DOCUMENTI SU TRASPORTI E AMBIENTE 2018 - 2020

VEDI ANCHE: RECENSIONI, BIBLIOGRAFIE, GLOSSARI, CARTOGRAFIA

VAI A: DOCUMENTI 2000-2017

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2020

Paulo Cambra, Filipe Moura, How does walkability change relate to walking behavior change? Effects of a street improvement in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Journal of Transport & Health 16 (2020) 100797 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. "Introduction. Promoting walking has become a policy concern in the public health and transport fields. Street improvement interventions aimed at increasing walking require an assessment of their effectiveness in influencing walking behaviour. There is a current gap in understanding how the magnitude of a change in walkability relates to a change in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Methods. This study reports a before-after analysis of the effects of a built environment intervention in the walking behaviour of adults in Lisbon, Portugal. The Eixo Central project aimed at improving walking conditions by changing physical factors in three sites - two avenues connected by a plaza. Each site had particular and distinct improvement approaches. We performed a before-after walkability assessment of the intervention area using a validated methodology, a longitudinal analysis of the pedestrian volumes in the intervention sites and control areas, and a quasi-longitudinal survey on the walking experience of residents, workers and frequent visitors of the area. Results. The Eixo Central project improved overall walking conditions. Walkability scores point to changes of different magnitude in the walkability of each of the three sites. The results show a significant change in the sites' pedestrian volumes and walking experience between baseline and follow up, and a non-significant change in the control areas' pedestrian volumes in the same period. We found higher walkability changes to be associated with a higher increase in pedestrian volumes and to a higher positive influence in walking experience. Conversely, smaller scale walkability changes were associated with a less expressive change in pedestrian volumes and walking experience. Conclusions. The results suggest that the scale of walkability change of environmental interventions is a significant factor in influencing walking behaviour. In this sense, smaller-scale interventions may be effective in improving the walking experience but not as effective in increasing walking activity."

Barbara Laa, Ulrich Leth (TU Wien), Survey of E-scooter users in Vienna: Who they are and how they ride. Journal of Transport Geography 89 (2020) 102874, 8 p. [format o PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. [E-scooter, trottinette, monopattino elettrico]. "In many cities around the world, electric (e-)scooters have emerged as a new means of transportation. They are often advertised as supporting modal shift towards more sustainable transportation and as a tool for enabling more equity in mobility. However, the environmental impact depends on how they are used and what kinds of trips they replace. Integration of e-scooters into urban transport systems also implicates discussions on fair road space allocation. In our study, we assess the socio-economic profiles and usage patterns of e-scooter users in Vienna, Austria. We differentiate between two basic groups of e-scooter users (renters and owners) and apply two different methods. Firstly, based on an online survey, we examine the age, gender and education of e-scooter users and we look into which kinds of trips (commuting, shopping or leisure) and which other means of transportation are replaced by e-scooter trips. Secondly, we analyse data from field observations at cycle paths in Vienna in order to determine the share of e-scooter riders and their gender distribution. We find that e-scooter users are more likely to be young, male, highly educated and residents of Vienna. According to the survey, there are considerable differences in usage between owners of private scooters and users of sharing schemes. Whereas in both groups, e-scooter trips mostly replace walking and public transport as a mode, e-scooter owners also show a considerable mode-shift from private car trips. These results implicate that e-scooter riders are additional users of cycling infrastructure. This puts further pressure on the current allocation of road space, which provides little space for active modes of transport. We conclude that city policies should address this competitive relationship adequately by allocating more space to safe and convenient cycling infrastructure and traffic-calmed zones. This could not only help ease the current challenges due to e-scooters but also provide better conditions for walking and cycling and thereby at the same time contribute to a more sustainable and equitable urban transport system."

Benoit Martin, Julien Pestiaux, Quentin Schobbens, Julie Emmrich and Markus Hagemann, A radical transformation of mobility in Europe: Exploring the decarbonisation of the transport sector by 2040. Explorative scenario and related policy packages. Climact / NewClimate Institute, September 2020, 101 p. [formato PDF, 5,8 MB]. "Climact and NewClimate Institute explored a future in which the EU effectively targets zero emissions by 2040 for the transport sector, in a study commissioned by Greenpeace. Radical change needs to happen now and all fronts to dacarbonise European mobility within 20 years - seeing that the sector accounts for more than a quarter of European emissions (27%). We present a decarbonisation pathway, highlight current policy gaps and propose required policy packages."

Jonn Axsen, Patrick Plötz and Michael Wolinetz, Crafting strong, integrated policy mixes for deep CO2 mitigation in road transport. Nature Climate Change (2020) (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Transport CO2 emissions continue to grow globally despite advances in low-carbon technology and goal setting by numerous governments. In this Perspective, we summarize available evidence for the effectiveness of climate policies and policy mixes for road transport relative to 2030 and 2050 mitigation goals implied by the Paris Agreement. Current policy mixes in most countries are not nearly stringent enough. We argue that most regions need a stronger, more integrated policy mix led by stringent regulations and complemented by pricing mechanisms as well as other efforts to reduce vehicle travel."

Toon Zijlstra, Anne Durand, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Lucas Harms, Early adopters of Mobility-as-a-Service in the Netherlands. Transport Policy 97 (2020) 197-209 (13 p.) [format o PDF, 3,7 MB]. Open Access. "The concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is rapidly gaining momentum. Parties involved are eager to learn more about its potential uptake, effects on travel behaviour, and users. We focus on the latter, as we attempt to reveal the profile of groups within the Dutch population that have a relatively high likelihood of adopting MaaS in the near future, apart from the actual supply side. MaaS is a transport concept integrating existing and new mobility services on a digital platform, providing customised door-to-door transportation options. Based on common denominators of MaaS as found in the literature, we have established five indicators to identify early adopters: innovativeness, being tech-savvy, needing travel information, having a multimodal mindset, and wanting freedom of choice. These five indicators are the building blocks of our Latent Demand for MaaS Index (LDMI), and were constructed using 26 statements and questions from a special survey conducted in 2018 among participants of the Netherlands Mobility Panel (MPN). The features derived from the MPN serve as independent variables in a regression analysis of the indicators used to ascertain the profile of early adopters. The results of our model indicate that early adopters are likely to be highly mobile, have a high socio-economic status, high levels of education and high personal incomes. Young people are more eager to adopt MaaS than older adults. Early adopters are healthy, active and frequent users of trains and planes. The characteristics of MaaS's early adopters overlap in numerous ways with those of innovative mobility services users and with the general characteristics of early adopters as found in innovation studies."

Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Conrado Braga Zagabria (Budapest University of Technology and Economics), Method development for workplaces using mobility plans to select suitable and sustainable measures. Research in Transportation Business & Management, in press (2020) 13 p. [format o PDF, 468 kB]. Open Access. "This paper aimed to provide a set of sustainable measures suitable for workplaces according to local requirements. To support this, a specific Transportation Demand Management strategy was applied, which is called Workplace Travel Planning. The result of such a Workplace Travel Plan is a package of measures implemented by an organization to encourage sustainable commuting. This research focused on two stages of the planning process: in the analysis stage, data were gathered from the stakeholders, and travel behavior was analyzed, while in the planning stage, a specific set of measures was proposed to the workplace. The selection of those measures relies on several aspects, such as existing workplace infrastructure, employer policies, employee requirements, local infrastructure, cost of implementation, level of sustainability. The mobility questionnaires are the instruments used to retrieve the input data used in the method, while the categorization of measures contributes to the next phase of the method serving as the output options. To each measure, factors, weights, and sustainability impacts were assigned. The connection of the phases was realized by creating the utility value of the measure, which enables the ranking of the measures. The approach provides a comprehensive framework of connecting employee requirements, employer willingness, and site-specific opportunities by defining a quantitative utility function, which results in a list of most suitable measures for a specific workplace."

Karin van Kranenburg, Yvonne van Delft, Anastasia Gavrilova, Robert de Kler, Caroline Schipper, Richard Smokers, Maarten Verbeek, Ruud Verbeek (TNO), E-fuels - Towards a more sustainable future for truck transport, shipping and aviation. Report. TNO, VoltaChem, Smartport, Delft, July 2020, 32 p. [formato PDF, 4 MB]. "To realise the targets of the Paris Climate Agreement, drastically greener modes of transport are needed. Smart mobility concepts, more efficient engines, battery electric vehicles and biofuels are often mentioned as applications. Electric vehicles can be considered the preferred solution for short distances and light vehicles (e.g. passenger cars, urban mobility concepts). Truck transport, shipping and aviation, meanwhile, are currently lagging behind when it comes to contributions to sustainable mobility. These modes of transport require energy carriers with a higher energy density, for which e-fuels and green hydrogen can be the solution. This whitepaper therefore focuses on the potential of e-fuels for three modes of transport: long-haul road transport, shipping (inland and short/long distances over sea) and aviation. The whitepaper discusses: why e-fuels offer an opportunity to reduce carbon emissions; which e-fuels are suitable for which modalities and what the necessary technological developments are; what the future costs throughout the value chain of the various e-fuels could be; what the requirements for renewable energy production and land use are when it comes to realising the large-scale implementation of e-fuel production; how the uptake of e-fuels can be accelerated by stakeholders and an adoption roadmap to get there."

Elena Alyavina, Alexandros Nikitas, Eric Tchouamou Njoya (University of Huddersfield), Mobility as a service and sustainable travel behaviour: A thematic analysis study. Transportation Research Part F 73 (2020) 362-381 (20 p.)[format o PDF, 2 MB]. Open Access. "Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a novel brand of transport that promises to replace private cars with multimodal personalised mobility packages enabled by a digital platform capable of integrating travel planning, booking and ticketing, and real-time information services. It is an intervention that through its digitisation, connectivity, information and sharing merits intends to inspire and support the transition to a more sustainable mobility paradigm. Recent research suggests, however, that the potential uptake of MaaS might not be overwhelming; current car drivers could face considerable difficulties in bypassing their personal car for it and, more worryingly, future MaaS users may substitute not only personal car trips but also public transport journeys with car-sharing and ride-sharing services. This means that MaaS might not be able to create travel behaviour change, and even if it does, the changes may not be always towards the right direction. Through conducting 40 semi-structured interviews in three different UK cities, namely London, Birmingham and Huddersfield, and employing a robust Thematic Analysis approach, this study explores the factors underpinning the uptake and potential success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism. The challenges and opportunities reflecting and affecting potential for responsible MaaS usage refer to five core themes Car Dependence; Trust; Human Element Externalities; Value; and Cost, each of them with distinctive and diverse dimensions. Policy-makers and mobility providers should realise that MaaS success relies on changing people's attitudes to private cars (something very challenging) and thus they should incentivise responsible MaaS use, promote public transport as its backbone, use public engagement exercises and trials to expose people to the concept and somewhat demonise private car ownership and car use."

Lynn Sloman and Lisa Hopkinson; with contributions from Phil Goodwin, Jillian Anable, Sally Cairns and Ian Taylor, The carbon impact of the national roads programme. Transport for Quality of Life, July 2020, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "New research by Transport for Quality of Life shows that the Government's flagship road investment strategy (RIS2) of £27 billion over 5 years threatens the UK's commitments on climate change. The report shows the roads programme will add 20 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to UK emissions from the Strategic Road Network (SRN) between now and 2032 whereas those emissions need to be cut by 167 million tonnes to meet climate targets."

Tryeste, FIAB, UISP, Legambiente, Fridays for Future Trieste, Bora.La, Zeno, Link Trieste e SPIZ, Proposte per un piano per la mobilita urbana post-Covid. Trieste. Trieste, maggio 2020, 52 p. [formato PDF, 5,8 MB]. Si tratta di un documento elaborato dalle associazioni dopo un processo partecipativo che ha visto il contributo di centinaia di cittadini, presentato al Comune di Trieste, con cui è in corso un tavolo tecnico di confronto sui provvedimenti proposti.

Axhausen, Kay W., Micromobility. The example of Switzerland. Emerging Mobility Systems and Services Seminar Series, University of Michigan EM4S webinar, July 2020, Presentation. IVT, ETH Zurich, 2020, 36 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. Open Access.

Mancini, L., Eslava, N. A., Traverso, M., Mathieux, F., Responsible and sustainable sourcing of batteries raw materials. Insights from hotspot analysis, corporate disclosures and field research. JRC Technical Report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, 124 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Used in e-mobility and electronics, batteries are essential to achieve the EU objective of decarbonisation of the economy and other challenges related to sustainable development. Several policy initiatives have been issued and others are under discussion to promote sustainable and competitive production of batteries in the EU. Recently, various stakeholders highlighted social risks related to supply chains of batteries and in particular in regard to the provision of raw materials. Cobalt is especially concerning when it comes to human rights abuses, child labour and life-threatening working conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). That country provides around 60 % of the global supply, a significant proportion of it originating from artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) operators. Reports from non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international organisations and media on this topic have increased in number since 2016, and the issue is now more visible than in 2007, when the first reports on the sector emerged. At the same time, responsible sourcing initiatives have been launched and implemented for cobalt and other materials, most of them aligned with the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] due diligence guidance for responsible supply chains of minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas (OECD Guidance). Among them, EU Regulation 2017/821 will require EU importers of tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold (3TG) to perform due diligence on their supply chain, according to the OECD Guidance. The strategic battery action plan proposed by the European Commission identifies some clear work streams on responsible sourcing. A battery-specific regulation including requirements for the ethical sourcing of materials is also currently under discussion."

Ana Horta, Automobility and Oil Vulnerability Unfairness as Critical to Energy Transitions. Nature and Culture, 15 (2) 2020, 134-145 (12 p.)[formato PDF, 152 kB]. "Climate policies in the European Union require a substantial reduction in carbon emissions from road transport. However, in the last decades the system of automobility has expanded considerably, establishing a process of path dependence that is very difficult to reverse. Changes in current patterns of automobility may increase oil vulnerability of citizens dependent on the use of the car, aggravating forms of social inequity. Based on an analysis of how television news framed a period of oil price rises in a country highly dependent on car use, the article shows that oil vulnerability may resonate with socially shared sociocultural meanings such as lack of trust in political leaders, which may aggravate the social perception of unfairness and compromise public support for energy transitions toward sustainability."

Legambiente, Più olio di palma nei motori che nei biscotti, la mappa degli impianti in Italia. Dossier. Legambiente, luglio 2020, 9 p. [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "Biocarburanti dieci anni in cui è prevalso il greenwashing: farci pagare la deforestazione del mondo con il pieno carburante e con le bollette elettriche. Senza dircelo. Oggi si può cambiare. Proposte a Parlamento e Governo."

Transport & Environment, More palm and rapeseed in our tanks than on our plates. Ten years of EU biofuels policy. Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, July 2020, 14 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "In these 10 years the EU has seen an increase in the use of vegetable oil for energy production - mostly biodiesel. Today, we use more palm and rapeseed oil in our tanks than on our plates. This comes at the time when the EU has adopted new measures (REDII) to slowly move away from food- and feed-based biofuels in the next decade, affecting especially palm oil based biodiesel as it is considered high-deforestation risk. Despite these moves, in 2019 there was an all-time high in vegetable oil biodiesel production and consumption, and on palm oil biodiesel in particular. Other trends are confirmed as well, such as the increase on soy oil biodiesel production and consumption as well as used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel."

Transport & Environment, Più olio di palma e di semi di colza nei nostri serbatoi che nei nostri piatti. Dieci anni di politiche europee sui biocarburanti. Transport & Environment, Brussels, Luglio 2020, 12 p. [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Traduzione italiana del dossier. "Sono passati poco più di 10 anni da quando nel 2019 l'Unione europea ha iniziato a promuovere l'uso delle energie rinnovabili nei trasporti attraverso la Direttiva sulle Energie Rinnovabili del 2009 (RED). A causa di criteri di sostenibilità inadeguati che non hanno tenuto conto dell'intero ciclo di vita delle emissioni dei carburanti, la RED ha favorito per lo più la diffusione della fonte di energia più economica e meno sostenibile per i trasporti: i biocarburanti ottenuti da fonti alimentari e mangimi. L'Europa ha registrato un continuo aumento del consumo di biodiesel nell'ultimo decennio, costellato dall'aumento delle materie prime più insostenibili come l'olio di palma. Il consumo di olio vegetale per la produzione di biodiesel è aumentato del 48% sempre nell'ultimo decennio, mentre il consumo di questi oli a uso alimentare è rimasto piuttosto stabile (con un aumento del 4,5% nello stesso periodo). La crescita della produzione di biodiesel si è basata principalmente sulle materie prime importate, con l'olio di palma che ha giocato un ruolo chiave. Nel 2009, solo il 24% delle importazioni di olio di palma è stato utilizzato per produrre biodiesel; nel 2019, più della metà delle importazioni (53%) è stata invece destinata ai conducenti europei. A causa dei loro impatti climatici e ambientali, i biocarburanti a base di fonti alimentari e mangimi sono stati ridimensionati dalle politiche europea. Questa restrizione interesserà in particolare il diesel da olio di palma, che è stato etichettato come insostenibile e che sarà gradualmente eliminato, al più tardi, entro il 2030. Ma l'UE e i suoi Stati membri possono essere più ambiziosi nell'attuazione della REDII e nelle prossime revisioni della legge e fermare il sostegno pubblico a tutti i carburanti ottenuti da fonti alimentari e mangimi già nel 2021."

Antonio Alberto Clemente, Bicycle paths as a contribution to urban resilience in high-density areas / La rete ciclabile come contributo alla resilienza urbana in contesti ad alta densità. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design, 5(1), 93-110 (18 p.)[formato PDF, 797 kB]. Open Access. "Three facts. Pescara is the 13th city of Italy in terms of inhabitants density. The second concerns urban flooding resulting from torrential rain. Finally, Pescara is one of the most highly cycling Italian municipalities. Three phenomena perceived as separate which, in reality, are interdependent. A high urban density brings with it a strong reduction of vegetation and an excessive waterproofing of the soil. Therefore, where excess water volumes are created, also due to the insufficiency of the sewage system, urban floods occur which find their main route along the road network. With negative consequences in terms of the environment (pollution of the river and the sea), economic (threats to infrastructure, cultural heritage, residential and productive fabric) and social (risks for the population). The idea is to compare the open space projects in Boston, San Francisco, Zwolle and Copenhagen that have questioned which are the most appropriate answers to transform water from a potential risk element into a strategic resource for the resilience of urban system also through the cycle network. The goal is to demonstrate that the cycle network is not just a technical issue to ensure adequate performance levels in terms of intermodal integration, safety and efficiency of the tracks, but also a soil project that can contribute to the resilience of the urban system."

Giulia Isetti, Valeria Ferraretto, Agnieszka Elzbieta Stawinoga, Mirjam Gruber, Nives DellaValle, Is caring about the environment enough for sustainable mobility? An exploratory case study from South Tyrol (Italy). Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 6 (2020) 100148 (10 p.)[formato PDF, 428 kB]. Open Access. "Sustainable mobility has a positive impact on quality of life, in both urban and rural contexts. Policies aimed at promoting greener travel behaviors - at European, as well as at state and regional level - require a deep knowledge of differing mobility cultures across European regions. In order to better understand the relationship between the (stated) propensity towards sustainability, reported mobility patterns and users' lifestyles in rural areas, an exploratory study was conducted in South Tyrol, a rural region in Northern Italy that strives to become a model region for sustainable alpine mobility by 2030. More specifically, an online survey on sustainable mobility was administered to the inhabitants, exploring motivations, preferred incentives and drivers that may lead towards the adoption of sustainable mobility solutions (with a focus on e-mobility). By analyzing how pro-environmental self-identity interacts with consumers' heterogeneity, results show that heterogeneity exists in the individual pro-environmental identity measure. Based also on evidence from the literature that extrinsic rewards might negatively impact intrinsic motivations to engage in a certain behavior, this study warns policy-makers of potential unintended consequences of current policy tools used to incentivize the adoption of sustainable means of transport, such as the provision of monetary incentives for electric vehicles."

Wisdom Kanda, Paula Kivimaa, What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility?. Energy Research & Social Science 68 (2020) 101666 (5 p.)[formato PDF, 199 kB]. Open Access. "The COVID-19 pandemic is a major landscape shock that is having pervasive effects across socio-technical systems. Due to its recentness, sustainability scientists and other researchers have only started to investigate the implications of this crisis. The COVID-19 outbreak presents a unique opportunity to analyze in real time the effects of a protracted landscape-scale perturbation on the trajectories of sustainability transitions. In this perspective, we explore the ramifications for sustainability transition research on electricity and mobility, drawing from selected examples in Finland and Sweden. The long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to trigger more permanent changes connected to the digitalization of work and other daily activities, thus reducing mobility needs and overall fossil-energy consumption. The crisis may encourage governance systems to be better prepared for different types of shocks in the future, while it also contains a threat of increasingly populist or undemocratic political responses and increased securitization. These developments can guide research by addressing the reproduction of new practices arising from the COVID-19 outbreak to accelerate sustainability transitions, enhancing understanding of the role of governance in transitions, and bringing to attention the ethical and political implications of landscape shocks."

Donati Anna, Petracchini Francesco, Gasparini Carlotta, Tomassetti Laura, Cozza Valentina, Scarpinella Maria Stella (a cura di), 3. Rapporto MobilitAria 2020. Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane 2020. Analisi e proposte al tempo del Covid-19. Kyoto Club, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), maggio 2020, 180 p. [formato PDF, 99,7 MB]. "Nel 2019 migliora leggermente la qualità dell'aria nelle città rispetto all'anno precedente, tuttavia permangono valori critici che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. Nel periodo di lockdown invece, complice il blocco del traffico, si registra un netto calo dell'inquinamento soprattutto per il crollo del biossido di azoto (NO2). Nel frattempo, le città provano ad attrezzarsi per essere sempre più sostenibili, mentre il Dl Rilancio appena licenziato dal Governo si dimostra timido e insufficente a contrastare la crescita della congestione e del traffico che in modo progressivo torneranno ad invadere le nostre città dopo la ripartenza: ora più che mai è necessario accelerare la giusta transizione verso la mobilità sostenibile. A questo scopo Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA avanzano nel III Rapporto proposte concrete per la fase2, per contrastare la crescita del traffico veicolare: smart working, risparmio di traffico, piano degli orari della città, sostegno alle alternative in bicicletta, a piedi, sharing mobility, micromobilità, veicoli elettrici e trasporto collettivo. Sono questi i principali temi del terzo Rapporto "MobilitAria 2020" che analizza i dati della mobilità e della qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città metropolitane nel 2019 e nei primi 4 mesi del 2020, in piena emergenza Covid-19. Il periodo di lockdown ha avuto effetti considerevoli sugli spostamenti dei cittadini: di conseguenza il livello di emissioni e di inquinamento dovuti al settore trasporti hanno segnato, nei mesi di marzo e aprile 2020, una battuta d'arresto a Roma, Milano, Torino e Napoli, le quattro città analizzate in questa parte dello studio. A registrare un calo netto è stato sopratutto il biossido di azoto (NO2). Il crollo principale di NO2 è avvenuto a Roma, dove le concentrazioni medie sono inferiori alle annualità precedenti (2016-2019) rispettivamente del -59% per il mese di Marzo e del -71% per il mese di Aprile. A Torino invece il calo è del -43% per il mese di Marzo e -51% per il mese di Aprile, a Milano si è avuta una riduzione del -29% e -43% rispetto alla media dello stesso periodo 2016-2019, mentre Napoli registra rispettivamente una riduzione del -33% e -57%. L'analisi condotta sulla qualità dell'aria per l'annualità 2019 ha mostrato la persistenza per alcune città italiane di valori di concentrazioni elevati che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. occorre pertanto maggiore impegno da parte delle Amministrazioni locali per ridurre le concentrazioni e i superamenti al valore limite. È stato inoltre analizzato nel periodo del lockdown nazionale a seguito dell'emergenza epidemiologica da COVID-19 l'effetto sulla qualità dell'aria. I due mesi di blocco hanno permesso di comprendere l'importante impatto del traffico veicolare, in particolare quello privato, oltre che sulle emissioni di alcuni inquinanti anche sulle concentrazioni rilevate dalle centraline; tale evidenza risulta molto marcata, in accordo con quanto emerso dalle analisi delle stesse Agenzie per gli inquinanti legati direttamente al traffico, quale il biossido di azoto e in modo minore ma comunque allo stesso modo evidente anche per il particolato atmosferico."

ISFORT, L'impatto del lockdown sui comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani. L'indagine dell'osservatorio Audimob. ISFORT, maggio 2020, 22 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "Il documento è focalizzato sul monitoraggio della domanda di mobilità degli italiani nel periodo più intenso di restrizione degli spostamenti a seguito dell'emergenza sanitaria da Covid-19, periodo convenzionalmente denominato "lockdown" e che si colloca tra l'entrata in vigore del DPCM dell'11 marzo e la fine della c.d. "fase 1" (3 maggio). Il documento in particolare fa seguito a due note successive già rilasciate da Isfort gli scorsi 1 aprile e il 23 aprile, relative all'analisi degli andamenti della mobilità rispettivamente nei primi 15 e nei primi 30 giorni del lockdown. Il testo qui allegato segue la traccia dei due precedenti ma ovviamente l'apparato tabellare e i relativi commenti sono ampiamente revisionati alla luce dei dati consolidati per l'intero periodo 11 marzo - 3 maggio. Il controllo operato su tutte le elaborazioni statistiche ha portato inoltre a piccole revisioni più complessive dei materiali già pubblicati. L'analisi proposta è arricchita dall'elaborazione di nuovi indicatori (motivazioni e fascia di lunghezza degli spostamenti) e variabili di segmentazione (ampiezza dei Comuni di residenza degli intervistati), nonché da due sezioni aggiuntive dedicate specificatamente alle propensioni future dei comportamenti di mobilità dei cittadini, in particolare rispetto alle preferenze modali, e alla percezione di sicurezza da contagio per i diversi mezzi di trasporto."

Andrea Debernardi, Emanuele Ferrara, Paolo Beria, Gli impatti della pandemia sulle reti di trasporto in Italia: scenari esplorativi fase 2. TRASPOL Report 2/20. TRASPOL, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 2020, 27 p. [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. "Come cambieranno le nostre abitudini di mobilità dopo il COVID-19? Per cercare di comprendere un po' meglio la possibile evoluzione futura del sistema di trasporto nazionale, TRASPOL e META hanno utilizzato il modello multimodale e multiscalare di trasporto i-TraM (Italian Transport Model) sviluppato negli scorsi anni per testare tre diversi scenari di riapertura nella Fase 2. Il modello di trasporto consente, in particolare, di riprodurre i flussi di traffico sulla rete stradale ed i livelli di utilizzo del trasporto pubblico sull'intero sistema infrastrutturale nazionale in un tipico giorno feriale (lavorativo e scolastico), con un livello di dettaglio sufficiente ad apprezzare eventuali differenze nell'evoluzione delle singole realtà regionali e/o metropolitane del paese."

Masuch, Kristin; Harnischmacher, Christine; Greve, Maike; and Trang, Simon (Georg-August-University Göttingen), Why Electrify? - A Qualitative-Empirical Study on Electrification of Fleet Transportation Systems. Research-in-Progress Papers, 74. ECIS 2020 Proceedings at AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2020, 11 p. [formato PDF, 729 kB]. "Global climate change is one of the most pressing matters needing to be addressed by the worldwide community. The deployment of electric vehicles in logistical fleets offers a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, organizations barely adopt this technology. Thus, this study aims to understand the factors that enable and hinder the innovation adoption process. In this context, we focus on the perceived characteristics of the electrified fleet as an innovation and on the characteristics of the organizations as the adopters of the innovation. Our study conducted semistructured interviews to assess and gain a comprehensive understanding of the influencing factors. The preliminary results suggest that the relevant characteristics of the decision-making unit such as corporate reputation, EV action radius requirements, and driving forces in the organization have positive and negative effects on the perceived characteristics of the innovation, which are cost of ownership, technical requirements, and environmental superiority. Both sets of characteristics in turn, determine whether the innovation of the electrification of the organization's transportation fleet is adopted or rejected."

Aloi, A.; Alonso, B.; Benavente, J.; Cordera, R.; Echániz, E.; González, F.; Ladisa, C.; Lezama-Romanelli, R.; López-Parra, Á.; Mazzei, V.; Perrucci, L.; Prieto-Quintana, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Sañudo, R., Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Urban Mobility: Empirical Evidence from the City of Santander (Spain). Sustainability 2020, 12, 3870 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 9,3 MB]. Open Access. "This article analyses the impact that the confinement measures or quarantine imposed in Spain on 15 March 2020 had on urban mobility in the northern city of Santander. Data have been collected from traffic counters, public transport ITS, and recordings from traffic control cameras and environmental sensors to make comparisons between journey flows and times before and during the confinement. This data has been used to re-estimate Origin-Destination trip matrices to obtain an initial diagnostic of how daily mobility has been reduced and how the modal distribution and journey purposes have changed. The impact on externalities such as NO2 emissions and traffic accidents have also been quantified. The analysis revealed an overall mobility fall of 76%, being less important in the case of the private car. Public transport users dropped by up to 93%, NO2 emissions were reduced by up to 60%, and traffic accidents were reduced by up to 67% in relative terms."

Ridisegnare il trasporto pubblico in Italia. Documento di posizione. AGENS (Agenzia Confederale dei Trasporti e Servizi), Milano, aprile 2020, 13 p. [formato PDF, 529 kB]. "Il presente paper si pone l'obiettivo di condividere una proposta di modalità e tempistiche per ridisegnare e rilanciare il trasporto pubblico in Italia, anche a seguito all'emergenza del COVID-19 che ha ulteriormente aggravato la situazione economico-finanziaria del settore."

Iván López, Jordi Ortega and Mercedes Pardo, Mobility Infrastructures in Cities and Climate Change: An Analysis Through the Superblocks in Barcelona. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 410 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 5,9 MB]. Open Access. "Cities are key actors in the fight against climate change since they are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while at the same time they experience the negative impact of this phenomenon. Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires fundamental changes in urbanism and city automobile traffic. Superblocks, a grid of blocks and basic roads forming a polygon, approximately 400 by 400 m, are one of the instruments for such changes. These type of city Superblocks represent a new model of mobility that restructures the typical urban road network, thereby substantially reducing automobile traffic, and accordingly GHG emissions, while increasing green space in the city and improving the health and quality of life of its inhabitants. Furthermore, the Superblocks do not require investment in hard infrastructures, nor do they involve demolishing buildings or undertaking massive development; they are in fact very low-tech urbanism. The city of Barcelona has been implementing Superblocks as one of the measures to combat climate change with very positive results. The paper analyzes the concept of the Superblock and its relation with climate change in cities. Along these lines, it analyzes the pioneer experience of Barcelona in the development and implementation of the Superblocks, as a radical plan aimed at taking back the streets from cars. The role of political power and institutional leadership has been key in societal acceptance and the achievement of tangible results. But there are also obstacles and drawbacks in the development of these types of Superblocks, such as the necessity to redesign the collective transport network so that car traffic can truly be reduced in cities, the possible negative influence on traffic going in and out of the city, the lack of visible advantages if they are not implemented in the entire city, the risk of gentrification in the areas with Superblocks, public opposition, and opposition from certain sectors of the business community."

Paolo Pinzuti, Paolo Gandolfi, Valerio Montieri, Matteo Dondé, Gabriele Sangalli, Piano di azione per la mobilità urbana post Covid. Bikenomist, Milano, aprile 2020, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Piano Emergenziale della Mobilità Urbana post-Covid: manuale d'uso. "Abbiamo redatto un Piano Emergenziale per la Mobilità Urbana Post-Covid che contiene le istruzioni strategiche e tecniche per evitare il collasso totale della mobilità urbana alla riapertura delle attività. Nella prima parte del documento si valutano i fenomeni in essere con un'analisi di scenario a cui si vuole dare risposta attraverso: una gestione mirata del trasporto pubblico; la creazione di una Rete di Mobilità di Emergenza per stimolare l'utilizzo di mezzi di trasporto veloci, leggeri e non congestionanti; l'allargamento degli spazi per la pedonalità allo scopo di garantire il distanziamento sociale; gestione delle Zone a Traffico Limitato e politiche della sosta. Nella seconda parte del documento si presentano le soluzioni tecniche adottabili in via immediata da parte delle amministrazioni comunali in ottemperanza alla normativa vigente. A conclusione del documento si trova un'indicazione di massima dei costi di realizzazione degli interventi proposti e una carrellata di best practice dall'Italia e dal mondo."

How clean are electric cars? T&E's analysis of electric car lifecycle CO2 emissions. Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, April 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB].

Daniel Rosenbloom, Jochen Markard, Frank W. Geels, Lea Fuenfschilling, Opinion: Why carbon pricing is not sufficient to mitigate climate change-and how "sustainability transition policy" can help. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2020 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 843 kB]. Open Access. "Carbon pricing is often presented as the primary policy approach to address climate change. We challenge this position and offer "sustainability transition policy" (STP) as an alternative. Carbon pricing has weaknesses with regard to five central dimensions: 1) problem framing and solution orientation, 2) policy priorities, 3) innovation approach, 4) contextual considerations, and 5) politics. In order to address the urgency of climate change and to achieve deep decarbonization, climate policy responses need to move beyond market failure reasoning and focus on fundamental changes in existing sociotechnical systems such as energy, mobility, food, and industrial production. The core principles of STP can help tackle this challenge."

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Urban and transport planning pathways to carbon neutral, liveable and healthy cities; A review of the current evidence. Environment International 2020, in press (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Introduction: Half the world population lives in cities and this is likely to increase to 70% over the next 20 years. Suboptimal urban and transport planning has led to e.g. high levels of air pollution and noise, heat island effects and lack of green space and physical activity and thereby an increase in morbidity and premature mortality. How can better urban and transport planning improve public health? Methods: A narrative meta-review around a number of cutting edge and visionary studies and practices on how to improve public health through better urban and transport planning reported in the literature and from meetings over the past few years. Results: We describe the latest quantitative evidence of how cities can become healthier through better urban and transport planning. It focuses and provides evidence for important interventions, policies and actions that can improve public health, including the need for land use changes, reduce car dependency and move towards public and active transportation, greening of cities, visioning, citizen involvement, collaboration, leadership and investment and systemic approaches. Health impact assessment studies have recently provided new powerful quantitative evidence on how to make cities healthier and will be used as examples. At the same time these measures make also our cities more sustainable (i.e. carbon neutral) and liveable creating multiple benefits. Conclusion: Better urban and transport planning can lead to carbon neutral, more liveable and healthier cities, particularly through land use changes, a move from private motorised transportation to public and active transportation and greening of cities."

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. NCHRP Report 769. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2014, 66 p. [formato PDF, 3,1 MB]. "TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response is designed to assist transportation organizations as they prepare for pandemics and other infectious diseases such as seasonal flu. Addressing decision-making challenges in pandemic response in the transportation context is a multi-dimensional task, involving not only transportation/transit organizations, but health organizations, emergency management agencies, and communications outlets as well. The guide is designed to outline broad guidance on dealing with pandemic preparedness planning, not detailed procedures. It provides information, tools, tips, and guidance on where to find up-to-date recommendations from federal agencies and other resources, prior to and during a pandemic. In addition to the guide, a methodology report and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project are available online.

Ragnhild Dahl Wikstrøm and Lars Böcker (University of Oslo), Changing Suburban Daily Mobilities in Response to a Mobility Intervention: A Qualitative Investigation of an E-bike Trial. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2413 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 940 kB]. Open Access. "This paper explores how local mobility interventions can bring about changes in daily mobilities and presents a qualitative study of an intervention introducing electric bikes (e-bikes) to suburban commuters in Norway. Our research shows promising evidence that e-bikes could play a crucial role in achieving a sustainable transport transition and that interventions are essential to stimulate the upscaling and mainstreaming of this emerging low-energy transport mode. In order to understand the scheme's capacity to change mobility outcomes, this paper considers (i) how this low-energy mobility intervention was conceived and undertaken by its initiators, as well as how it was experienced by its participants; and (ii) how new e-bike practices are intertwined with existing daily activities and mobility systems. Theoretically, this paper draws on the staging mobilities framework and conceptualizes situational mobilities as involving the dimensions of embodiment, social interaction, and materiality. With this twofold objective, this paper generates crucial knowledge that is required to understand the capacity of mobility interventions to trigger a sustainable transport transition. This study explores the potential of combining mobile methods (GPS-tracking), qualitative GIS, and visual methods (photo- and map-elicitation) in interviews, and participant observations."

David Pérez-Neira; Ma Pilar Rodríguez-Fernández; Cristina Hidalgo-González (Leon University), The greenhouse gas mitigation potential of university commuting: A case study of the University of León (Spain). Journal of Transport Geography 82 (2020) 102550 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB].

Fabian Dorner, Martin Berger (Technische Universität Wien), Peer-to-Peer Cargo Bike Sharing: Findings from LARA Share project. Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, 12 p. [formato PDF, 427 kB]. "Cargo bikes are bicycles that are optimized for transporting heavy weights and large volumes. The associated possibility of shifting transport from vehicles with internal combustion engines makes them a promising option for climate-friendly and environment friendly inner-city transport. Sharing could play a central role in helping cargo bikes to expand out of their current niche. The full potential that results from peer-to-peer sharing is still hardly tapped for cargo bike sharing. As part of the LARA Share project, a platform for peer-to-peer sharing of freight bikes and suitable parking spaces was developed and a pilot project implemented. As basis for the design of the platform a survey among potential users was conducted. This article presents the results of the survey regarding user structure, their attitudes towards cargo bikes and the intention to use cargo bike sharing. Additionally, we present supply and demand for cargo bikes on the sharing platform during the pilot phase and discuss reasons why demand for borrowing them has remained below expectations. Possible reasons for this as well as organisational and legal challenges are discussed and essential barriers for the provision of parking spaces for freight bikes via the platform will be presented."

Dolganova, I.; Rödl, A.; Bach, V.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Finkbeiner, M., A Review of Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Electric Vehicles with a Focus on Resource Use. Resources 2020, 9, 32 (26 p.) [formato PDF, 877 kB]. Open Access. "Changes in the mobility patterns have evoked concerns about the future availability of certain raw materials necessary to produce alternative drivetrains and related batteries. The goal of this article is to determine if resource use aspects are adequately reflected within life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of electric vehicles (EV). Overall, 103 LCA studies on electric vehicles from 2009 to 2018 are evaluated regarding their objective, scope, considered impact categories, and assessment methods - with a focus on resource depletion and criticality. The performed analysis shows that only 24 out of 76 EV LCA and 10 out of 27 battery LCA address the issue of resources. The majority of the studies apply one of these methods: CML-IA, ReCiPe, or Eco-Indicator 99. In most studies, EV show higher results for mineral and metal resource depletion than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The batteries analysis shows that lithium, manganese, copper, and nickel are responsible for the highest burdens. Only few publications approach resource criticality. Although this topic is a serious concern for future mobility, it is currently not comprehensively and consistently considered within LCA studies of electric vehicles. Criticality should be included in the analyses in order to derive results on the potential risks associated with certain resources."

Alexandre Santacreu (International Transport Forum), Safe Micromobility. Corporate Partnership Board Report. International Transport Forum, OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2020, 98 p. [formato PDF, 4,5 MB]. "This report examines the safety aspects associated with the increasing use of e-scooters and other forms of micromobility in cities. The rise of micromobility challenges existing regulations for urban traffic and forces policy makers to rethink them. The report considers a range of actions to make urban traffic with micromobility safe, including in street layout, vehicle design and vehicle operation, user education and enforcement of rules. It also asks whether a shift towards micromobility can have potential safety benefits."

International Transport Forum, Electrifying Postal Delivery Vehicles in Korea. International Transport Forum Policy Papers No. 73. OECD Publishing, Paris, March 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. "This report evaluates the costs and benefits of replacing postal delivery motorcycles with electric vehicles in eight Korean cities. It compares operating costs, safety performance, and environmental impacts based on data collected from a field trial with both vehicle types. In addition to the economic analysis, qualitative aspects are also discussed based on the findings of a focus group study. The results from the pilot programme provide an evidence base for policy initiatives in the delivery sector in Korea and beyond."

Edgar Hertwich, Reid Lifset, Stefan Pauliuk, and Niko Heeren, Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future. Summary for Policymakers. A report of the International Resource Panel. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP, IRP, 2020, 44 p. [formato PDF, 3,9 MB]. "This report was developed by the IRP in response to a request by leaders of the Group of 7 nations in the context of efforts to promote resource efficiency as a core element of sustainable development. It conducts a rigorous assessment of the contribution of material efficiency to GHG abatement strategies. More concretely, it assesses the reduction potential of GHG emissions from material efficiency strategies applied in residential buildings and light duty vehicles, and reviews policies that address these strategies. According to the Panel, GHG emissions from the material cycle of residential buildings in the G7 and China could be reduced by at least 80% in 2050 through more intensive use of homes, design with less materials, improved recycling of construction materials, and other strategies. Significant reductions of GHG emissions could also be achieved in the production, use and disposal of cars. IRP modelling shows that GHG emissions from the material cycle of passenger cars in 2050 could be reduced by up to 70% in G7 countries and 60% in China and India through ride-sharing, car-sharing, and a shift towards trip-appropriate smaller cars, among others. Increasing material efficiency is a key opportunity to achieve the aspirations of the Paris Agreement. Materials are vital to modern society, but their production is an important source of greenhouse gases. Emissions from material production are now comparable to those from agriculture, forestry, and land use change combined, yet they have received much less attention from the climate policy community. As shown by IRP estimates, it is time to look beyond energy efficiency to reduce global carbon footprint."

Fabio Hirschhorn, Didier van de Velde, Wijnand Veeneman, Ernst ten Heuvelhof (Delft University of Technology), The governance of attractive public transport: Informal institutions, institutional entrepreneurs, and problem-solving know-how in Oslo and Amsterdam. Research in Transportation Economics (2020) in press (11 p.) [formato PDF, 545 kB]. Open Access. "Public authorities are under mounting pressure to promote more sustainable urban mobility, including a modal shift from cars. With an empirical focus on Oslo and Amsterdam metropolitan areas, this paper analyses how the interplay between formal frameworks, informal institutions, and individuals' agency can contribute to making public transport more attractive in relation to other modes. Findings indicate that formal frameworks, informal institutions, and key actors co-exist and interact in complementary, substitutive, and accommodating manner; they work alongside each other to facilitate collective decision-making on issues ranging from integrating land use and transport to dealing with budget constraints. By identifying these types of interaction, this study shows that, to advance transport sustainability, authorities not only need insight on what policies to design, but can also benefit from understanding how policy-making and implementation unfold. A broader insight offered by the paper is that financial performance goals appear as a main policy driver in public transport, eclipsing sustainability concerns."

Alfonso Micucci, Maurizio Sangermano (University of Bologna), A Study on Cyclists behaviour and bicycles Kinematic. Int. J. Transp. Dev. Integr. 4(1)2020:14-28 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "A study on cyclists' behaviour and bicycle kinematic was conducted to determine the behavioural characteristics and kinetic representatives, as they are closely linked. The study focused on the behaviour of cyclists at road intersections and on cycle paths, including the crossing speeds, the accelerations, the time spent covering a fixed distance, as well as the most complex and dynamic part of the road transport system, the human factor. Whether the road users follow the laws of traffic and adopt a cautious and considerate driving attitude has a great impact on road safety. Video cameras placed at different locations were used to collect traffic data. A post processing phase to analyze the data followed. Interesting groups behaviour of cyclists were identified, as well as many characteristics curves related to the kinematic parameters. In general, a poor attitude towards compliance with behavioural rules has emerged in the medium-sized city of Bologna, Italy, especially for male cyclists. In addition, the average flow speed was observed under normal conditions, resulting in the order of 4 m/s. The results obtained are useful for understanding the performance of mixed traffic at intersection and on bicycle lanes, as well as building a basis for road accident reconstruction."

Marjan Hagenzieker, Reanne Boersma, Pablo Nuñez Velasco, Maryna Ozturker, Irene Zubin, Daniël Heikoop, Automated Buses in Europe: An Inventory of Pilots. version: 0.5. TU Delft, February 2020, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB].

Kyuhyun Lee, Ipek N. Sener (Texas A&M Transportation Institute), Emerging data for pedestrian and bicycle monitoring: Sources and applications. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2020) in press (12 p.) [formato PDF, 443 kB]. Open Access. "Growing attention on the benefits of non-motorized travel has increased the demand for accurate and timely pedestrian and bicycle travel data. Advancements in technologies and the proliferation of smartphones have created new data sources that can help eliminate limitations related to small sample size and infrequent updates due to limited resources. This study reviews the emerging data sources and their current use, focusing on non-motorized travel monitoring. In this study, the emerging data are categorized into mode-unspecified and mode-specified data based on whether the mode used can be detected with no or little effort. While mode-unspecified data are collected without sorting out non-motorized travelers, mode-specified data at least know who (which mode) is being monitored. So far, commercial vendors provide a vast volume of mode-unspecified data, but their products have been mainly used for motorized trips or are in initial stages of development. Meanwhile, readily available data sources and their applications are more concentrated on mode-specified data, which have enabled varying non-motorized travel studies-including travel pattern identification, route-choice modeling, crash/air pollution exposure estimation, and new facility provision evaluation-but are mostly focused on bicycling. Despite the potential of emerging data, their use also has several challenges, such as limited mode inference, sample bias, and lack of detailed trip/traveler information due to privacy issues. More efforts are needed, such as improving data accuracy and developing robust data fusion techniques, to be able to fully utilize the emerging data sources."

Dovilé Adminaité-Fodor, Graziella Jost, How safe is walking and cycling in Europe?. PIN Flash Report 38. European Transport Safety Council, Brussels, January 2020, 74 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "The European Union (EU) is facing a multitude of interconnected demographic, public health and environmental challenges: the climate is changing; road deaths are stagnating; urbanisation is increasing, air pollution is worsening, obesity is rising and the population is ageing. But there is an increasing recognition at local, but also national and EU level, that boosting the levels of active mobility, particularly walking and cycling, can play an important role in overcoming many of these challenges. Such a policy will also have economic benefits. Based on conservative estimates, even current levels of cycling in the EU produce benefits valued at around 150 billion euros per year. In contrast, the negative external costs of motorised road transport such as congestion, pollution and climate change are estimated at 800 billion euros per year in a recent study for the European Commission. This report examines the most recent available data on the current safety levels of cycling and walking across the EU and other countries that provide data to ETSC as part of its Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) programme".

Erling Holden, David Banister, Stefan Gössling, Geoffrey Gilpin, Kristin Linnerud, Grand Narratives for sustainable mobility: A conceptual review. Energy Research & Social Science, 65 (2020) 101454, 10 p. [formato PDF, 527 kB]. Open Access. "The concept of sustainable mobility has had a relatively short life, first being used about 30 years ago. In that time, some progress has been made, but transport is still not contributing enough to the internationally set reduction targets for carbon emissions. This paper provides a conceptual review that presents nine narratives addressing elements of sustainable mobility, each of which has been derived from a review of the agents and strategies taken over the last 30 years. From these narratives, we develop three Grand Narratives that bring together the key elements identified from the wider set of narratives-low mobility societies, collective transport 2.0, and electromobility. We then assess each of the three Grand Narratives in terms of its feasibility, acceptability, centrality, and compatibility. We conclude that each of the Grand Narratives provides a necessary but insufficient condition for achieving sustainable mobility. Thus, although each one has the potential to make significant contribution to sustainable mobility, it is only through the strong and immediate application of all three that the goal of sustainable mobility can be achieved."

Melinda Matyas (University College London), Opportunities and barriers to multimodal cities: lessons learned from in-depth interviews about attitudes towards mobility as a service. Transp. Res. Rev. 12, 7 (2020) (11 p.) [formato PDF, 563 kB]. Open Access. "With the emergence of the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concept, it is important to understand whether it has the potential to support behaviour change and the shift away from private vehicle ownership and use. This paper aims to identify potential ways that MaaS (specifically MaaS plans) could help encourage behavioural change; and understand the barriers to using alternative transport modes. In-depth interviews and qualitative analysis are applied to the case study of London. The results indicate that individuals segment the transport modes offered via MaaS into three categories: essential, considered and excluded. Soft measures should target each individuals' consideration set as this is where the most impact can be made regarding behaviour change. Respondents also highlighted factors that make them apprehensive towards certain modes, such as safety, service characteristics and administration. Interventions that focus on the socio-demographic groups that are most affected could help make these modes more appealing."

Xiao Qin and Wei Wang (Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport), Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS): Comparative analysis of country-specific offerings between Germany and China. E3S Web of Conferences 145, 02016 (2020), 9 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "This study focuses on mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) and services. The country-specific differences, which relate to mobility behaviour and supply, as well as the importance of MaaS in Germany and China, are summarised and illustrated by: that the development of MaaS by analysing the current state of mobility offers in Germany and China must be closely compared. With the help of service-dominant logic, self-determination theories and cultural dimensions theory, customer wishes and mobility behaviour are taken into account and discussed in the development of the MaaS, so that one can explore how MaaS responds accordingly and how such offers change. Today's services on the market are presented and summarised, they are public transport, biking, car, ride-sharing, etc. Furthermore, the importance is to be analysed by examining the influence and synergy of the MaaS on the micro, meso and macro levels. The reasons for country-specific differences and own development problems can then be discussed. Finally, the trend towards future development is based on the previous analysis and some recommendations are to be offered for the optimisation of the MaaS offers and their implementation."

Yujie Guo, Zhiwei Chen, Amy Stuart, Xiaopeng Li, Yu Zhang (University of Florida), A systematic overview of transportation equity in terms of accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes: From conventional to emerging technologies. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, in press, available online 5 February 2020, 100091, 14 p. [formato PDF, 644 kB]. Open Access. "Emerging transportation technologies (e.g., electric vehicles) and services (e.g., shared mobility) provide efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to traditional travel modes. However, whether these innovative technologies bring benefits to different population groups in an equal and reasonable manner is still an open question. The various methods applied to evaluate the equity performance of these systems are also not clearly comparable. In this paper, we comprehensively review methods from the existing literature for assessing the equity of a few important system outcomes: accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety. We also identify the existing challenges of analyzing equity for emerging transportation technologies. We unify the existing methodologies into a three-step framework that includes population measurement, cost/benefit measurement and equity assessment, and we summarize the applicable measurements for each step, in detail. A handful of literature focusing on emerging transportation technologies, such as shared mobility and autonomous vehicles, were also identified and surveyed; the methodologies used were found to fit with the three-step framework. We summarize the major findings and discuss promising directions for developing more sophisticated equity assessment methodologies for emerging transportation technologies. Overall, based on a comprehensive review, this paper contributes a framework for assessing the equity of transportation systems that integrates accessibility, traffic emissions, and safety outcomes. The summarized framework can be an overview resource to assist researchers and transportation planners who require equity analysis methods. The research gaps identified also provide directions for equity research on emerging transportation technologies."

European Environment Agency, The first and last mile - the key to sustainable urban transport. Transport and environment report 2019. EEA Report No 18/2019. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2020, 83 p. [formato PDF, 6,4 MB]. "This report provides a comprehensive overview of all main F/L/O mile options for passenger and freight transport. It describes their urban mobility and policy contexts and presents the current state of scientific knowledge on their environment and health effects. It also describes the limits of F/L/O mile options and the framework in which they can be most effective. The objective is to help policy makers, planners and transport users make well-informed choices."

Scott Hardman, Dahlia Garas, Jeff Allen, Jonn Axsen, George Beard, Elisabeth Dütschke, Nicolò Daina, Erik Figenbaum, Patrick Jochem, Michael Nicholas, Patrick Plötz, Nazir Refa, Benjamin Sovacool, Daniel Sperling, Frances Sprei, and Gil Tal, Exploring the Role of Cities in Electrifying Passenger Transportation. UC Davis Research Report. UC Davis, January 2020, 9 p. [formato PDF, 289 kB]. "In this brief we focus on personal passenger vehicles, as in many cities they are (still) a dominant mode of transport. In the car-dependent United States, 85% of trips are completed by car and even in London, United Kingdom 36% of all journeys are by car. Electrifying cars will not solve all issues cities face (e.g. congestion, competition for space, etc.), but can contribute to addressing air quality concerns, reducing energy consumption from transport, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions".

Suah Kim and Namjo Kim (Hanyang University), A Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Vehicle Restriction Policy for Reducing Overtourism in Udo, Korea. Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 612 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 282 kB]. Open Access. "Overtourism has given rise to conflict among various stakeholders. Accordingly, to control overtourism, the public sector has started to implement policies. Recently, Udo off Jeju Island in South Korea has begun experiencing overtourism; to prevent the situation from deteriorating, the public sector implemented a vehicle restriction policy. This study used a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess the social costs and benefits of the public policy to control overtourism in Udo. Through interviews and relevant data and documents, this study classified analysis items related to the policy that could be either a cost or benefit to different stakeholders. The social cost-benefit analysis showed that the net benefit increases, the longer the policy continues, thus ensuring it is adequate and feasible to implement the policy. An effective management public policy for the sustainability of the region's tourism should always be promoted."

Kaja Pogačar, Lucija Dežan, Monika Lamot and Marko Renčelj, Determinants of Bicycle Use among Student Population: Exploratory Research of Social and Infrastructure Factors. Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3, 6 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "By exposing more benefits than shortcomings regarding cycling, this paper focuses on university students as a significant target group that could promote cycling as the main transport mode in cities. The paper addresses a variety of determinants, barriers, and motivation for cycling among the university students within the international context. Furthermore, it exposes the importance of smaller university cities, where students can present a substantial share of the total population. Contextually, we present the research upon the use of bicycles among the students in the university city of Maribor, Slovenia. To examine whether social or infrastructural determinants play a decisive role, a questionnaire was conducted among 382 students. The findings revealed that although the topography of the city and the distances between crucial institutions are, in general, favorable, only 10.7% of students cycle daily, whereby 63.3% do not cycle at all. There were no statistical differences noticed between the impact of infrastructural and social factors; convenience was exposed as a statistically significant determinant, whereas the sustainability aspect proved to be an insignificant factor for students cycling. To conclude, cycling among the student population in smaller cities can represent a common case of potentially high impact of student population regarding sustainable mobility."

Nikita Pavlenko, Bryan Comer, Yuanrong Zhou, Nigel Clark, Dan Rutherford, The climate implications of using LNG as a marine fuel. Working Paper 2020-02. International Council on Clean Transportation, January 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 887 kB]. "Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) contains less carbon per unit of energy than conventional marine fuels, its use might not reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a life-cycle basis. This paper compares the life-cycle GHG emissions of LNG, marine gas oil (MGO), very low sulfur fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil when used in engines suitable for international shipping, including cruise ships. The analysis includes upstream emissions, combustion emissions, and unburned methane (methane slip), and we evaluate the climate impacts using 100-year and 20-year global warming potentials (GWPs). Over a 100-year time frame, the maximum life-cycle GHG benefit of LNG is a 15% reduction compared with MGO, and this is only if ships use a high-pressure injection dual fuel (HPDF) engine and upstream methane emissions are well-controlled. However, the latter might prove difficult as more LNG production shifts to shale gas, and given recent evidence that upstream methane leakage could be higher than previously expected. Additionally, only 90 of the more than 750 LNG-fueled ships in service or on order use HPDF engines. Using a 20-year GWP, which better reflects the urgency of reducing GHGs to meet the climate goals of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and factoring in higher upstream emissions for all systems and crankcase emissions for low-pressure systems, there is no climate benefit from using LNG, regardless of the engine technology. HPDF engines using LNG emitted 4% more life-cycle GHG emissions than if they used MGO. The most popular LNG engine technology is low-pressure dual fuel, four-stroke, medium-speed, which is used on at least 300 ships; it is especially popular with LNG- fueled cruise ships. Results show this technology emitted 70% more life-cycle GHGs when it used LNG instead of MGO and 82% more than using MGO in a comparable medium-speed diesel (MSD) engine. Given this, we conclude that using LNG does not deliver the emissions reductions required by the IMO's initial GHG strategy, and that using it could actually worsen shipping's climate impacts. Further, continuing to invest in LNG infrastructure on ships and on shore might make it harder to transition to low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels in the future. Investing instead in energy-saving technologies, wind-assisted propulsion, zero-emission fuels, batteries, and fuel cells would deliver both air quality and climate benefits."

Andreas Blitz, Annika Busch-Geertsema, Martin Lanzendorf (Goethe University Frankfurt/Main), More Cycling, Less Driving? Findings of a Cycle Street Intervention Study in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, Germany. Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 805 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 2,1 MB]. Open Access. "In order to encourage a shift from the car to the more sustainable transport mode of cycling, cycle streets have been implemented in cities all over the world in the last few years. In these shared streets, the entire carriageway is designated for cyclists, while motorized traffic is subordinated. However, evidence on the impact of cycle street interventions related to travel behavior change has been limited until now. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether cycle streets are an effective measure to facilitate bicycle use and discourage car use, thus contributing to the aim of promoting sustainable travel. For this purpose, we conducted a written household survey in the German city of Offenbach am Main involving participants affected by a cycle street intervention (n = 701). Based on two stage models of self-regulated behavioral change (SSBC), we identified the participants' level of willingness to use a bicycle frequently and to reduce car use. By means of bivariate and multivariate statistical methods, we analyzed the influence of awareness, use, and perceptions of the cycle street on the willingness to change behavior towards more sustainable travel. The results show that the intervention has a positive impact on frequent bicycle use, while we observed only a limited effect on car use reduction. Traffic conflicts and car speeding within the cycle street adversely affect the acceptance of the intervention. The study's findings provide new insights into the actual effects of a cycle street and its potential to encourage sustainable travel behavior."

Jurgis Zagorskas and Marija Burinskienė (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University), Challenges Caused by Increased Use of E-Powered Personal Mobility Vehicles in European Cities. Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 273 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Increased use of e-powered personal mobility vehicles is usually considered to be a positive change, while it is generally agreed that Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMVs) effectively and efficiently reduce the negative environmental impacts of transport and improve quality of life. There has been great technological progress made by all sectors in the field of personal mobility during the last decade. The use of PMVs for micro-mobility have been welcomed by the market, consumers, and governments and thus they are becoming increasingly popular in modern European society. New technology-driven PMVs provide opportunities to their users, but at the same time create problems with street space sharing, road safety, and traffic offenses. This study gives an overview of recent types of PMVs, offers some insights into upcoming changes and challenges, and raises a discussion on themes related to the increased use of e-powered personal transporters."

Qi Sun, Tao Feng, Astrid Kemperman, Andreas Spahn (Eindhoven University of Technology), Modal shift implications of e-bike use in the Netherlands: Moving towards sustainability?. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 78 (2020) 102202 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 941 kB]. "This paper investigates the modal shift patterns of e-bike users in the Dutch context. We focus on the change in e-bikers' travel behavior to assess whether this change benefits sustainability. Our study provides direct ecologically valid evidence on modal shift by using a longitudinal dataset from the Netherlands Mobility Panel survey. We examine e-bikers' modal shift patterns before and after acquiring an e-bike. The findings indicate that after e-bike adoptions, conventional bike use reduces significantly, while car use reduces less strongly. Nonetheless, the share of car kilometers is much larger than that of conventional bikes at the baseline. Besides, the emission rate per passenger kilometer of an e-bike is several times lower than that of a car. These imply a net environmental gain after e-bike adoptions. The present study also sheds light on modal shifts at a disaggregated level by investigating those e-bikers who are more likely to drive less after e-bike adoption. The findings suggest that e-bikers younger than 50 and those around retirement age (60-69) seem more likely to step out of their cars. Additionally, people living in rural areas tend to be more likely to reduce their car use than their counterparts in highly urbanized areas. Based on our findings, we present policy recommendations for achieving a greener shift in mobility systems."


2019

G Messori, E Morello, E Perotto, F Infussi, G Mondini, E Faroldi, S Tolentino and M Ugolini (Politecnico di Milano), Mobility management at Politecnico di Milano: New infrastructures and behavioural change. SBE19 - Resilient Built Environment for Sustainable Mediterranean Countries 4-5 September 2019, Milan, Italy. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 296 (2019) 012013, 13 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. Open Access. "Transportation has significant and long lasting economic, social and environmental impacts, making it one of the main challenges to be addressed by policy makers, public managers and scholars worldwide. For Universities, students and staff transportation represents one of the largest impacts on the environment and society, since in many cases it represent a noticeable share of urban traffic. A wide literature is available on the policies that support reducing car usage and improve the environmental and social sustainability of commuting to University. This paper presents the situation in the Politecnico di Milano, recorded through mobility surveys carried out in 2015 and 2017 to investigate the key issues and design possible solutions. The aim of this study is to share the set of actions and activities planned to improve the current mobility patterns of the Politecnico di Milano in favour of more sustainable means of transport. The main strategies will be the redesign of the campuses and the new infrastructure to be installed, together with the promotion of sustainable behaviours among the whole University population thanks to various activities in the framework of the 'Città Studi Campus Sostenibile' initiative. A special mention will be given to the 'Vivi.Polimi' project, which aims to improve the liveability of the Politecnico spaces, and which will give sustainable mobility a new impulse. Indeed, the planned measures include the reduction of the parking spaces inside the historical main campus while providing new infrastructure targeted at the promotion of alternative means of transport, like increasing the number of bike shelters to encourage active mobility or installing new charging stations for electric cars."

Mariza Motta Queiroz, Pedro Celeste, Filipe Moura, School commuting: the influence of soft and hard factors to shift to public transport. 22nd EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2019, 18-20 September 2019, Barcelona, Spain. Transportation Research Procedia, in press, 8 p. [formato PDF, 719 kB]. Open Access. "School commuting is critical for modern societies considering its potential and long-lasting impacts in travel behaviour of younger generations, today and in the future. Besides positive health impacts, it is crucial to expose students to more sustainable modes (e.g., walking, cycling, public transport) to form future adults with more sustainable mobility decisions. Despite the vast research on school commuting, scrutinizing the foremost factors that determine the modal choice of households when students commute to school is still challenging. Here, we carry out an analysis of the main factors that impact the willingness to shift to public transport (PT) for school commuting, in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Also, we analyse the potential of hard and soft factors to change the households' perception towards PT and their willingness to shift away from private car. While hard factors relate to interventions in the transport operation characteristics, soft measures act on the users' behaviour. Based on a survey of 1640 households whose children attend primary, middle and high schools, our results suggest that in order to achieve a modal shift towards PT, we should focus both on Hard factors Frequency and Schedules, Soft Factors and considering the Context of the school".

Ove Langeland (ed.), Magnus Andersson, Tom Erik Julsrud, Steven Sarasini, Maria Schnurr, Stefan Tongur, Decarbonising the Nordic transport system: A TIS analysis of transport innovations. TØI Report 1678/2019. Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), Oslo, December 2018, 100 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Transforming transport is one of the biggest energy challenges in the Nordic region. The past decades have seen a rapid increase in demand to move people and goods, and the transport sector relies heavily on fossil fuels. Several measures and initiatives to decarbonise transport have been introduced in Europe and in the Nordic countries. This report focuses particularly on new vehicle and fuel technologies but it also deals with other transport innovations which potentially can contribute to a shift to cleaner modes of transport, such as mobility as a service (MaaS)".

Susan Shaheen, Adam Cohen, Michael Randolph, Emily Farrar, Richard Davis, Aqshems Nichols, Shared Mobility Policy Playbook. Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, December 2019, 224 p. [formato PDF, 8 MB]. "This Shared Mobility Policy Playbook provides an introduction and definitions of shared mobility services, mode-specific resources for agencies looking to develop policies in their community, and policy-focused tools demonstrating case studies and best practices for shared mobility".

Rebecca Thorne, Astrid H. Amundsen, Ingrid Sundvor, Battery electric and fuel cell trains: Maturity of technology and market status. TØI Report 1737/2019. Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), Oslo, November 2019, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "Athough most trains in Europe are powered by electricity from a third rail or overhead line, it is not always cost effective to electrify rail lines. In these cases, alternatives to diesel train population are batteries and fuel cells. Battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell technologies have developed significantly in recent years and multiple manufacturers are now investing in the development of battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell trains. Resultingly there have been an increasing number of these trains in operation, both for trials and commercial service. Changes in rail transport are not possible without the support of an adequate network, which must be highly planned. This is particularly important for hydrail, since no mass production of hydrogen for transport applications is yet in place. Nonetheless, with current focus on further implementation both in Norway and across Europe, the future is bright for these zero emission propulsion technologies."

Transport-related CO2 Emissions of the Tourism Sector : Modelling Results. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and International Transport Forum (ITF), Madrid, December 2019, 72 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The number of tourists travelling across borders is expected to reach 1.8 billion a year by 2030, according to the latest UNWTO predictions. This will be alongside a further 15.6 billion domestic tourist arrivals. Such growth will bring many opportunities, including socioeconomic development and job creation. At the same time, however, greenhouse gas emissions linked to tourism-related transport are also rising, challenging the tourism sector's ambition to meet the targets of the Paris Agreement. UNWTO and ITF embarked on this research project with the aim of providing evidence of the CO2 emissions from tourism and the implications of the different modes of transport. The report provides insights into the evolution of tourism demand across the different global regions up to the year 2030. It also presents the expected transport-related CO2 emissions of the tourism sector against the current ambition scenario for the decarbonization of transport."

Anastasia Christodoulou, Marta Gonzalez-Aregall, Tobias Linde, Inge Vierth, Kevin Cullinane, Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air. A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures. Maritime Business Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2019, pp. 16-30 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 709 kB]. "Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the various initiatives developed and implemented across the globe for the abatement of maritime air emissions. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, an extensive survey of various sources was conducted, including the official reports of international and regional institutions, government policy documents, port authority websites, classification society pages, private firms' sites and the academic literature. The initiatives were then categorized in accordance with the classification of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software to give some insight into their frequencies and the interrelationships between them. Findings - This exploratory review resulted in the establishment of a comprehensive global database of initiatives encouraged by the whole range of shipping stakeholders and decision-makers for the reduction of shipping air emissions. According to the findings, economic incentives that provide motivation for the adoption of less environmentally damaging practices are the most commonly used initiative, followed by infrastructure investments and informative policies. Research limitations/implications - The results provide implications for further research that include an in-depth analysis of ports' policies, as well as an evaluation of initiatives applied on a large scale to map their emissions reduction potential for shipping. Originality/value - The main contribution of this paper is the identification and analysis of all the diverse initiatives implemented globally in a comprehensive way and its dealing with air pollution from shipping as a whole."

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2019, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. "Purpose - For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach - The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings - Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications - Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications - The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications - The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value - The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

Reyes García, J. R., Westerhof, M. W., Haveman, S. P., Bonnema, G. M. (University of Twente), From Shared electric Mobility Providers (SeMPs) to electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS) players - A first approach to assess the Technical Level of Integration of Mobility Service Providers' functionalities applied to the European (e)MaaS market. ICoMaaS proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Mobility as a Service, Tampere 3.-4.12.2019, 162-180 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "In this paper we present an approach to evaluate to what extent Mobility Service Providers (MSPs) can be considered (e)MaaS players. Following that approach, we conduct an analysis of 128 MSPs, specifically Shared electric Mobility Providers (SeMPs), currently operating in the European market. The goal of the analysis is twofold. Firstly, it aims at demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach. Secondly, it aims at offering an overview of the current state of the market concerning the Technical Level of Inte- gration (TLI) of European SeMPs. Our results show that, on the one hand, most of the SeMPs currently operating in Europe have a medium to high TLI. However, those levels are mostly not applicable for multi- modal (i.e. for multiple modes of transport or multiple MSPs) interfaces but for single-mode interfaces. On the other hand, our results also show that there are already some SeMPs in the current European market that have fully integrated functionalities, in that case, SeMPs mostly have multimodal interfaces. Based on the analysis and discussion presented in this paper, we concluded that the TLI approach offers an effective technique to determine, and easily visualize, the level of integration of the technical functionalities of MSPs."

Kay Inckle, Disabled Cyclists and the Deficit Model of Disability. Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol 39, No 4 (2019) [HTML]. Open Access. "Disability and cycling rarely appear in the same sentence and there is very little research about cyclists with physical disabilities. Nor, indeed, is there any acknowledgement of the experiences and needs of disabled cyclists in policy, practice or the public imagination. Nonetheless, cycling is a key form of mobility for people with disabilities, and cycling facilitates autonomy and independence of movement for many disabled people, as well as providing health-promoting physical activity. Drawing from qualitative interviews, this paper explores this gap in the context of the deficit model of disability and its impacts upon people with physical disabilities who cycle, many of whom who use their cycle as their main form of transport and mobility. It highlights the barriers that disabled cyclists face in terms of mobility, accessing cycling and the perceptions and attitudes which impede their everyday activities and underpin exclusionary policy, practice and infrastructure. Rejecting the deficit model of disability and recognising cycling as a key strength/ability for people with physical disabilities will lead to greater equality and improve the lives and experiences of disabled people."

Mojdeh Azad, Nima Hoseinzadeh, Candace Brakewood, Christopher R. Cherry and Lee D. Han (Univ. of Tennessee), Fully Autonomous Buses: A Literature Review and Future Research Directions. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Volume 2019, Article ID 4603548 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles (AVs) represent a new, growing segment of transportation research. While there have been prior studies and deployments of AVs worldwide, full autonomy in bus transit has gained interest among researchers and practitioners within the last decade, which presents an opportunity to synthesize early trends. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a review of the latest research on fully autonomous buses to summarize findings and identify gaps needing future research. Forty studies were reviewed in detail, and five main themes were identified, which are (1) technology deployment; (2) user acceptance; (3) safety; (4) social and economic aspects; and (5) regulations, policies, and legal issues. The results reveal that most prior studies have focused on technology development, and the area of regulation and policy would benefit from additional study. Noteworthy differences between research in Europe and the United States were also identified. In Europe, large funded projects involving real-world deployments have focused on user acceptance, security and safety, costs, and related legal issues, whereas in the United States, research has primarily concentrated on simulation modelling with limited real-world deployments. The results of this review are important for policy-makers and researchers as AV technology continues to evolve and become more widely available."

Katrien De Langhe, Hilde Meersman, Christa Sys, Eddy Van de Voorde and Thierry Vanelslander (University of Antwerp), How to make urban freight transport by tram successful?. Journal of Shipping and Trade (2019) 4:13 (23 p.) [formato PDF, 4,6 MB]. Open Access. "Many national and international bodies, such as the European Commission, encourage the use of environment-friendly transport modes. Local and national authorities take more and more measures, for instance road pricing, loading/ unloading spaces and low-emission zones, to prevent negative transport-related externalities in urban areas. Hence, transport and logistics operators consider alternative ways to deliver goods in urban areas by using electric vehicles, cargo bikes, inland vessels and rail transport. Which of these alternative modes is appropriate for which transport flow depends on multiple factors, including the available transport infrastructure, the goods volume, the measures taken by the authorities and the presence of congestion. This paper focuses on urban freight transport by tram and the conditions for a successful implementation. A successful implementation is defined as an implementation that is viable, i.e. the difference between the change of the costs and the change of the benefits exceeds a certain threshold value. The viability is studied from a business-economic and a socio- economic perspective for a dedicated freight tram, a freight wagon behind a passenger tram and the transport of parcels by a passenger tram. A viability model is developed, based on a social cost-benefit analysis. The working of this model is illustrated by applying it to the city of Antwerp. The main findings show that the use of a freight wagon attached to a passenger tram provides more potential than a dedicated freight tram. A courier taking the tram to deliver some parcels can be viable as well. For all three types of tram transport, the socio-economic benefits exceed the business-economic ones. Critical factors affecting the viability include the transported volume, the efficiency of the current road transport, the timing of the transport, the need for post-haulage and the operational costs of both road and rail."

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde, Kevin Cullinane, How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 4-15 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 782 kB]. " Purpose. For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach. The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs. Findings. Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over Euro 30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well. Research limitations/implications. Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on "benefits to society", other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines. Practical implications. The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated. Social implications. The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives. Originality/value. The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden's national freight transport model."

Pierre Friedlingstein et al., Global Carbon Budget 2019. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783-1838, 2019 (56 p.) [formato PDF, 8,2 MB]. Open Access. "Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties."

Nick Watts, Markus Amann, Nigel Arnell, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Kristine Belesova, Maxwell Boykoff, Peter Byass, Wenjia Cai, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Stuart Capstick, Jonathan Chambers, Carole Dalin, Meaghan Daly, Niheer Dasandi, Michael Davies, Paul Drummond, Robert Dubrow, Kristie L Ebi, Matthew Eckelman, Paul Ekins, Luis E Escobar, Lucia Fernandez Montoya, Lucien Georgeson, Hilary Graham, Paul Haggar, Ian Hamilton, Stella Hartinger, Jeremy Hess, Ilan Kelman, Gregor Kiesewetter, Tord Kjellstrom, Dominic Kniveton, Bruno Lemke, Yang Liu, Melissa Lott, Rachel Lowe, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Mark Maslin, Lucy McAllister, Alice McGushin, Slava Jankin Mikhaylov, James Milner, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Karyn Morrissey, Kris Murray, Simon Munzert, Maria Nilsson, Tara Neville, Tadj Oreszczyn, Fereidoon Owfi, Olivia Pearman, David Pencheon, Dung Phung, Steve Pye, Ruth Quinn, Mahnaz Rabbaniha, Elizabeth Robinson, Joacim Rocklöv, Jan C Semenza, Jodi Sherman, Joy Shumake-Guillemot, Meisam Tabatabaei, Jonathon Taylor, Joaquin Trinanes, Paul Wilkinson, Anthony Costello, Peng Gong, Hugh Montgomery, The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate. Lancet 2019; 394: 1836-1878 (43 p.)[formato PDF, 14,3 MB]. "The data published here elucidate the ongoing trends of a warming world with effects that threaten human wellbeing. As the fourth hottest year on record, 2018 saw a record-breaking 220 million additional exposures to extremes of heat, coupled with corresponding increased vulnerability to heat across every continent. As a result of this and broader climatic changes, vectorial capacity for the transmission of dengue fever was the second highest recorded, with 9 of the past 10 most suitable years occurring since 2000. Progress in mitigation and adaptation remains insufficient, with the carbon intensity of the energy system remaining flat; 2-9 million ambient air pollution deaths; and a reversal of the previous downward trend of coal use."

Isfort, 16º Rapporto sulla mobilità degli italiani. Roma, 27 novembre 2019. Presentazione, 19 slides [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Koichi Sakai, MaaS trends and policy-level initiatives in the EU. IATSS Research (2019) (in press), 9 p. [formato PDF, 617 kB]. Open Access. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2019.11.001 "The concept of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) was conceived in Finland, and it is characteristically user-oriented. Interest in MaaS has quickly spread across Europe along with the rapid advances in information and communications technology and the internet of things in recent years, as the realization of MaaS is consistent with the policy directions of the EU member states promoting the use of public transport. This paper describes the MaaS concept in EU, the birth of the concept in Finland and its background, and EU-wide policy level initiatives and their characteristics."

Claudio Carlini, Diana Moneta, Preliminary Economic Assessment for Electric Buses Adoption in the Italian Framework. AEIT International Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 18-20 September 2019. Presentation, 12 slides [formato PDF, 3,00 MB]. E-buses in the Italian framework & case studies.

Nikolaos Gavanas, Autonomous Road Vehicles: Challenges for Urban Planning in European Cities. Urban Sci. 2019, 3(2), 61, 13 p. [formato PDF, 254 kB]. Open Access. "Autonomous vehicles will significantly affect mobility conditions in the future. The changes in mobility conditions are expected to have an impact on urban development and, more specifically, on location choices, land use organisation and infrastructure design. Nowadays, there is not enough data for a real-life assessment of this impact. Experts estimate that autonomous vehicles will be available for uptake in the next decade. Therefore, urban planners should consider the possible impacts from autonomous vehicles on cities and the future challenges for urban planning. In this context, the present paper focuses on the challenges from the implementation of autonomous road vehicles for passenger transport in European cities. The analysis is based on a systematic review of research and policy. The main outcome of the analysis is a set of challenges for urban planning regarding the features of urban development, the local and European policy priorities, the current lack of data for planning and the potential for autonomous vehicles to be used by planners as data sources. The paper concludes that tackling these challenges is essential for the full exploitation of the autonomous vehicles' potential to promote sustainable urban development."

Joseph Hollingsworth, Brenna Copeland and Jeremiah X Johnson (North Carolina State University), Are e-scooters polluters? The environmental impacts of shared dockless electric scooters. Environ. Res. Lett. 14 084031 (2019), 10 p. [formato PDF, 961 kB]. Open Access. "Shared stand-up electric scooters are now offered in many cities as an option for short-term rental, and marketed for short-distance travel. Using life cycle assessment, we quantify the total environmental impacts of this mobility option associated with global warming, acidification, eutrophication, and respiratory impacts. We find that environmental burdens associated with charging the e-scooter are small relative to materials and manufacturing burdens of the e-scooters and the impacts associated with transporting the scooters to overnight charging stations. The results of a Monte Carlo analysis show an average value of life cycle global warming impacts of 202 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile, driven by materials and manufacturing (50%), followed by daily collection for charging (43% of impact). We illustrate the potential to reduce life cycle global warming impacts through improved scooter collection and charging approaches, including the use of fuel-efficient vehicles for collection (yielding 177 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), limiting scooter collection to those with a low battery state of charge (164 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile), and reducing the driving distance per scooter for e-scooter collection and distribution (147 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile). The results prove to be highly sensitive to e-scooter lifetime; ensuring that the shared e-scooters are used for two years decreases the average life cycle emissions to 141 g CO2-eq/passenger-mile. Under our Base Case assumptions, we find that the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with e-scooter use is higher in 65% of our Monte Carlo simulations than the suite of modes of transportation that are displaced. This likelihood drops to 35%-50% under our improved and efficient e-scooter collection processes and only 4% when we assume two-year e-scooter lifetimes. When e-scooter usage replaces average personal automobile travel, we nearly universally realize a net reduction in environmental impacts."

Raphael Hoerler, Fabian Haerri and Merja Hoppe, New Solutions in Sustainable Commuting - The Attitudes and Experience of European Stakeholders and Experts in Switzerland. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 220 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as 'enablers' for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative solutions like carsharing, Mobility as a Service, or autonomous vehicles, relevant stakeholders were identified for three European case studies. Their perspectives and openness towards trends and new solutions were researched in an online survey. In addition, five expert interviews and two workshops in Switzerland deepened the understanding of how new mobility services could be incorporated into companies through mobility management. Results reflect a strong distinction of stakeholders by their national borders and responsibilities. As new mobility technologies and solutions require collaboration, the acts of supporting strong cross-border and cross-disciplinary cooperation, as well as developing joint interests and work processes beyond traditional ones, are suggested as important starting points. The study reveals a high openness of important stakeholders towards new mobility services and discusses the experience of experts in company mobility management."

Sally Cairns and Lynn Sloman, Potential for e-cargo bikes to reduce congestion and pollution from vans in cities. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. "Cargo bikes and electrically-assisted cargo bikes have significant potential to replace vans in urban areas, and to help reduce congestion and pollution. Scale and nature of the opportunity. Vans (light goods vehicles) already account for about 15% of motorised vehicle miles in urban areas in Britain, and rapid growth of van traffic is a cause of worsening traffic congestion. In large cities, up to a quarter (25%) of all traffic may be trips by delivery and service companies in vans, cars and lorries, according to European research. Estimates suggest about 10-30% of trips by delivery and service companies might be substitutable by (e-)cargo bikes. The potential is likely to be greater in areas where traffic is restricted, for reasons such as poor air quality. Taken together, these figures suggest that there is potential for traffic mileage in urban areas to be reduced by about 1.5-7.5%, if (e-)cargo bikes took over from delivery and service vehicles for suitable trips. E-cargo bikes are particularly suitable for dense urban areas, where there is a high concentration of suitable delivery work and individual trips are short. In some cases, use of e-cargo bikes might be a straight switch; in others, it could involve reorganisation of supply chains, including use of micro-consolidation centres, with (e-)cargo bikes used for the last part of the deliveries. The mail and parcel delivery sector has received the greatest attention. However, there is also significant potential for the use of (e-)cargo bikes for delivery of both food and non-food items, by tradesmen and service providers, by public sector workers, and (for smaller items) by the construction industry. There is also substantial potential for use of (e-)cargo bikes for personal journeys, in particular for shopping and transporting children. Benefits of (e-)cargo bikes. (E-)cargo bikes take up less road-space than conventional vans, and can often make use of cycle lanes. When making deliveries, their smaller size also means that they can be conveniently parked. Vans emit over 30% of all NOx and particulates from road vehicle exhausts, and so replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes disproportionately improves air quality. Replacing vans with (e-)cargo bikes also reduces emissions of greenhouse gases. Vans in the parcel and delivery sector may each emit more than 10 tonnes of CO2 per year. Trials by DHL, where two vans are replaced by a 'City Hub' and four e-cargo bikes, are estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by 16 tonnes p.a.. In Maastricht, four companies that replaced a conventional van with an e-cargo bike saved more than a tonne of CO2 in six months. In London, a butcher that began using an e-cargo bike instead of a van whenever possible was able to reduce CO2 emissions by 75%. (E-)cargo bikes are also efficient. They can take shorter, faster routes (using cycle and bus lanes, or being wheeled through pedestrianised areas); they are easier to park and so deliveries can be made more quickly; and they are cheaper to buy, insure and repair than vans. Restaurants using e-cargo bikes to deliver take-away meals report that it is easier to recruit riders than van drivers or moped riders. Measures to encourage take-up of (e-)cargo bikes In Europe, use of e-cargo bikes is growing fast, but in the UK, numbers are small. The recent grants for (e-)cargo bikes announced by the Department for Transport should encourage take-up. Similar (e-)cargo bike grants at national and city level in other European countries have been successful. However, grants are unlikely to be enough on their own. The government could also set up Sustainable Freight Demonstration Towns to show how e-cargo bikes work and how much difference they can make when used on a large scale."

Carey Newson and Lynn Sloman, The Case for a UK Incentive for E-bikes. Developing the evidence base on the contribution of the bicycle industry to Britain's industrial strategy. Transport for Quality of Life Ltd, July 2019, 25 p. [formato PDF, 676 kB]. "Numerous evaluations demonstrate that e-bikes support physical activity. They have broader appeal than conventional bikes, including to older people, women, and those who are less active, as well as to the young, men and the physically active. Sales of e-bikes in Belgium and the Netherlands are 20 times greater, per head of population, than they are in Britain. Sales in Sweden, Germany and Austria are between 7 and 14 times higher per head of population than in Britain. A main reason for the greater popularity of e-bikes in these countries is that national and regional or local governments have offered grants to incentivise purchase of e-bikes. These grants have raised awareness of e-bikes as an option. Evaluation of e-bike grant schemes in various countries found that typically, around half (40-60%) of e-bike trips replaced car trips, although the proportion can be as low as 16% or as high as 70% depending on local conditions and previous travel patterns. Results from individual countries showed that: About 40% of those who received a grant to buy an e-bike subsequently reduced their car use for commuting, shopping and leisure trips (Austria); People who received a grant increased the distance they cycled from an average of 200km per year before buying an e-bike to 1,400km per year afterwards, and reduced the distance they travelled by car by 660km per year (France); Sales of e-bikes in Sweden jumped from 12% to 19% of all bike sales in a single year (from 2016/17 to 2017/18), and this was attributed to the national grants programme. E-bikes are used for longer journeys than conventional bikes, and therefore have significant potential to reduce carbon emissions from transport. An e-bike grant scheme would be more than twice as effective, per pound spent, as the current grants offered to buyers of some electric cars: for example, over five years the cost per kg of CO2 saved by an e-bike grant scheme would be 42 pence, compared to 88 pence per kg of CO2 saved by an electric car grant used to buy a Tesla Model S."

David R. Ragland, Kara E. MacLeod, Tracy McMillan, Sarah Doggett, Grace Felschundneff (University of California), Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population. Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, April 2019, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "The mobility needs of an aging population is one of the most substantial challenges facing California in the coming decades. The number of residents age 65 and older is expected to double between 2012 and 2050, and the number age 85 and above is expected to increase by over 70% between 2010 and 2030. Declines in physical function related to age may reduce mobility options dramatically. A survey of 510 residents age 55 and older in Contra Costa County was conducted to determine mobility patterns and limitations related to age and other factors. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of seniors are car dependent. However, some older adults miss important activities due to mobility limitations associated with increasing age, poorer health, living alone, not having a licensed driver in the household, and having a disability. Mobility options are also limited in some geographic areas and demographic groups. Importantly, older adults want to "age in place". Based on these findings and those in related studies, the travel options and the quality of life for older adults, now and in the future, can be greatly enhanced if efforts are made to develop mobility solutions beyond use of private vehicles. The findings support the recommendations of recent regional plans such as the Coordinated Public Transit-Human Services Transportation Plan (2018), adopted by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) of the San Francisco Bay Area, which recommends supporting a range of mobility options centered around shared mobility and accessibility for populations at risk for limited mobility."

Transport & Environment, One corporation to pollute them all. Luxury cruise air emissions in Europe. Transport & Environment, Brussels, June 2019, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The main purpose of this study is to analyse air pollution caused by luxury passenger cruise ships in European waters. The results show that the luxury cruise brands owned by Carnival Corporation & PLC emitted in 2017 in European seas alone 10 times more disease-causing sulphur oxide than all of Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Norway are the most exposed countries to cruise ship air pollution in Europe. Among the major cruise ports, Barcelona, Palma Mallorca and Venice are the most polluted. Analysis also reveals that even in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), where the most stringent marine sulphur fuel standard is mandated, air pollution from cruise ships remains of great concern. In Denmark, for example, whose coasts are entirely within SECAs, cruise ships emitted 18 times more SOX in 2017 than all 2.5 million passenger vehicles in a year. This is a reflection of both the effectiveness of the fuel quality directive for road transport fuels and the failure to implement equivalent standards for the shipping industry. Ships SOX will still remain considerably large compared to passenger car fleet even after the introduction of the global 2020 marine sulphur cap. When it comes to nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, cruise ships are also of great concern despite the air pollution impact of the ongoing land-based "dieselgate" in Europe. In Denmark again, 107 cruise ships analysed emitted as much NOX in the Danish maritime economic exclusive zone (EEZ) as half the passenger cars operating in the country itself. This report recommends a zero-emission berth standard for all European ports. In addition, extra stringent air pollution standards are recommended to apply to cruise ships. These ships usually operate close to the coast with long port calls at major tourist destinations, hence disproportionately affecting air quality. Initially, it is recommended to extend the emission control areas, currently in place in the North and Baltic Seas, to the rest of the EU seas and to tighten marine SECA standard in Europe to 10ppm, equivalent to fuel used in road transport. The report also suggests that cruise ships, the industry's public-facing luxury segment, be looked up and targeted as first-movers in regulations to decarbonise the sector. So, in addition to a zero-emission berth standard, cruise ships should also be the first required to switch to zero emission propulsion in EU territorial waters."

Element Energy, Batteries on wheels: the role of battery electric cars in the EU power system and beyond. Element Energy, June 2019, 56 p. [formato PDF, 5,1 MB]. This report is produced under the Study on EV Batteries project, commissioned and funded by Transport & Environment, in collaboration with Renault-Nissan, ENEL, and Iberdrola. "European carmakers have jointly committed more than €130 billion to electrification in the coming years. This is a positive development, but if the rollout of electric vehicles is not properly managed - via uncontrolled grid connections or unsustainable use and sourcing of materials - challenges will arise, reducing the environmental benefits and creating new problems. The report, published alongside T&E's briefing: estimates the expected uptake of EVs and the volumes of batteries available for grid services during the vehicle life, as well as second-life applications and recycling at the end of vehicle life; studies the impact of EV integration on EU grids and renewables penetration, with case studies of France, Spain, Italy and the UK; analyses the economics around innovative second-life applications of batteries and presents a number of promising case studies; and assesses challenges and opportunities around battery recycling, as well as what is needed to spur circular economy markets in Europe. T&E's short briefing accompanies the Element Energy report; it provides additional analysis and policy recommendations in view of the new European Commission and upcoming legislative opportunities."

EASAC, Decarbonisation of transport: options and challenges. EASAC policy report 37. EASAC Secretariat (European Academies' Science Advisory Council), Halle (Saale), March 2019, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "This EASAC report reviews options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from European transport. It argues for stronger policies to bridge the gap between the GHG emission reductions that will be delivered by current policies and the levels needed to limit global warming to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C (Paris Agreement). The report focusses on road transport because, in the EU, this contributes 72% of transport GHG emissions. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Opportunities for the EU to strengthen its industrial competitiveness and create high quality jobs are also discussed."

Federica Aldighieri (ISPRA), Ridurre le emissioni climalteranti: indicazioni operative e buone pratiche per gli Enti Locali. Quaderni Ambiente e Società 20/2019. ISPRA, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, 2019, 101 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "Le politiche per affrontare i Cambiamenti Climatici sono principalmente la mitigazione e l'adattamento. Questa pubblicazione si concentra sulla mitigazione, cioè l'abbattimento delle emissioni di gas serra o gas climalteranti. Tra i protagonisti di questo indispensabile e non più rimandabile impegno ci sono sicuramente le città e gli Enti Locali in generale, cui la pubblicazione si rivolge. Vengono affrontati tre settori sui quali le città hanno la possibilità di intervenire: la mobilità urbana (capitoli 2 e 3), il risparmio di energia (capitolo 4 e 5) e la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili (capitolo 6 e 7). I capitoli per ogni settore sono due: il primo fornisce una panoramica delle azioni possibili e degli strumenti a disposizione di un Ente Locale per abbattere le emissioni di gas serra; il secondo una selezione di buone pratiche cui ispirarsi. Sia il primo che il secondo capitolo di ogni settore hanno un approccio operativo fornendo link e pubblicazioni utili per entrare in azione. La pubblicazione si rivolge agli amministratori e i dipendenti degli Enti Locali. Potrebbe essere inoltre utile per i soggetti coinvolti dagli Enti Locali nei processi di partecipazione alle politiche decisionali. Precede un capitolo (capitolo 1) in cui si spiega che la pubblicazione intende partire dai "numeri" delle emissioni climalteranti in Italia, con facili tabelle in cui si riportano i dati concreti. La tabella guida aprirà ogni capitolo evidenziando di volta in volta il peso delle emissioni derivanti dal relativo settore a livello nazionale: i trasporti, lo spreco di energia, e la produzione di energia. Anche se la tabella non sarà uno strumento di lavoro per i lettori essi però potranno pesare con i propri occhi il contributo effettivo alle emissioni di gas serra del settore specifico e virtualmente sentirne il peso."

European Environment Agency, Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2017 and inventory report 2019. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. EEA Report No 6/2019. (EEA/PUBL/2019/051). Copenhagen, 27 May 2019, 962 p. [formato PDF, 15,4 MB + 5 additional files (annexes)]. "Total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU) increased by 0.7 % in 2017, according to latest official data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Less coal was used to produce heat and electricity but this was offset by higher industrial and transport emissions, the latter increasing for the fourth consecutive year. total greenhouse gas emissions (including international aviation) rose by 0.7 % in 2017 compared with 2016. These official data confirm the preliminary estimates published by the EEA in October 2018. From 1990 to 2017, the EU reduced its net greenhouse gas emissions by 21.7 %. The EU is therefore still exceeding its 20 % reduction target set for 2020. EU greenhouse gas emissions have decreased since 1990 as a combined result of policies, economic and structural factors and, on average, milder winters (requiring less energy for heating). The largest emission cuts have been made in the energy sector, due to efficiency improvements, increased use of renewables and a less carbon intensive mix of fossil fuels - more gas, and less coal and oil. Energy efficiency and renewable energy will continue to play a key role in cutting future emissions and helping the EU achieve its 40 % reduction target by 2030."

Transport & Environment, Emissions reduction strategies for the transport sector in Italy. A report produced under the framework of the EUKI project. Transport & Environment, Brussels, January 2019, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "Transport is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Italy. In contrast to the industry and public electricity and heating sectors, transport emissions are still just above 1990 levels, but emissions from international shipping and aviation have doubled in the same time. In the context of needing to be decarbonised by the mid-century under the Paris Agreement, this trend needs to be rapidly reversed. Italy is already experiencing amplified climate change and warming compared to Europe. The objective of this report is to show how Italy can decrease their transport emissions from a broad range of European and national measures. In particular, the report focuses on reductions in road transport emissions that fall under the jurisdiction of the European Climate Action Regulation, which enforces a 33% emissions reduction target in 2030 compared to 2005. Finally, policy recommendations are presented to enable Italy to meet the most ambitious targets. The effect of mitigating measures such as vehicle efficiency standards, modal shift, and demand reduction, among many others, are calculated using Transport & Environment's in-house transport model, the EUTRM. The main results of the scenarios investigated are shown below. Crucially, Italy can meeits 2030 targets as long as ambitious vehicle standards, electrification, and national measures are implemented."

Andrew R. Goetz, Serena Alexander, Urban Goods Movement and Local Climate Action Plans: Assessing Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Freight Transportation. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, April 2019, 38 p. [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. "This report examines how freight transport/goods movement has been addressed in U.S. city climate action planning. Transportation generally is a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and freight transport represents a growing component of transportation's share. Almost all climate action plans (CAPs) address transportation generally, but we wished to focus on efforts to reduce GHG emissions from freight transport specifically. We analyzed 27 advanced local CAPs to determine the degree to which freight transport was targeted in goals and strategies to reduce GHG emissions. We found only six CAPs that included direct measures or programs to reduce freight emissions. Many of the CAPs mentioned general transportation objectives such as lowering vehicle miles traveled or reducing emissions from city-owned vehicle fleets, but most did not include strategies or actions that explicitly targeted freight transport. We identified the specific strategies and actions that cities are taking to address GHG emissions from freight transport, such as working with the freight community to promote anti-idling and encourage transitions to electric and alternative fuel delivery vehicles. We also analyzed freight transport plans relevant for the same cities, and found that most do not explicitly mention reducing GHG emissions. Most of the freight plans are focused on improving reliability and efficiency of freight movement, which would likely have the ancillary benefit of reducing GHG emissions, but that goal was not explicitly targeted in most of these plans. Based on our findings, we recommend that cities specifically target freight transport goals and strategies in their CAPs and better coordinate with planners developing freight transport plans to identify GHG emission reduction approaches."

Gregory D. Erhardt, Sneha Roy, Drew Cooper, Bhargava Sana, Mei Chen and Joe Castiglione, Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion?. Science Advances 2019;5:eaau2670 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 6,6 MB]. Open Access. "This research examines whether transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, live up to their stated vision of reducing congestion in major cities. Existing research has produced conflicting results and has been hampered by a lack of data. Using data scraped from the application programming interfaces of two TNCs, combined with observed travel time data, we find that contrary to their vision, TNCs are the biggest contributor to growing traffic congestion in San Francisco. Between 2010 and 2016, weekday vehicle hours of delay increased by 62% compared to 22% in a counterfactual 2016 scenario without TNCs. The findings provide insight into expected changes in major cities as TNCs continue to grow, informing decisions about how to integrate TNCs into the existing transportation system."

Rocío Rodríguez Quintero, Candela Vidal-Abarca Garrido, Hans Moons, Miguel Gama Caldas, Oliver Wolf (JRC), Ian Skinner (TEPR), Anouk van Grinsven, Maarten 't Hoen, Huib van Essen (CE Delft), Revision of the EU green public procurement criteria for transport. Technical report and criteria proposal. JRC Science for Policy report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, 155 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Public authorities' expenditures in the purchase of goods, services and works (excluding utilities and defence) constitute approximately 14% of the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Europe, accounting for roughly EUR 1.8 trillion annually. Thus, public procurement has the potential to provide significant leverage in seeking to influence the market and to achieve environmental improvements in the public sector. This effect can be particularly significant for goods, services and works (referred to collectively as products) that account for a high share of public purchasing combined with the substantial improvement potential for environmental performance. The European Commission has identified (road) transport as one such product group. Road transport covers a wide scope of vehicles (cars, LCVs, L-category vehicles, buses and waste collection vehicles) and services (mobility services, public bus services, waste collection services and post and courier services). The main environmental issues at the use phase addressed by the criteria are GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions and noise emissions. The impacts from the manufacture of batteries used in electric vehicle are also considered, leading to criteria on minimum and extended warranty of batteries. This revision has coincided with the evaluation of the Clean Vehicle Directive and the introduction of new test procedures to measure CO 2 and air pollutant emissions of vehicles (WLTP, Real Driving Emissions in Euro 6). All these policies have been taken into account in the revision process of the EU GPP criteria for transport, to ensure a full harmonisation of the EU policies."

a cura di Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti, Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città e aree metropolitane 2017-2018. Rapporto MobilitAria 2019. 2° Rapporto Kyoto Club, CNR IIA, in collaborazione con OPMUS ISFORT. Istituto sull'inquinamento atmosferico del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Cnr-Iia) e Kyoto Club, Roma, aprile 2019, 152 p. [formato PDF, 10,9 MB]. "MobilitAria 2019 è il secondo rapporto realizzato dal gruppo di lavoro Mobilità sostenibile di Kyoto Club e dagli esperti di CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) con una inedita collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT. Il rapporto delinea un quadro complessivo sull'andamento della qualità dell'aria e delle politiche di mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città e aree metropolitane italiane nel periodo 2017-2018. Ricordiamo che il primo Rapporto 2018 aveva analizzato le stesse città per il decennio 2006-2016. Uno sguardo critico è dedicato alla parte trasporti del Piano Nazionale Energia e Clima, la proposta presentata di recente dal Governo italiano, di cui è avviata la consultazione pubblica. La vera novità contenuta nel rapporto 2019 è la collaborazione con OPMUS, l'Osservatorio Politiche Mobilità Urbana Sostenibile di ISFORT, che ha elaborato e commentato una indagine sulla mobilità nelle 14 aree metropolitane, con dati inediti. Seguono due specifici contributi: uno di T&E che approfondisce la strategia europea per la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti al 2030 e al 2050, con gli obiettivi di riduzione dei gas serra e per diventare fossil free: una sfida immane e necessaria che deve vedere le città protagoniste. Segue un contributo di TRT Trasporti e Territorio, che ha effettuato sulla base del modello MOMOS, una simulazione sulla mobilità elettrica e i suoi effetti in quattro grandi città metropolitane al 2030. La seconda parte del rapporto è ricca di dati sulla mobilità urbana di ogni grande città e le tendenze del biennio con l'inserimento dei nuovi dati e le tendenze sulla mobilità nelle aree metropolitane. I dati sono corredati da una puntale ricognizione dei provvedimenti di mobilità e le azioni concrete realizzate da ogni grande città nel biennio 2017 e 2018. Tra gli elementi considerati vi è anche lo stato di attuazione dei PUMS sia a livello metropolitano che di ogni singola città. Vengono approfonditi i dati di qualità dell'aria delle 14 città nel biennio 2017 e 2018 e lo stato della qualità dell'aria delle singole stazioni cittadine per l'anno 2018. Completa il Rapporto un set di proposte verso la mobilita sostenibile, la sicurezza stradale e la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti, elaborate di Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA."

Marcin Szamatowicz and Joshua Paundra (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Access or Ownership? The effect of car attributes and collective psychological ownership on the preference for car subscription services. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 2019, Vol. 2(1): 159-173 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 397 kB]. Open Access. "The variety of alternative transportation services for urban commuters continues to expand with the introduction of car subscription services. Under the header of the sharing economy, car subscription services enable drivers to have access to cars without ownership for a relatively longer time period (e.g. months), when compared to other sharing economy based transportation services. Based on a mixed of between- and within-subject design online experiment involving 274 participants, this study investigates this novel service by looking at the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership to various traditional and upcoming subscribed car features namely, mileage limit, price, self-driving capability, and advance safety systems, on people's preference for car subscription services. Results suggested that these features significantly impacted people's preference for subscribed car. Collective psychological ownership was found to moderate the influence of self-driving capability and advance safety systems. That is, high collective psychological ownership individuals preferred subscribed car with self-driving capability or had more concerned to the unavailability of advance safety systems in a subscribed car. This study points to the need for car subscription companies to consider traditional (price and mileage limit) as well as upcoming (self-driving capability and advance safety systems) features, when offering their services and enticing potential users. More importantly, the moderating influence of collective psychological ownership on these upcoming car features means car subscription companies should account for people's psychological disposition to their own vehicle when considering additional car features to effectively attract new users."

Ana MarÍa Manzur Tirado, Rowan Brown, Osiris A. Valdez Banda, Risk and safety management of autonomous systems: a literature review and initial proposals for the maritime industry. (Aalto University publication series SCIENCE + TECHNOLOGY, 1/2019). Aalto University, School of Engineeering, Marine Technology, 2019, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Maritime autonomous systems pose many challenges to their designers. A fully autonomous vessel must be able to handle everyday navigation and propulsion in addition to an extensive list of other tasks such as cargo handling, emergency manoeuvering, ship-ship and ship-shore communications, situational awareness, and much more. If such systems are to be implemented for the sake of increased safety, their operational risk and safety must be managed and assured. The goal of this report is to investigate how risk and safety of these systems can and should be managed. There are three categories of system modelling methods that can be used for this purpose. The oldest category is "sequential methods", followed chronologically by the most popular category, called "epidemiological methods", and then by the newest category, called "systemic methods". This report first contains an overview of these three categories. Following this is a literature review that investigates the approaches to risk and safety management of autonomous systems that are taken within four transportation industries (aviation, railway, automotive, and maritime). Next are three SWOT analyses, one for each category of methods. Within these analyses there contains the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats presented by or towards each method. For the role of autonomous maritime systems, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that STPA (a systemic method) is the optimal choice (if one method that current exists is to be used). This is because it is a comprehensive method that can handle complex socio-technical systems, such as those in question, while providing useful safety improvement recommendations. However, no single method is better than every other in all situations, and STPA presents certain limitations and drawbacks. First, it is very resource heavy, demanding long time investments from expert personnel. Second, because few data on the proposed systems exist, it is very difficult to conclusively recommend a suitable method. Therefore, if practitioners decide to employ STPA, they should be open to considering other methods in case they can yield better results. Finally, STPA (and other systemic methods) cannot currently yield accident probabilities. This means that STPA, in its current form, is unable to entirely satisfy the IMO's FSA, which is important for the future of autonomous ships. Conversely, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that methods that can satisfy the FSA are unsafe for this application. This is because they are too theoretically simplistic and not comprehensive enough to produce trustworthy results. To solve this issue, one of the following should take place: (a) STPA (or another systemic method) is augmented to include probabilistic abilities; (b) STPA (or another systemic method) is combined with a sequential method to achieve the benefits of both categories (e.g. comprehensive and probabilistic results); or (c) a new systemic method is created that provides the depth of analysis of STPA as well as the required probabilistic capabilities. However, barring the FSA issue, the enclosed analysis indicates that the optimal choice is a systemic method (specifically STPA) despite its heavy burden to resources. This may seem like a cavalier recommendation, but it is the most comprehensive method and it produces the most safety improvement recommendations, thereby making it the optimal choice. It is additionally recommended that system analysis is performed from the design concept stage through to system operation, regardless of the method chosen. This is so that the analysis can be improved as more system data are produced."

Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Folęga (Silesian University of Technology), Impact of Road Transport Means on Climate Change and Human Health in Poland. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 31, 2019, No. 2, 195-204 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 380 kB]. Open Access. "Operation of means of transport is one of major sources of environmental impact. The goal of this article was to analyse the greenhouse gas emissions and to assess the impact of operation of means of road transport in Poland on human health using the life cycle assessment technique based on an analysis of emission of dust and gas pollutants. Road transport was assessed by taking the following means of transport into account: passenger cars, other cars with weight of up to 3,500 kg, lorries, buses, motorcycles, mopeds and tractors. The analysis covered various dust and gas pollutants, including the emission of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, NOx, NMVOC, PM and SO2. Using the IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment method, transport was assessed in a breakdown into the following impact categories: greenhouse gas emission and damage to human health, including damage caused by organic and inorganic compounds. It has been evidenced that the highest emissions of dust and gas pollutants are caused by passenger cars, which is mainly due to the number of vehicles of this type traversing Polish roads. The main cause of climate changes due to road transport is CO2 emission, while NOx emission is the main factor determining individual categories of damage to human health. The negative environmental impact is primarily related to the operation of combustion engine vehicles. Diesel oil and petrol are currently the main fuels used in Polish transport. In order to reduce their impact on the environment one should intensify the efforts aimed at increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport."

Erling Holden, Geoffrey Gilpin and David Banister, Sustainable Mobility at Thirty. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1965 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "It is now almost three decades since the concept of 'sustainable mobility' first appeared in the 1992 EU Green Paper on the Impact of Transport on the Environment. This paper reviews the literature and reflects on how societies' understanding and interpretation of the concept of sustainable mobility has evolved. We track this evolution over six dimensions: research and policy, transport impacts and categories, scientific disciplines, methodological approach, and research questions. From this review we assert that the mainstream understanding and interpretation of sustainable mobility can be grouped into four generations of studies. The first generation of studies (1992-1993) were techno-centric and focused on how to limit transport's negative environmental impacts by improving then-existing technology. The second, third and fourth generations of studies (1993-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2018 respectively) increasingly acknowledge the limitations of preceding efforts to achieve sustainable mobility, and open for a more diverse set of alternatives. These studies have gradually become more interdisciplinary in nature-reflecting the inter-relatedness of mobility with all other aspects of society. We conclude that despite the ensuing elevation of mobility into the holistic picture society, we still have not achieved a sustainable mobility system. Furthermore, what is much needed now, more than ever, is a bold set of new narratives."

Kobe Boussauw, Thomas Vanoutrive, Flying Green from a Carbon Neutral Airport: The Case of Brussels. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2102 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "The aviation sector is one of the fastest growing emitters of greenhouse gases worldwide. In addition, airports have important local environmental impacts, mainly in the form of noise pollution and deterioration in air quality. Although noise nuisance in the vicinity of airports is recognized as an important problem of the urban environment which is often addressed by regulation, other environmental problems associated with aviation are less widely acknowledged. In the climate debate, the importance of which is rising, aviation has remained under the radar for decades. In the present paper, we use the case of Brussels Airport (Belgium) to demonstrate that the local perception of air travel-related environmental problems may be heavily influenced by the communication strategy of the airport company in question. Basing our analysis on publicly available data, communication initiatives, media reports, and policy documents, we find that (1) the noise impact of aviation is recognized and mainly described in an institutionalized format, (2) the impact of aviation on local air quality is ignored, and (3) the communication on climate impact shows little correspondence or concern with the actual effects. These findings are relevant for other airports and sectors, since the type of environmental communication produced by airport companies can also be observed elsewhere."

Elisabetta Cornago, Alexandros Dimitropoulos, Walid Oueslati, Evaluating the Impact of Urban Road Pricing on the Use of Green Transport Modes: The Case of Milan. OECD Environment Working Papers No. 143, OECD Publishing, Paris. 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of congestion pricing on the demand for clean transport modes. To this end, it draws on an empirical analysis of the effect of Milan's congestion charge on the use of bike sharing. The analysis indicates that congestion pricing increases daily bike-sharing use by at least 5% in the short term. Extending the schedule of the congestion charge in the early evening increases bike-sharing use in the affected time window by 12%. The impact of the policy on bike-sharing use mainly occurs through the reduction of road traffic congestion, which makes cycling safer and more pleasant. The findings of the study indicate that policies aiming to reduce car use also have positive repercussions on the uptake of green mobility options. Relying solely on direct incentives for cycling, which often involve infrastructure projects, is likely insufficient to remove barriers to bike use."

Ugo Fiore, Adrian Florea and Gilberto Pérez Lechuga, An Interdisciplinary Review of Smart Vehicular Traffic and Its Applications and Challenges. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8, 13 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 1,3 MB]. Open Access. "Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of the hefty data volumes generated by sensors, and the coordinated operation between selfish agents. The purpose of this work is to survey recent literature with an emphasis on applications and a multidisciplinary eye, with the aim of stimulating discussion and reflection in the scientific communities. The principal application areas of smart traffic and smart mobility are discussed, synthesizing different perspectives. Many intriguing areas for future research exist besides those relative to connectivity, data fusion, and privacy. Some research challenges pertinent to sustainability, insurance, simulation and the handling of ambiguous information are highlighted."

José María Martín Martín, Jose Manuel Guaita Martínez, Valentín Molina Moreno and Antonio Sartal Rodríguez, An Analysis of the Tourist Mobility in the Island of Lanzarote: Car Rental Versus More Sustainable Transportation Alternatives. Sustainability 2019, 11, 739 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Studies have shown that certain modes of tourist development jeopardize the environment, as in the case of mass tourism, especially in areas that require special protection. The goal of this study is to apply a proposal for studying sustainability of tourist mobility to a protected space, the island of Lanzarote, which has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. This paper seeks to figure out the mobility patterns of tourists, the criterion used to select a mode of transportation, the attitude of tourists towards the sustainability of transport, and its environmental implications by analyzing secondary sources and interviewing tourists. The results show that the tourism model of the island is based on scattered natural resources that tourists want to enjoy in a tailor-made visit, which makes it hard to give up individual transportation. The only environmentally sustainable alternative is opting for electric vehicles with charging stations in the aforementioned tourist spots."

Tessa Kate Anderson, Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility. vehicles 2019, 1(1), 57-68 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and use. This study used a combination of in-depth surveys and interviews with all 61 Danish municipalities on their fleet PEV experience and use. By building on the literature, the paper offers a deeper understanding of decision-making pathways for the procurement of PEVs. PEVs were found to be most suited to certain departments and the acceptance and uptake of PEVs was found to be complex and not straightforward."

Yingnan Jia, Ding Ding, Klaus Gebel, Lili Chen, Sen Zhang, Zhicong Ma, Hua Fu, Effects of new dock-less bicycle-sharing programs on cycling: a retrospective study in Shanghai. BMJ Open 2019;9:e024280 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 420 kB]. Open Access.

Gruppo di Lavoro sulla valutazione dei progetti, Analisi costi-benefici del nuovo collegamento ferroviario Torino - Lione. Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 79 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB].

Avv. Pucciariello, Relazione tecnico-giuridica (sulla nuova linea ferroviaria Alta Velocità/Alta Capacità Torino-Lione). Roma, 11 febbraio 2019, 53 p. [formato PDF, 1,2 MB].

Cerema, Amphibiens et dispositifs de franchissement des infrastructures de transport terrestre. Cerema, Janvier 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 19,4 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques biologiques des amphibiens et des menaces qui pèsent sur ce groupe, le présent ouvrage précise les enjeux de protection et les impacts des infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT), en particulier les routes. Les infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT) font courir deux risques majeurs aux amphibiens : la fragmentation (disparition, diminution, dégradation et isolement des surfaces d'habitats favorables, extinction des petites populations) et la mortalité directe par les collisions. Divers dispositifs associés aux mesures "Eviter, Réduire, Compenser" (ERC) sont destinés à éviter l'impact ou le supprimer, atténuer ou réduire ces risques ou tenter de compenser les dommages. Cet ouvrage présente les dispositifs temporaires et permanents de protection des amphibiens, en particulier les "crapauduc" ou "batrachoduc"), et les principes de conception. Les méthodes de dénombrement, les mesures d'accompagnement, l'entretien et le suivi de l'efficacité de ces mesures, la pérennisation des corridors rétablis (politiques foncières) et quelques estimations de coût sont également abordés. Il s'adresse principalement aux concepteurs de ces installations et aux gestionnaires d'infrastructures mais également à tous les autres acteurs qu'ils appartiennent à des structures associatives ou institutionnelles intéressées et impliquées dans l'initiative et la mise en oeuvre de ces mesures."


2018

Keith Bevis, Oycan Sozcu, Russell Fenner, Mobility as a Service: Early implementations in the UK. EEVConvention: Policies and Best Practice, Oslo Congress Center, Oslo, Norway, 25 Sep 2018, 15 p., [formato PDF, 648 kB]. "Mobility as a Service, MaaS, has been developing at a pace across Europe. While engaged in an InnovateUK project, MotionHub, to implement a MaaS scheme in a municipality in the South East England, the authors began to ask two fundamental questions; what is MaaS and to what extent is it materialising in the UK. From the experience of MotionHub, it is clear that UK implementations would be slow. Combining a number of web-based services and amalgamating their financial transactions is relatively straightforward. However, introducing the potential for public transport ticketing as well raises additional security, scale and financial constraints. Motion Hub has engaged with major players and regulators across the public transport industry. In its latter stages project was rolled out to the public. The various individual services became available from the single website via one membership application and the use of a single card. Other MaaS styled initiatives have been reviewed and it appears that there are just five other MaaS projects being trialled concurrently with MotionHub that provide journey planning and single point ticket purchase for multimodal journeys. A number of other initiatives provide just some aspects of MaaS. The project has also reviewed customer perceptions, suitability of various types of town to MaaS initiatives and the varying enthusiasm amongst local government officials. From these reviews it is clear that the MaaS uptake will be slow. However, reflecting on the theoretical discussions about Maas, there appears to be a significant gap between theory and practice In particular of the claimed benefits of de-congestion and reduced pollution seem to be some way off in the future. This is not a criticism of MotionHub and the other implementations, some of which are substantial investments. It is acknowledgement that the goal of seamless adaptive travel is an extremely ambitious one."

Cerema, Adapter la mobilité d'un territoire au changement climatique. Cerema, 2018, 78 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Les changements du climat, déjà sensibles et amenés à s'amplifier à l'avenir, ont et auront des incidences importantes sur la mobilité des territoires. Destiné aux acteurs des territoires, le présent ouvrage propose dans un premier temps une démarche puis développe une méthode en quatre étapes. Après avoir posé quelques principes préalables de la démarche, la première étape de la méthode vise à délimiter le cadre temporel et spatial de la réflexion; la deuxième étape permet d'identifier les effets du changement climatique sur la mobilité à l'échelle du territoire, en s'appuyant sur neuf effets répertoriés; la troisième étape consiste à élaborer des scénarios sur la base de trois familles proposées; enfin, la quatrième étape précise le contenu du scénario choisi grâce à sept leviers opérationnels."

Liridona Sopjani, Jenny Janhager Stier, Sofia Ritzén, Mia Hesselgren, Peter Georén, Involving users and user roles in the transition to sustainable mobility systems: The case of light electric vehicle sharing in Sweden. Transportation Research Part D, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.12.011, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "Low-carbon mobility alternatives, such as shared services integrating light electric vehicles, support transitions to sustainable transport systems. However, new products and services are not enough, as changes must also incorporate the practices of travelling, infrastructure, and mobility cultures in which users of mobility solutions are core stakeholders. This paper argues that user involvement is necessary in sustainable innovation processes but that the expected diversity of user roles and their involvement can also lead to contrasting outcomes for sustainable innovation transitions. Guided by theory in user involvement, this study investigated users and nonusers of light electric vehicles in a sharing mobility service system set up as living lab in two large workplaces in Sweden. Fifty-one interviews with employees at the workplaces were conducted during the implementation process and analysed combined with a questionnaire and data from system tracking through sensor technology. The paper finds that both users and non-users are co-creators in building momentum for sustainable mobility alternatives and provides a spectrum of user roles with defined characteristics. Four roles are distinguished within this spectrum: vigilant users, passive collaborators, active decision makers and ambassadors. We suggest that a convergent activation strategy is deployed for involving a full spectrum of users in order to capture their insights in ways that positively affect transition. Such a strategy addresses users and non-users as part of decision-making concerning alternatives and cultivates a culture of user collaboration, while also enabling a plurality of contributions in order to challenge existing regimes and established practices among individuals."

Konstantin Klemmer, Tobias Brandt, Stephen Jarvis, Isolating the effect of cycling on local business environments in London. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0209090 (2018) (31 p.) [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. Open Access. "We investigate whether increasing cycling activity affects the emergence of new local businesses. Historical amenity data from OpenStreetMap is used to quantify change in shop and sustenance amenity counts. We apply an instrumental variable framework to investigate a causal relationship and to account for endogeneity in the model. Measures of cycling infrastructure serve as instruments. The impact is evaluated on the level of 4835 Lower Super Output Areas in Greater London. Our results indicate that an increase in cycling trips significantly contributes to the emergence of new local shops and businesses. Limitations regarding data quality, zero-inflation and residual spatial autocorrelation are discussed. While our findings correspond to previous investigations stating positive economic effects of cycling, we advance research in the field by providing a new dataset of unprecedented high granularity and size. Furthermore, this is the first study in cycling research looking at business amenities as a measure of economic activity. The insights from our analysis can enhance understandings of how cycling affects the development of local urban economies and may thus be used to assess and evaluate transport policies and investments. Beyond this, our study highlights the value of open data in city research."

Heikki Liimatainen, Markus Pöllänen and Riku Viri (Tampere University of Technology), CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios. European Journal of Futures Research (2018) 6:22 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "The transport sector produces 23% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. While the mitigation of climate change requires GHG emissions to be drastically reduced, the emissions from the transport sector are expected to grow. The purpose of this study is to produce alternative scenarios which meet the target of 80% CO2 emission reduction by 2050 for the Finnish transport sector and to analyse the carbon abatement potentials, costs and benefits of the required behavioural and technological measures. We found that the most cost-efficient measure for the society is to support a shift from private car use to shared car use through increasing car-sharing and ride-sharing. Aiming to reach the emission reduction targets solely through technological measures would require a rapid uptake of alternative energies and the society would not receive the possible benefits, including health benefits, energy savings and fixed car cost savings."

Eckert Fritz, Johannes Klühspies, Roland Kircher, Michael Witt, Laurence E. Blow, Energy Consumption of Track-Based High-Speed Transportation Systems: Maglev Technologies in Comparison with Steel-Wheel-Rail. Research Series Volume 3. The International Maglev Board, November 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 869 kB]. Public Full-Text. "Energy consumption is an important criterion of the total operating costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, with maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Linear Shinkansen. From a scientific point of view, a fair and objective comparison is needed, without any distortion of results. Therefore, a comparison of energy values based on "normative usable areas" inside the high-speed systems will be introduced and evaluated in this paper. The results give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. But, as a whole, energy consumption cannot be seen as major advantage of high speed maglev systems over conventional steel-wheel-rail, when compared at same speeds."

Andrea Giuricin, Roberto Tosatti, The history of Italo and the benefits of competition in the Italian HSR sector. CESISP Working Paper N. 6. CESISP (Centro di Ricerca in Economia e Regolazione dei Servizi, dell'Industria e del Settore Pubblico), Università di Milano-Bicocca, 2018, 28 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The purpose of this study, divided in three different parts, is to represent the evolution of the Italian high-speed railway (HSR) sector from the origin to the competition phase, focusing attention on the non-public competitor, Italo, recently became an American company. In the first part of the study will be provided a presentation about the liberalization of the Italian rail market under EU regulation. This theme will be address within a legal point of view. In the second part of the paper will be represent the evolution of the HSR sector in the country, from an infrastructural and economics point of view. In particular we will discuss about the development of the service until the competition phase. In the last part we will talk about the history of NTV and its service (Italo). We will talk about the origins and the current commercial situation. Lately we will analyse the results of its first 6 years of life, comparing the HSR sector before and after its entry and the benefits it produced."

Jessica E. Bourne, Sarah Sauchelli, Rachel Perry, Angie Page, Sam Leary, Clare England and Ashley R. Cooper, Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (2018) 15:116 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. Open Access. "Background: Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have been highlighted as a method of active travel that could overcome some of the commonly reported barriers to cycle commuting. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the health benefits associated with e-cycling. Method: A systematic literature review of studies examining physical activity, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and psychological outcomes associated with e-cycling. Where possible these outcomes were compared to those from conventional cycling and walking. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists were searched up to November 2017. Hand searching occurred until June 2018. Experimental or observational studies examining the impact of e-cycling on physical activity and/or health outcomes of interest were included. E- bikes used must have pedals and require pedalling for electric assistance to be provided. Results: Seventeen studies (11 acute experiments, 6 longitudinal interventions) were identified involving a total of 300 participants. There was moderate evidence that e-cycling provided physical activity of at least moderate intensity, which was lower than the intensity elicited during conventional cycling, but higher than that during walking. There was also moderate evidence that e-cycling can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive individuals. Evidence of the impact of e-cycling on metabolic and psychological health outcomes was inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence was compromised by weak study design and quality. Conclusion: E-cycling can contribute to meeting physical activity recommendations and increasing physical fitness. As such, e-bikes offer a potential alternative to conventional cycling. Future research should examine the long-term health impacts of e-cycling using rigorous research designs."

Alessandro Panaro, Dario Ruggiero, Daniele Testi, Corridoi ed efficienza logistica dei territori. Risultati di un'indagine sulle imprese manifatturiere. SRM/Contship Italia, Melzo, dicembre 2018, 40 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. Report gratuito, necessaria la registrazione. Report online realizzato grazie al partenariato tra SRM e Contship Italia Group nell'ambito delle attività di ricerca dell'Osservatorio Permanente sull'Economia dei Trasporti Marittimi e della Logistica (www.srm-maritimeconomy.com). "Lo studio è il frutto di una survey, progettata e realizzata da SRM e Contship, con l'obiettivo di offrire una fotografia delle scelte logistiche di un panel di 400 imprese manifatturiere, localizzate in tre regioni che rappresentano poco più del 40% del PIL italiano e il 52,7% dell'interscambio commerciale totale del nostro Paese: Lombardia, Emilia Romagna e Veneto. L'indagine si concentra sui "corridoi" logistici utilizzati dalle imprese che utilizzano i container per trasportare le proprie merci, sulle modalità di trasporto usate per raggiungere le infrastrutture portuali dalla sede dell'impresa e viceversa, e sui porti italiani più utilizzati per raggiungere i mercati di destinazione."

Dieter Scholz (Hamburg University of Applied Sciences), Evaluating Aircraft with Electric and Hybrid Propulsion. Electric & Hybrid Aerospace Technology Symposium 2018, Cologne, Germany, 08.-09.11.2018, 73 slides [formato PDF, 5,3 MB]. "Purpose: This presentation takes a critical look at various electric air mobility concepts. With a clear focus on requirements and first principles applied to the technologies in question, it tries to bring inflated expectations down to earth. Economic, ecologic and social (noise) based well accepted evaluation principles are set against wishful thinking. Design/methodology/approach: Aeronautical teaching basics are complemented with own thoughts and explanations. In addition, the results of past research projects are applied to the topic. Findings: Electric air mobility may become useful in some areas of aviation. Small short-range general aviation aircraft may benefit from battery-electric or hybrid-electric propulsion. Urban air mobility in large cities will give time advantages to super-rich people, but mass transportation in cities will require a public urban transport system. Battery-electric passenger aircraft are neither economic nor ecologic. How overall advantages can be obtained from turbo-electric distributed propulsion (without batteries) is not clear. Maybe turbo-hydraulic propulsion has some weight advantages over the electric approach. Research limitations/implications: Research findings are from basic considerations only. A detailed evaluation of system principles on a certain aircraft platform may lead to somewhat different results. Practical implications: The discussion about electric air mobility concepts may get more factual. Investors may find some of the information provided easy to understand and helpful for their decision making. Social implications: How to tackle challenges of resource depletion and environment pollution is a social question. Better knowledge of the problem enables the public to take a firm position in the discussion. Originality/value: Holistic evaluation of electric air mobility has not much been applied yet. This presentation shows how to proceed."

Cláudia A. Soares Machado, Nicolas Patrick Marie de Salles Hue, Fernando Tobal Berssaneti and José Alberto Quintanilha, An Overview of Shared Mobility. Review. Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4342 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "In a wider understanding, shared mobility can be defined as trip alternatives that aim to maximize the utilization of the mobility resources that a society can pragmatically afford, disconnecting their usage from ownership. Then, shared mobility is the short-term access to shared vehicles according to the user's needs and convenience. The contributions and added value of this paper are to provide an up-to-date and well-structured review on the area of shared mobility to researchers and practitioners of the transport sector. Hence, this paper presents a bibliographical review of shared mobility and its diverse modalities, as an alternative to individual transportation, especially in cases of individual automobiles or short trips restricted to an urban city. The present literature review on shared modes of transportation has discovered that the introduction of these modes alone will not solve transportation problems in large cities, with elevated and growing motorization rates. However, it can among the strategies employed to help alleviate the problems caused by traffic jams and pollution by reducing the number of vehicles in circulation, congestions, and the urban emission of polluting gases. Thus, the implementation of shared mobility schemes offers the potential to enhance the efficiency, competitiveness, social equity, and quality of life in cities. This paper covers the fundamental aspects of vehicle and/or ride sharing in urban centers, and provides an overview of current shared mobility systems."

Luqi Wang, Barriers to Implementing Pro-Cycling Policies: A Case Study of Hamburg. Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4196 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 3,4 MB]. Open Access. "Cycling is gaining increasing attention as a convenient, environmentally friendly, and fitness-improving mode of transport. While many policy interventions have been made to promote cycling, not enough research has focused on the barriers to implementing pro-cycling policies. For effective policy implementation, identifying major barriers and removing them is critical. This study took an in-depth look at Hamburg which started a major cycling promotion in 2008. According to expert interviews and literature surveys, the author found that the major barriers are physical, political and institutional, and social and cultural. Specifically, the city lacks enough physical space, political support, and the evaluation of travel behavior and demand. Also, some private stakeholders are reluctant to give up on-street car parking space for cycling lanes, and the negotiation process is difficult and time-consuming. To overcome these barriers, Hamburg requires cycling-oriented urban design, a strategic and integrated cycling action plan, strong political support, and target group-oriented communication."

Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives. TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report. EEA Report No 13/2018. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2018, 80 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The aims of this report are to: bring together existing evidence on the environmental impact of BEVs across the stages of their life cycle, undertaking where possible comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs); consider how a move to a circular economy could reduce these impacts."

Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola, Theo Notteboom, Towards low carbon global supply chains: a multi-trade analysis of CO2 emission reductions in container shipping. PortEconomics, Conference Paper for the International Association of Maritime Economists 2018 Conference (IAME2018), held 11-14 September 2018, Mombasa, Kenya, 20 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "How individual factors contribute to the carbon footprint associated with international maritime container supply chains? This is the key question of the latest port study co-authored by PortEconomics members Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola and Theo Notteboom. The authors advance their research providing four key contributions: Identify six key contributing factors to container shipping emissions; Develop a model to isolate the contribution of individual factors; Apply the model to long-term emissions associated to 187 container services deployed in 2007 and 170 services in 2016; Discuss how their results can be used by shippers/logistics service providers to design low-carbon global supply chains."

Kiron Chatterjee, Phil Goodwin, Tim Schwanen, Ben Clark, Juliet Jain, Steve Melia, Jennie Middleton, Anna Plyushteva, Miriam Ricci, Georgina Santos and Gordon Stokes, Young People's Travel - What's Changed and Why? Review and Analysis. Report to Department for Transport. The Centre for Transport & Society, UWE Bristol and Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford, January 2018, 86 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Young adults in Great Britain and other countries are driving less now than young adults did in the early 1990s. The Department for Transport (DfT) commissioned the Centre for Transport and Society (UWE, Bristol) and the Transport Studies Unit (University of Oxford) to carry out a systematic assessment of available evidence on the subject, both by review of UK and overseas published literature, and by new secondary analysis of existing UK data sets. The study sought to address the questions: In what ways have changes in young people's social and economic conditions, and lifestyles and attitudes impacted on their travel behaviour? How might those drivers, or other anticipated changes, be expected to impact their future travel demand? The evidence has been evaluated on the basis of an extensive review of both transport-specific and wider social science literature in the UK (and other countries where, despite national differences, the trends show many similar patterns), and new analysis of data from the National Travel Survey (NTS) (1995-2014), the Census (2001 and 2011) and Understanding Society (five waves from 2009/10 to 2013/14)."

E. Pisoni, P. Christidis, P. Thunis, M. Trombetti, Evaluating the impact of "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" on urban background air quality. Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 249-255 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Air quality in European cities is still a challenge, with various urban areas frequently exceeding the PM2.5 and NO2 concentration levels allowed by the European Union Air Quality Standards. This is a problem both in terms of legislation compliance, but also in terms of health of citizens, as it has been recently estimated that 400 to 450 thousand people die prematurely every year due to poor air quality. Air quality in cities can be improved with a number of interventions, at different sectoral (industry, traffic, residential, etc) and geographical (international, European, national, local, etc.) levels. In this paper we explore the potential of city level plans to improve mobility and air quality (excluding electro-mobility options, not considered in this study). We applied the "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" (SUMPs) framework to 642 cities in Europe and modelled how the measures they include may impact at first on mobility and emissions at urban level, and then on urban background concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. Results show that annual averages moderately improve for both pollutants, with reductions of urban background concentrations up to 2% for PM2.5 and close to 4% for NO2. The impact on NO2 at street level (that will be higher than on urban background) is not evaluated in this work. The air quality improvement of the simulated SUMP would only partially alleviate air quality problems in urban areas, but such a reduction in the emissions of air pollutants should still be considered as a positive result of SUMPs, given that they correspond to a set of low-cost measures that can be implemented at local level. Furthermore, the introduction of electro-mobility options (not considered here) would increase the impact on air quality. Other types of benefits, such as reduced fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, higher impact at street level or accident rates reduction further add to the overall positive impact."

Anne Durand, Lucas Harms, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Toon Zijlstra, Mobility-as-a-Service and changes in travel preferences and travel behaviour: a literature review. KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, The Hague, September 2018, 57 p. [formato PDF, 978 kB]. "Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), a transport concept integrating various mobility services into one single digital platform, elicits high expectations as a means of providing customised door-to-door transport solutions. To date, the frequent claims about the positive contributions MaaS will make towards achieving sustainability goals rely on a scattering of limited yet insightful research findings. Many research questions remain unanswered, however. Are people willing to accept MaaS as a new transport service (on a daily basis)? The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis looked for answers by means of an extensive research program."

Armando Cartenì, Maria Luisa De Guglielmo and Nicola Pascale, Congested Urban Areas with High Interactions Between Vehicular and Pedestrian Flows: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for a Sustainable Transport Policy in Naples, Italy. The Open Transportation Journal, 2018, Volume 12, 273-288 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 4,4 MB]. Open Access. " Introduction/Methods: A significant application of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan of Naples, in southern Italy, will be described with specific reference to design a sustainable transport scenario for one of the highest density and congested area of the city: Municipio square, in the centre of Naples, where the homonymous station of the Metro Line 1 was under construction. The particularity of this case study is that Municipio Square is a high dense population area characterized by multimodal traffic flows (vehicles and pedestrians) and a thousand of travellers who embark/disembark every day from the marina to the islands of the Naples Gulf (e.g. Capri, Ischia) and cruises around the Mediterranean Sea. Thousands of vehicles and people pass through the square every day, often slowing the vehicular flows. Starting from these considerations, a multi-scale modelling architecture (estimated ad-hoc for the specific case study) was proposed to better evaluate policy impacts (e.g., transport, social, environmental), applying both macroscopic and microscopic simulation models simultaneously to design a sustainable transport scenario in term of both geometrical and traffic solutions. Results: Six different design scenario were compared and the main results of the most significant one are described and discussed. The best project solution reduces the average travel time and the long queues thanks to a better distribution of the flows (both vehicles and pedestrians) in the broader area around of Municipio square. The simulation results also underlined the benefits for pedestrians related to the presence of different size of sidewalks and paths. Conclusion: Because of the realization of the new metro station will increase the pedestrian flows, the external layout of the square was designed, regarding infrastructures and paths, to minimize the conflicts and reduce the overall travel time. The proposed sustainable transport scenario was conceived in term of best geometrical devices and traffic solutions. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis was also proposed, according to the European guidelines, aiming in improving transport, urbanistic, artistic/cultural, aesthetic, economic and environmental aspects as well as liveability for citizens, transport users (public and private) and tourists."

Miguel Ángel Mozos-Blanco, Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), The way to sustainable mobility. A comparative analysis of sustainable mobility plans in Spain. Transport Policy 72 (2018) 45-54 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities and their evolution towards a more sustainable mobility represents nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011, the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of these plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on 38 Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The SUMPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. First, an analysis was made of the diagnosis of the mobility situation in each location according to the di- agnosis document included in many of the SUMPs. The second stage consisted on the analysis of the measures in the plan, considering sixteen indicators, such as accessibility, intermodality, pedestrians or design of public space. Finally, it was also determined whether the document included a monitoring plan, a budget and a timeline. Through the comparison of the results, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Elisa Pozo-Menéndez, Miguel Ángel de los Mozos-Blanco, Rosa Arce-Ruiz, Neus Baucells-Aletà (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans: A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution and Current Situation in Spain. 44th European Transport Conference, Barcelona (Spain) 5-7 Octubre 2016. 22 p. [formato Docx, 1,25 MB]. "After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn't include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities represent nowadays a challenge in many cases. In 2011 the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of this plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens. The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans carried out in 46 Spanish cities. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-). The analysis is structured into two main stages: In the first phase, the 46 SMUPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed. In the second phase, a questionnaire was conducted with experts and other agents and stakeholders involved in the plans that have participated in the development and implementation of each of the plans, as engineers, politicians, NGOs, consultants, etc. This interview consists on a grid of questions, both qualitative and quantitative when possible, about surveillance, costs of the implemented actions or the elements of success, for example. These results allow us to verify and contrast the previous analysis with the experts' opinion and experiences. Finally, through the comparison of the results of both stages, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years."

Urs Bolz, Öffentliche Veloverleihsysteme in der Schweiz. Entwicklungen und Geschäftsmodelle - ein Praxisbericht. Materialien Langsamverkehr Nr. 137. Bundesamt für Strassen, ASTRA, Bereich Langsamverkehr und historische Verkehrswege, Bern, Juni 2018, 43 p., [formato PDF, 1,2 MB]. "2018 zeichnet sich bei den Veloverleihsystemen in der Schweiz ein Entwicklungsschub ab. Nach längeren Rechtsverfahren starteten die Städte Zürich und Bern ihre Systeme mit je über 2000 Velos, und auch in anderen Städten sind Beschaffungsverfahren im Gange oder in Planung. Parallel dazu drängen verschiedene Anbietende mit stationsungebundenen Veloverleihangeboten (sogenannten Free-Floating-Systeme) auf den Markt, die zum Teil etablierte Systeme konkurrenzieren. Der vorliegende Berichts ist eine Bestandsaufnahme aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen mit der Einführung, Gebrauch und Betrieb von Veloverleihsystemen in Schweizer Städten. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den neuen Erkenntnissen aus diesen Projekten, mit Einschluss der sich stellenden rechtlichen Fragen."

Burkhard Horn, Alexander Jung, Bikesharing im Wandel. Handlungsempfehlungen für deutsche Städte und Gemeinden zum Umgang mit stationslosen Systemen. Agora Verkehrswende, Berlin, Juni 2018, 36 p., [formato PDF, 998 kB]. "Bikesharing stellt einen wichtigen Baustein eines nachhatigen urbanen Mobilitätskonzeptes dar. Es kann in relevantem Umfang zur Reduzierung des innerstädtischen Autoverkehrs beitragen, insbesondere als Teil inter- und multimodaler Wegeketten in Verknüpfung mit dem Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV) für die erste oder letzte Meile sowie beim Zurücklegen kurzer Alltags- und Freizeitwege. Dies gilt grundsätzlich auch für die neuen stationslosen Systeme von Anbietern vor allem aus Ostasien, die seit 2017 verstärkt auf den deutschen Markt drängen. Vor allem für kleine und mittelgroße Städte sowie peripherere Lagen von Großstädten bieten sie neue Chancen für ein breiteres Sharing-Angebot, aber auch in größeren Städten können sie sich als komplementäres Angebot zu bestehenden Systemen eignen. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit den neuen Systemen haben allerdings auch gezeigt, dass ein gewisses Maß an Steuerung durch die Kommunen erforderlich ist: Nur so lassen sich ihre Potenziale gezielt nutzen und die erkennbar gewordenen Herausforderungen (etwa die Übernutzung des öffentlichen Raums oder betriebliche Probleme) bewältigen. Entscheidend für den Erfolg stationsloser Bikeshar­ing-Systeme auch aus kommunaler Sicht ist die enge Kommunikation und Kooperation zwischen der öffentlichen Hand und den Anbietern. Ergebnis dieser Zusammenarbeit sollte möglichst eine Vereinbarung sein, die wesentliche Elemente des Aufbaus und des Betriebs des jeweiligen Systems möglichst verbindlich regelt (soweit möglich auch rechtlich, etwa über Sondernutzungsregelungen) und dessen Einbindung in das gesamtstädtische Mobilitätskonzept sicherstellt. Die Städte und Gemeinden können diesbezüglich auch Anreize setzen. Die vorliegende Handreichung enthält Anforderungen und zahlreiche Hinweise zur Ausgestaltung solcher Vereinbarungen. Jede Kommune kann dabei eine spezifische, auf die lokalen Verhältnisse angepasste Lösung entwickeln. In die Handlungsempfehlungen ist eine Reihe von Erkenntnissen eingeflossen, die sich aus den bisherigen Erfahrungen verschiedener Städte und Gemeinden ergeben haben. Die Handlungsempfehlungen sind mit entsprechenden Praxisbeispielen hinterlegt. Allerdings liegen bislang nur wenige auch längerfristige Erfahrungen und empirisch belastbare Evaluierungen zur Wirkung der stationslosen Bikesharing-Systeme vor. Hier besteht Forschungsbedarf. Dies gilt auch in Hinblick auf den Rechtsrahmen, dessen zielgerichtete Veränderung den Abschluss belastbarer Vereinbarungen und Verfahren deutlich erleichtern könnte."

Bernd Herzog-Schlagk, Schritte zur Einführung einer kommunalen Fußverkehrsstrategie. Handlungsleitfaden. Fachverband Fußverkehr Deutschland FUSS e.V., Berlin, Juli 2018, 31 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. "Der Leitfaden entstand auf der Grundlage von: zahlreichen Befragungen von Fußgängerinnen und Fußgängern verschiedener Alters- und Zielgruppen sowie von Fachleuten; Interviews mit Verbändevertreterinnen und -vertretern; intensiven Diskussionen in den drei Sitzungen des Projekt-Fachbeirates; Verwaltungsgesprächen in fünf Modellstädten und weiteren Kontaktstädten; Gesprächen und Erfahrungen im Rahmen von zwölf kommunalen Workshops; Recherchen zur Vorgehensweise in Städten, die sich eine Fußverkehrsförderung zum Ziel gesetzt haben (Konzept-Beispiele); Erfahrungen bei Ortsbegehungen und Fußverkehrs-Checks in fünf Modell- und einigen weiteren Kontaktstädten. In den Jahren 2016 bis 2018 waren insgesamt etwa 700 Menschen daran beteiligt, herauszufinden, wie eine strategische Förderung des Zufußgehens aussehen sollte und was deshalb in diesem Handlungsleitfaden zumindest auch als Thema benannt werden müsste. Dabei ging es nicht darum, ein völlig neues Konzept zu entwickeln, vielmehr soll der Handlungsleitfaden die vorhandenen Ansätze darlegen und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen ableiten."

Georgia Apostolou, Angèle Reinders and Karst Geurs (University of Twente), An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 540 kB]. Open Access. "Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called 'solar-powered e-bike'. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes' and solar-powered e-bikes' users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport."

Peter Slowik, Nic Lutsey, The continued transition to electric vehicles in U.S. cities. White Paper. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), Washington DC, July 2018, 42 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "This paper analyzes electric vehicle market development in the U.S. and the actions that are driving it. The report catalogues forty unique city, state, and utility electric vehicle promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2017. The work identifies exemplary practices and discerns connections between various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are plug-in electric."

Mobike, How Cycling Changes Cities. Insights on how bikesharing supports urban development. Mobike's Second White Paper. Mobike, 2018, 32 p., [formato PDF, 7,3 MB]. "Through big data analysis using innovative IoT technology, and a sophisticated artificial intelligence platform - Mobike are able to gain insight into how cycling becoming more accessible in our cities can impact and change our cities for the better; and thereby significantly improves the quality of life of their residents. This most recent white paper focuses on 12 major Mobike cities across 4 continents: London, Shanghai, Singapore, Milan, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen. Washington D.C., Sapporo, Berlin and Sydney."

Hwajin Kim, Yooncheong Cho, Analysis of the Bicycle-Sharing Economy : Strategic Issues for Sustainable Development of Society. Journal of Distribution Science, 2018, vol.16, no.7, pp.5-16 (12 p.), [formato PDF, 286 kB]. Open Access. "Purpose. This study posits that sustainable mobility of the sharing economy plays a key role to consider environment benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the bicycle-sharing economy as an emerging and alternative mode of transportation service and provide managerial and policy implications. The bicycle-sharing economy is still at an early stage of introduction as a transportation mode, while the governmental sector is promoting public bicycle-sharing to encourage bicycle as a substitute for private cars. Research design, data, and methodology. This study analyzed the current status of bicycle sharing programs through a survey that was distributed randomly to users and non-users across the country. Using factor analysis, satisfaction and loyalty for the existing users and intention to use and expected satisfaction for the potential users were examined in relation to utility factors. Results. The results show that economic utility affects satisfaction for user, while storage, mobility, and economic utility affects intention to use for potential users. The findings of this study indicate that in order to promote a bicycle-sharing scheme, it would be better to focus on the scheme's economic advantage to be truly effective. Conclusions. The findings of the study could be applicable to future directions of the sharing economy as a means to achieve the sustainable development of society."

Manfred Lenzen, Ya-Yen Sun, Futu Faturay, Yuan-Peng Ting, Arne Geschke and Arunima Malik, The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, volume 8, pages 522-528 (2018) [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions."

Liu Shaokun, Can Chinese Cities Leave the Car Behind? Gridlock, Pollution and the Future of Public Transportation. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, Volume 16, Issue 14, Number 2, Jul 15, 2018, pp. 1-9 [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "For years, China's city planners have prioritised cars, but they're now taking a different route. Investing in public transport, supplemented by the electric bike and shared bike, are among the ways Chinese cities are trying to minimise car use."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens, Alexander Boden and Paul Bossauer, Unintended Effects of Autonomous Driving: A Study on Mobility Preferences in the Future. Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2404 (22 p.) [formato PDF, 880 kB]. Open Access. "Innovations in the mobility industry such as automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions by allowing the traffic to flow more freely and reducing the number of vehicles according to some researchers. However, the effectiveness of these sustainable product and service innovations is often limited by unexpected changes in consumption: some researchers thus hypothesize that the higher comfort and improved quality of time in driverless cars could lead to an increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles. So far, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting either one or other of these hypotheses. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as indicators for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 participants in Germany. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether conventional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, the findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more emphasis should be placed in making public transport more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Richard Larouche, George Mammen, David A. Rowe and Guy Faulkner, Effectiveness of active school transport interventions: a systematic review and update, BMC Public Health (2018) 18:206 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 785 kB]. Open Access. "Background: Active school transport (AST) is a promising strategy to increase children's physical activity. A systematic review published in 2011 found large heterogeneity in the effectiveness of interventions in increasing AST and highlighted several limitations of previous research. We provide a comprehensive update of that review. Methods: Replicating the search of the previous review, we screened the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Sport Discus and National Transportation Library databases for articles published between February 1, 2010 and October 15, 2016. To be eligible, studies had to focus on school-aged children and adolescents, include an intervention related to school travel, and report a measure of travel behaviors. We assessed quality of individual studies with the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool, and overall quality of evidence with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We calculated Cohen's d as a measure of effect size. Results: Out of 6318 potentially relevant articles, 27 articles reporting 30 interventions met our inclusion criteria. Thirteen interventions resulted in an increase in AST, 8 found no changes, 4 reported inconsistent results, and 5 did not report inferential statistics. Cohen's d ranged from -0.61 to 0.75, with most studies reporting "trivial-to-small" positive effect sizes. Three studies reported greater increases in AST over longer follow-up periods and two Safe Routes to School studies noted that multi-level interventions were more effective. Study quality was rated as weak for 27/30 interventions (due notably to lack of blinding of outcome assessors, unknown psychometric properties of measurement tools, and limited control for confounders), and overall quality of evidence was rated as low. Evaluations of implementation suggested that interventions were limited by insufficient follow-up duration, incomplete implementation of planned interventions, and limited access to resources for low-income communities. Conclusions: Interventions may increase AST among children; however, there was substantial heterogeneity across studies and quality of evidence remains low. Future studies should include longer follow-ups, use standardized outcome measures (to allow for meta-analyses), and examine potential moderators and mediators of travel behavior change to help refine current interventions."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Conto Nazionale delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti Anni 2016-2017, Roma, 2018, IPZS, 486 p. [formato PDF, 3,0 MB].

David Banister (University of Oxford), Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The case of High Speed 2. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR), 18(3), 2018, pp.262-275 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 218 kB]. "T he achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of UK transport policy (2010-2015) where revenue support has been cut, but capital expenditure has increased, and it comments on the difficulties of making decisions on large scale transport infrastructure projects in the absence of a NSTS. The recent policy statements and initiatives on transport and sustainability are covered, looking backwards and forwards. It then takes the case of High Speed 2 (HS2) and identifies five main narratives in the debates over the arguments in support of this huge investment. It seems that sustainable transport has not been a central part of that debate, and there is a need to reframe the discussion on HS2, as part of a NSTS."

Maude Luggen Risse, Pascal Regli, Jenny Leuba, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgänger Zählen. Zählsysteme für den Fussverkehr und ihre Anwendung. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, Juni 2018, 3ü p. [formato PDF, 26,8 MB]. "Wie viele Fussgänger queren eine Strasse? Wie viele kommen vom Bahnhof? Wie viele in der Spitzenstunde? Wie viele halten sich auf einem Platz auf? Wie gross sind die Unterschiede zwischen den Wochentagen? Diese und weitere Fragen wurden an einer Fachtagung - organisiert von Fussverkehr Schweiz, mit Unterstützung des Bundesamtes für Strassen - in Biel diskutiert."

European Court of Auditors (Corte dei Conti Europea), A European high-speed rail network: not a reality but an ineffective patchwork. Special Report N. 19/2018. European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg, 2018, 103 p. [formato PDF, 9,1 MB]. "Since 2000, the EU has been investing €23.7 billion into high speed rail infrastructure. There is no realistic long term EU plan for high speed rail, but an ineffective patchwork of national lines not well linked since the European Commission has no legal tools and no powers to force Member States to build lines as agreed. Cost-efficiency is at stake, because not everywhere very high speed lines are needed, as the cost per minute of saved travel time is very high, going up to €369 million, and as the average speeds only amount to 45 % of the maximum capacity, while cost overruns and construction delays are the norm rather than the exception. Sustainability is low, effectiveness of the investments is lacking and EU added value is at risk with three out of seven completed lines having low passenger numbers leading to a high risk of ineffective spending of €2.7 billion EU co-funding. Moreover, nine out of 14 lines and stretches have insufficient high numbers of passengers, and 11 000 national rules still exist, although the Court already asked in 2010 to lift these technical and administrative barriers."

Chris N. Le Fevre, A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine transport fuel. OIES PAPER: NG 133. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK, June 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. This in part is due to the relatively poor data quality on marine fuel usage but primarily a reflection on the still early nature of market development and uncertainties over alternative fuel options. This paper, which is a follow up to an earler study published in 2013, aims: to assess the most promising sectors for LNG in marine transportation in global shipping markets; to derive a set of metrics that could be used to generate forecasts of LNG demand in the marine sector and to assess the validity of current forecasts; to assess the current state and planned state of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development; to briefly mention the comparative prospects for LNG in land-based transport. The paper concludes that the shipping sectors that are likely to be more promising for LNG include ro-ro ferries, cruise ships, bulk carriers, large container vessels, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, LNG tankers. It would also appear that because of the costs of retrofitting, most LNG-fuelled ships will be newly built and owners/operators are unlikely to commit without concluding a long-term supply contract covering both pricing and physical delivery. LNG suppliers which are prepared to conclude such contracts will provide an important stimulus to the market. The lead times involved and the relatively low capital cost of infrastructure suggest that refuelling capacity is unlikely to be a constraint. A review of recent forecasts suggest that global demand will be in the range of 25 to 30 mtpa of LNG by 2030. The paper describes how many new or converted vessels fuelled by LNG would be required to reach this level, how it might be achieved and where the main obstacles to uptake are likely to occur. It concludes, that on balance, a demand level of around 15 mtpa (excluding LNG tankers) by 2030 is a more realistic prospect at present."

Francesco Asdrubali, Stefano Carrese, Sergio Maria Patella, Leonardo Sabatini (Roma Tre University), Development of Electric Urban Mobility: Comparative Research and Preliminary Survey. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 9 p. [formato PDF, 422 kB]. Open Access. "The growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions at the international level have shifted American and European policies to invest in sustainable mobility. Although substantial steps have been made in recent years, electric mobility is still not an integral part of today's transport systems. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative overview of the Italian approach to electric mobility and to define future approaches that could be used. Our research used a web-based survey, applying standard statistical methods to data processing. From these results we defined the playing field of the current results, and the variables for the future development of electric urban mobility. This analysis has shown a gap in the knowledge of the results reached in recent years by consumers and displayed an interest in new types of ecological fuels. Regarding Italian policies, it is clear that major efforts in economic and infrastructural facilitations are needed. In addition, this analysis can be used in the future to check for any developments and to generate a larger dataset with other partners."

Eunice O. Olaniyi, Sina Atari, Gunnar Prause (Tallinn University of Technology), Maritime Energy Contracting for Clean Shipping. Transport and Telecommunication, 2018, volume 19, no. 1, 31-44 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "To reduce the Sulphur emission from shipping and ensure clean shipping, a number of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) were enforced in special areas around the globe. From 2015, in SECA, ship owners are not allowed to use fuel with more than 0.1% Sulphur content. One of the major concerns for the SECA regulation is that maritime stakeholders have had to take into consideration the costs as well as the tolerable risks of their compliance investment options. Besides that, low freight rates have increased the competition and had caused financial pressure on ship owners so that lower capital reserves and low credibility levels limit the manoeuvring space for investment activities. The indications from BSR after 2015 showed that the low fuel price has eased the economic effects of the SECA regulation and as a result, most ship owners have delayed their investment decisions. Even though the postponement of emission abatement techniques seems to have reduced the compliance expenses for SECA, they, however, did not improve the position of shipowners relative to their competitors. Consequently, new policy instruments to stimulate innovation, to raise competitiveness and to comply with the new environmental regulations are needed. It would have been easier to hedge fuel price volatility and offer maritime logistics services for a lower price, but to be able to ensure sustainable results in long-term, maritime stakeholders must be ready to device astute strategies that can propel them to unparalleled advantage. This research first appraised the investment risks and payback period associated with the scrubber using different capital budgeting methods. It further illustrated the Maritime Energy Contracting (MEC) model as a market mechanism for the delivery of a cost-effective emission reduction using the scrubber technology as well as an instrument to realise a competitive advantage for ship operators. The results are empirically validated by case studies from BSR."

Anna Kramers, Tina Ringenson, Liridona Sopjani and Peter Arnfalk, AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport. Creating a framework to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 30, 2018, p. 1-16 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 504 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article."

Jeroen Kloeke (TU Delft), Identifying the barriers for diffusion of stationary car sharing in the Netherlands using an innovation system approach. Scientific paper. TU Delft, 2018, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Privately owned cars are causing negative externalities like pollution, CO2 emissions and extensive use of public space. Car sharing can be seen as a solution to reduce these negative externalities. Still, a rapid transition from privately owned cars to shared cars is not taking place, given the number of shared cars in the Netherlands. An innovation system methodology is applied to identify the blocking mechanisms for diffusion of car sharing in the Netherlands. Assessing the performance by the stakeholders showed that car sharing has difficulty in competing with existing mobility solutions, such as the private car or public transport. Besides, there are also difficulties in turning knowledge, networks and markets in viable car sharing concepts. Barriers found in the innovation system for car sharing in the Netherlands perceived by all stakeholders are the lack of profitability of business models, limited accessibility/interoperability of car sharing services and an unequal fiscal level playing field for automobility. Future research should lead to identification of effects of solutions aimed at reducing these barriers."

Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens and Paul Bossauer, Shared Autonomous Vehicles: Potentials for a Sustainable Mobility and Risks of Unintended Effects. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 52, 2018, p. 258-269 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 325 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "Automated and connected cars could significantly reduce congestion and emissions through a more efficient flow of traffic and a reduction in the number of vehicles. An increase in demand for driving with autonomous vehicles is also conceivable due to higher comfort and improved quality of time using driverless cars. So far, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis is missing. To analyze the influence of autonomous driving on mobility behavior and to uncover user preferences, which serve as an indicator for future travel mode choices, we conducted an online survey with a paired comparison of current and future travel modes with 302 German participants. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that ownership will become an outdated model in the future. Instead they suggest that private cars, whether traditional or fully automated, will remain the preferred travel mode. At the same time, carsharing will benefit from full automation more than private cars. However, findings indicate that the growth of carsharing will mainly be at the expense of public transport, showing that more effort should be placed in making public transportation more attractive if sustainable mobility is to be developed."

Michael Traut, Alice Larkin, Kevin Anderson, Christophe McGlade, Maria Sharmina & Tristan Smith, CO2 abatement goals for international shipping. Climate Policy, 2018, (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016, sets the ambitious climate change mitigation goal of limiting the global temperature increase to below 2°C and ideally 1.5°C. This puts a severe constraint on the remaining global GHG emissions budget. While international shipping is also a contributor to anthropogenic GHG emissions, and CO2 in particular, it is not included in the Paris Agreement. This article discusses how a share of a global CO2 budget over the twenty-first century could be apportioned to international shipping, and, using a range of future trade scenarios, explores the requisite cuts to the CO2 intensity of shipping. The results demonstrate that, under a wide range of assumptions, existing short-term levers of efficiency must be urgently exploited to achieve mitigation commensurate with that required from the rest of the economy, with virtually full decarbonization of international shipping required as early as before mid-century."

Mario Cavargna, Massimo Zucchetti, The High-Speed Rail Handbook: a Technical Guide. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Science (IJEES), Vol. 8 (3): 515-530 (2018) (16 p.) [formato PDF, 644 kB]. "The project of the new railway line Turin Lyon is an exemplary case of unnecessary work. It should overlap a railway tunnel and an international railway line with modern features; traffic data show since 2000 a collapse of road and rail movements along the corridor Italian French interested; after 14 years of experimentation its modal transfer capacity has always given negative results; the new line would not be interoperable with the rest of the Italian and French network because it has its own, even different, links between the Italian and the French of the same line. The studies carried out on the energy consumption and CO2 production of the Turin Lyon in the construction phase, which requires the excavation of 42 million cubic meters of rock, and the management of energy consumption of the ventilation and refrigeration of the base tunnel, give a negative energy balance for the new work. Finally, because the size of the necessary works and their enormous cost would have very heavy effects on the environment and on the resources to be dedicated to the critical issues of the remaining national network and to the real needs of citizens."

Nic Lutsey, California's continued electric vehicle market development. Briefing. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), May 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. "This briefing provides an update on the growth in electric vehicle sales in California through 2017. It quantifies electric vehicle market growth across California local markets, provides broader U.S. market comparisons, and describes these developments in the context of California's 2025-2030 goals."

Tracy McMillan, Ana Lopez, Jill Cooper, Safe Routes for Older Adults. UC Berkeley Research Reports. UC Berkeley SafeTREC, April 2018, 22 p. [formato PDF, 4,2 MB]. "This guide provides communities with background information on walking and bicycling safety for older adults and tools to make transportation in California communities age-friendly for all."

Caroline Rodier (University of California, Davis), Travel Effects and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automated Vehicles. A White Paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, April 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 897 kB]. "In much the same way that the automobile disrupted horse and cart transportation in the 20th century, automated vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to disrupt our current system of transportation and the fabric of our built environment in the 21st century. Experts predict that vehicles could be fully automated by as early as 2025 or as late as 2035. The public sector is just beginning to understand AV technology and to grapple with how to accommodate it in our current transportation system. Research on AVs is extremely important because AVs may significantly disrupt our transportation system with potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on our society and our environment. However, this research is very hard to do because fully AVs have yet to travel on our roads. As a result, AV research is largely conducted by extrapolating effects from current observed behavior and drawing on theory and models. Both the magnitude of the mechanism of change and secondary effects are often uncertain. Moreover, the potential for improved safety in AVs drive the mechanisms by which vehicle miles traveled (VMT), energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may change. We really don't know whether AVs will achieve the level of safety that will allow for completely driverless cars, very short headways, smaller vehicles, lower fuel use, and/or reduce insurance cost. We don't know whether AV fleets will be harmonized to reduce energy and GHG emissions. In this white paper, the available evidence on the travel and environmental effects of AVs is critically reviewed to understand the potential magnitude and likelihood of estimated effects. The author outlines the mechanisms by which AVs may change travel demand and review the available evidence on their significance and size. These mechanisms include increased roadway capacity, reduced travel time burden, change in monetary costs, parking and relocation travel, induced travel demand, new traveler groups, and energy effects. They then describe the results of scenario modeling studies. Scenarios commonly include fleets of personal AVs and automated taxis with and without sharing. Travel and/or land use models are used to simulate the cumulative effects of scenarios. These models typically use travel activity data and detailed transportation networks to replicate current and predict future land use, traffic behavior, and/or vehicle activity in a real or hypothetical city or region."

Daniele Codato, Diego Malacarne, Guglielmo Pristeri, Salvatore Pappalardo, Massimo De Marchi (University of Padova), Towards a more Liveable and Accessible Cycle Path Network in Padova: a Participatory Mapping Process. REAL CORP 2018 Proceedings, Vienna, 4-6 April 2018, 471-477 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 927 kB] "With the advent of climate-related issues and low-carbon economy, networks of cycle paths and tracks are becoming a more and more relevant mobility infrastructure for cities. However, mapping their critical points in order to fix them to improve liveability and accessibility can be difficult. One solution may be to combine digital technologies and users' knowledge, using the methods of participatory mapping. The first experiences in participatory GIS, in which geo-information technologies are used in support of collection, creation and sharing of spatial information by non-skilled social actors, date back to the nineteen- eighties. This bottom-up approach saw a strong evolution in recent years, even in the European urban context, thanks to the constant development of digital technologies and to the increasing opportunities for citizens to access the web. Free and open geographic data, by means of Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), facilitate the citizens' involvement and participation in urban planning and management. This is the framework behind PISTE riCICLABILI, an innovative project by the University of Padova started in autumn 2016 and aiming at the following goals: a participatory mapping of critical issues of the urban cycle path network and the implementation of an open source geo-portal for collecting and sharing geo-referenced reports. Within the workflow developed for this project, spatial information has been collected in two different ways: on the one hand, using printed city maps during public events, where involved citizens marked the cycle paths issues with pins; on the other hand, through a mobile geo-app. In the second case, Open Data Kit (ODK) was used. It is a combination of free and open source tools enabling everyone to create a form to be filled in with a smartphone in the field, and to send geo-referenced reports to a server. Mobile data were collected using the GeoODK Collect Android app, then aggregated and periodically exported, reprocessed and released through the open source webGIS platform Lizmap. First results of the process, which experienced a growing participation by citizens, consist of over 300 collected critical points. Through the analysis of these data it is possible to have a first overview on the main problems of bicycle mobility in Padova, their spatial implications and citizens' suggestions to improve human-oriented places. This contribution presents the mapping and data spreading workflow, together with results achieved and possible future development, with the aim to share a promising tool to improve urban sustainable mobility."

Kees van Goeverden, Gonçalo Correia (Delft University of Technology), Potential of peer-to-peer bike sharing for relieving bike parking capacity shortage at train stations: an explorative analysis for the Netherlands. EJTIR 2018 (in print), 19 p., [formato PDF, 647 kB]. "In the Netherlands, many (mainly larger) train stations suffer from capacity shortages for bicycle parking as the result of a large increase in the use of the bicycle as a feeder mode. Sharing of parked bicycles with arriving train passengers who are in need of a bicycle for some time would decrease the number of parked bicycles and reduce the capacity shortage. The paper explores to which extent sharing of these bicycles relieves the capacity problem by investigating the maximum potential for reducing the peak of parked bicycles. This is the potential of the case when all considered participants (bicycle owners and those who are in need for a bicycle) are willing to share. The analyses are based on data of the Dutch National Travel Survey. The main result is that the potential is likely to be modest. The estimated maximum is for the large stations between 13% and 50%, the actual potential is likely to be significantly lower. The large range for the maximum can partly be explained by the uncertainty about the number of arriving train passengers that might shift to the bicycle for the last mile if sharing increases bicycle availability. A second result is that sharing can have a significant effect on the distribution of parked bicycles over the day. The current peak halfway the day can turn into a dip between two peaks in the traditional morning and evening peak hours."

Fuelling Maritime Shipping with Liquefied Natural Gas. The Case of Japan. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2018, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a ship fuel is expected to increase significantly from its current marginal share in the coming years. This will require new facilities where ships can take on board the LNG. Japan is positioning itself as a potential hub in Asia for LNG refuelling. This study assesses the factors that will influence the realisation of that ambition."

Rachel Aldred, Luke Best, Phil Jones, Cyclists in shared bus lanes: could there be unrecognised impacts on bus journey times?. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, Paper 1600072, 17 p. [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. "This paper contributes to debates around improving the modelling of cycles, through an exploratory case study of bus-cycle interactions in London. This case study examines undocumented delays to buses caused by high volumes of cyclists in bus lanes. It has generally been assumed that cyclists do not noticeably delay buses in shared lanes. However, in many contexts where cyclists routinely share bus lanes, cyclist numbers have historically been low. In some such places, bus lanes are now seeing very high volumes of cyclists, far above those previously studied. This may have implications for bus - and cycle - journey times, but traditionally traffic modelling has not represented the effects of such interactions well. With some manipulation of parameters taken from models of other cities, the model described here demonstrates that cycles can cause significant delays to buses in shared lanes, at high cycling volumes. These delays are likely to become substantially larger if London's cycling demographic becomes more diverse, because cyclist speeds will decline. Hence bus journey time benefits may derive from separating cycles from buses, where cycle flows are high. The project also suggests that microsimulation modelling software, as typically used, remains problematic for representing cyclists."

European Environment Agency, National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe, 2018. EEA Report n.1/2018. EEA, Copenhagen, 2018, 84 p. [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "The EEA report "National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe 2018," is the first review of how the 33 EEA member countries (including the 28 European Union Member States) have assessed the risks from climate change, and how they used this information in developing adaptation policies to address these risks. Adaptation is key to ensure that the EU as a whole is better prepared to handle the impacts of heat waves, floods, droughts and storm surges. The report is based on a survey which was completed by 24 of the 33 EEA member countries. Information for additional countries was gathered from Climate-ADAPT - the European climate adaptation platform - and other public sources of information. The report aims to promote a better understanding among experts and policymakers involved in adaptation planning. The findings will contribute to better informed decision making and adaptation in key vulnerable sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity protection, spatial planning and infrastructure development. They will also help inform the European Commission's on-going evaluation of the EU Adaptation Strategy."

Decarbonising Maritime Transport. The Case of Sweden. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden's efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry and sheds light on remaining challenges and potential solutions to achieve zero-carbon shipping."

Transport & Environment, How to get rid of dirty diesels on city roads. Analysis of diesel restriction measures in European cities to date. T&E Air Pollution and Low Emission Zones Briefing. Transport & Environment, Brussels, March 2018, 16 p. [formato PDF, 377 kB]. "This paper analyses low emission zones and congestion charges in 11 European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Berlin, Brussels, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Oslo, Paris and Stockholm. There are large differences in the environmental zones implemented so far. Some policies permanently exclude polluting vehicles and are intended to drive modal shift to cleaner transportation options. Others are of temporary nature in response to hazardous air pollution episodes."

Thomas Schweizer, Dominik Bucheli, Fussgängerunfälle in der Schweiz 2008 - 2017. Faktenblatt 03 / 2018. Fussverkehr Schweiz, Zürich, 2018, 11 p. [formato PDF, 4,3 MB]. "Während die Zahl der schweren Strassenverkehrsunfälle in den letzten 10 Jahren insgesamt gesunken ist, konnte bei den Fussgängerinnen und Fussgängern bis 2013 leider keine entsprechende Abnahme verzeichnet werden. Der Anteil der Fussgängerunfälle am Gesamttotal aller Unfälle nahm somit zu. Bei den Getöteten ist der Anteil der Fussgänger in den letzten 10 Jahren starken Schwankungen unterworfen. Seit 2014 bleibt aber der Anteil der Fussgänger an der Gesamtzahl der Verunfallten Personen konstant, desgleichen bei den Schwerverletzten."

Mingyang Hao, Toshiyuki Yamamoto (Nagoya University), Shared Autonomous Vehicles: A Review Considering Car Sharing and Autonomous Vehicles. Asian Transport Studies, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2018), 47-63 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 278 kB]. "In recent years, the transformation in transportation mobility has seen an acceleration in numbers of studies establishing a sustainable, smooth and cost-efficient system by applying automated concepts to the conventional car-sharing system. The development from a personally owned vehicle-oriented scheme to shared automated transit provides us informative images to the optimal stage of the transportation mobility. This study aimed to find the gaps in impacts and features, demand and performance studies of SAVs by a systematic approach when looking at the corresponding aspects of car sharing in AVs and SAVs. This is the first attempt to review SAV studies and the author illustrates the importance of this research by demonstrating impacts and features of SAVs, future research aspects of demand analysis, as well as the research trend of performance studies on SAVs."

Armando Carteni (University of Naples Federico II), A Cost-Benefit Analysis Based on the Carbon Footprint Derived from plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses for Urban Public Transport Services. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, v.14, 2018, 125-135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 707 kB]. "Sustainable mobility and green development are based on the achievement of three goals: environment, society and economy. This means that a sustainable plan/project must be, at the same time, equitable, viable, and bearable. In urban areas, the transport sector significantly impacts with respect to both fuel consumption and environmental emissions. At this aim, planning policies aimed at reducing these negative impacts are very important. Many researches cover the problem of perform rational decisions to improve the transportation sector. One of the most useful quantitative methods to evaluate rational project solution is the cost benefit analysis. In literature the 'traditional' cost benefit analysis not always take into account the overall carbon footprint of a transport project/policy. The carbon footprint is the total (direct and indirect) amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by a project/policy/service expressed as the overall amount of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted. Moreover, the recent economic crisis has made necessary also to generate a 'profit' from transport services/infrastructures, as well as positive impacts for users and for environment. Starting from these considerations the aims of this paper were: i) to evaluate if the use of hybrid electric buses for a new urban public transport services could produce profit for a private/public transport operator; ii) to develop a cost benefit analysis explicitly considering the overall carbon footprint (and not only the local impacts) produced by this vehicle technology. The case study was a new urban bus line designed in a medium size city, Salerno, in Italy. The results of the study underline that the use of hybrid electric buses could produce a profit for private/public transport operators and the analysis based on the overall carbon footprint allow to better estimate the (positive) impacts deriving from the use of this vehicle technology. Since the hybrid electric buses have a carbon footprint 12/18% lower than a traditional bus, an urban transportation service based on this type of technology allows to obtain grater benefits up to +82% against a traditional one."

Anna Donati, Francesco Petracchini, Carlotta Gasparini, Laura Tomassetti (a cura di), MobilitAria 2018. Qualità dell'aria e Politiche di mobilità nelle 14 grandi città italiane tra il 2006 e il 2016. Rapporto del Kyoto Club e dal CNR-IIA. Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), Kyoto Club, Roma, febbraio 2018, 128 p. [formato PDF, 67,7 MB]. "Il rapporto MobilitAria 2018 ha l'ambizione di realizzare un quadro complessivo dell'andamento della qualità dell'aria e della mobilità urbana nelle principali 14 città italiane nel decennio 2006- 2016. Lo studio è stato realizzato da un gruppo di esperti del CNR-IIA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico) e di Kyoto Club, Gruppo Mobilità Sostenibile, prendendo come riferimento l'area comunale di ogni Città Metropolitana. Le città sono Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Roma, Torino, Venezia."

Wei-Shiuen Ng and Ashley Acker, Understanding Urban Travel Behaviour by Gender for Efficient and Equitable Transport Policies. Discussion Paper No. 2018-01. International Transport Forum, Paris, France, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. "Gender is one of the key socio-demographic variables that can influence travel behaviour, but it is often the least understood. Understanding travel behaviour by gender will help better design transport policies that are efficient and equitable. Due to the gendered division of work in households, women often have multiple tasks and activities. As a result, women are more likely to have shorter commute distances, to chain trips, to have more non-work related trips, to travel at off-peak hours, and to choose more flexible modes. This study examines travel behaviour by gender in eight different cities, across three different continents, focusing on transport mode, trip purpose, travel distance and departure time for Auckland, Dublin, Hanoi, Helsinki, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon and Manila. The most common trends found in the cities are that women tend to travel shorter distances and prefer public transport and taxi services to cars more than men."

Heejung Jung, Chengguo Li (University of California at Riverside), Emissions from Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions. A Research Report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation. NCST, February 2018, 21 p. [formato PDF, 2,0 MB]. "The study found that the frequency and duration of re-ignition events vary depending on the type of HEV. Prius showed more frequent re-ignition events compared to Sonata for both city and highway driving conditions. Prius re-ignited almost every one minute while Sonata re-ignited every two minutes on average during the city driving condition. Re-ignition events affected emissions profiles significantly during the city driving condition. As a result, the Prius showed higher NOx emissions during the city driving condition while the Sonata showed higher NOx emissions during the cold-cold start and highway driving condition. Future studies should include more vehicles to understand whether the re-ignition events are vehicle specific or technology specific."


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