has seen an increase in the use of vegetable oil for energy production - mostly biodiesel. Today, we use more palm and rapeseed oil in our tanks than on our plates. This comes at the time when the EU has adopted new measures (REDII) to slowly move away from food- and feed-based biofuels in the next decade, affecting especially palm oil based biodiesel as it is considered high-deforestation risk. Despite these moves, in 2019 there was an all-time high in vegetable oil biodiesel production and consumption, and on palm oil biodiesel in particular. Other trends are confirmed as well, such as the increase on soy oil biodiesel production and consumption as well as used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel."

Transport & Environment, Più olio di palma e di semi di colza nei nostri serbatoi che nei nostri piatti. Dieci anni di politiche europee sui biocarburanti. Transport & Environment, Brussels, Luglio 2020, 12 p. [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Traduzione italiana del dossier. "Sono passati poco più di 10 anni da quando nel 2019 l'Unione europea ha iniziato a promuovere l'uso delle energie rinnovabili nei trasporti attraverso la Direttiva sulle Energie Rinnovabili del 2009 (RED). A causa di criteri di sostenibilità inadeguati che non hanno tenuto conto dell'intero ciclo di vita delle emissioni dei carburanti, la RED ha favorito per lo più la diffusione della fonte di energia più economica e meno sostenibile per i trasporti: i biocarburanti ottenuti da fonti alimentari e mangimi. L'Europa ha registrato un continuo aumento del consumo di biodiesel nell'ultimo decennio, costellato dall'aumento delle materie prime più insostenibili come l'olio di palma. Il consumo di olio vegetale per la produzione di biodiesel è aumentato del 48% sempre nell'ultimo decennio, mentre il consumo di questi oli a uso alimentare è rimasto piuttosto stabile (con un aumento del 4,5% nello stesso periodo). La crescita della produzione di biodiesel si è basata principalmente sulle materie prime importate, con l'olio di palma che ha giocato un ruolo chiave. Nel 2009, solo il 24% delle importazioni di olio di palma è stato utilizzato per produrre biodiesel; nel 2019, più della metà delle importazioni (53%) è stata invece destinata ai conducenti europei. A causa dei loro impatti climatici e ambientali, i biocarburanti a base di fonti alimentari e mangimi sono stati ridimensionati dalle politiche europea. Questa restrizione interesserà in particolare il diesel da olio di palma, che è stato etichettato come insostenibile e che sarà gradualmente eliminato, al più tardi, entro il 2030. Ma l'UE e i suoi Stati membri possono essere più ambiziosi nell'attuazione della REDII e nelle prossime revisioni della legge e fermare il sostegno pubblico a tutti i carburanti ottenuti da fonti alimentari e mangimi già nel 2021."

Antonio Alberto Clemente, Bicycle paths as a contribution to urban resilience in high-density areas / La rete ciclabile come contributo alla resilienza urbana in contesti ad alta densità. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design, 5(1), 93-110 (18 p.)[formato PDF, 797 kB]. Open Access. "Three facts. Pescara is the 13th city of Italy in terms of inhabitants density. The second concerns urban flooding resulting from torrential rain. Finally, Pescara is one of the most highly cycling Italian municipalities. Three phenomena perceived as separate which, in reality, are interdependent. A high urban density brings with it a strong reduction of vegetation and an excessive waterproofing of the soil. Therefore, where excess water volumes are created, also due to the insufficiency of the sewage system, urban floods occur which find their main route along the road network. With negative consequences in terms of the environment (pollution of the river and the sea), economic (threats to infrastructure, cultural heritage, residential and productive fabric) and social (risks for the population). The idea is to compare the open space projects in Boston, San Francisco, Zwolle and Copenhagen that have questioned which are the most appropriate answers to transform water from a potential risk element into a strategic resource for the resilience of urban system also through the cycle network. The goal is to demonstrate that the cycle network is not just a technical issue to ensure adequate performance levels in terms of intermodal integration, safety and efficiency of the tracks, but also a soil project that can contribute to the resilience of the urban system."

Giulia Isetti, Valeria Ferraretto, Agnieszka Elzbieta Stawinoga, Mirjam Gruber, Nives DellaValle, Is caring about the environment enough for sustainable mobility? An exploratory case study from South Tyrol (Italy). Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 6 (2020) 100148 (10 p.)[formato PDF, 428 kB]. Open Access. "Sustainable mobility has a positive impact on quality of life, in both urban and rural contexts. Policies aimed at promoting greener travel behaviors - at European, as well as at state and regional level - require a deep knowledge of differing mobility cultures across European regions. In order to better understand the relationship between the (stated) propensity towards sustainability, reported mobility patterns and users' lifestyles in rural areas, an exploratory study was conducted in South Tyrol, a rural region in Northern Italy that strives to become a model region for sustainable alpine mobility by 2030. More specifically, an online survey on sustainable mobility was administered to the inhabitants, exploring motivations, preferred incentives and drivers that may lead towards the adoption of sustainable mobility solutions (with a focus on e-mobility). By analyzing how pro-environmental self-identity interacts with consumers' heterogeneity, results show that heterogeneity exists in the individual pro-environmental identity measure. Based also on evidence from the literature that extrinsic rewards might negatively impact intrinsic motivations to engage in a certain behavior, this study warns policy-makers of potential unintended consequences of current policy tools used to incentivize the adoption of sustainable means of transport, such as the provision of monetary incentives for electric vehicles."

Wisdom Kanda, Paula Kivimaa, What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility?. Energy Research & Social Science 68 (2020) 101666 (5 p.)[formato PDF, 199 kB]. Open Access. "The COVID-19 pandemic is a major landscape shock that is having pervasive effects across socio-technical systems. Due to its recentness, sustainability scientists and other researchers have only started to investigate the implications of this crisis. The COVID-19 outbreak presents a unique opportunity to analyze in real time the effects of a protracted landscape-scale perturbation on the trajectories of sustainability transitions. In this perspective, we explore the ramifications for sustainability transition research on electricity and mobility, drawing from selected examples in Finland and Sweden. The long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to trigger more permanent changes connected to the digitalization of work and other daily activities, thus reducing mobility needs and overall fossil-energy consumption. The crisis may encourage governance systems to be better prepared for different types of shocks in the future, while it also contains a threat of increasingly populist or undemocratic political responses and increased securitization. These developments can guide research by addressing the reproduction of new practices arising from the COVID-19 outbreak to accelerate sustainability transitions, enhancing understanding of the role of governance in transitions, and bringing to attention the ethical and political implications of landscape shocks."

Donati Anna, Petracchini Francesco, Gasparini Carlotta, Tomassetti Laura, Cozza Valentina, Scarpinella Maria Stella (a cura di), 3. Rapporto MobilitAria 2020. Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane 2020. Analisi e proposte al tempo del Covid-19. Kyoto Club, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), maggio 2020, 180 p. [formato PDF, 99,7 MB]. "Nel 2019 migliora leggermente la qualità dell'aria nelle città rispetto all'anno precedente, tuttavia permangono valori critici che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. Nel periodo di lockdown invece, complice il blocco del traffico, si registra un netto calo dell'inquinamento soprattutto per il crollo del biossido di azoto (NO2). Nel frattempo, le città provano ad attrezzarsi per essere sempre più sostenibili, mentre il Dl Rilancio appena licenziato dal Governo si dimostra timido e insufficente a contrastare la crescita della congestione e del traffico che in modo progressivo torneranno ad invadere le nostre città dopo la ripartenza: ora più che mai è necessario accelerare la giusta transizione verso la mobilità sostenibile. A questo scopo Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA avanzano nel III Rapporto proposte concrete per la fase2, per contrastare la crescita del traffico veicolare: smart working, risparmio di traffico, piano degli orari della città, sostegno alle alternative in bicicletta, a piedi, sharing mobility, micromobilità, veicoli elettrici e trasporto collettivo. Sono questi i principali temi del terzo Rapporto "MobilitAria 2020" che analizza i dati della mobilità e della qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città metropolitane nel 2019 e nei primi 4 mesi del 2020, in piena emergenza Covid-19. Il periodo di lockdown ha avuto effetti considerevoli sugli spostamenti dei cittadini: di conseguenza il livello di emissioni e di inquinamento dovuti al settore trasporti hanno segnato, nei mesi di marzo e aprile 2020, una battuta d'arresto a Roma, Milano, Torino e Napoli, le quattro città analizzate in questa parte dello studio. A registrare un calo netto è stato sopratutto il biossido di azoto (NO2). Il crollo principale di NO2 è avvenuto a Roma, dove le concentrazioni medie sono inferiori alle annualità precedenti (2016-2019) rispettivamente del -59% per il mese di Marzo e del -71% per il mese di Aprile. A Torino invece il calo è del -43% per il mese di Marzo e -51% per il mese di Aprile, a Milano si è avuta una riduzione del -29% e -43% rispetto alla media dello stesso periodo 2016-2019, mentre Napoli registra rispettivamente una riduzione del -33% e -57%. L'analisi condotta sulla qualità dell'aria per l'annualità 2019 ha mostrato la persistenza per alcune città italiane di valori di concentrazioni elevati che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. occorre pertanto maggiore impegno da parte delle Amministrazioni locali per ridurre le concentrazioni e i superamenti al valore limite. È stato inoltre analizzato nel periodo del lockdown nazionale a seguito dell'emergenza epidemiologica da COVID-19 l'effetto sulla qualità dell'aria. I due mesi di blocco hanno permesso di comprendere l'importante impatto del traffico veicolare, in particolare quello privato, oltre che sulle emissioni di alcuni inquinanti anche sulle concentrazioni rilevate dalle centraline; tale evidenza risulta molto marcata, in accordo con quanto emerso dalle analisi delle stesse Agenzie per gli inquinanti legati direttamente al traffico, quale il biossido di azoto e in modo minore ma comunque allo stesso modo evidente anche per il particolato atmosferico."

ISFORT, L'impatto del lockdown sui comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani. L'indagine dell'osservatorio Audimob. ISFORT, maggio 2020, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "Il documento è focalizzato sul monitoraggio della domanda di mobilità degli italiani nel periodo più intenso di restrizione degli spostamenti a seguito dell'emergenza sanitaria da Covid-19, periodo convenzionalmente denominato "lockdown" e che si colloca tra l'entrata in vigore del DPCM dell'11 marzo e la fine della c.d. "fase 1" (3 maggio). Il documento in particolare fa seguito a due note successive già rilasciate da Isfort gli scorsi 1 aprile e il 23 aprile, relative all'analisi degli andamenti della mobilità rispettivamente nei primi 15 e nei primi 30 giorni del lockdown. Il testo qui allegato segue la traccia dei due precedenti ma ovviamente l'apparato tabellare e i relativi commenti sono ampiamente revisionati alla luce dei dati consolidati per l'intero periodo 11 marzo - 3 maggio. Il controllo operato su tutte le elaborazioni statistiche ha portato inoltre a piccole revisioni più complessive dei materiali già pubblicati. L'analisi proposta è arricchita dall'elaborazione di nuovi indicatori (motivazioni e fascia di lunghezza degli spostamenti) e variabili di segmentazione (ampiezza dei Comuni di residenza degli intervistati), nonché da due sezioni aggiuntive dedicate specificatamente alle propensioni future dei comportamenti di mobilità dei cittadini, in particolare rispetto alle preferenze modali, e alla percezione di sicurezza da contagio per i diversi mezzi di trasporto."

Andrea Debernardi, Emanuele Ferrara, Paolo Beria, Gli impatti della pandemia sulle reti di trasporto in Italia: scenari esplorativi fase 2. TRASPOL Report 2/20. TRASPOL, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 2020, 27 p. [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. "Come cambieranno le nostre abitudini di mobilità dopo il COVID-19? Per cercare di comprendere un po' meglio la possibile evoluzione futura del sistema di trasporto nazionale, TRASPOL e META hanno utilizzato il modello multimodale e multiscalare di trasporto i-TraM (Italian Transport Model) sviluppato negli scorsi anni per testare tre diversi scenari di riapertura nella Fase 2. Il modello di trasporto consente, in particolare, di riprodurre i flussi di traffico sulla rete stradale ed i livelli di utilizzo del trasporto pubblico sull'intero sistema infrastrutturale nazionale in un tipico giorno feriale (lavorativo e scolastico), con un livello di dettaglio sufficiente ad apprezzare eventuali differenze nell'evoluzione delle singole realtà regionali e/o metropolitane del paese."

Masuch, Kristin; Harnischmacher, Christine; Greve, Maike; and Trang, Simon (Georg-August-University Göttingen), Why Electrify? - A Qualitative-Empirical Study on Electrification of Fleet Transportation Systems. Research-in-Progress Papers, 74. ECIS 2020 Proceedings at AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2020, 11 p. [formato PDF, 729 kB]. "Global climate change is one of the most pressing matters needing to be addressed by the worldwide community. The deployment of electric vehicles in logistical fleets offers a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, organizations barely adopt this technology. Thus, this study aims to understand the factors that enable and hinder the innovation adoption process. In this context, we focus on the perceived characteristics of the electrified fleet as an innovation and on the characteristics of the organizations as the adopters of the innovation. Our study conducted semistructured interviews to assess and gain a comprehensive understanding of the influencing factors. The preliminary results suggest that the relevant characteristics of the decision-making unit such as corporate reputation, EV action radius requirements, and driving forces in the organization have positive and negative effects on the perceived characteristics of the innovation, which are cost of ownership, technical requirements, and environmental superiority. Both sets of characteristics in turn, determine whether the innovation of the electrification of the organization's transportation fleet is adopted or rejected."

Aloi, A.; Alonso, B.; Benavente, J.; Cordera, R.; Echániz, E.; González, F.; Ladisa, C.; Lezama-Romanelli, R.; López-Parra, Á.; Mazzei, V.; Perrucci, L.; Prieto-Quintana, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Sañudo, R., Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Urban Mobility: Empirical Evidence from the City of Santander (Spain). Sustainability 2020, 12, 3870 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 9,3 MB]. Open Access. "This article analyses the impact that the confinement measures or quarantine imposed in Spain on 15 March 2020 had on urban mobility in the northern city of Santander. Data have been collected from traffic counters, public transport ITS, and recordings from traffic control cameras and environmental sensors to make comparisons between journey flows and times before and during the confinement. This data has been used to re-estimate Origin-Destination trip matrices to obtain an initial diagnostic of how daily mobility has been reduced and how the modal distribution and journey purposes have changed. The impact on externalities such as NO2 emissions and traffic accidents have also been quantified. The analysis revealed an overall mobility fall of 76%, being less important in the case of the private car. Public transport users dropped by up to 93%, NO2 emissions were reduced by up to 60%, and traffic accidents were reduced by up to 67% in relative terms."

Ridisegnare il trasporto pubblico in Italia. Documento di posizione. AGENS (Agenzia Confederale dei Trasporti e Servizi), Milano, aprile 2020, 13 p. [formato PDF, 529 kB]. "Il presente paper si pone l'obiettivo di condividere una proposta di modalità e tempistiche per ridisegnare e rilanciare il trasporto pubblico in Italia, anche a seguito all'emergenza del COVID-19 che ha ulteriormente aggravato la situazione economico-finanziaria del settore."

Iván López, Jordi Ortega and Mercedes Pardo, Mobility Infrastructures in Cities and Climate Change: An Analysis Through the Superblocks in Barcelona. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 410 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 5,9 MB]. Open Access. "Cities are key actors in the fight against climate change since they are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while at the same time they experience the negative impact of this phenomenon. Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires fundamental changes in urbanism and city automobile traffic. Superblocks, a grid of blocks and basic roads forming a polygon, approximately 400 by 400 m, are one of the instruments for such changes. These type of city Superblocks represent a new model of mobility that restructures the typical urban road network, thereby substantially reducing automobile traffic, and accordingly GHG emissions, while increasing green space in the city and improving the health and quality of life of its inhabitants. Furthermore, the Superblocks do not require investment in hard infrastructures, nor do they involve demolishing buildings or undertaking massive development; they are in fact very low-tech urbanism. The city of Barcelona has been implementing Superblocks as one of the measures to combat climate change with very positive results. The paper analyzes the concept of the Superblock and its relation with climate change in cities. Along these lines, it analyzes the pioneer experience of Barcelona in the development and implementation of the Superblocks, as a radical plan aimed at taking back the streets from cars. The role of political power and institutional leadership has been key in societal acceptance and the achievement of tangible results. But there are also obstacles and drawbacks in the development of these types of Superblocks, such as the necessity to redesign the collective transport network so that car traffic can truly be reduced in cities, the possible negative influence on traffic going in and out of the city, the lack of visible advantages if they are not implemented in the entire city, the risk of gentrification in the areas with Superblocks, public opposition, and opposition from certain sectors of the business community."

Paolo Pinzuti, Paolo Gandolfi, Valerio Montieri, Matteo Dondé, Gabriele Sangalli, Piano di azione per la mobilità urbana post Covid. Bikenomist, Milano, aprile 2020, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Piano Emergenziale della Mobilità Urbana post-Covid: manuale d'uso. "Abbiamo redatto un Piano Emergenziale per la Mobilità Urbana Post-Covid che contiene le istruzioni strategiche e tecniche per evitare il collasso totale della mobilità urbana alla riapertura delle attività. Nella prima parte del documento si valutano i fenomeni in essere con un'analisi di scenario a cui si vuole dare risposta attraverso: una gestione mirata del trasporto pubblico; la creazione di una Rete di Mobilità di Emergenza per stimolare l'utilizzo di mezzi di trasporto veloci, leggeri e non congestionanti; l'allargamento degli spazi per la pedonalità allo scopo di garantire il distanziamento sociale; gestione delle Zone a Traffico Limitato e politiche della sosta. Nella seconda parte del documento si presentano le soluzioni tecniche adottabili in via immediata da parte delle amministrazioni comunali in ottemperanza alla normativa vigente. A conclusione del documento si trova un'indicazione di massima dei costi di realizzazione degli interventi proposti e una carrellata di best practice dall'Italia e dal mondo."

How clean are electric cars? T&E's analysis of electric car lifecycle CO2 emissions. Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, April 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB].

Daniel Rosenbloom, Jochen Markard, Frank W. Geels, Lea Fuenfschilling, Opinion: Why carbon pricing is not sufficient to mitigate climate change-and how "sustainability transition policy" can help. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2020 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 843 kB]. Open Access. "Carbon pricing is often presented as the primary policy approach to address climate change. We challenge this position and offer "sustainability transition policy" (STP) as an alternative. Carbon pricing has weaknesses with regard to five central dimensions: 1) problem framing and solution orientation, 2) policy priorities, 3) innovation approach, 4) contextual considerations, and 5) politics. In order to address the urgency of climate change and to achieve deep decarbonization, climate policy responses need to move beyond market failure reasoning and focus on fundamental changes in existing sociotechnical systems such as energy, mobility, food, and industrial production. The core principles of STP can help tackle this challenge."

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Urban and transport planning pathways to carbon neutral, liveable and healthy cities; A review of the current evidence. Environment International 2020, in press (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Introduction: Half the world population lives in cities and this is likely to increase to 70% over the next 20 years. Suboptimal urban and transport planning has led to e.g. high levels of air pollution and noise, heat island effects and lack of green space and physical activity and thereby an increase in morbidity and premature mortality. How can better urban and transport planning improve public health? Methods: A narrative meta-review around a number of cutting edge and visionary studies and practices on how to improve public health through better urban and transport planning reported in the literature and from meetings over the past few years. Results: We describe the latest quantitative evidence of how cities can become healthier through better urban and transport planning. It focuses and provides evidence for important interventions, policies and actions that can improve public health, including the need for land use changes, reduce car dependency and move towards public and active transportation, greening of cities, visioning, citizen involvement, collaboration, leadership and investment and systemic approaches. Health impact assessment studies have recently provided new powerful quantitative evidence on how to make cities healthier and will be used as examples. At the same time these measures make also our cities more sustainable (i.e. carbon neutral) and liveable creating multiple benefits. Conclusion: Better urban and transport planning can lead to carbon neutral, more liveable and healthier cities, particularly through land use changes, a move from private motorised transportation to public and active transportation and greening of cities."

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. NCHRP Report 769. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2014, 66 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. "TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response is designed to assist transportation organizations as they prepare for pandemics and other infectious diseases such as seasonal flu. Addressing decision-making challenges in pandemic response in the transportation context is a multi-dimensional task, involving not only transportation/transit organizations, but health organizations, emergency management agencies, and communications outlets as well. The guide is designed to outline broad guidance on dealing with pandemic preparedness planning, not detailed procedures. It provides information, tools, tips, and guidance on where to find up-to-date recommendations from federal agencies and other resources, prior to and during a pandemic. In addition to the guide, a methodology report and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project are available online."

Ragnhild Dahl Wikstrøm and Lars Böcker (University of Oslo), Changing Suburban Daily Mobilities in Response to a Mobility Intervention: A Qualitative Investigation of an E-bike Trial. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2413 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 940 kB]. Open Access. "This paper explores how local mobility interventions can bring about changes in daily mobilities and presents a qualitative study of an intervention introducing electric bikes (e-bikes) to suburban commuters in Norway. Our research shows promising evidence that e-bikes could play a crucial role in achieving a sustainable transport transition and that interventions are essential to stimulate the upscaling and mainstreaming of this emerging low-energy transport mode. In order to understand the scheme's capacity to change mobility outcomes, this paper considers (i) how this low-energy mobility intervention was conceived and undertaken by its initiators, as well as how it was experienced by its participants; and (ii) how new e-bike practices are intertwined with existing daily activities and mobility systems. Theoretically, this paper draws on the staging mobilities framework and conceptualizes situational mobilities as involving the dimensions of embodiment, social interaction, and materiality. With this twofold objective, this paper generates crucial knowledge that is required to understand the capacity of mobility interventions to trigger a sustainable transport transition. This study explores the potential of combining mobile methods (GPS-tracking), qualitative GIS, and visual methods (photo- and map-elicitation) in interviews, and participant observations."

David Pérez-Neira; Ma Pilar Rodríguez-Fernández; Cristina Hidalgo-González (Leon University), The greenhouse gas mitigation potential of university commuting: A case study of the University of León (Spain). Journal of Transport Geography 82 (2020) 102550 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB].

Fabian Dorner, Martin Berger (Technische Universität Wien), Peer-to-Peer Cargo Bike Sharing: Findings from LARA Share project. Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, 12 p. [formato PDF, 427 kB]. "Cargo bikes are bicycles that are optimized for transporting heavy weights and large volumes. The associated possibility of shifting transport from vehicles with internal combustion engines makes them a promising option for climate-friendly and environment friendly inner-city transport. Sharing could play a central role in helping cargo bikes to expand out of their current niche. The full potential that results from peer-to-peer sharing is still hardly tapped for cargo bike sharing. As part of the LARA Share project, a platform for peer-to-peer sharing of freight bikes and suitable parking spaces was developed and a pilot project implemented. As basis for the design of the platform a survey among potential users was conducted. This article presents the results of the survey regarding user structure, their attitudes towards cargo bikes and the intention to use cargo bike sharing. Additionally, we present supply and demand for cargo bikes on the sharing platform during the pilot phase and discuss reasons why demand for borrowing them has remained below expectations. Possible reasons for this as well as organisational and legal challenges are discussed and essential barriers for the provision of parking spaces for freight bikes via the platform will be presented."

Dolganova, I.; Rödl, A.; Bach, V.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Finkbeiner, M., A Review of Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Electric Vehicles with a Focus on Resource Use. Resources 2020, 9, 32 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 877 kB]. Open Access. "Changes in the mobility patterns have evoked concerns about the future availability of certain raw materials necessary to produce alternative drivetrains and related batteries. The goal of this article is to determine if resource use aspects are adequately reflected within life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of electric vehicles (EV). Overall, 103 LCA studies on electric vehicles from 2009 to 2018 are evaluated regarding their objective, scope, considered impact categories, and assessment methods - with a focus on resource depletion and criticality. The performed analysis shows that only 24 out of 76 EV LCA and 10 out of 27 battery LCA address the issue of resources. The majority of the studies apply one of these methods: CML-IA, ReCiPe, or Eco-Indicator 99. In most studies, EV show higher results for mineral and metal resource depletion than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The batteries analysis shows that lithium, manganese, copper, and nickel are responsible for the highest burdens. Only few publications approach resource criticality. Although this topic is a serious concern for future mobility, it is currently not comprehensively and consistently considered within LCA studies of electric vehicles. Criticality should be included in the analyses in order to derive results on the potential risks associated with certain resources."

Alexandre Santacreu (International Transport Forum), Safe Micromobility. Corporate Partnership Board Report. International Transport Forum, OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2020, 98 p. [formato PDF, 4,5 MB]. "This report examines the safety aspects associated with the increasing use of e-scooters and other forms of micromobility in cities. The rise of micromobility challenges existing regulations for urban traffic and forces policy makers to rethink them. The report considers a range of actions to make urban traffic with micromobility safe, including in street layout, vehicle design and vehicle operation, user education and enforcement of rules. It also asks whether a shift towards micromobility can have potential safety benefits."

International Transport Forum, Electrifying Postal Delivery Vehicles in Korea. International Transport Forum Policy Papers No. 73. OECD Publishing, Paris, March 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. "This report evaluates the costs and benefits of replacing postal delivery motorcycles with electric vehicles in eight Korean cities. It compares operating costs, safety performance, and environmental impacts based on data collected from a field trial with both vehicle types. In addition to the economic analysis, qualitative aspects are also discussed based on the findings of a focus group study. The results from the pilot programme provide an evidence base for policy initiatives in the delivery sector in Korea and beyond."

Edgar Hertwich, Reid Lifset, Stefan Pauliuk, and Niko Heeren, Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future. Summary for Policymakers. A report of the International Resource Panel. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP, IRP, 2020, 44 p. [formato PDF, 3,9 MB]. "This report was developed by the IRP in response to a request by leaders of the Group of 7 nations in the context of efforts to promote resource efficiency as a core element of sustainable development. It conducts a rigorous assessment of the contribution of material efficiency to GHG abatement strategies. More concretely, it assesses the reduction potential of GHG emissions from material efficiency strategies applied in residential buildings and light duty vehicles, and reviews policies that address these strategies. According to the Panel, GHG emissions from the material cycle of residential buildings in the G7 and China could be reduced by at least 80% in 2050 through more intensive use of homes, design with less materials, improved recycling of construction materials, and other strategies. Significant reductions of GHG emissions could also be achieved in the production, use and disposal of cars. IRP modelling shows that GHG emissions from the material cycle of passenger cars in 2050 could be reduced by up to 70% in G7 countries and 60% in China and India through ride-sharing, car-sharing, and a shift towards trip-appropriate smaller cars, among others. Increasing material efficiency is a key opportunity to achieve the aspirations of the Paris Agreement. Materials are vital to modern society, but their production is an important source of greenhouse gases. Emissions from material production are now comparable to those from agriculture, forestry, and land use change combined, yet they have received much less attention from the climate policy community. As shown by IRP estimates, it is time to look beyond energy efficiency to reduce global carbon footprint."

Fabio Hirschhorn, Didier van de Velde, Wijnand Veeneman, Ernst ten Heuvelhof (Delft University of Technology), The governance of attractive public transport: Informal institutions, institutional entrepreneurs, and problem-solving know-how in Oslo and Amsterdam. Research in Transportation Economics (2020) in press (11 p.) [formato PDF, 545 kB]. Open Access. "Public authorities are under mounting pressure to promote more sustainable urban mobility, including a modal shift from cars. With an empirical focus on Oslo and Amsterdam metropolitan areas, this paper analyses how the interplay between formal frameworks, informal institutions, and individuals' agency can contribute to making public transport more attractive in relation to other modes. Findings indicate that formal frameworks, informal institutions, and key actors co-exist and interact in complementary, substitutive, and accommodating manner; they work alongside each other to facilitate collective decision-making on issues ranging from integrating land use and transport to dealing with budget constraints. By identifying these types of interaction, this study shows that, to advance transport sustainability, authorities not only need insight on what policies to design, but can also benefit from understanding how policy-making and implementation unfold. A broader insight offered by the paper is that financial performance goals appear as a main policy driver in public transport, eclipsing sustainability concerns."

Alfonso Micucci, Maurizio Sangermano (University of Bologna), A Study on Cyclists behaviour and bicycles Kinematic. Int. J. Transp. Dev. Integr. 4(1)2020:14-28 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "A study on cyclists' behaviour and bicycle kinematic was conducted to determine the behavioural characteristics and kinetic representatives, as they are closely linked. The study focused on the behaviour of cyclists at road intersections and on cycle paths, including the crossing speeds, the accelerations, the time spent covering a fixed distance, as well as the most complex and dynamic part of the road transport system, the human factor. Whether the road users follow the laws of traffic and adopt a cautious and considerate driving attitude has a great impact on road safety. Video cameras placed at different locations were used to collect traffic data. A post processing phase to analyze the data followed. Interesting groups behaviour of cyclists were identified, as well as many characteristics curves related to the kinematic parameters. In general, a poor attitude towards compliance with behavioural rules has emerged in the medium-sized city of Bologna, Italy, especially for male cyclists. In addition, the average flow speed was observed under normal conditions, resulting in the order of 4 m/s. The results obtained are useful for understanding the performance of mixed traffic at intersection and on bicycle lanes, as well as building a basis for road accident reconstruction."

Marjan Hagenzieker, Reanne Boersma, Pablo Nuñez Velasco, Maryna Ozturker, Irene Zubin, Daniël Heikoop, Automated Buses in Europe: An Inventory of Pilots. version: 0.5. TU Delft, February 2020, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB].

Kyuhyun Lee, Ipek N. Sener (Texas A&M Transportation Institute), Emerging data for pedestrian and bicycle monitoring: Sources and applications. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2020) in press (12 p.) [formato PDF, 443 kB]. Open Access. "Growing attention on the benefits of non-motorized travel has increased the demand for accurate and timely pedestrian and bicycle travel data. Advancements in technologies and the proliferation of smartphones have created new data sources that can help eliminate limitations related to small sample size and infrequent updates due to limited resources. This study reviews the emerging data sources and their current use, focusing on non-motorized travel monitoring. In this study, the emerging data are categorized into mode-unspecified and mode-specified data based on whether the mode used can be detected with no or little effort. While mode-unspecified data are collected without sorting out non-motorized travelers, mode-specified data at least know who (which mode) is being monitored. So far, commercial vendors provide a vast volume of mode-unspecified data, but their products have been mainly used for motorized trips or are in initial stages of development. Meanwhile, readily available data sources and their applications are more concentrated on mode-specified data, which have enabled varying non-motorized travel studies-including travel pattern identification, route-choice modeling, crash/air pollution exposure estimation, and new facility provision evaluation-but are mostly focused on bicycling. Despite the potential of emerging data, their use also has several challenges, such as limited mode inference, sample bias, and lack of detailed trip/traveler information due to privacy issues. More efforts are needed, such as improving data accuracy and developing robust data fusion techniques, to be able to fully utilize the emerging data sources."

Dovilé Adminaité-Fodor, Graziella Jost, How safe is walking and cycling in Europe?. PIN Flash Report 38. European Transport Safety Council, Brussels, January 2020, 74 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "The European Union (EU) is facing a multitude of interconnected demographic, public health and environmental challenges: the climate is changing; road deaths are stagnating; urbanisation is increasing, air pollution is worsening, obesity is rising and the population is ageing. But there is an increasing recognition at local, but also national and EU level, that boosting the levels of active mobility, particularly walking and cycling, can play an important role in overcoming many of these challenges. Such a policy will also have economic benefits. Based on conservative estimates, even current levels of cycling in the EU produce benefits valued at around 150 billion euros per year. In contrast, the negative external costs of motorised road transport such as congestion, pollution and climate change are estimated at 800 billion euros per year in a recent study for the European Commission. This report examines the most recent available data on the current safety levels of cycling and walking across the EU and other countries that provide data to ETSC as part of its Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) programme".

Erling Holden, David Banister, Stefan Gössling, Geoffrey Gilpin, Kristin Linnerud, Grand Narratives for sustainable mobility: A conceptual review. Energy Research & Social Science, 65 (2020) 101454, 10 p. [formato PDF, 527 kB]. Open Access. "The concept of sustainable mobility has had a relatively short life, first being used about 30 years ago. In that time, some progress has been made, but transport is still not contributing enough to the internationally set reduction targets for carbon emissions. This paper provides a conceptual review that presents nine narratives addressing elements of sustainable mobility, each of which has been derived from a review of the agents and strategies taken over the last 30 years. From these narratives, we develop three Grand Narratives that bring together the key elements identified from the wider set of narratives-low mobility societies, collective transport 2.0, and electromobility. We then assess each of the three Grand Narratives in terms of its feasibility, acceptability, centrality, and compatibility. We conclude that each of the Grand Narratives provides a necessary but insufficient condition for achieving sustainable mobility. Thus, although each one has the potential to make significant contribution to sustainable mobility, it is only through the strong and immediate application of all three that the goal of sustainable mobility can be achieved."

Melinda Matyas (University College London), Opportunities and barriers to multimodal cities: lessons learned from in-depth interviews about attitudes towards mobility as a service. Transp. Res. Rev. 12, 7 (2020) (11 p.) [formato PDF, 563 kB]. Open Access. "With the emergence of the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concept, it is important to understand whether it has the potential to support behaviour change and the shift away from private vehicle ownership and use. This paper aims to identify potential ways that MaaS (specifically MaaS plans) could help encourage behavioural change; and understand the barriers to using alternative transport modes. In-depth interviews and qualitative analysis are applied to the case study of London. The results indicate that individuals segment the transport modes offered via MaaS into three categories: essential, considered and excluded. Soft measures should target each individuals' consideration set as this is where the most impact can be made regarding behaviour change. Respondents also highlighted factors that make them apprehensive towards certain modes, such as safety, service characteristics and administration. Interventions that focus on the socio-demographic groups that are most affected could help make these modes more appealing."

Xiao Qin and Wei Wang (Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport), Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS): Comparative analysis of country-specific offerings between Germany and China. E3S Web of Conferences 145, 02016 (2020), 9 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "This study focuses on mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) and services. The country-specific differences, which relate to mobility behaviour and supply, as well as the importance of MaaS in Germany and China, are summarised and illustrated by: that the development of MaaS by analysing the current state of mobility offers in Germany and China must be closely compared. With the help of service-dominant logic, self-determination theories and cultural dimensions theory, customer wishes and mobility behaviour are taken into account and discussed in the development of the MaaS, so that one can explore how MaaS responds accordingly and how such offers change. Today's services on the market are presented and summarised, they are public transport, biking, car, ride-sharing, etc. Furthermore, the importance is to be analysed by examining the influence and synergy of the MaaS on the micro, meso and macro levels. The reasons for country-specific differences and own development problems can then be discussed. Finally, the trend towards future development is based on the previous analysis and some recommendations are to be offered for the optimisation of the MaaS offers and their implementation."

Yujie Guo, Zhiwei Chen, Amy Stuart, Xiaopeng Li, Yu Zhang (University of Florida), A systematic overview of transportation equity in terms of accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes: From conventional to emerging technologies. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, in press, available online 5 February 2020, 100091, 14 p. [formato PDF, 644 kB]. Open Access. "Emerging transportation technologies (e.g., electric vehicles) and services (e.g., shared mobility) provide efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to traditional travel modes. However, whether these innovative technologies bring benefits to different population groups in an equal and reasonable manner is still an open question. The various methods applied to evaluate the equity performance of these systems are also not clearly comparable. In this paper, we comprehensively review methods from the existing literature for assessing the equity of a few important system outcomes: accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety. We also identify the existing challenges of analyzing equity for emerging transportation technologies. We unify the existing methodologies into a three-step framework that includes population measurement, cost/benefit measurement and equity assessment, and we summarize the applicable measurements for each step, in detail. A handful of literature focusing on emerging transportation technologies, such as shared mobility and autonomous vehicles, were also identified and surveyed; the methodologies used were found to fit with the three-step framework. We summarize the major findings and discuss promising directions for developing more sophisticated equity assessment methodologies for emerging transportation technologies. Overall, based on a comprehensive review, this paper contributes a framework for assessing the equity of transportation systems that integrates accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes. The summarized framework can be an overview resource to assist researchers and transportation planners who require equity analysis methods. The research gaps identified also provide directions for equity research on emerging transportation technologies."

European Environment Agency, The first and last mile - the key to sustainable urban transport. Transport and environment report 2019. EEA Report No 18/2019. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2020, 83 p. [formato PDF, 6,4 MB]. "This report provides a comprehensive overview of all main F/L/O mile options for passenger and freight transport. It describes their urban mobility and policy contexts and presents the current state of scientific knowledge on their environment and health effects. It also describes the limits of F/L/O mile options and the framework in which they can be most effective. The objective is to help policy makers, planners and transport users make well-informed choices."

Scott Hardman, Dahlia Garas, Jeff Allen, Jonn Axsen, George Beard, Elisabeth Dütschke, Nicolò Daina, Erik Figenbaum, Patrick Jochem, Michael Nicholas, Patrick Plötz, Nazir Refa, Benjamin Sovacool, Daniel Sperling, Frances Sprei, and Gil Tal, Exploring the Role of Cities in Electrifying Passenger Transportation. UC Davis Research Report. UC Davis, January 2020, 9 p. [formato PDF, 289 kB]. "In this brief we focus on personal passenger vehicles, as in many cities they are (still) a dominant mode of transport. In the car-dependent United States, 85% of trips are completed by car and even in London, United Kingdom 36% of all journeys are by car. Electrifying cars will not solve all issues cities face (e.g. congestion, competition for space, etc.), but can contribute to addressing air quality concerns, reducing energy consumption from transport, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions".

Suah Kim and Namjo Kim (Hanyang University), A Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Vehicle Restriction Policy for Reducing Overtourism in Udo, Korea. Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 612 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 282 kB]. Open Access. "Overtourism has given rise to conflict among various stakeholders. Accordingly, to control overtourism, the public sector has started to implement policies. Recently, Udo off Jeju Island in South Korea has begun experiencing overtourism; to prevent the situation from deteriorating, the public sector implemented a vehicle restriction policy. This study used a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess the social costs and benefits of the public policy to control overtourism in Udo. Through interviews and relevant data and documents, this study classified analysis items related to the policy that could be either a cost or benefit to different stakeholders. The social cost-benefit analysis showed that the net benefit increases, the longer the policy continues, thus ensuring it is adequate and feasible to implement the policy. An effective management public policy for the sustainability of the region's tourism should always be promoted."

Kaja Pogačar, Lucija Dežan, Monika Lamot and Marko Renčelj, Determinants of Bicycle Use among Student Population: Exploratory Research of Social and Infrastructure Factors. Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3, 6 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "By exposing more benefits than shortcomings regarding cycling, this paper focuses on university students as a significant target group that could promote cycling as the main transport mode in cities. The paper addresses a variety of determinants, barriers, and motivation for cycling among the university students within the international context. Furthermore, it exposes the importance of smaller university cities, where students can present a substantial share of the total population. Contextually, we present the research upon the use of bicycles among the students in the university city of Maribor, Slovenia. To examine whether social or infrastructural determinants play a decisive role, a questionnaire was conducted among 382 students. The findings revealed that although the topography of the city and the distances between crucial institutions are, in general, favorable, only 10.7% of students cycle daily, whereby 63.3% do not cycle at all. There were no statistical differences noticed between the impact of infrastructural and social factors; convenience was exposed as a statistically significant determinant, whereas the sustainability aspect proved to be an insignificant factor for students cycling. To conclude, cycling among the student population in smaller cities can represent a common case of potentially high impact of student population regarding sustainable mobility."

Nikita Pavlenko, Bryan Comer, Yuanrong Zhou, Nigel Clark, Dan Rutherford, The climate implications of using LNG as a marine fuel. Working Paper 2020-02. International Council on Clean Transportation, January 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 887 kB]. "Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) contains less carbon per unit of energy than conventional marine fuels, its use might not reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a life-cycle basis. This paper compares the life-cycle GHG emissions of LNG, marine gas oil (MGO), very low sulfur fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil when used in engines suitable for international shipping, including cruise ships. The analysis includes upstream emissions, combustion emissions, and unburned methane (methane slip), and we evaluate the climate impacts using 100-year and 20-year global warming potentials (GWPs). Over a 100-year time frame, the maximum life-cycle GHG benefit of LNG is a 15% reduction compared with MGO, and this is only if ships use a high-pressure injection dual fuel (HPDF) engine and upstream methane emissions are well-controlled. However, the latter might prove difficult as more LNG production shifts to shale gas, and given recent evidence that upstream methane leakage could be higher than previously expected. Additionally, only 90 of the more than 750 LNG-fueled ships in service or on order use HPDF engines. Using a 20-year GWP, which better reflects the urgency of reducing GHGs to meet the climate goals of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and factoring in higher upstream emissions for all systems and crankcase emissions for low-pressure systems, there is no climate benefit from using LNG, regardless of the engine technology. HPDF engines using LNG emitted 4% more life-cycle GHG emissions than if they used MGO. The most popular LNG engine technology is low-pressure dual fuel, four-stroke, medium-speed, which is used on at least 300 ships; it is especially popular with LNG- fueled cruise ships. Results show this technology emitted 70% more life-cycle GHGs when it used LNG instead of MGO and 82% more than using MGO in a comparable medium-speed diesel (MSD) engine. Given this, we conclude that using LNG does not deliver the emissions reductions required by the IMO's initial GHG strategy, and that using it could actually worsen shipping's climate impacts. Further, continuing to invest in LNG infrastructure on ships and on shore might make it harder to transition to low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels in the future. Investing instead in energy-saving technologies, wind-assisted propulsion, zero-emission fuels, batteries, and fuel cells would deliver both air quality and climate benefits."

Andreas Blitz, Annika Busch-Geertsema, Martin Lanzendorf (Goethe University Frankfurt/Main), More Cycling, Less Driving? Findings of a Cycle Street Intervention Study in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, Germany. Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 805 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "In order to encourage a shift from the car to the more sustainable transport mode of cycling, cycle streets have been implemented in cities all over the world in the last few years. In these shared streets, the entire carriageway is designated for cyclists, while motorized traffic is subordinated. However, evidence on the impact of cycle street interventions related to travel behavior change has been limited until now. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether cycle streets are an effective measure to facilitate bicycle use and discourage car use, thus contributing to the aim of promoting sustainable travel. For this purpose, we conducted a written household survey in the German city of Offenbach am Main involving participants affected by a cycle street intervention (n = 701). Based on two stage models of self-regulated behavioral change (SSBC), we identified the participants' level of willingness to use a bicycle frequently and to reduce car use. By means of bivariate and multivariate statistical methods, we analyzed the influence of awareness, use, and perceptions of the cycle street on the willingness to change behavior towards more sustainable travel. The results show that the intervention has a positive impact on frequent bicycle use, while we observed only a limited effect on car use reduction. Traffic conflicts and car speeding within the cycle street adversely affect the acceptance of the intervention. The study's findings provide new insights into the actual effects of a cycle street and its potential to encourage sustainable travel behavior."

Jurgis Zagorskas and Marija Burinskienė (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University), Challenges Caused by Increased Use of E-Powered Personal Mobility Vehicles in European Cities. Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 273 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Increased use of e-powered personal mobility vehicles is usually considered to be a positive change, while it is generally agreed that Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMVs) effectively and efficiently reduce the negative environmental impacts of transport and improve quality of life. There has been great technological progress made by all sectors in the field of personal mobility during the last decade. The use of PMVs for micro-mobility have been welcomed by the market, consumers, and governments and thus they are becoming increasingly popular in modern European society. New technology-driven PMVs provide opportunities to their users, but at the same time create problems with street space sharing, road safety, and traffic offenses. This study gives an overview of recent types of PMVs, offers some insights into upcoming changes and challenges, and raises a discussion on themes related to the increased use of e-powered personal transporters."

Qi Sun, Tao Feng, Astrid Kemperman, Andreas Spahn (Eindhoven University of Technology), Modal shift implications of e-bike use in the Netherlands: Moving towards sustainability?. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 78 (2020) 102202 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 941 kB]. "This paper investigates the modal shift patterns of e-bike users in the Dutch context. We focus on the change in e-bikers' travel behavior to assess whether this change benefits sustainability. Our study provides direct ecologically valid evidence on modal shift by using a longitudinal dataset from the Netherlands Mobility Panel survey. We examine e-bikers' modal shift patterns before and after acquiring an e-bike. The findings indicate that after e-bike adoptions, conventional bike use reduces significantly, while car use reduces less strongly. Nonetheless, the share of car kilometers is much larger than that of conventional bikes at the baseline. Besides, the emission rate per passenger kilometer of an e-bike is several times lower than that of a car. These imply a net environmental gain after e-bike adoptions. The present study also sheds light on modal shifts at a disaggregated level by investigating those e-bikers who are more likely to drive less after e-bike adoption. The findings suggest that e-bikers younger than 50 and those around retirement age (60-69) seem more likely to step out of their cars. Additionally, people living in rural areas tend to be more likely to reduce their car use than their counterparts in highly urbanized areas. Based on our findings, we present policy recommendations for achieving a greener shift in mobility systems."


G Messori, E Morello, E Perotto, F Infussi, G Mondini, E Faroldi, S Tolentino and M Ugolini (Politecnico di Milano), Mobility management at Politecnico di Milano: New infrastructures and behavioural change. SBE19 - Resilient Built Environment for Sustainable Mediterranean Countries 4-5 September 2019, Milan, Italy. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 296 (2019) 012013, 13 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. Open Access. "Transportation has significant and long lasting economic, social and environmental impacts, making it one of the main challenges to be addressed by policy makers, public managers and scholars worldwide. For Universities, students and staff transportation represents one of the largest impacts on the environment and society, since in many cases it represent a noticeable share of urban traffic. A wide literature is available on the policies that support reducing car usage and improve the environmental and social sustainability of commuting to University. This paper presents the situation in the Politecnico di Milano, recorded through mobility surveys carried out in 2015 and 2017 to investigate the key issues and design possible solutions. The aim of this study is to share the set of actions and activities planned to improve the current mobility patterns of the Politecnico di Milano in favour of more sustainable means of transport. The main strategies will be the redesign of the campuses and the new infrastructure to be installed, together with the promotion of sustainable behaviours among the whole University population thanks to various activities in the framework of the 'Città Studi Campus Sostenibile' initiative. A special mention will be given to the 'Vivi.Polimi' project, which aims to improve the liveability of the Politecnico spaces, and which will give sustainable mobility a new impulse. Indeed, the planned measures include the reduction of the parking spaces inside the historical main campus while providing new infrastructure targeted at the promotion of alternative means of transport, like increasing the number of bike shelters to encourage active mobility or installing new charging stations for electric cars."

Mariza Motta Queiroz, Pedro Celeste, Filipe Moura, School commuting: the influence of soft and hard factors to shift to public transport. 22nd EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2019, 18-20 September 2019, Barcelona, Spain. Transportation Research Procedia, in press, 8 p. [formato PDF, 719 kB]. Open Access. "School commuting is critical for modern societies considering its potential and long-lasting impacts in travel behaviour of younger generations, today and in the future. Besides positive health impacts, it is crucial to expose students to more sustainable modes (e.g., walking, cycling, public transport) to form future adults with more sustainable mobility decisions. Despite the vast research on school commuting, scrutinizing the foremost factors that determine the modal choice of households when students commute to school is still challenging. Here, we carry out an analysis of the main factors that impact the willingness to shift to public transport (PT) for school commuting, in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Also, we analyse the potential of hard and soft factors to change the households' perception towards PT and their willingness to shift away from private car. While hard factors relate to interventions in the transport operation characteristics, soft measures act on the users' behaviour. Based on a survey of 1640 households whose children attend primary, middle and high schools, our results suggest that in order to achieve a modal shift towards PT, we should focus both on Hard factors Frequency and Schedules, Soft Factors and considering the Context of the school".

Ove Langeland (ed.), Magnus Andersson, Tom Erik Julsrud, Steven Sarasini, Maria Schnurr, Stefan Tongur, Decarbonising the Nordic transport system: A TIS analysis of transport innovations. TØI Report 1678/2019. Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), Oslo, December 2018, 100 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Transforming transport is one of the biggest energy challenges in the Nordic region. The past decades have seen a rapid increase in demand to move people and goods, and the transport sector relies heavily on fossil fuels. Several measures and initiatives to decarbonise transport have been introduced in Europe and in the Nordic countries. This report focuses particularly on new vehicle and fuel technologies but it also deals with other transport innovations which potentially can contribute to a shift to cleaner modes of transport, such as mobility as a service (MaaS)".

Susan Shaheen, Adam Cohen, Michael Randolph, Emily Farrar, Richard Davis, Aqshems Nichols, Shared Mobility Policy Playbook. Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, December 2019, 224 p. [formato PDF, 8 MB]. "This Shared Mobility Policy Playbook provides an introduction and definitions of shared mobility services, mode-specific resources for agencies looking to develop policies in their community, and policy-focused tools demonstrating case studies and best practices for shared mobility".

Rebecca Thorne, Astrid H. Amundsen, Ingrid Sundvor, Battery electric and fuel cell trains: Maturity of technology and market status. TĜI Report 1737/2019. Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), Oslo, November 2019, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "Athough most trains in Europe are powered by electricity from a third rail or overhead line, it is not always cost effective to electrify rail lines. In these cases, alternatives to diesel train population are batteries and fuel cells. Battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell technologies have developed significantly in recent years and multiple manufacturers are now investing in the development of battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell trains. Resultingly there have been an increasing number of these trains in operation, both for trials and commercial service. Changes in rail transport are not possible without the support of an adequate network, which must be highly planned. This is particularly important for hydrail, since no mass production of hydrogen for transport applications is yet in place. Nonetheless, with current focus on further implementation both in Norway and across Europe, the future is bright for these zero emission propulsion technologies."

Transport-related CO2 Emissions of the Tourism Sector : Modelling Results. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and International Transport Forum (ITF), Madrid, December 2019, 72 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The number of tourists travelling across borders is expected to reach 1.8 billion a year by 2030, according to the latest UNWTO predictions. This will be alongside a further 15.6 billion domestic tourist arrivals. Such growth will bring many opportunities, including socioeconomic development and job creation. At the same time, however, greenhouse gas emissions linked to tourism-related transport are also rising, challenging the tourism sector's ambition to meet the targets of the Paris Agreement. UNWTO and ITF embarked on this research project with the aim of providing evidence of the CO2 emissions from tourism and the implications of the different modes of transport. The report provides insights into the evolution of tourism demand across the different global regions up to the year 2030. It also presents the expected transport-related CO2 emissions of the tourism sector against the current ambition scenario for the decarbonization of transport."

Anastasia Christodoulou, Marta Gonzalez-Aregall, Tobias Linde, Inge Vierth, Kevin Cullinane, Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air. A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures. Maritime Business Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2019, pp. 16-30 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 709 kB]. "Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the various initiatives developed and implemented across the globe for the abatement of maritime air emissions. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, an extensive survey of various sources was conducted, including the official reports of international and regional institutions, government policy documents, port authority websites, classification society pages, private firms' sites and the academic literature. The initiatives were then categorized in accordance with the classification of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software to give some insight into their frequencies and the interrelationships between them. Findings - This exploratory review resulted in the establishment of a comprehensive global database of initiatives encouraged by the whole range of shipping stakeholders and decision-makers for the reduction of shipping air emissions. According to the findings, economic incentives that provide motivation for the adoption of less environmentally damaging practices are the most commonly used initiative, followed by infrastructure investments and informative policies. Research limitations/implications - The results provide implications for further research that include an in-depth analysis of ports' policies, as well as an evaluation of initiatives applied on a large scale to map their emissions reduction potential for shipping. Originality/value - The main contribution of this paper is the identification and analysis of all the diverse initiatives implemented globally in a comprehensive way and its dealing with air pollution from shipping as a whole."

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2019, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. "Purpose - For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach - The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings - Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications - Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications - The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications - The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value - The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

Reyes García, J. R., Westerhof, M. W., Haveman, S. P., Bonnema, G. M. (University of Twente), From Shared electric Mobility Providers (SeMPs) to electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS) players - A first approach to assess the Technical Level of Integration of Mobility Service Providers' functionalities applied to the European (e)MaaS market. ICoMaaS proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Mobility as a Service, Tampere 3.-4.12.2019, 162-180 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "In this paper we present an approach to evaluate to what extent Mobility Service Providers (MSPs) can be considered (e)MaaS players. Following that approach, we conduct an analysis of 128 MSPs, specifically Shared electric Mobility Providers (SeMPs), currently operating in the European market. The goal of the analysis is twofold. Firstly, it aims at demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach. Secondly, it aims at offering an overview of the current state of the market concerning the Technical Level of Inte- gration (TLI) of European SeMPs. Our results show that, on the one hand, most of the SeMPs currently operating in Europe have a medium to high TLI. However, those levels are mostly not applicable for multi- modal (i.e. for multiple modes of transport or multiple MSPs) interfaces but for single-mode interfaces. On the other hand, our results also show that there are already some SeMPs in the current European market that have fully integrated functionalities, in that case, SeMPs mostly have multimodal interfaces. Based on the analysis and discussion presented in this paper, we concluded that the TLI approach offers an effective technique to determine, and easily visualize, the level of integration of the technical functionalities of MSPs."

Kay Inckle, Disabled Cyclists and the Deficit Model of Disability. Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol 39, No 4 (2019) [HTML]. Open Access. "Disability and cycling rarely appear in the same sentence and there is very little research about cyclists with physical disabilities. Nor, indeed, is there any acknowledgement of the experiences and needs of disabled cyclists in policy, practice or the public imagination. Nonetheless, cycling is a key form of mobility for people with disabilities, and cycling facilitates autonomy and independence of movement for many disabled people, as well as providing health-promoting physical activity. Drawing from qualitative interviews, this paper explores this gap in the context of the deficit model of disability and its impacts upon people with physical disabilities who cycle, many of whom who use their cycle as their main form of transport and mobility. It highlights the barriers that disabled cyclists face in terms of mobility, accessing cycling and the perceptions and attitudes which impede their everyday activities and underpin exclusionary policy, practice and infrastructure. Rejecting the deficit model of disability and recognising cycling as a key strength/ability for people with physical disabilities will lead to greater equality and improve the lives and experiences of disabled people."

Mojdeh Azad, Nima Hoseinzadeh, Candace Brakewood, Christopher R. Cherry and Lee D. Han (Univ. of Tennessee), Fully Autonomous Buses: A Literature Review and Future Research Directions. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Volume 2019, Article ID 4603548 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles (AVs) represent a new, growing segment of transportation research. While there have been prior studies and deployments of AVs worldwide, full autonomy in bus transit has gained interest among researchers and practitioners within the last decade, which presents an opportunity to synthesize early trends. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a review of the latest research on fully autonomous buses to summarize findings and identify gaps needing future research. Forty studies were reviewed in detail, and five main themes were identified, which are (1) technology deployment; (2) user acceptance; (3) safety; (4) social and economic aspects; and (5) regulations, policies, and legal issues. The results reveal that most prior studies have focused on technology development, and the area of regulation and policy would benefit from additional study. Noteworthy differences between research in Europe and the United States were also identified. In Europe, large funded projects involving real-world deployments have focused on user acceptance, security and safety, costs, and related legal issues, whereas in the United States, research has primarily concentrated on simulation modelling with limited real-world deployments. The results of this review are important for policy-makers and researchers as AV technology continues to evolve and become more widely available."

Katrien De Langhe, Hilde Meersman, Christa Sys, Eddy Van de Voorde and Thierry Vanelslander (University of Antwerp), How to make urban freight transport by tram successful?. Journal of Shipping and Trade (2019) 4:13 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. Open Access. "Many national and international bodies, such as the European Commission, encourage the use of environment-friendly transport modes. Local and national authorities take more and more measures, for instance road pricing, loading/ unloading spaces and low-emission zones, to prevent negative transport-related externalities in urban areas. Hence, transport and logistics operators consider alternative ways to deliver goods in urban areas by using electric vehicles, cargo bikes, inland vessels and rail transport. Which of these alternative modes is appropriate for which transport flow depends on multiple factors, including the available transport infrastructure, the goods volume, the measures taken by the authorities and the presence of congestion. This paper focuses on urban freight transport by tram and the conditions for a successful implementation. A successful implementation is defined as an implementation that is viable, i.e. the difference between the change of the costs and the change of the benefits exceeds a certain threshold value. The viability is studied from a business-economic and a socio- economic perspective for a dedicated freight tram, a freight wagon behind a passenger tram and the transport of parcels by a passenger tram. A viability model is developed, based on a social cost-benefit analysis. The working of this model is illustrated by applying it to the city of Antwerp. The main findings show that the use of a freight wagon attached to a passenger tram provides more potential than a dedicated freight tram. A courier taking the tram to deliver some parcels can be viable as well. For all three types of tram transport, the socio-economic benefits exceed the business-economic ones. Critical factors affecting the viability include the transported volume, the efficiency of the current road transport, the timing of the transport, the need for post-haulage and the operational costs of both road and rail."

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. " Purpose. For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach. The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings. Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over Euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications. Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications. The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications. The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value. The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

Pierre Friedlingstein et al., Global Carbon Budget 2019. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783-1838, 2019 (56 p.) [formato PDF, 8,2 MB]. Open Access. "Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties."

Nick Watts, Markus Amann, Nigel Arnell, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Kristine Belesova, Maxwell Boykoff, Peter Byass, Wenjia Cai, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Stuart Capstick, Jonathan Chambers, Carole Dalin, Meaghan Daly, Niheer Dasandi, Michael Davies, Paul Drummond, Robert Dubrow, Kristie L Ebi, Matthew Eckelman, Paul Ekins, Luis E Escobar, Lucia Fernandez Montoya, Lucien Georgeson, Hilary Graham, Paul Haggar, Ian Hamilton, Stella Hartinger, Jeremy Hess, Ilan Kelman, Gregor Kiesewetter, Tord Kjellstrom, Dominic Kniveton, Bruno Lemke, Yang Liu, Melissa Lott, Rachel Lowe, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Mark Maslin, Lucy McAllister, Alice McGushin, Slava Jankin Mikhaylov, James Milner, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Karyn Morrissey, Kris Murray, Simon Munzert, Maria Nilsson, Tara Neville, Tadj Oreszczyn, Fereidoon Owfi, Olivia Pearman, David Pencheon, Dung Phung, Steve Pye, Ruth Quinn, Mahnaz Rabbaniha, Elizabeth Robinson, Joacim Rocklöv, Jan C Semenza, Jodi Sherman, Joy Shumake-Guillemot, Meisam Tabatabaei, Jonathon Taylor, Joaquin Trinanes, Paul Wilkinson, Anthony Costello, Peng Gong, Hugh Montgomery, The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate. Lancet 2019; 394: 1836-1878 (43 p.)[formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "The data published here elucidate the ongoing trends of a warming world with effects that threaten human wellbeing. As the fourth hottest year on record, 2018 saw a record-breaking 220 million additional exposures to extremes of heat, coupled with corresponding increased vulnerability to heat across every continent. As a result of this and broader climatic changes, vectorial capacity for the transmission of dengue fever was the second highest recorded, with 9 of the past 10 most suitable years occurring since 2000. Progress in mitigation and adaptation remains insufficient, with the carbon intensity of the energy system remaining flat; 2-9 million ambient air pollution deaths; and a reversal of the previous downward trend of coal use."

Isfort, 16º Rapporto sulla mobilità degli italiani. Roma, 27 novembre 2019. Presentazione, 19 slides [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Koichi Sakai, MaaS trends and policy-level initiatives in the EU. IATSS Research (2019) (in press), 9 p. [formato PDF, 617 kB]. Open Access. "The concept of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) was conceived in Finland, and it is characteristically user-oriented. Interest in MaaS has quickly spread across Europe along with the rapid advances in information and communications technology and the internet of things in recent years, as the realization of MaaS is consistent with the policy directions of the EU member states promoting the use of public transport. This paper describes the MaaS concept in EU, the birth of the concept in Finland and its background, and EU-wide policy level initiatives and their characteristics."

Claudio Carlini, Diana Moneta, Preliminary Economic Assessment for Electric Buses Adoption in the Italian Framework. AEIT International Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 18-20 September 2019. Presentation, 12 slides [formato PDF, 3,00 MB]. E-buses in the Italian framework & case studies.

Nikolaos Gavanas, Autonomous Road Vehicles: Challenges for Urban Planning in European Cities. Urban Sci. 2019, 3(2), 61, 13 p. [formato PDF, 254 kB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles will significantly affect mobility conditions in the future. The changes in mobility conditions are expected to have an impact on urban development and, more specifically, on location choices, land use organisation and infrastructure design. Nowadays, there is not enough data for a real-life assessment of this impact. Experts estimate that autonomous vehicles will be available for uptake in the next decade. Therefore, urban planners should consider the possible impacts from autonomous vehicles on cities and the future challenges for urban planning. In this context, the present paper focuses on the challenges from the implementation of autonomous road vehicles for passenger transport in European cities. The analysis is based on a systematic review of research and policy. The main outcome of the analysis is a set of challenges for urban planning regarding the features of urban development, the local and European policy priorities, the current lack of data for planning and the potential for autonomous vehicles to be used by planners as data sources. The paper concludes that tackling these challenges is essential for the full exploitation of the autonomous vehicles' potential to promote sustainable urban development."

Joseph Hollingsworth, Brenna Copeland and Jeremiah X Johnson (North Carolina State University), Are e-scooters polluters? The environmental impacts of shared dockless electric scooters. Environ. Res. Lett. 14 084031 (2019), 10 p. [formato PDF, 961 kB]. Open Access. "Shared stand-up electric scooters are now offered in many cities as an option for short-term rental, and marketed for short-distance travel. Using life cycle assessment, we quantify the total environmental impacts of this mobility option associated with global warming, acidification, eutrophication, and respiratory impacts. We find that environmental burdens associated with charging the e-scooter are small relative to materials and manufacturing burdens of the e-scooters and the impacts associated with transporting the scooters to overnight charging stations. The results of a Monte Carlo analysis show an average value of life cycle global warming impacts of 202 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile, driven by materials and manufacturing (50%), followed by daily collection for charging (43% of impact). We illustrate the potential to reduce life cycle global warming impacts through improved scooter collection and charging approaches, including the use of fuel-efficient vehicles for collection (yielding 177 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), limiting scooter collection to those with a low battery state of charge (164 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), and reducing the driving distance per scooter for e-scooter collection and distribution (147 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile). The results prove to be highly sensitive to e-scooter lifetime; ensuring that the shared e-scooters are used for two years decreases the average life cycle emissions to 141 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile. Under our Base Case assumptions, we find that the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with e-scooter use is higher in 65% of our Monte Carlo simulations than the suite of modes of transportation that are displaced. This likelihood drops to 35%-50% under our improved and efficient e-scooter collection processes and only 4% when we assume two-year e-scooter lifetimes. When e-scooter usage replaces average personal automobile travel, we nearly universally realize a net reduction in environmental impacts."

Raphael Hoerler, Fabian Haerri and Merja Hoppe, New Solutions in Sustainable Commuting - The Attitudes and Experience of European Stakeholders and Experts in Switzerland. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 220 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as 'enablers' for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative solutions like carsharing, Mobility as a Service, or autonomous vehicles, relevant stakeholders were identified for three European case studies. Their perspectives and openness towards trends and new solutions were researched in an online survey. In addition, five expert interviews and two workshops in Switzerland deepened the understanding of how new mobility services could be incorporated into companies through mobility management. Results reflect a strong distinction of stakeholders by their national borders and responsibilities. As new mobility technologies and solutions require collaboration, the acts of supporting strong cross-border and cross-disciplinary cooperation, as well as developing joint interests and work processes beyond traditional ones, are suggested as important starting points. The study reveals a high openness of important stakeholders towards new mobility services and discusses the experience of experts in company mobility management."

Sally Cairns and Lynn Sloman, Potential for e-cargo bikes to reduce congestion and pollution from vans in cities. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. "Cargo bikes and electrically-assisted cargo bikes have significant potential to replace vans in urban areas, and to help reduce congestion and pollution. Scale and nature of the opportunity. Vans (light goods vehicles) already account for about 15% of motorised vehicle miles in urban areas in Britain, and rapid growth of van traffic is a cause of worsening traffic congestion. In large cities, up to a quarter (25%) of all traffic may be trips by delivery and service companies in vans, cars and lorries, according to European research. Estimates suggest about 10-30% of trips by delivery and service companies might be substitutable by (e-)cargo bikes. The potential is likely to be greater in areas where traffic is restricted, for reasons such as poor air quality. Taken together, these figures suggest that there is potential for traffic mileage in urban areas to be reduced by about 1.5-7.5%, if (e-)cargo bikes took over from delivery and service vehicles for suitable trips. E-cargo bikes are particularly suitable for dense urban areas, where there is a high concentration of suitable delivery work and individual trips are short. In some cases, use of e-cargo bikes might be a straight switch; in others, it could involve reorganisation of supply chains, including use of micro-consolidation centres, with (e-)cargo bikes used for the last part of the deliveries. The mail and parcel delivery sector has received the greatest attention. However, there is also significant potential for the use of (e-)cargo bikes for delivery of both food and non-food items, by tradesmen and service providers, by public sector workers, and (for smaller items) by the construction industry. There is also substantial potential for use of (e-)cargo bikes for personal journeys, in particular for shopping and transporting children. Benefits of (e-)cargo bikes. (E-)cargo bikes take up less road-space than conventional vans, and can often make use of cycle lanes. When making deliveries, their smaller size also means that they can be conveniently parked. Vans emit over 30% of all NOx and particulates from road vehicle exhausts, and so replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes disproportionately improves air quality. Replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes also reduces emissions of greenhouse gases. Vans in the parcel and delivery sector may each emit more than 10 tonnes of CO2 per year. Trials by DHL, where two vans are replaced by a 'City Hub' and four e-cargo bikes, are estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by 16 tonnes p.a.. In Maastricht, four companies that replaced a conventional van with an e-cargo bike saved more than a tonne of CO2 in six months. In London, a butcher that began using an e-cargo bike instead of a van whenever possible was able to reduce CO2 emissions by 75%. (E-)cargo bikes are also efficient. They can take shorter, faster routes (using cycle and bus lanes, or being wheeled through pedestrianised areas); they are easier to park and so deliveries can be made more quickly; and they are cheaper to buy, insure and repair than vans. Restaurants using e-cargo bikes to deliver take-away meals report that it is easier to recruit riders than van drivers or moped riders. Measures to encourage take-up of (e-)cargo bikes In Europe, use of e-cargo bikes is growing fast, but in the UK, numbers are small. The recent grants for (e-)cargo bikes announced by the Department for Transport should encourage take-up. Similar (e-)cargo bike grants at national and city level in other European countries have been successful. However, grants are unlikely to be enough on their own. The government could also set up Sustainable Freight Demonstration Towns to show how e-cargo bikes work and how much difference they can make when used on a large scale."

Carey Newson and Lynn Sloman, The Case for a UK Incentive for E-bikes. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 25 p. [formato PDF, 676 kB]. "Numerous evaluations demonstrate that e-bikes support physical activity. They have broader appeal than conventional bikes, including to older people, women, and those who are less active, as well as to the young, men and the physically active. Sales of e-bikes in Belgium and the Netherlands are 20 times greater, per head of population, than they are in Britain. Sales in Sweden, Germany and Austria are between 7 and 14 times higher per head of population than in Britain. A main reason for the greater popularity of e-bikes in these countries is that national and regional or local governments have offered grants to incentivise purchase of e-bikes. These grants have raised awareness of e-bikes as an option. Evaluation of e-bike grant schemes in various countries found that typically, around half (40-60%) of e-bike trips replaced car trips, although the proportion can be as low as 16% or as high as 70% depending on local conditions and previous travel patterns. Results from individual countries showed that: About 40% of those who received a grant to buy an e-bike subsequently reduced their car use for commuting, shopping and leisure trips (Austria); People who received a grant increased the distance they cycled from an average of 200km per year before buying an e-bike to 1,400km per year afterwards, and reduced the distance they travelled by car by 660km per year (France); Sales of e-bikes in Sweden jumped from 12% to 19% of all bike sales in a single year (from 2016/17 to 2017/18), and this was attributed to the national grants programme. E-bikes are used for longer journeys than conventional bikes, and therefore have significant potential to reduce carbon emissions from transport. An e-bike grant scheme would be more than twice as effective, per pound spent, as the current grants offered to buyers of some electric cars: for example, over five years the cost per kg of CO2 saved by an e-bike grant scheme would be 42 pence, compared to 88 pence per kg of CO2 saved by an electric car grant used to buy a Tesla Model S."

David R. Ragland, Kara E. MacLeod, Tracy McMillan, Sarah Doggett, Grace Felschundneff (University of California), Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population. Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, April 2019, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "The mobility needs of an aging population is one of the most substantial challenges facing California in the coming decades. The number of residents age 65 and older is expected to double between 2012 and 2050, and the number age 85 and above is expected to increase by over 70% between 2010 and 2030. Declines in physical function related to age may reduce mobility options dramatically. A survey of 510 residents age 55 and older in Contra Costa County was conducted to determine mobility patterns and limitations related to age and other factors. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of seniors are car dependent. However, some older adults miss important activities due to mobility limitations associated with increasing age, poorer health, living alone, not having a licensed driver in the household, and having a disability. Mobility options are also limited in some geographic areas and demographic groups. Importantly, older adults want to "age in place". Based on these findings and those in related studies, the travel options and the quality of life for older adults, now and in the future, can be greatly enhanced if efforts are made to develop mobility solutions beyond use of private vehicles. The findings support the recommendations of recent regional plans such as the Coordinated Public Transit-Human Services Transportation Plan (2018), adopted by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) of the San Francisco Bay Area, which recommends supporting a range of mobility options centered around shared mobility and accessibility for populations at risk for limited mobility."

Transport & Environment, One corporation to pollute them all. Luxury cruise air emissions in Europe. Transport & Environment, Brussels, June 2019, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The main purpose of this study is to analyse air pollution caused by luxury passenger cruise ships in European waters. The results show that the luxury cruise brands owned by Carnival Corporation & PLC emitted in 2017 in European seas alone 10 times more disease-causing sulphur oxide than all of Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Norway are the most exposed countries to cruise ship air pollution in Europe. Among the major cruise ports, Barcelona, Palma Mallorca and Venice are the most polluted. Analysis also reveals that even in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), where the most stringent marine sulphur fuel standard is mandated, air pollution from cruise ships remains of great concern. In Denmark, for example, whose coasts are entirely within SECAs, cruise ships emitted 18 times more SOX in 2017 than all 2.5 million passenger vehicles in a year. This is a reflection of both the effectiveness of the fuel quality directive for road transport fuels and the failure to implement equivalent standards for the shipping industry. Ships SOX will still remain considerably large compared to passenger car fleet even after the introduction of the global 2020 marine sulphur cap. When it comes to nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, cruise ships are also of great concern despite the air pollution impact of the ongoing land-based "dieselgate" in Europe. In Denmark again, 107 cruise ships analysed emitted as much NOX in the Danish maritime economic exclusive zone (EEZ) as half the passenger cars operating in the country itself. This report recommends a zero-emission berth standard for all European ports. In addition, extra stringent air pollution standards are recommended to apply to cruise ships. These ships usually operate close to the coast with long port calls at major tourist destinations, hence disproportionately affecting air quality. Initially, it is recommended to extend the emission control areas, currently in place in the North and Baltic Seas, to the rest of the EU seas and to tighten marine SECA standard in Europe to 10ppm, equivalent to fuel used in road transport. The report also suggests that cruise ships, the industry's public-facing luxury segment, be looked up and targeted as first-movers in regulations to decarbonise the sector. So, in addition to a zero-emission berth standard, cruise ships should also be the first required to switch to zero emission propulsion in EU territorial waters."

Element Energy, Batteries on wheels: the role of battery electric cars in the EU power system and beyond. Element Energy, June 2019, 56 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. This report is produced under the Study on EV Batteries project, commissioned and funded by Transport & Environment, in collaboration with Renault-Nissan, ENEL, and Iberdrola. "European carmakers have jointly committed more than €130 billion to electrification in the coming years. This is a positive development, but if the rollout of electric vehicles is not properly managed - via uncontrolled grid connections or unsustainable use and sourcing of materials - challenges will arise, reducing the environmental benefits and creating new problems. The report, published alongside T&E's briefing: estimates the expected uptake of EVs and the volumes of batteries available for grid services during the vehicle life, as well as second-life applications and recycling at the end of vehicle life; studies the impact of EV integration on EU grids and renewables penetration, with case studies of France, Spain, Italy and the UK; analyses the economics around innovative second-life applications of batteries and presents a number of promising case studies; and assesses challenges and opportunities around battery recycling, as well as what is needed to spur circular economy markets in Europe. T&E's short briefing accompanies the Element Energy report; it provides additional analysis and policy recommendations in view of the new European Commission and upcoming legislative opportunities."

EASAC, Decarbonisation of transport: options and challenges. EASAC policy report 37. EASAC Secretariat (European Academies' Science Advisory Council), Halle (Saale), March 2019, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "This EASAC report reviews options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from European transport. It argues for stronger policies to bridge the gap between the GHG emission reductions that will be delivered by current policies and the levels needed to limit global warming to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C (Paris Agreement). The report focusses on road transport because, in the EU, this contributes 72% of transport GHG emissions. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Opportunities for the EU to strengthen its industrial competitiveness and create high quality jobs are also discussed."

Federica Aldighieri (ISPRA), Ridurre le emissioni climalteranti: indicazioni operative e buone pratiche per gli Enti Locali. Quaderni Ambiente e Società 20/2019. ISPRA, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, 2019, 101 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "Le politiche per affrontare i Cambiamenti Climatici sono principalmente la mitigazione e l'adattamento. Questa pubblicazione si concentra sulla mitigazione, cioè l'abbattimento delle emissioni di gas serra o gas climalteranti. Tra i protagonisti di questo indispensabile e non più rimandabile impegno ci sono sicuramente le città e gli Enti Locali in generale, cui la pubblicazione si rivolge. Vengono affrontati tre settori sui quali le città hanno la possibilità di intervenire: la mobilità urbana (capitoli 2 e 3), il risparmio di energia (capitolo 4 e 5) e la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili (capitolo 6 e 7). I capitoli per ogni settore sono due: il primo fornisce una panoramica delle azioni possibili e degli strumenti a disposizione di un Ente Locale per abbattere le emissioni di gas serra; il secondo una selezione di buone pratiche cui ispirarsi. Sia il primo che il secondo capitolo di ogni settore hanno un approccio operativo fornendo link e pubblicazioni utili per entrare in azione. La pubblicazione si rivolge agli amministratori e i dipendenti degli Enti Locali. Potrebbe essere inoltre utile per i soggetti coinvolti dagli Enti Locali nei processi di partecipazione alle politiche decisionali. Precede un capitolo (capitolo 1) in cui si spiega che la pubblicazione intende partire dai "numeri" delle emissioni climalteranti in Italia, con facili tabelle in cui si riportano i dati concreti. La tabella guida aprirà ogni capitolo evidenziando di volta in volta il peso delle emissioni derivanti dal relativo settore a livello nazionale: i trasporti, lo spreco di energia, e la produzione di energia. Anche se la tabella non sarà uno strumento di lavoro per i lettori essi però potranno pesare con i propri occhi il contributo effettivo alle emissioni di gas serra del settore specifico e virtualmente sentirne il peso."

European Environment Agency, Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2017 and inventory report 2019. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. EEA Report No 6/2019. (EEA/PUBL/2019/051). Copenhagen, 27 May 2019, 962 p. [formato PDF, 15,4 MB + 5 additional files (annexes)]. "Total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU) increased by 0.7 % in 2017, according to latest official data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Less coal was used to produce heat and electricity but this was offset by higher industrial and transport emissions, the latter increasing for the fourth consecutive year. total greenhouse gas emissions (including international aviation) rose by 0.7 % in 2017 compared with 2016. These official data confirm the preliminary estimates published by the EEA in October 2018. From 1990 to 2017, the EU reduced its net greenhouse gas emissions by 21.7 %. The EU is therefore still exceeding its 20 % reduction target set for 2020. EU greenhouse gas emissions have decreased since 1990 as a combined result of policies, economic and structural factors and, on average, milder winters (requiring less energy for heating). The largest emission cuts have been made in the energy sector, due to efficiency improvements, increased use of renewables and a less carbon intensive mix of fossil fuels - more gas, and less coal and oil. Energy efficiency and renewable energy will continue to play a key role in cutting future emissions and helping the EU achieve its 40 % reduction target by 2030."

Transport & Environment, Emissions reduction strategies for the transport sector in Italy. A report produced under the framework of the EUKI project. Transport & Environment, Brussels, January 2019, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "Transport is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Italy. In contrast to the industry and public electricity and heating sectors, transport emissions are still just above 1990 levels, but emissions from international shipping and aviation have doubled in the same time. In the context of needing to be decarbonised by the mid-century under the Paris Agreement, this trend needs to be rapidly reversed. Italy is already experiencing amplified climate change and warming compared to Europe. The objective of this report is to show how Italy can decrease their transport emissions from a broad range of European and national measures. In particular, the report focuses on reductions in road transport emissions that fall under the jurisdiction of the European Climate Action Regulation, which enforces a 33% emissions reduction target in 2030 compared to 2005. Finally, policy recommendations are presented to enable Italy to meet the most ambitious targets. The effect of mitigating measures such as vehicle efficiency standards, modal shift, and demand reduction, among many others, are calculated using Transport & Environment's in-house transport model, the EUTRM. The main results of the scenarios investigated are shown below. Crucially, Italy can meeits 2030 targets as long as ambitious vehicle standards, electrification, and national measures are implemented."

Andrew R. Goetz, Serena Alexander, Urban Goods Movement and Local Climate Action Plans: Assessing Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Freight Transportation. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, April 2019, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This report examines how freight transport/goods movement has been addressed in U.S. city climate action planning. Transportation generally is a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and freight transport represents a growing component of transportation's share. Almost all climate action plans (CAPs) address transportation generally, but we wished to focus on efforts to reduce GHG emissions from freight transport specifically. We analyzed 27 advanced local CAPs to determine the degree to which freight transport was targeted in goals and strategies to reduce GHG emissions. We found only six CAPs that included direct measures or programs to reduce freight emissions. Many of the CAPs mentioned general transportation objectives such as lowering vehicle miles traveled or reducing emissions from city-owned vehicle fleets, but most did not include strategies or actions that explicitly targeted freight transport. We identified the specific strategies and actions that cities are taking to address GHG emissions from freight transport, such as working with the freight community to promote anti-idling and encourage transitions to electric and alternative fuel delivery vehicles. We also analyzed freight transport plans relevant for the same cities, and found that most do not explicitly mention reducing GHG emissions. Most of the freight plans are focused on improving reliability and efficiency of freight movement, which would likely have the ancillary benefit of reducing GHG emissions, but that goal was not explicitly targeted in most of these plans. Based on our findings, we recommend that cities specifically target freight transport goals and strategies in their CAPs and better coordinate with planners developing freight transport plans to identify GHG emission reduction approaches."

Gregory D. Erhardt, Sneha Roy, Drew Cooper, Bhargava Sana, Mei Chen and Joe Castiglione, Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion?. Science Advances 2019;5:eaau2670 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. Open Access. "This research examines whether transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, live up to their stated vision of reducing congestion in major cities. Existing research has produced conflicting results and has been hampered by a lack of data. Using data scraped from the application programming interfaces of two TNCs, combined with observed travel time data, we find that contrary to their vision, TNCs are the biggest contributor to growing traffic congestion in San Francisco. Between 2010 and 2016, weekday vehicle hours of delay increased by 62% compared to 22% in a counterfactual 2016 scenario without TNCs. The findings provide insight into expected changes in major cities as TNCs continue to grow, informing decisions about how to integrate TNCs into the existing transportation system."

Rocío Rodríguez Quintero, Candela Vidal-Abarca Garrido, Hans Moons, Miguel Gama Caldas, Oliver Wolf (JRC), Ian Skinner (TEPR), Anouk van Grinsven, Maarten 't Hoen, Huib van Essen (CE Delft), Revision of the EU green public procurement criteria for transport. Technical report and criteria proposal. JRC Science for Policy report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, 155 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Public authorities' expenditures in the purchase of goods, services and works (excluding utilities and defence) constitute approximately 14% of the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Europe, accounting for roughly EUR 1.8 trillion annually. Thus, public procurement has the potential to provide significant leverage in seeking to influence the market and to achieve environmental improvements in the public sector. This effect can be particularly significant for goods, services and works (referred to collectively as products) that account for a high share of public purchasing combined with the substantial improvement potential for environmental performance. The European Commission has identified (road) transport as one such product group. Road transport covers a wide scope of vehicles (cars, LCVs, L-category vehicles, buses and waste collection vehicles) and services (mobility services, public bus services, waste collection services and post and courier services). The main environmental issues at the use phase addressed by the criteria are GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions and noise emissions. The impacts from the manufacture of batteries used in electric vehicle are also considered, leading to criteria on minimum and extended warranty of batteries. This revision has coincided with the evaluation of the Clean Vehicle Directive and the introduction of new test procedures to measure CO 2 and air pollutant emissions of vehicles (WLTP, Real Driving Emissions in Euro 6). All these policies have been taken into account in the revision process of the EU GPP criteria for transport, to ensure a full harmonisation of the EU policies."

a cura di Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti, Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città e aree metropolitane 2017-2018. Rapporto MobilitAria 2019. 2° Rapporto Kyoto Club, CNR IIA, in collaborazione con OPMUS ISFORT. Istituto sull'inquinamento atmosferico del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Cnr-Iia) e Kyoto Club, Roma, aprile 2019, 152 p. [formato PDF, 10,9 MB]. "MobilitAria 2019 è il secondo rapporto realizzato dal gruppo di lavoro Mobilità sostenibile di Kyoto Club e dagli esperti di CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) con una inedita collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT. Il rapporto delinea un quadro complessivo sull'andamento della qualità dell'aria e delle politiche di mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città e aree metropolitane italiane nel periodo 2017-2018. Ricordiamo che il primo Rapporto 2018 aveva analizzato le stesse città per il decennio 2006-2016. Uno sguardo critico è dedicato alla parte trasporti del Piano Nazionale Energia e Clima, la proposta presentata di recente dal Governo italiano, di cui è avviata la consultazione pubblica. La vera novità contenuta nel rapporto 2019 è la collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT, che ha elaborato e commentato una indagine sulla mobilità nelle 14 aree metropolitane, con dati inediti. Seguono due specifici contributi: uno di T&E che approfondisce la strategia europea per la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti al 2030 e al 2050, con gli obiettivi di riduzione dei gas serra e per diventare fossil free: una sfida immane e necessaria che deve vedere le città protagoniste. Segue un contributo di TRT Trasporti e Territorio, che ha effettuato sulla base del modello MOMOS, una simulazione sulla mobilità elettrica e i suoi effetti in quattro grandi città metropolitane al 2030. La seconda parte del rapporto è ricca di dati sulla mobilità urbana di ogni grande città e le tendenze del biennio con l'inserimento dei nuovi dati e le tendenze sulla mobilità nelle aree metropolitane. I dati sono corredati da una puntale ricognizione dei provvedimenti di mobilità e le azioni concrete realizzate da ogni grande città nel biennio 2017 e 2018. Tra gli elementi considerati vi è anche lo stato di attuazione dei PUMS sia a livello metropolitano che di ogni singola città. Vengono approfonditi i dati di qualità dell'aria delle 14 città nel biennio 2017 e 2018 e lo stato della qualità dell'aria delle singole stazioni cittadine per l'anno 2018. Completa il Rapporto un set di proposte verso la mobilita sostenibile, la sicurezza stradale e la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti, elaborate di Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA."

Marcin Szamatowicz and Joshua Paundra (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Access or Ownership? The effect of car attributes and collective psychological ownership on the preference for car subscription services. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 2019, Vol. 2(1): 159-173 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 397 kB]. Open Access. "The variety of alternative transportation services for urban commuters continues to expand with the introduction of car subscription services. Under the header of the sharing economy, car subscription services enable drivers to have access to cars without ownership for a relatively longer time period (e.g. months), when compared to other sharing economy based transportation services. Based on a mixed of between- and within-subject design online experiment involving 274 participants, this study investigates this novel service by looking at the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership to various traditional and upcoming subscribed car features namely, mileage limit, price, self-driving capability, and advance safety systems, on people's preference for car subscription services. Results suggested that these features significantly impacted people's preference for subscribed car. Collective psychological ownership was found to moderate the influence of self-driving capability and advance safety systems. That is, high collective psychological ownership individuals preferred subscribed car with self-driving capability or had more concerned to the unavailability of advance safety systems in a subscribed car. This study points to the need for car subscription companies to consider traditional (price and mileage limit) as well as upcoming (self-driving capability and advance safety systems) features, when offering their services and enticing potential users. More importantly, the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership on these upcoming car features means car subscription companies should account for people's psychological disposition to their own vehicle when considering additional car features to effectively attract new users."

Ana MarÍa Manzur Tirado, Rowan Brown, Osiris A. Valdez Banda, Risk and safety management of autonomous systems: a literature review and initial proposals for the maritime industry. (Aalto University publication series SCIENCE + TECHNOLOGY, 1/2019). Aalto University, School of Engineeering, Marine Technology, 2019, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Maritime autonomous systems pose many challenges to their designers. A fully autonomous vessel must be able to handle everyday navigation and propulsion in addition to an extensive list of other tasks such as cargo handling, emergency manoeuvering, ship-ship and ship-shore communications, situational awareness, and much more. If such systems are to be implemented for the sake of increased safety, their operational risk and safety must be managed and assured. The goal of this report is to investigate how risk and safety of these systems can and should be managed. There are three categories of system modelling methods that can be used for this purpose. The oldest category is "sequential methods", followed chronologically by the most popular category, called "epidemiological methods", and then by the newest category, called "systemic methods". This report first contains an overview of these three categories. Following this is a literature review that investigates the approaches to risk and safety management of autonomous systems that are taken within four transportation industries (aviation, railway, automotive, and maritime). Next are three SWOT analyses, one for each category of methods. Within these analyses there contains the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats presented by or towards each method. For the role of autonomous maritime systems, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that STPA (a systemic method) is the optimal choice (if one method that current exists is to be used). This is because it is a comprehensive method that can handle complex socio-technical systems, such as those in question, while providing useful safety improvement recommendations. However, no single method is better than every other in all situations, and STPA presents certain limitations and drawbacks. First, it is very resource heavy, demanding long time investments from expert personnel. Second, because few data on the proposed systems exist, it is very difficult to conclusively recommend a suitable method. Therefore, if practitioners decide to employ STPA, they should be open to considering other methods in case they can yield better results. Finally, STPA (and other systemic methods) cannot currently yield accident probabilities. This means that STPA, in its current form, is unable to entirely satisfy the IMO's FSA, which is important for the future of autonomous ships. Conversely, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that methods that can satisfy the FSA are unsafe for this application. This is because they are too theoretically simplistic and not comprehensive enough to produce trustworthy results. To solve this issue, one of the following should take place: (a) STPA (or another systemic method) is augmented to include probabilistic abilities; (b) STPA (or another systemic method) is combined with a sequential method to achieve the benefits of both categories (e.g. comprehensive and probabilistic results); or (c) a new systemic method is created that provides the depth of analysis of STPA as well as the required probabilistic capabilities. However, barring the FSA issue, the enclosed analysis indicates that the optimal choice is a systemic method (specifically STPA) despite its heavy burden to resources. This may seem like a cavalier recommendation, but it is the most comprehensive method and it produces the most safety improvement recommendations, thereby making it the optimal choice. It is additionally recommended that system analysis is performed from the design concept stage through to system operation, regardless of the method chosen. This is so that the analysis can be improved as more system data are produced."

Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Folęga (Silesian University of Technology), Impact of Road Transport Means on Climate Change and Human Health in Poland. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 31, 2019, No. 2, 195-204 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 380 kB]. Open Access. "Operation of means of transport is one of major sources of environmental impact. The goal of this article was to analyse the greenhouse gas emissions and to assess the impact of operation of means of road transport in Poland on human health using the life cycle assessment technique based on an analysis of emission of dust and gas pollutants. Road transport was assessed by taking the following means of transport into account: passenger cars, other cars with weight of up to 3,500 kg, lorries, buses, motorcycles, mopeds and tractors. The analysis covered various dust and gas pollutants, including the emission of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, NOx, NMVOC, PM and SO2. Using the IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment method, transport was assessed in a breakdown into the following impact categories: greenhouse gas emission and damage to human health, including damage caused by organic and inorganic compounds. It has been evidenced that the highest emissions of dust and gas pollutants are caused by passenger cars, which is mainly due to the number of vehicles of this type traversing Polish roads. The main cause of climate changes due to road transport is CO2 emission, while NOx emission is the main factor determining individual categories of damage to human health. The negative environmental impact is primarily related to the operation of combustion engine vehicles. Diesel oil and petrol are currently the main fuels used in Polish transport. In order to reduce their impact on the environment one should intensify the efforts aimed at increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport."

Erling Holden, Geoffrey Gilpin and David Banister, Sustainable Mobility at Thirty. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1965 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "It is now almost three decades since the concept of 'sustainable mobility' first appeared in the 1992 EU Green Paper on the Impact of Transport on the Environment. This paper reviews the literature and reflects on how societies' understanding and interpretation of the concept of sustainable mobility has evolved. We track this evolution over six dimensions: research and policy, transport impacts and categories, scientific disciplines, methodological approach, and research questions. From this review we assert that the mainstream understanding and interpretation of sustainable mobility can be grouped into four generations of studies. The first generation of studies (1992-1993) were techno-centric and focused on how to limit transport's negative environmental impacts by improving then-existing technology. The second, third and fourth generations of studies (1993-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2018 respectively) increasingly acknowledge the limitations of preceding efforts to achieve sustainable mobility, and open for a more diverse set of alternatives. These studies have gradually become more interdisciplinary in nature-reflecting the inter-relatedness of mobility with all other aspects of society. We conclude that despite the ensuing elevation of mobility into the holistic picture society, we still have not achieved a sustainable mobility system. Furthermore, what is much needed now, more than ever, is a bold set of new narratives."

Kobe Boussauw, Thomas Vanoutrive, Flying Green from a Carbon Neutral Airport: The Case of Brussels. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2102 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "The aviation sector is one of the fastest growing emitters of greenhouse gases worldwide. In addition, airports have important local environmental impacts, mainly in the form of noise pollution and deterioration in air quality. Although noise nuisance in the vicinity of airports is recognized as an important problem of the urban environment which is often addressed by regulation, other environmental problems associated with aviation are less widely acknowledged. In the climate debate, the importance of which is rising, aviation has remained under the radar for decades. In the present paper, we use the case of Brussels Airport (Belgium) to demonstrate that the local perception of air travel-related environmental problems may be heavily influenced by the communication strategy of the airport company in question. Basing our analysis on publicly available data, communication initiatives, media reports, and policy documents, we find that (1) the noise impact of aviation is recognized and mainly described in an institutionalized format, (2) the impact of aviation on local air quality is ignored, and (3) the communication on climate impact shows little correspondence or concern with the actual effects. These findings are relevant for other airports and sectors, since the type of environmental communication produced by airport companies can also be observed elsewhere."

Elisabetta Cornago, Alexandros Dimitropoulos, Walid Oueslati, Evaluating the Impact of Urban Road Pricing on the Use of Green Transport Modes: The Case of Milan. OECD Environment Working Papers No. 143, OECD Publishing, Paris. 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of congestion pricing on the demand for clean transport modes. To this end, it draws on an empirical analysis of the effect of Milan's congestion charge on the use of bike sharing. The analysis indicates that congestion pricing increases daily bike-sharing use by at least 5% in the short term. Extending the schedule of the congestion charge in the early evening increases bike-sharing use in the affected time window by 12%. The impact of the policy on bike-sharing use mainly occurs through the reduction of road traffic congestion, which makes cycling safer and more pleasant. The findings of the study indicate that policies aiming to reduce car use also have positive repercussions on the uptake of green mobility options. Relying solely on direct incentives for cycling, which often involve infrastructure projects, is likely insufficient to remove barriers to bike use."

Ugo Fiore, Adrian Florea and Gilberto Pérez Lechuga, An Interdisciplinary Review of Smart Vehicular Traffic and Its Applications and Challenges. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8, 13 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of the hefty data volumes generated by sensors, and the coordinated operation between selfish agents. The purpose of this work is to survey recent literature with an emphasis on applications and a multidisciplinary eye, with the aim of stimulating discussion and reflection in the scientific communities. The principal application areas of smart traffic and smart mobility are discussed, synthesizing different perspectives. Many intriguing areas for future research exist besides those relative to connectivity, data fusion, and privacy. Some research challenges pertinent to sustainability, insurance, simulation and the handling of ambiguous information are highlighted."

José María Martín Martín, Jose Manuel Guaita Martínez, Valentín Molina Moreno and Antonio Sartal Rodríguez, An Analysis of the Tourist Mobility in the Island of Lanzarote: Car Rental Versus More Sustainable Transportation Alternatives. Sustainability 2019, 11, 739 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Studies have shown that certain modes of tourist development jeopardize the environment, as in the case of mass tourism, especially in areas that require special protection. The goal of this study is to apply a proposal for studying sustainability of tourist mobility to a protected space, the island of Lanzarote, which has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. This paper seeks to figure out the mobility patterns of tourists, the criterion used to select a mode of transportation, the attitude of tourists towards the sustainability of transport, and its environmental implications by analyzing secondary sources and interviewing tourists. The results show that the tourism model of the island is based on scattered natural resources that tourists want to enjoy in a tailor-made visit, which makes it hard to give up individual transportation. The only environmentally sustainable alternative is opting for electric vehicles with charging stations in the aforementioned tourist spots."

Tessa Kate Anderson, Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility. vehicles 2019, 1(1), 57-68 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and use. This study used a combination of in-depth surveys and interviews with all 61 Danish municipalities on their fleet PEV experience and use. By building on the literature, the paper offers a deeper understanding of decision-making pathways for the procurement of PEVs. PEVs were found to be most suited to certain departments and the acceptance and uptake of PEVs was found to be complex and not straightforward."

Yingnan Jia, Ding Ding, Klaus Gebel, Lili Chen, Sen Zhang, Zhicong Ma, Hua Fu, Effects of new dock-less bicycle-sharing programs on cycling: a retrospective study in Shanghai. BMJ Open 2019;9:e024280 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 420 kB]. Open Access.

Gruppo di Lavoro sulla valutazione dei progetti, Analisi costi-benefici del nuovo collegamento ferroviario Torino - Lione. Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 79 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Avv. Pucciariello, Relazione tecnico-giuridica (sulla nuova linea ferroviaria Alta Velocità/Alta Capacità Torino-Lione). Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 53 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB].

Cerema, Amphibiens et dispositifs de franchissement des infrastructures de transport terrestre. Cerema, Janvier 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 19,4 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques biologiques des amphibiens et des menaces qui pèsent sur ce groupe, le présent ouvrage précise les enjeux de protection et les impacts des infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT), en particulier les routes. Les infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT) font courir deux risques majeurs aux amphibiens : la fragmentation (disparition, diminution, dégradation et isolement des surfaces d'habitats favorables, extinction des petites populations) et la mortalité directe par les collisions. Divers dispositifs associés aux mesures "Eviter, Réduire, Compenser" (ERC) sont destinés à éviter l'impact ou le supprimer, atténuer ou réduire ces risques ou tenter de compenser les dommages. Cet ouvrage présente les dispositifs temporaires et permanents de protection des amphibiens, en particulier les "crapauduc" ou "batrachoduc"), et les principes de conception. Les méthodes de dénombrement, les mesures d'accompagnement, l'entretien et le suivi de l'efficacité de ces mesures, la pérennisation des corridors rétablis (politiques foncières) et quelques estimations de coût sont également abordés. Il s'adresse principalement aux concepteurs de ces installations et aux gestionnaires d'infrastructures mais également à tous les autres acteurs qu'ils appartiennent à des structures associatives ou institutionnelles intéressées et impliquées dans l'initiative et la mise en oeuvre de ces mesures."


Keith Bevis, Oycan Sozcu, Russell Fenner, Mobility as a Service: Early implementations in the UK. EEVConvention: Policies and Best Practice, Oslo Congress Center, Oslo, Norway, 25 Sep 2018, 15 p., [formato PDF, 648 kB]. "Mobility as a Service, MaaS, has been developing at a pace across Europe. While engaged in an InnovateUK project, MotionHub, to implement a MaaS scheme in a municipality in the South East England, the authors began to ask two fundamental questions; what is MaaS and to what extent is it materialising in the UK. From the experience of MotionHub, it is clear that UK implementations would be slow. Combining a number of web-based services and amalgamating their financial transactions is relatively straightforward. However, introducing the potential for public transport ticketing as well raises additional security, scale and financial constraints. Motion Hub has engaged with major players and regulators across the public transport industry. In its latter stages project was rolled out to the public. The various individual services became available from the single website via one membership application and the use of a single card. Other MaaS styled initiatives have been reviewed and it appears that there are just five other MaaS projects being trialled concurrently with MotionHub that provide journey planning and single point ticket purchase for multimodal journeys. A number of other initiatives provide just some aspects of MaaS. The project has also reviewed customer perceptions, suitability of various types of town to MaaS initiatives and the varying enthusiasm amongst local government officials. From these reviews it is clear that the MaaS uptake will be slow. However, reflecting on the theoretical discussions about Maas, there appears to be a significant gap between theory and practice In particular of the claimed benefits of de-congestion and reduced pollution seem to be some way off in the future. This is not a criticism of MotionHub and the other implementations, some of which are substantial investments. It is acknowledgement that the goal of seamless adaptive travel is an extremely ambitious one."

Cerema, Adapter la mobilité d'un territoire au changement climatique. Cerema, 2018, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Les changements du climat, déjà sensibles et amenés à s'amplifier à l'avenir, ont et auront des incidences importantes sur la mobilité des territoires. Destiné aux acteurs des territoires, le présent ouvrage propose dans un premier temps une démarche puis développe une méthode en quatre étapes. Après avoir posé quelques principes préalables de la démarche, la première étape de la méthode vise à délimiter le cadre temporel et spatial de la réflexion; la deuxième étape permet d'identifier les effets du changement climatique sur la mobilité à l'échelle du territoire, en s'appuyant sur neuf effets répertoriés; la troisième étape consiste à élaborer des scénarios sur la base de trois familles proposées; enfin, la quatrième étape précise le contenu du scénario choisi grâce à sept leviers opérationnels."

Liridona Sopjani, Jenny Janhager Stier, Sofia Ritzén, Mia Hesselgren, Peter Georén, Involving users and user roles in the transition to sustainable mobility systems: The case of light electric vehicle sharing in Sweden. Transportation Research Part D,, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "Low-carbon mobility alternatives, such as shared services integrating light electric vehicles, support transitions to sustainable transport systems. However, new products and services are not enough, as changes must also incorporate the practices of travelling, infrastructure, and mobility cultures in which users of mobility solutions are core stakeholders. This paper argues that user involvement is necessary in sustainable innovation processes but that the expected diversity of user roles and their involvement can also lead to contrasting outcomes for sustainable innovation transitions. Guided by theory in user involvement, this study investigated users and nonusers of light electric vehicles in a sharing mobility service system set up as living lab in two large workplaces in Sweden. Fifty-one interviews with employees at the workplaces were conducted during the implementation process and analysed combined with a questionnaire and data from system tracking through sensor technology. The paper finds that both users and non-users are co-creators in building momentum for sustainable mobility alternatives and provides a spectrum of user roles with defined characteristics. Four roles are distinguished within this spectrum: vigilant users, passive collaborators, active decision makers and ambassadors. We suggest that a convergent activation strategy is deployed for involving a full spectrum of users in order to capture their insights in ways that positively affect transition. Such a strategy addresses users and non-users as part of decision-making concerning alternatives and cultivates a culture of user collaboration, while also enabling a plurality of contributions in order to challenge existing regimes and established practices among individuals."

Konstantin Klemmer, Tobias Brandt, Stephen Jarvis, Isolating the effect of cycling on local business environments in London. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0209090 (2018) (31 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "We investigate whether increasing cycling activity affects the emergence of new local businesses. Historical amenity data from OpenStreetMap is used to quantify change in shop and sustenance amenity counts. We apply an instrumental variable framework to investigate a causal relationship and to account for endogeneity in the model. Measures of cycling infrastructure serve as instruments. The impact is evaluated on the level of 4835 Lower Super Output Areas in Greater London. Our results indicate that an increase in cycling trips significantly contributes to the emergence of new local shops and businesses. Limitations regarding data quality, zero-inflation and residual spatial autocorrelation are discussed. While our findings correspond to previous investigations stating positive economic effects of cycling, we advance research in the field by providing a new dataset of unprecedented high granularity and size. Furthermore, this is the first study in cycling research looking at business amenities as a measure of economic activity. The insights from our analysis can enhance understandings of how cycling affects the development of local urban economies and may thus be used to assess and evaluate transport policies and investments. Beyond this, our study highlights the value of open data in city research."

Heikki Liimatainen, Markus Pöllänen and Riku Viri (Tampere University of Technology), CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios. European Journal of Futures Research (2018) 6:22 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "The transport sector produces 23% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. While the mitigation of climate change requires GHG emissions to be drastically reduced, the emissions from the transport sector are expected to grow. The purpose of this study is to produce alternative scenarios which meet the target of 80% CO2 emission reduction by 2050 for the Finnish transport sector and to analyse the carbon abatement potentials, costs and benefits of the required behavioural and technological measures. We found that the most cost-efficient measure for the society is to support a shift from private car use to shared car use through increasing car-sharing and ride-sharing. Aiming to reach the emission reduction targets solely through technological measures would require a rapid uptake of alternative energies and the society would not receive the possible benefits, including health benefits, energy savings and fixed car cost savings."

Eckert Fritz, Johannes Klühspies, Roland Kircher, Michael Witt, Laurence E. Blow, Energy Consumption of Track-Based High-Speed Transportation Systems: Maglev Technologies in Comparison with Steel-Wheel-Rail. Research Series Volume 3. The International Maglev Board, November 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 869 kB]. Public Full-Text. "Energy consumption is an important criterion of the total operating costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, with maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Linear Shinkansen. From a scientific point of view, a fair and objective comparison is needed, without any distortion of results. Therefore, a comparison of energy values based on "normative usable areas" inside the high-speed systems will be introduced and evaluated in this paper. The results give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. But, as a whole, energy consumption cannot be seen as major advantage of high speed maglev systems over conventional steel-wheel-rail, when compared at same speeds."

Andrea Giuricin, Roberto Tosatti, The history of Italo and the benefits of competition in the Italian HSR sector. CESISP Working Paper N. 6. CESISP (Centro di Ricerca in Economia e Regolazione dei Servizi, dell'Industria e del Settore Pubblico), Università di Milano-Bicocca, 2018, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The purpose of this study, divided in three different parts, is to represent the evolution of the Italian high-speed railway (HSR) sector from the origin to the competition phase, focusing attention on the non-public competitor, Italo, recently became an American company. In the first part of the study will be provided a presentation about the liberalization of the Italian rail market under EU regulation. This theme will be address within a legal point of view. In the second part of the paper will be represent the evolution of the HSR sector in the country, from an infrastructural and economics point of view. In particular we will discuss about the development of the service until the competition phase. In the last part we will talk about the history of NTV and its service (Italo). We will talk about the origins and the current commercial situation. Lately we will analyse the results of its first 6 years of life, comparing the HSR sector before and after its entry and the benefits it produced."

Jessica E. Bourne, Sarah Sauchelli, Rachel Perry, Angie Page, Sam Leary, Clare England and Ashley R. Cooper, Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (2018) 15:116 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Open Access. "Background: Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have been highlighted as a method of active travel that could overcome some of the commonly reported barriers to cycle commuting. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the health benefits associated with e-cycling. Method: A systematic literature review of studies examining physical activity, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and psychological outcomes associated with e-cycling. Where possible these outcomes were compared to those from conventional cycling and walking. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists were searched up to November 2017. Hand searching occurred until June 2018. Experimental or observational studies examining the impact of e-cycling on physical activity and/or health outcomes of interest were included. E- bikes used must have pedals and require pedalling for electric assistance to be provided. Results: Seventeen studies (11 acute experiments, 6 longitudinal interventions) were identified involving a total of 300 participants. There was moderate evidence that e-cycling provided physical activity of at least moderate intensity, which was lower than the intensity elicited during conventional cycling, but higher than that during walking. There was also moderate evidence that e-cycling can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive individuals. Evidence of the impact of e-cycling on metabolic and psychological health outcomes was inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence was compromised by weak study design and quality. Conclusion: E-cycling can contribute to meeting physical activity recommendations and increasing physical fitness. As such, e-bikes offer a potential alternative to conventional cycling. Future research should examine the long-term health impacts of e-cycling using rigorous research designs."

Alessandro Panaro, Dario Ruggiero, Daniele Testi, Corridoi ed efficienza logistica dei territori. Risultati di un'indagine sulle imprese manifatturiere. SRM/Contship Italia, Melzo, dicembre 2018, 40 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. Report gratuito, necessaria la registrazione. Report online realizzato grazie al partenariato tra SRM e Contship Italia Group nell'ambito delle attività di ricerca dell'Osservatorio Permanente sull'Economia dei Trasporti Marittimi e della Logistica ( "Lo studio è il frutto di una survey, progettata e realizzata da SRM e Contship, con l'obiettivo di offrire una fotografia delle scelte logistiche di un panel di 400 imprese manifatturiere, localizzate in tre regioni che rappresentano poco più del 40% del PIL italiano e il 52,7% dell'interscambio commerciale totale del nostro Paese: Lombardia, Emilia Romagna e Veneto. L'indagine si concentra sui "corridoi" logistici utilizzati dalle imprese che utilizzano i container per trasportare le proprie merci, sulle modalità di trasporto usate per raggiungere le infrastrutture portuali dalla sede dell'impresa e viceversa, e sui porti italiani più utilizzati per raggiungere i mercati di destinazione."

Dieter Scholz (Hamburg University of Applied Sciences), Evaluating Aircraft with Electric and Hybrid Propulsion. Electric & Hybrid Aerospace Technology Symposium 2018, Cologne, Germany, 08.-09.11.2018, 73 slides [formato PDF, 5,3 MB]. "Purpose: This presentation takes a critical look at various electric air mobility concepts. With a clear focus on requirements and first principles applied to the technologies in question, it tries to bring inflated expectations down to earth. Economic, ecologic and social (noise) based well accepted evaluation principles are set against wishful thinking. Design/methodology/approach: Aeronautical teaching basics are complemented with own thoughts and explanations. In addition, the results of past research projects are applied to the topic. Findings: Electric air mobility may become useful in some areas of aviation. Small short-range general aviation aircraft may benefit from battery-electric or hybrid-electric propulsion. Urban air mobility in large cities will give time advantages to super-rich people, but mass transportation in cities will require a public urban transport system. Battery-electric passenger aircraft are neither economic nor ecologic. How overall advantages can be obtained from turbo-electric distributed propulsion (without batteries) is not clear. Maybe turbo-hydraulic propulsion has some weight advantages over the electric approach. Research limitations/implications: Research findings are from basic considerations only. A detailed evaluation of system principles on a certain aircraft platform may lead to somewhat different results. Practical implications: The discussion about electric air mobility concepts may get more factual. Investors may find some of the information provided easy to understand and helpful for their decision making. Social implications: How to tackle challenges of resource depletion and environment pollution is a social question. Better knowledge of the problem enables the public to take a firm position in the discussion. Originality/value: Holistic evaluation of electric air mobility has not much been applied yet. This presentation shows how to proceed."

Cláudia A. Soares Machado, Nicolas Patrick Marie de Salles Hue, Fernando Tobal Berssaneti and José Alberto Quintanilha, An Overview of Shared Mobility. Review. Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4342 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "In a wider understanding, shared mobility can be defined as trip alternatives that aim to maximize the utilization of the mobility resources that a society can pragmatically afford, disconnecting their usage from ownership. Then, shared mobility is the short-term access to shared vehicles according to the user's needs and convenience. The contributions and added value of this paper are to provide an up-to-date and well-structured review on the area of shared mobility to researchers and practitioners of the transport sector. Hence, this paper presents a bibliographical review of shared mobility and its diverse modalities, as an alternative to individual transportation, especially in cases of individual automobiles or short trips restricted to an urban city. The present literature review on shared modes of transportation has discovered that the introduction of these modes alone will not solve transportation problems in large cities, with elevated and growing motorization rates. However, it can among the strategies employed to help alleviate the problems caused by traffic jams and pollution by reducing the number of vehicles in circulation, congestions, and the urban emission of polluting gases. Thus, the implementation of shared mobility schemes offers the potential to enhance the efficiency, competitiveness, social equity, and quality of life in cities. This paper covers the fundamental aspects of vehicle and/or ride sharing in urban centers, and provides an overview of current shared mobility systems."

Luqi Wang, Barriers to Implementing Pro-Cycling Policies: A Case Study of Hamburg. Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4196 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. Open Access. "Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major barriers and removing them is critical. This study took an in-depth look at Hamburg which started a major cycling promotion in 2008. According to expert interviews and literature surveys, the author found that the major barriers are physical, political and institutional, and social and cultural. Specifically, the city lacks enough physical space, political support, and the evaluation of travel behavior and demand. Also, some private stakeholders are reluctant to give up on-street car parking space for cycling lanes, and the negotiation process is difficult and time-consuming. To overcome these barriers, Hamburg requires cycling-oriented urban design, a strategic and integrated cycling action plan, strong political support, and target group-oriented communication."

Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives. TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report. EEA Report No 13/2018. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2018, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The aims of this report are to: bring together existing evidence on the environmental impact of BEVs across the stages of their life cycle, undertaking where possible comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs); consider how a move to a circular economy could reduce these impacts."

Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola, Theo Notteboom, Towards low carbon global supply chains: a multi-trade analysis of CO2 emission reductions in container shipping. PortEconomics, Conference Paper for the International Association of Maritime Economists 2018 Conference (IAME2018), held 11-14 September 2018, Mombasa, Kenya, 20 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "How individual factors contribute to the carbon footprint associated with international maritime container supply chains? This is the key question of the latest port study co-authored by PortEconomics members Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola and Theo Notteboom. The authors advance their research providing four key contributions: Identify six key contributing factors to container shipping emissions; Develop a model to isolate the contribution of individual factors; Apply the model to long-term emissions associated to 187 container services deployed in 2007 and 170 services in 2016; Discuss how their results can be used by shippers/logistics service providers to design low-carbon global supply chains."

Kiron Chatterjee, Phil Goodwin, Tim Schwanen, Ben Clark, Juliet Jain, Steve Melia, Jennie Middleton, Anna Plyushteva, Miriam Ricci, Georgina Santos and Gordon Stokes, Young People's Travel - What's Changed and Why? Review and Analysis. Report to Department for Transport. The Centre for Transport & Society, UWE Bristol and Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford, January 2018, 86 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Young adults in Great Britain and other countries are driving less now than young adults did in the early 1990s. The Department for Transport (DfT) commissioned the Centre for Transport and Society (UWE, Bristol) and the Transport Studies Unit (University of Oxford) to carry out a systematic assessment of available evidence on the subject, both by review of UK and overseas published literature, and by new secondary analysis of existing UK data sets. The study sought to address the questions: In what ways have changes in young people's social and economic conditions, and lifestyles and attitudes impacted on their travel behaviour? How might those drivers, or other anticipated changes, be expected to impact their future travel demand? The evidence has been evaluated on the basis of an extensive review of both transport-specific and wider social science literature in the UK (and other countries where, despite national differences, the trends show many similar patterns), and new analysis of data from the National Travel Survey (NTS) (1995-2014), the Census (2001 and 2011) and Understanding Society (five waves from 2009/10 to 2013/14)."

E. Pisoni, P. Christidis, P. Thunis, M. Trombetti, Evaluating the impact of "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" on urban background air quality. Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 249-255 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Air quality in European cities is still a challenge, with various urban areas frequently exceeding the PM2.5 and NO2 concentration levels allowed by the European Union Air Quality Standards. This is a problem both in terms of legislation compliance, but also in terms of health of citizens, as it has been recently estimated that 400 to 450 thousand people die prematurely every year due to poor air quality. Air quality in cities can be improved with a number of interventions, at different sectoral (industry, traffic, residential, etc) and geographical (international, European, national, local, etc.) levels. In this paper we explore the potential of city level plans to improve mobility and air quality (excluding electro-mobility options, not considered in this study). We applied the "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" (SUMPs) framework to 642 cities in Europe and modelled how the measures they include may impact at first on mobility and emissions at urban level, and then on urban background concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. Results show that annual averages moderately improve for both pollutants, with reductions of urban background concentrations up to 2% for PM2.5 and close to 4% for NO2. The impact on NO2 at street level (that will be higher than on urban background) is not evaluated in this work. The air quality improvement of the simulated SUMP would only partially alleviate air quality problems in urban areas, but such a reduction in the emissions of air pollutants should still be considered as a positive result of SUMPs, given that they correspond to a set of low-cost measures that can be implemented at local level. Furthermore, the introduction of electro-mobility options (not considered here) would increase the impact on air quality. Other types of benefits, such as reduced fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, higher impact at street level or accident rates reduction further add to the overall positive impact."

Anne Durand, Lucas Harms, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Toon Zijlstra, Mobility-as-a-Service and changes in travel preferences and travel behaviour: a literature review. KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, The Hague, September 2018, 57 p. [formato PDF, 978 kB]. "Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), a transport concept integrating various mobility services into one single digital platform, elicits high expectations as a means of providing customised door-to-door transport solutions. To date, the frequent claims about the positive contributions MaaS will make towards achieving sustainability goals rely on a scattering of limited yet insightful research findings. Many research questions remain unanswered, however. Are people willing to accept MaaS as a new transport service (on a daily basis)? The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis looked for answers by means of an extensive research program."

Armando Cartenì, Maria Luisa De Guglielmo and Nicola Pascale, Congested Urban Areas with High Interactions Between Vehicular and Pedestrian Flows: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for a Sustainable Transport Policy in Naples, Italy. The Open Transportation Journal, 2018, Volume 12, 273-288 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. Open Access. " Introduction/Methods: A significant application of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan of Naples, in southern Italy, will be described with specific reference to design a sustainable transport scenario for one of the highest density and congested area of the city: Municipio square, in the centre of Naples, where the homonymous station of the Metro Line 1 was under construction. The particularity of this case study is that Municipio Square is a high dense population area characterized by multimodal traffic flows (vehicles and pedestrians) and a thousand of travellers who embark/disembark every day from the marina to the islands of the Naples Gulf (e.g. Capri, Ischia) and cruises around the Mediterranean Sea. Thousands of vehicles and people pass through the square every day, often slowing the vehicular flows. Starting from these considerations, a multi-scale modelling architecture (estimated ad-hoc for the specific case study) was proposed to better evaluate policy impacts (e.g., transport, social, environmental), applying both macroscopic and microscopic simulation models simultaneously to design a sustainable transport scenario in term of both geometrical and traffic solutions. Results: Six different design scenario were compared and the main results of the most significant one are described and discussed. The best project solution reduces the average travel time and the long queues thanks to a better distribution of the flows (both vehicles and pedestrians) in the broader area around of Municipio square. The simulation results also underlined the benefits for pedestrians related to the presence of different size of sidewalks and paths. Conclusion: Because of the realization of the new metro station will increase the pedestrian flows, the external layout of the square was designed, regarding infrastructures and paths, to minimize the conflicts and reduce the overall travel time. The proposed sustainable transport scenario was conceived in term of best geometrical devices and traffic solutions. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis was also proposed, according to the European guidelines, aiming in improving transport, urbanistic, artistic/cultural, aesthetic, economic and environmental aspects as well as liveability for citizens, transport users (public and private) and tourists."

Miguel Ángel Mozos-Blanco, Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), The way to sustainable mobility. A comparative analysis of sustainable mobility plans in Spain. Transport Policy 72 (2018) 45-54 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities and their evolution towards a more sustainable mobility represents nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011, the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of these plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on 38 Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The SUMPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. First, an analysis was made of the diagnosis of the mobility situation in each location according to the di- agnosis document included in many of the SUMPs. The second stage consisted on the analysis of the measures in the plan, considering sixteen indicators, such as accessibility, intermodality, pedestrians or design of public space. Finally, it was also determined whether the document included a monitoring plan, a budget and a timeline. Through the comparison of the results, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Miguel Ángel de los Mozos-Blanco, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans: A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution and Current Situation in Spain. 44th European Transport Conference, Barcelona (Spain) 5-7 Octubre 2016. 22 p. [formato Docx, 1,25 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities represent nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011 the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of this plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans carried out in 46 Spanish cities. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The analysis is structured into two main stages: In the first phase, the 46 SMUPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. In the second phase, a questionnaire was conducted with experts and other agents and stakeholders involved in the plans that have participated in the development and implementation of each of the plans, as engineers, politicians, NGOs, consultants, etc. This interview consists on a grid of questions, both qualitative and quantitative when possible, about surveillance, costs of the implemented actions or the elements of success, for example. These results allow us to verify and contrast the previous analysis with the experts' opinion and experiences. Finally, through the comparison of the results of both stages, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Urs Bolz, Öffentliche Veloverleihsysteme in der Schweiz. Entwicklungen und Geschäftsmodelle - ein Praxisbericht. Materialien Langsamverkehr Nr. 137. Bundesamt für Strassen, ASTRA, Bereich Langsamverkehr und historische Verkehrswege, Bern, Juni 2018, 43 p., [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "2018 zeichnet sich bei den Veloverleihsystemen in der Schweiz ein Entwicklungsschub ab. Nach längeren Rechtsverfahren starteten die Städte Zürich und Bern ihre Systeme mit je über 2000 Velos, und auch in anderen Städten sind Beschaffungsverfahren im Gange oder in Planung. Parallel dazu drängen verschiedene Anbietende mit stationsungebundenen Veloverleihangeboten (sogenannten Free-Floating-Systeme) auf den Markt, die zum Teil etablierte Systeme konkurrenzieren. Der vorliegende Berichts ist eine Bestandsaufnahme aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen mit der Einführung, Gebrauch und Betrieb von Veloverleihsystemen in Schweizer Städten. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den neuen Erkenntnissen aus diesen Projekten, mit Einschluss der sich stellenden rechtlichen Fragen."

Burkhard Horn, Alexander Jung, Bikesharing im Wandel. Handlungsempfehlungen für deutsche Städte und Gemeinden zum Umgang mit stationslosen Systemen. Agora Verkehrswende, Berlin, Juni 2018, 36 p., [formato PDF, 998 kB]. "Bikesharing stellt einen wichtigen Baustein eines nachhatigen urbanen Mobilitätskonzeptes dar. Es kann in relevantem Umfang zur Reduzierung des innerstädtischen Autoverkehrs beitragen, insbesondere als Teil inter- und multimodaler Wegeketten in Verknüpfung mit dem Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV) für die erste oder letzte Meile sowie beim Zurücklegen kurzer Alltags- und Freizeitwege. Dies gilt grundsätzlich auch für die neuen stationslosen Systeme von Anbietern vor allem aus Ostasien, die seit 2017 verstärkt auf den deutschen Markt drängen. Vor allem für kleine und mittelgroße Städte sowie peripherere Lagen von Großstädten bieten sie neue Chancen für ein breiteres Sharing-Angebot, aber auch in größeren Städten können sie sich als komplementäres Angebot zu bestehenden Systemen eignen. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit den neuen Systemen haben allerdings auch gezeigt, dass ein gewisses Maß an Steuerung durch die Kommunen erforderlich ist: Nur so lassen sich ihre Potenziale gezielt nutzen und die erkennbar gewordenen Herausforderungen (etwa die Übernutzung des öffentlichen Raums oder betriebliche Probleme) bewältigen. Entscheidend für den Erfolg stationsloser Bikeshar­ing-Systeme auch aus kommunaler Sicht ist die enge Kommunikation und Kooperation zwischen der öffentlichen Hand und den Anbietern. Ergebnis dieser Zusammenarbeit sollte möglichst eine Vereinbarung sein, die wesentliche Elemente des Aufbaus und des Betriebs des jeweiligen Systems möglichst verbindlich regelt (soweit möglich auch rechtlich, etwa über Sondernutzungsregelungen) und dessen Einbindung in das gesamtstädtische Mobilitätskonzept sicherstellt. Die Städte und Gemeinden können diesbezüglich auch Anreize setzen. Die vorliegende Handreichung enthält Anforderungen und zahlreiche Hinweise zur Ausgestaltung solcher Vereinbarungen. Jede Kommune kann dabei eine spezifische, auf die lokalen Verhältnisse angepasste Lösung entwickeln. In die Handlungsempfehlungen ist eine Reihe von Erkenntnissen eingeflossen, die sich aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen verschiedener Städte und Gemeinden ergeben haben. Die Handlungsempfehlungen sind mit entsprechenden Praxisbeispielen hinterlegt. Allerdings liegen bislang nur wenige auch längerfristige Erfahrungen und empirisch belastbare Evaluierungen zur Wirkung der stationslosen Bikesharing-Systeme vor. Hier besteht Forschungsbedarf. Dies gilt auch in Hinblick auf den Rechtsrahmen, dessen zielgerichtete Veränderung den Abschluss belastbarer Vereinbarungen und Verfahren deutlich erleichtern könnte."

Bernd Herzog-Schlagk, Schritte zur Einführung einer kommunalen Fußverkehrsstrategie. Handlungsleitfaden. Fachverband Fußverkehr Deutschland FUSS e.V., Berlin, Juli 2018, 31 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "Der Leitfaden entstand auf der Grundlage von: zahlreichen Befragungen von Fußgängerinnen und Fußgängern verschiedener Alters- und Zielgruppen sowie von Fachleuten; Interviews mit Verbändevertreterinnen und -vertretern; intensiven Diskussionen in den drei Sitzungen des Projekt-Fachbeirates; Verwaltungsgesprächen in fünf Modellstädten und weiteren Kontaktstädten; Gesprächen und Erfahrungen im Rahmen von zwölf kommunalen Workshops; Recherchen zur Vorgehensweise in Städten, die sich eine Fußverkehrsförderung zum Ziel gesetzt haben (Konzept-Beispiele); Erfahrungen bei Ortsbegehungen und Fußverkehrs-Checks in fünf Modell- und einigen weiteren Kontaktstädten. In den Jahren 2016 bis 2018 waren insgesamt etwa 700 Menschen daran beteiligt, herauszufinden, wie eine strategische Förderung des Zufußgehens aussehen sollte und was deshalb in diesem Handlungsleitfaden zumindest auch als Thema benannt werden müsste. Dabei ging es nicht darum, ein völlig neues Konzept zu entwickeln, vielmehr soll der Handlungsleitfaden die vorhandenen Ansätze darlegen und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen ableiten."

Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders and Karst Geurs (University of Twente), An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 540 kB]. Open Access. "Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called 'solar-powered e-bike'. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes' and solar-powered e-bikes' users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, The continued transition to electric vehicles in U.S. cities. White Paper. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), Washington DC, July 2018, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "This paper analyzes electric vehicle market development in the U.S. and the actions that are driving it. The report catalogues forty unique city, state, and utility electric vehicle promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2017. The work identifies exemplary practices and discerns connections between various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are plug-in electric."

Mobike, How Cycling Changes Cities. Insights on how bikesharing supports urban development. Mobike's Second White Paper. Mobike, 2018, 32 p., [formato PDF, 7,3 MB]. "Through big data analysis using innovative IoT technology, and a sophisticated artificial intelligence platform - Mobike are able to gain insight into how cycling becoming more accessible in our cities can impact and change our cities for the better; and thereby significantly improves the quality of life of their residents. This most recent white paper focuses on 12 major Mobike cities across 4 continents: London, Shanghai, Singapore, Milan, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen. Washington D.C., Sapporo, Berlin and Sydney."

Hwajin Kim, Yooncheong Cho, Analysis of the Bicycle-Sharing Economy : Strategic Issues for Sustainable Development of Society. Journal of Distribution Science, 2018, vol.16, no.7, pp.5-16 (12 p.), [formato PDF, 286 kB]. Open Access. "Purpose. This study posits that sustainable mobility of the sharing economy plays a key role to consider environment benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the bicycle-sharing economy as an emerging and alternative mode of transportation service and provide managerial and policy implications. The bicycle-sharing economy is still at an early stage of introduction as a transportation mode, while the governmental sector is promoting public bicycle-sharing to encourage bicycle as a substitute for private cars. Research design, data, and methodology. This study analyzed the current status of bicycle sharing programs through a survey that was distributed randomly to users and non-users across the country. Using factor analysis, satisfaction and loyalty for the existing users and intention to use and expected satisfaction for the potential users were examined in relation to utility factors. Results. The results show that economic utility affects satisfaction for user, while storage, mobility, and economic utility affects intention to use for potential users. The findings of this study indicate that in order to promote a bicycle-sharing scheme, it would be better to focus on the scheme's economic advantage to be truly effective. Conclusions. The findings of the study could be applicable to future directions of the sharing economy as a means to achieve the sustainable development of society."

Manfred Lenzen, Ya-Yen Sun, Futu Faturay, Yuan-Peng Ting, Arne Geschke and Arunima Malik, The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, volume 8, pages 522-528 (2018) [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions."

Liu Shaokun, Can Chinese Cities Leave the Car Behind? Gridlock, Pollution and the Future of Public Transportation. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, Volume 16, Issue 14, Number 2, Jul 15, 2018, pp. 1-9 [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "For years, China's city planners have prioritised cars, but they're now taking a different route. Investing in public transport, supplemented by the electric bike and shared bike, are among the ways Chinese cities are trying to minimise car use."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens, Alexander Boden and Paul Bossauer, Unintended Effects of Autonomous Driving: A Study on Mobility Preferences in the Future. Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2404 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 880 kB]. Open Access. "Innovations in the mobility industry such as automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions by allowing the traffic to flow more freely and reducing the number of vehicles according to some researchers. However, the effectiveness of these sustainable product and service innovations is often limited by unexpected changes in consumption: some researchers thus hypothesize that the higher comfort and improved quality of time in driverless cars could lead to an increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles. So far, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting either one or other of these hypotheses. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as indicators for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 participants in Germany. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether conventional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, the findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more emphasis should be placed in making public transport more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Richard Larouche, George Mammen, David A. Rowe and Guy Faulkner, Effectiveness of active school transport interventions: a systematic review and update, BMC Public Health (2018) 18:206 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 785 kB]. Open Access. "Background: Active school transport (AST) is a promising strategy to increase children's physical activity. A systematic review published in 2011 found large heterogeneity in the effectiveness of interventions in increasing AST and highlighted several limitations of previous research. We provide a comprehensive update of that review. Methods: Replicating the search of the previous review, we screened the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Sport Discus and National Transportation Library databases for articles published between February 1, 2010 and October 15, 2016. To be eligible, studies had to focus on school-aged children and adolescents, include an intervention related to school travel, and report a measure of travel behaviors. We assessed quality of individual studies with the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool, and overall quality of evidence with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We calculated Cohen's d as a measure of effect size. Results: Out of 6318 potentially relevant articles, 27 articles reporting 30 interventions met our inclusion criteria. Thirteen interventions resulted in an increase in AST, 8 found no changes, 4 reported inconsistent results, and 5 did not report inferential statistics. Cohen's d ranged from -0.61 to 0.75, with most studies reporting "trivial-to-small" positive effect sizes. Three studies reported greater increases in AST over longer follow-up periods and two Safe Routes to School studies noted that multi-level interventions were more effective. Study quality was rated as weak for 27/30 interventions (due notably to lack of blinding of outcome assessors, unknown psychometric properties of measurement tools, and limited control for confounders), and overall quality of evidence was rated as low. Evaluations of implementation suggested that interventions were limited by insufficient follow-up duration, incomplete implementation of planned interventions, and limited access to resources for low-income communities. Conclusions: Interventions may increase AST among children; however, there was substantial heterogeneity across studies and quality of evidence remains low. Future studies should include longer follow-ups, use standardized outcome measures (to allow for meta-analyses), and examine potential moderators and mediators of travel behavior change to help refine current interventions."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2016-2017, Roma, 2018, IPZS, 486 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB].

David Banister (University of Oxford), Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The case of High Speed 2. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR), 18(3), 2018, pp.262-275 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 218 kB]. "T he achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of UK transport policy (2010-2015) where revenue support has been cut, but capital expenditure has increased, and it comments on the difficulties of making decisions on large scale transport infrastructure projects in the absence of a NSTS. The recent policy statements and initiatives on transport and sustainability are covered, looking backwards and forwards. It then takes the case of High Speed 2 (HS2) and identifies five main narratives in the debates over the arguments in support of this huge investment. It seems that sustainable transport has not been a central part of that debate, and there is a need to reframe the discussion on HS2, as part of a NSTS."

Maude Luggen Risse, Pascal Regli, Jenny Leuba, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgänger Zählen. Zählsysteme für den Fussverkehr und ihre Anwendung. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, Juni 2018, 3ü p. [formato PDF, 26,8 MB]. "Wie viele Fussgänger queren eine Strasse? Wie viele kommen vom Bahnhof? Wie viele in der Spitzenstunde? Wie viele halten sich auf einem Platz auf? Wie gross sind die Unterschiede zwischen den Wochentagen? Diese und weitere Fragen wurden an einer Fachtagung - organisiert von Fussverkehr Schweiz, mit Unterstützung des Bundesamtes für Strassen - in Biel diskutiert."

European Court of Auditors (Corte dei Conti Europea), A European high-speed rail network: not a reality but an ineffective patchwork. Special Report N. 19/2018. European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg, 2018, 103 p. [formato PDF, 9,1 MB]. "Since 2000, the EU has been investing €23.7 billion into high speed rail infrastructure. There is no realistic long term EU plan for high speed rail, but an ineffective patchwork of national lines not well linked since the European Commission has no legal tools and no powers to force Member States to build lines as agreed. Cost-efficiency is at stake, because not everywhere very high speed lines are needed, as the cost per minute of saved travel time is very high, going up to €369 million, and as the average speeds only amount to 45 % of the maximum capacity, while cost overruns and construction delays are the norm rather than the exception. Sustainability is low, effectiveness of the investments is lacking and EU added value is at risk with three out of seven completed lines having low passenger numbers leading to a high risk of ineffective spending of €2.7 billion EU co-funding. Moreover, nine out of 14 lines and stretches have insufficient high numbers of passengers, and 11 000 national rules still exist, although the Court already asked in 2010 to lift these technical and administrative barriers."

Chris N. Le Fevre, A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine transport fuel. OIES PAPER: NG 133. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK, June 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. This in part is due to the relatively poor data quality on marine fuel usage but primarily a reflection on the still early nature of market development and uncertainties over alternative fuel options. This paper, which is a follow up to an earler study published in 2013, aims: to assess the most promising sectors for LNG in marine transportation in global shipping markets; to derive a set of metrics that could be used to generate forecasts of LNG demand in the marine sector and to assess the validity of current forecasts; to assess the current state and planned state of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development; to briefly mention the comparative prospects for LNG in land-based transport. The paper concludes that the shipping sectors that are likely to be more promising for LNG include ro-ro ferries, cruise ships, bulk carriers, large container vessels, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, LNG tankers. It would also appear that because of the costs of retrofitting, most LNG-fuelled ships will be newly built and owners/operators are unlikely to commit without concluding a long-term supply contract covering both pricing and physical delivery. LNG suppliers which are prepared to conclude such contracts will provide an important stimulus to the market. The lead times involved and the relatively low capital cost of infrastructure suggest that refuelling capacity is unlikely to be a constraint. A review of recent forecasts suggest that global demand will be in the range of 25 to 30 mtpa of LNG by 2030. The paper describes how many new or converted vessels fuelled by LNG would be required to reach this level, how it might be achieved and where the main obstacles to uptake are likely to occur. It concludes, that on balance, a demand level of around 15 mtpa (excluding LNG tankers) by 2030 is a more realistic prospect at present."

Francesco Asdrubali, Stefano Carrese, Sergio Maria Patella, Leonardo Sabatini (Roma Tre University), Development of Electric Urban Mobility: Comparative Research and Preliminary Survey. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 9 p. [formato PDF, 422 kB]. Open Access. "The growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions at the international level have shifted American and European policies to invest in sustainable mobility. Although substantial steps have been made in recent years, electric mobility is still not an integral part of today's transport systems. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative overview of the Italian approach to electric mobility and to define future approaches that could be used. Our research used a web-based survey, applying standard statistical methods to data processing. From these results we defined the playing field of the current results, and the variables for the future development of electric urban mobility. This analysis has shown a gap in the knowledge of the results reached in recent years by consumers and displayed an interest in new types of ecological fuels. Regarding Italian policies, it is clear that major efforts in economic and infrastructural facilitations are needed. In addition, this analysis can be used in the future to check for any developments and to generate a larger dataset with other partners."

Eunice O. Olaniyi, Sina Atari, Gunnar Prause (Tallinn University of Technology), Maritime Energy Contracting for Clean Shipping. Transport and Telecommunication, 2018, volume 19, no. 1, 31-44 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "To reduce the Sulphur emission from shipping and ensure clean shipping, a number of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) were enforced in special areas around the globe. From 2015, in SECA, ship owners are not allowed to use fuel with more than 0.1% Sulphur content. One of the major concerns for the SECA regulation is that maritime stakeholders have had to take into consideration the costs as well as the tolerable risks of their compliance investment options. Besides that, low freight rates have increased the competition and had caused financial pressure on ship owners so that lower capital reserves and low credibility levels limit the manoeuvring space for investment activities. The indications from BSR after 2015 showed that the low fuel price has eased the economic effects of the SECA regulation and as a result, most ship owners have delayed their investment decisions. Even though the postponement of emission abatement techniques seems to have reduced the compliance expenses for SECA, they, however, did not improve the position of shipowners relative to their competitors. Consequently, new policy instruments to stimulate innovation, to raise competitiveness and to comply with the new environmental regulations are needed. It would have been easier to hedge fuel price volatility and offer maritime logistics services for a lower price, but to be able to ensure sustainable results in long-term, maritime stakeholders must be ready to device astute strategies that can propel them to unparalleled advantage. This research first appraised the investment risks and payback period associated with the scrubber using different capital budgeting methods. It further illustrated the Maritime Energy Contracting (MEC) model as a market mechanism for the delivery of a cost-effective emission reduction using the scrubber technology as well as an instrument to realise a competitive advantage for ship operators. The results are empirically validated by case studies from BSR."

Anna Kramers, Tina Ringenson, Liridona Sopjani and Peter Arnfalk, AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport. Creating a framework to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 30, 2018, p. 1-16 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 504 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article."

Jeroen Kloeke (TU Delft), Identifying the barriers for diffusion of stationary car sharing in the Netherlands using an innovation system approach. Scientific paper. TU Delft, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Privately owned cars are causing negative externalities like pollution, CO2 emissions and extensive use of public space. Car sharing can be seen as a solution to reduce these negative externalities. Still, a rapid transition from privately owned cars to shared cars is not taking place, given the number of shared cars in the Netherlands. An innovation system methodology is applied to identify the blocking mechanisms for diffusion of car sharing in the Netherlands. Assessing the performance by the stakeholders showed that car sharing has difficulty in competing with existing mobility solutions, such as the private car or public transport. Besides, there are also difficulties in turning knowledge, networks and markets in viable car sharing concepts. Barriers found in the innovation system for car sharing in the Netherlands perceived by all stakeholders are the lack of profitability of business models, limited accessibility/interoperability of car sharing services and an unequal fiscal level playing field for automobility. Future research should lead to identification of effects of solutions aimed at reducing these barriers."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens and Paul Bossauer, Shared Autonomous Vehicles: Potentials for a Sustainable Mobility and Risks of Unintended Effects. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 52, 2018, p. 258-269 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 325 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "Automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions through a more efficient flow of traffic and a reduction in the number of vehicles. An increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles is also conceivable due to higher comfort and improved quality of time using driverless cars. So far, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis is missing. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as an indicator for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 German participants. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether traditional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more effort should be placed in making public transportation more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Michael Traut, Alice Larkin, Kevin Anderson, Christophe McGlade, Maria Sharmina & Tristan Smith, CO2 abatement goals for international shipping. Climate Policy, 2018, (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016, sets the ambitious climate change mitigation goal of limiting the global temperature increase to below 2°C and ideally 1.5°C. This puts a severe constraint on the remaining global GHG emissions budget. While international shipping is also a contributor to anthropogenic GHG emissions, and CO2 in particular, it is not included in the Paris Agreement. This article discusses how a share of a global CO2 budget over the twenty-first century could be apportioned to international shipping, and, using a range of future trade scenarios, explores the requisite cuts to the CO2 intensity of shipping. The results demonstrate that, under a wide range of assumptions, existing short-term levers of efficiency must be urgently exploited to achieve mitigation commensurate with that required from the rest of the economy, with virtually full decarbonization of international shipping required as early as before mid-century."

Mario Cavargna, Massimo Zucchetti, The High-Speed Rail Handbook: a Technical Guide. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Science (IJEES), Vol. 8 (3): 515-530 (2018) (16 p.) [formato PDF, 644 kB]. "The project of the new railway line Turin Lyon is an exemplary case of unnecessary work. It should overlap a railway tunnel and an international railway line with modern features; traffic data show since 2000 a collapse of road and rail movements along the corridor Italian French interested; after 14 years of experimentation its modal transfer capacity has always given negative results; the new line would not be interoperable with the rest of the Italian and French network because it has its own, even different, links between the Italian and the French of the same line. The studies carried out on the energy consumption and CO2 production of the Turin Lyon in the construction phase, which requires the excavation of 42 million cubic meters of rock, and the management of energy consumption of the ventilation and refrigeration of the base tunnel, give a negative energy balance for the new work. Finally, because the size of the necessary works and their enormous cost would have very heavy effects on the environment and on the resources to be dedicated to the critical issues of the remaining national network and to the real needs of citizens."

Nic Lutsey, California's continued electric vehicle market development. Briefing. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), May 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "This briefing provides an update on the growth in electric vehicle sales in California through 2017. It quantifies electric vehicle market growth across California local markets, provides broader U.S. market comparisons, and describes these developments in the context of California's 2025-2030 goals."

Tracy McMillan, Ana Lopez, Jill Cooper, Safe Routes for Older Adults. UC Berkeley Research Reports. UC Berkeley SafeTREC, April 2018, 22 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "This guide provides communities with background information on walking and bicycling safety for older adults and tools to make transportation in California communities age-friendly for all."

Caroline Rodier (University of California, Davis), Travel Effects and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automated Vehicles. A White Paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, April 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 897 kB]. "In much the same way that the automobile disrupted horse and cart transportation in the 20th century, automated vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to disrupt our current system of transportation and the fabric of our built environment in the 21st century. Experts predict that vehicles could be fully automated by as early as 2025 or as late as 2035. The public sector is just beginning to understand AV technology and to grapple with how to accommodate it in our current transportation system. Research on AVs is extremely important because AVs may significantly disrupt our transportation system with potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on our society and our environment. However, this research is very hard to do because fully AVs have yet to travel on our roads. As a result, AV research is largely conducted by extrapolating effects from current observed behavior and drawing on theory and models. Both the magnitude of the mechanism of change and secondary effects are often uncertain. Moreover, the potential for improved safety in AVs drive the mechanisms by which vehicle miles traveled (VMT), energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may change. We really don't know whether AVs will achieve the level of safety that will allow for completely driverless cars, very short headways, smaller vehicles, lower fuel use, and/or reduce insurance cost. We don't know whether AV fleets will be harmonized to reduce energy and GHG emissions. In this white paper, the available evidence on the travel and environmental effects of AVs is critically reviewed to understand the potential magnitude and likelihood of estimated effects. The author outlines the mechanisms by which AVs may change travel demand and review the available evidence on their significance and size. These mechanisms include increased roadway capacity, reduced travel time burden, change in monetary costs, parking and relocation travel, induced travel demand, new traveler groups, and energy effects. They then describe the results of scenario modeling studies. Scenarios commonly include fleets of personal AVs and automated taxis with and without sharing. Travel and/or land use models are used to simulate the cumulative effects of scenarios. These models typically use travel activity data and detailed transportation networks to replicate current and predict future land use, traffic behavior, and/or vehicle activity in a real or hypothetical city or region."

Daniele Codato, Diego Malacarne, Guglielmo Pristeri, Salvatore Pappalardo, Massimo De Marchi (University of Padova), Towards a more Liveable and Accessible Cycle Path Network in Padova: a Participatory Mapping Process. REAL CORP 2018 Proceedings, Vienna, 4-6 April 2018, 471-477 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 927 kB] "With the advent of climate-related issues and low-carbon economy, networks of cycle paths and tracks are becoming a more and more relevant mobility infrastructure for cities. However, mapping their critical points in order to fix them to improve liveability and accessibility can be difficult. One solution may be to combine digital technologies and users' knowledge, using the methods of participatory mapping. The first experiences in participatory GIS, in which geo-information technologies are used in support of collection, creation and sharing of spatial information by non-skilled social actors, date back to the nineteen- eighties. This bottom-up approach saw a strong evolution in recent years, even in the European urban context, thanks to the constant development of digital technologies and to the increasing opportunities for citizens to access the web. Free and open geographic data, by means of Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), facilitate the citizens' involvement and participation in urban planning and management. This is the framework behind PISTE riCICLABILI, an innovative project by the University of Padova started in autumn 2016 and aiming at the following goals: a participatory mapping of critical issues of the urban cycle path network and the implementation of an open source geo-portal for collecting and sharing geo-referenced reports. Within the workflow developed for this project, spatial information has been collected in two different ways: on the one hand, using printed city maps during public events, where involved citizens marked the cycle paths issues with pins; on the other hand, through a mobile geo-app. In the second case, Open Data Kit (ODK) was used. It is a combination of free and open source tools enabling everyone to create a form to be filled in with a smartphone in the field, and to send geo-referenced reports to a server. Mobile data were collected using the GeoODK Collect Android app, then aggregated and periodically exported, reprocessed and released through the open source webGIS platform Lizmap. First results of the process, which experienced a growing participation by citizens, consist of over 300 collected critical points. Through the analysis of these data it is possible to have a first overview on the main problems of bicycle mobility in Padova, their spatial implications and citizens' suggestions to improve human-oriented places. This contribution presents the mapping and data spreading workflow, together with results achieved and possible future development, with the aim to share a promising tool to improve urban sustainable mobility."

Kees van Goeverden, Gonçalo Correia (Delft University of Technology), Potential of peer-to-peer bike sharing for relieving bike parking capacity shortage at train stations: an explorative analysis for the Netherlands. EJTIR 2018 (in print), 19 p., [formato PDF, 647 kB]. "In the Netherlands, many (mainly larger) train stations suffer from capacity shortages for bicycle parking as the result of a large increase in the use of the bicycle as a feeder mode. Sharing of parked bicycles with arriving train passengers who are in need of a bicycle for some time would decrease the number of parked bicycles and reduce the capacity shortage. The paper explores to which extent sharing of these bicycles relieves the capacity problem by investigating the maximum potential for reducing the peak of parked bicycles. This is the potential of the case when all considered participants (bicycle owners and those who are in need for a bicycle) are willing to share. The analyses are based on data of the Dutch National Travel Survey. The main result is that the potential is likely to be modest. The estimated maximum is for the large stations between 13% and 50%, the actual potential is likely to be significantly lower. The large range for the maximum can partly be explained by the uncertainty about the number of arriving train passengers that might shift to the bicycle for the last mile if sharing increases bicycle availability. A second result is that sharing can have a significant effect on the distribution of parked bicycles over the day. The current peak halfway the day can turn into a dip between two peaks in the traditional morning and evening peak hours."

Fuelling Maritime Shipping with Liquefied Natural Gas. The Case of Japan. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2018, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a ship fuel is expected to increase significantly from its current marginal share in the coming years. This will require new facilities where ships can take on board the LNG. Japan is positioning itself as a potential hub in Asia for LNG refuelling. This study assesses the factors that will influence the realisation of that ambition."

Rachel Aldred, Luke Best, Phil Jones, Cyclists in shared bus lanes: could there be unrecognised impacts on bus journey times?. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, Paper 1600072, 17 p. [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. "This paper contributes to debates around improving the modelling of cycles, through an exploratory case study of bus-cycle interactions in London. This case study examines undocumented delays to buses caused by high volumes of cyclists in bus lanes. It has generally been assumed that cyclists do not noticeably delay buses in shared lanes. However, in many contexts where cyclists routinely share bus lanes, cyclist numbers have historically been low. In some such places, bus lanes are now seeing very high volumes of cyclists, far above those previously studied. This may have implications for bus - and cycle - journey times, but traditionally traffic modelling has not represented the effects of such interactions well. With some manipulation of parameters taken from models of other cities, the model described here demonstrates that cycles can cause significant delays to buses in shared lanes, at high cycling volumes. These delays are likely to become substantially larger if London's cycling demographic becomes more diverse, because cyclist speeds will decline. Hence bus journey time benefits may derive from separating cycles from buses, where cycle flows are high. The project also suggests that microsimulation modelling software, as typically used, remains problematic for representing cyclists."

European Environment Agency, National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe, 2018. EEA Report n.1/2018. EEA, Copenhagen, 2018, 84 p. [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "The EEA report "National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe 2018," is the first review of how the 33 EEA member countries (including the 28 European Union Member States) have assessed the risks from climate change, and how they used this information in developing adaptation policies to address these risks. Adaptation is key to ensure that the EU as a whole is better prepared to handle the impacts of heat waves, floods, droughts and storm surges. The report is based on a survey which was completed by 24 of the 33 EEA member countries. Information for additional countries was gathered from Climate-ADAPT - the European climate adaptation platform - and other public sources of information. The report aims to promote a better understanding among experts and policymakers involved in adaptation planning. The findings will contribute to better informed decision making and adaptation in key vulnerable sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity protection, spatial planning and infrastructure development. They will also help inform the European Commission's on-going evaluation of the EU Adaptation Strategy."

Decarbonising Maritime Transport. The Case of Sweden. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden's efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry and sheds light on remaining challenges and potential solutions to achieve zero-carbon shipping."

Transport & Environment, How to get rid of dirty diesels on city roads. Analysis of diesel restriction measures in European cities to date. T&E Air Pollution and Low Emission Zones Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, March 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 377 kB]. "This paper analyses low emission zones and congestion charges in 11 European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Berlin, Brussels, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Oslo, Paris and Stockholm. There are large differences in the environmental zones implemented so far. Some policies permanently exclude polluting vehicles and are intended to drive modal shift to cleaner transportation options. Others are of temporary nature in response to hazardous air pollution episodes."

Thomas Schweizer, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgängerunfälle in der Schweiz 2008 - 2017. Faktenblatt 03 / 2018. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, 2018, 11 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Während die Zahl der schweren Strassenverkehrsunfälle in den letzten 10 Jahren insgesamt gesunken ist, konnte bei den Fussgängerinnen und Fussgängern bis 2013 leider keine entsprechende Abnahme verzeichnet werden. Der Anteil der Fussgängerunfälle am Gesamttotal aller Unfälle nahm somit zu. Bei den Getöteten ist der Anteil der Fussgänger in den letzten 10 Jahren starken Schwankungen unterworfen. Seit 2014 bleibt aber der Anteil der Fussgänger an der Gesamtzahl der Verunfallten Personen konstant, desgleichen bei den Schwerverletzten."

Mingyang Hao, Toshiyuki Yamamoto (Nagoya University), Shared Autonomous Vehicles: A Review Considering Car Sharing and Autonomous Vehicles. Asian Transport Studies, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2018), 47-63 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 278 kB]. "In recent years, the transformation in transportation mobility has seen an acceleration in numbers of studies establishing a sustainable, smooth and cost-efficient system by applying automated concepts to the conventional car-sharing system. The development from a personally owned vehicle-oriented scheme to shared automated transit provides us informative images to the optimal stage of the transportation mobility. This study aimed to find the gaps in impacts and features, demand and performance studies of SAVs by a systematic approach when looking at the corresponding aspects of car sharing in AVs and SAVs. This is the first attempt to review SAV studies and the author illustrates the importance of this research by demonstrating impacts and features of SAVs, future research aspects of demand analysis, as well as the research trend of performance studies on SAVs."

Armando Carteni (University of Naples Federico II), A Cost-Benefit Analysis Based on the Carbon Footprint Derived from plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses for Urban Public Transport Services. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, v.14, 2018, 125-135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "Sustainable mobility and green development are based on the achievement of three goals: environment, society and economy. This means that a sustainable plan/project must be, at the same time, equitable, viable, and bearable. In urban areas, the transport sector significantly impacts with respect to both fuel consumption and environmental emissions. At this aim, planning policies aimed at reducing these negative impacts are very important. Many researches cover the problem of perform rational decisions to improve the transportation sector. One of the most useful quantitative methods to evaluate rational project solution is the cost benefit analysis. In literature the 'traditional' cost benefit analysis not always take into account the overall carbon footprint of a transport project/policy. The carbon footprint is the total (direct and indirect) amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by a project/policy/service expressed as the overall amount of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted. Moreover, the recent economic crisis has made necessary also to generate a 'profit' from transport services/infrastructures, as well as positive impacts for users and for environment. Starting from these considerations the aims of this paper were: i) to evaluate if the use of hybrid electric buses for a new urban public transport services could produce profit for a private/public transport operator; ii) to develop a cost benefit analysis explicitly considering the overall carbon footprint (and not only the local impacts) produced by this vehicle technology. The case study was a new urban bus line designed in a medium size city, Salerno, in Italy. The results of the study underline that the use of hybrid electric buses could produce a profit for private/public transport operators and the analysis based on the overall carbon footprint allow to better estimate the (positive) impacts deriving from the use of this vehicle technology. Since the hybrid electric buses have a carbon footprint 12/18% lower than a traditional bus, an urban transportation service based on this type of technology allows to obtain grater benefits up to +82% against a traditional one."

Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti (a cura di), MobilitAria 2018. Qualità dell'aria e Politiche di mobilità nelle 14 grandi città italiane tra il 2006 e il 2016. Rapporto del Kyoto Club e dal CNR-IIA. Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), Kyoto Club, Roma, febbraio 2018, 128 p. [formato PDF, 67,7 MB]. "Il rapporto MobilitAria 2018 ha l'ambizione di realizzare un quadro complessivo dell'andamento della qualità dell'aria e della mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città italiane nel decennio 2006- 2016. Lo studio è stato realizzato da un gruppo di esperti del CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) e di Kyoto Club, Gruppo Mobilità Sostenibile, prendendo come riferimento l'area comunale di ogni Città Metropolitana. Le città sono Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Roma, Torino, Venezia."

Wei-Shiuen Ng and Ashley Acker, Understanding Urban Travel Behaviour by Gender for Efficient and Equitable Transport Policies. Discussion Paper No. 2018-01. International Transport Forum, Paris, France, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Gender is one of the key socio-demographic variables that can influence travel behaviour, but it is often the least understood. Understanding travel behaviour by gender will help better design transport policies that are efficient and equitable. Due to the gendered division of work in households, women often have multiple tasks and activities. As a result, women are more likely to have shorter commute distances, to chain trips, to have more non-work related trips, to travel at off-peak hours, and to choose more flexible modes. This study examines travel behaviour by gender in eight different cities, across three different continents, focusing on transport mode, trip purpose, travel distance and departure time for Auckland, Dublin, Hanoi, Helsinki, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon and Manila. The most common trends found in the cities are that women tend to travel shorter distances and prefer public transport and taxi services to cars more than men."

Heejung Jung, Chengguo Li (University of California at Riverside), Emissions from Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions. A Research Report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The study found that the frequency and duration of re-ignition events vary depending on the type of HEV. Prius showed more frequent re-ignition events compared to Sonata for both city and highway driving conditions. Prius re-ignited almost every one minute while Sonata re-ignited every two minutes on average during the city driving condition. Re-ignition events affected emissions profiles significantly during the city driving condition. As a result, the Prius showed higher NOx emissions during the city driving condition while the Sonata showed higher NOx emissions during the cold-cold start and highway driving condition. Future studies should include more vehicles to understand whether the re-ignition events are vehicle specific or technology specific."