EFFETTI DEI TRASPORTI SULL’AMBIENTE (NATURA, PAESAGGIO, BENI CULTURALI)

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FRAMMENTAZIONE E DEFRAMMENTAZIONE DELL'HABITAT

Bjorn Prudon, R.C.M. Creemers, Veilig naar de overkant. Een kritische kijk op constructie en onderhoud van amfibieëntunnels (Uno sguardo critico sulla costruzione e manutenzione dei tunnel per anfibi). Stichting RAVON, Nijmegen, Februari 2004, 68 p. [formato PDF, 1,74 MB].

Hans Bekker (Rijkswaterstaat), De-fragmentation in the Netherlands. Process and results, presentation at IENE Open Day, "Transport infrastructure of the 21st century: connecting people and wildlife", Évora, April 24th, 2009, 23 slides [formato PDF, 1,53 MB].

Edgar van der Grift (Alterra), The need for monitoring. Guidelines for monitoring the impacts and efficacy of mitigation measures, presentation at IENE Open Day, "Transport infrastructure of the 21st century: connecting people and wildlife", Évora, April 24th, 2009, 48 slides [formato PDF, 5,14 MB].

Marita Böttcher, Defragmentation in Germany, presentation at IENE Open Day, "Transport infrastructure of the 21st century: connecting people and wildlife", Évora, April 24th, 2009, 11 slides [formato PDF, 1,94 MB].

A. Checchi, C. Montroni, Le infrastrutture di trasporto e i sovrapassi, IX Convegno Nazionale dell’Associazione Italiana di Ingegneria Agraria, Ischia Porto, 12-16 settembre 2009. (memoria n. 6-33). 5 p. [formato PDF, 137 kB]. "La riduzione degli habitat e gli incidenti stradali con fauna selvatica sono due problematiche che hanno assunto negli ultimi decenni una rilevanza sempre maggiore, raggiungendo livelli tali da rendere necessari interventi specifici. I sovrappassi rappresentano la misura per ridurre la frammentazione degli habitat ed, al contempo, per tutelare sia l'automobilista sia la fauna. I passaggi faunistici non devono essere considerati come un'unica entità, ma facenti parte di un sistema globale di permeabilità che permetta alle popolazioni animali di mantenere i collegamenti tra gli habitat, al fine di espletare le proprie funzioni vitali. Questo concetto evidenzia l'esigenza quindi di creare un contatto tra gli habitat anche a grande scala, considerando che i passaggi per la fauna rappresentano piccole modificazioni di paesaggio, ma di grande interesse biologico. La presente ricerca ha approfondito gli impatti ambientali causati dalle infrastrutture come l'effetto barriera, l'effetto margine, i disturbi e le contaminazioni. Studiando l'integrazione delle stesse nel paesaggio circostante si sono analizzati gli aspetti nell'adeguare le infrastrutture alla morfologia del territorio e nel ridurre la perdita di suolo. Per ultimo si è progettato un sovrappasso su una strada ad elevata intensità di traffico: l'ubicazione di quest’ultima è stata scelta lungo la rotta di spostamento più probabile della fauna, dopo aver analizzato gli spazi di interesse faunistico a ridosso della strada. Gli aspetti evidenziati nella progettazione sono la larghezza sull’asse della strada, l'accesso, gli inviti, gli schermi di protezione, le caratteristiche vegetali e del soprassuolo."

Hans (J.) Vink, Rob C. van Apeldoorn, Hans (G.J.) Bekker, Defragmentation measures and the increase of a local European badger (Meles meles) population at Eindegooi, the Netherlands. Lutra 2008 51 (2): 75-86 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 875 kB]. "Twenty four years’ data on European badger (Meles meles) and sett numbers have been collected by direct observation of a local population at Eindegooi, which straddles the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and Noord- Holland. The population has shown periods of both slow and exponential growth and spatial dynamics show colonization of the entire study area. Analysis of how population dynamics respond to defragmentation measures involving roads has been undertaken. This suggests that tunnels and other measures make a positive contribution. At low densities and during periods of slow growth these measures can increase the lifetime of reproducing individuals and help badgers to safely disperse and colonize new habitat patches. Their positive effect on the population is illustrated by the fact that an individual’s mortality risk from traffic has remained more or less constant, despite the increasing number of cars on motorways and provincial roads that dissect the study area."

Sabina Nowak, Robert W. Myslajek, Problems affecting migration corridors for large terrestrial mammals caused by the network of fenced motorways and express roads within the TEN-T program: the situation in Poland. The Association for Nature „WOLF”, Godziszka, Poland, 2005, 12 p. [formato PDF, 3,62 MB].

Externe Kosten des Verkehrs im Bereich Natur und Landschaft. Monetarisierung der Verluste und Fragmentierung von Habitaten. Bern, Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung ARE, 2005, 204 p. [formato PDF, 6,78 MB]. "The determination of the external costs of transport on nature and landscape is based on a range of preliminary work in which such external costs were identified and the methods for their monetarisation evaluated (Ökoskop 1998). The following relevant impacts of transport on nature and landscape were recorded: Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation and habitat quality loss. The impact on the appearance of landscape was not examined. Digital 3D aerial photographs were used to determine habitat loss between the 1950s/1960s and 1998/99 in a strip bordering the road and rail infrastructures. The monetarisation of habitat loss used a repair cost method. Habitat fragmentation was determined using current aerial photographs according to the requirements of different animal groups. The external costs of this fragmentation were calculated using the costs of constructing actual links between the habitat fragments. Habitat quality loss can be identified but not quantified and therefore not monetarised either. The average external costs for habitat loss and fragmentation are CHF 765 million/year (range: CHF 443-1,083 million/year), CHF 662 million/year of which is caused by road and CHF 103 million/year by rail. The results were compared with existing work and the inaccuracies which may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the external costs of transport on nature and landscape were indicated." (Résumé en français, compendio in italiano, summary in english).

André-Gilles Dumont (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), Environnement et infrastructures de transport. Cours Environnement et Génie civil, 2004, 59 slides [formato PowerPoint, 7,98 MB]. Ampia introduzione didattica al tema dell'interazione tra fauna e traffico stradale.

John A. Bissonette, Patricia C. Cramer (Utah State University), Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings. (NCHRP Report 615), Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 174 p. [formato PDF, 7,37 MB]. "This report documents the development of an interactive, web-based decision guide protocol for the selection, configuration, and location of wildlife crossings. For the first time, transportation planners and designers and wildlife ecologists have access to clearly written, structured guidelines to help reduce loss of property and life due to wildlife–vehicle collisions, while protecting wildlife and their habitat. The guidelines were based on goals and needs identified and prioritized by transportation professionals from across North America, and developed using the results of five parallel scientific studies. The decision tool as outlined in the report can be found on the web at http://www.wildlifeandroads.org or http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/wildlife_roads/decision_guide/manual."

Kevin Crooks, Chris Haas, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kris Middledorf, Seth Magle, Tanya Shenk, Ken Wilson, and Dave Theobald, Roads and Connectivity in Colorado: Animal-Vehicle Collisions, Wildlife Mitigation Structures, and Lynx-Roadway Interactions. (Report No. CDOT-2008-4). Colorado State University, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, March 2008, viii, 175 p. [formato PDF, 7,42 MB]. "This report investigates the impact of highways and landscape connectivity in Colorado. To do so, it describes three complementary research questions. Given the threat of roads to both wildlife populations and human safety, describing the distribution of animalvehicle collisions (AVC) is a necessary step in understanding potential roadway impacts. In the first section, hotspots of AVC occurrence on highways throughout Colorado are identified, and the characteristics associated with such areas are described. To address roadway impacts, mitigation efforts are increasingly common, although rigorous assessments of the functionality of such mitigation treatments are relatively rare. The second section reviews research efforts to design and implement field monitoring of roadway-wildlife interactions at three road segments in Colorado slated for construction and installation of wildlife crossing structures. This corresponds to CDOT’s Highway Corridor Wildlife Mitigation/Habitat Connectivity Research Study Phases II & III: Development of Mitigation Goals and Pre- Construction Data Collection. Rare carnivores such as lynx may be particularly susceptible to roadway impacts, but the effects of roadways on lynx reintroduced in Colorado are largely unknown. The third section reviews wildlife use of seven underpasses specifically installed as mitigation for the potential impacts of road construction on lynx; this research project corresponds to CDOT’s Wildlife Underpass (Lynx) Monitoring Research Study. It examines the relationship between the movements of radio-collared lynx to roadways throughout the state and provides evidence that lynx in Colorado are selectively avoiding highways."

Patricia Cramer (Utah State University), Transportation Ecology: Current and Future Directions of the Science of Wildlife and Roads. Road Ecology Center, UC Davis, 2007, 59 slides [formato PDF, 8,63 MB].

Jim Quinn (University of California Davis), Wildlife Crossings. Road Ecology Center, UC Davis, 2008, 71 slides [formato PDF, 12,4 MB].

Osservatorio regionale sulla fauna selvatica, Atti del convegno "Fauna selvatica e attività antropiche: una convivenza possibile", Torino, 3 aprile 2006. (sezione I: interazione tra fauna selvatica e rete stradale) 9 relazioni [formato PDF].

Marco Dinetti, Esperienze di mitigazione degli impatti sulla fauna in Italia. Relazione al convegno "Fauna selvatica e attività antropiche: una convivenza possibile", Torino, 3 aprile 2006, 29 slides [formato PDF, 1,86 MB].

Rhonda Young and Chris Vokurka (Univ. of Wyoming), Relating wildlife crashes to road reconstruction. (MPC-07-189). Fargo, ND, Mountain-Plains Consortium, July 2007, 230 p. [formato PDF, 6,68 MB]. "Animal-vehicle crashes are a concern for many areas of the country but are a particular concern for rural areas such as Wyoming. While there is considerable literature available on the effectiveness of various animal-vehicle countermeasures, such as fencing and signing, there is currently little quantifiable data on the effects of roadway reconstruction on these types of crashes. The main-objective of this research is to look at past reconstruction projects to determine the effects various design aspects of these projects have on both animal-vehicle crash rates and the overall crash rates."

Elena Fila-Mauro, Alberto Maffiotti, Lucia Pompilio, Enrico Rivella, Davide Vietti, Fauna selvatica ed infrastrutture lineari. Indicazioni per la progettazione di misure di mitigazione degli impatti delle infrastrutture lineari di trasporto sulla fauna selvatica. Regione Piemonte e ARPA Piemonte, Torino, 2005, 92 p. [formato PDF, 4,01 MB].

Marco Dinetti (a cura di), Atti del convegno "Infrastrutture viarie e biodiversità. Impatti ambientali e soluzioni di mitigazione", Pisa, 25 novembre 2004. Provincia di Pisa e LIPU, 2005, 96 p. [formato PDF, 802 KB]. La maggioranza delle relazioni riguarda l'impatto del traffico sugli animali selvatici.

Patricia A. White, Getting up to speed: a conservationist's guide to wildlife and highways. Washington, D.C., Defenders of Wildlife, 2007, 149 p. [formato PDF, 1,58 MB]. (sito e manuale sugli aspetti legali, tecnici, economici, trasportistici, naturalistici ed ambientali dell'interazione tra fauna selvatica ed infrastrutture di trasporto).

Hans Bekker, Bjørn Iuell, Habitat fragmentation due to infrastructure. Davis, University of California, Road Ecology Center, 2003, 17 p. [formato PDF, 704 KB].

K.T. Geurs, A. Schoemakers, A.G.M. Dassen, W.H. Hoffmans, W. Timmermans, J.R.M. Alkemade, G.P. van Vee, Ontsnippering van natuurgebieden: effecten op natuur, mobiliteit, bereikbaarheid, verkeersveiligheid en geluid. (Deframmentazione di aree naturali: effetti sulla natura, mobilità, accessibilità, sicurezza stradale ed inquinamento acustico). Achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Natuurverkenning 2 (RIVM rapport 408764001/2002), Bilthoven, RIVM, 2002, 90 p. [formato PDF, 5,31 MB]. "This report discusses the impacts of habitat defragmentation by restricting traffic on provincial and municipal roads in nature areas in the Netherlands".

Oggier, P., Righetti, A., Bonnard, L. (eds.), Zerschneidung von Lebensräumen durch Verkehrsinfrastrukturen COST 341 (frammentazione di ambienti naturali causata dalle infrastrutture di trasporto). Schriftenreihe Umwelt Nr. 332, Bern, Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, 2001, 103 p. [formato PDF, 1,53 MB]. "Panoramica della frammentazione del paesaggio causata dalle infrastrutture di trasporto in Svizzera. Descrizione della rete di trasporto e valutazione del suo impatto sugli ambienti naturali e la protezione delle specie. Presentazione degli studi esistenti sulla mortalità della fauna e gli effetti sulla biologia delle popolazioni di diverse specie come il capriolo, la lepre, la lince o gli anfibi. Presentazione delle misure adottate volte ad evitare o minimizzare gli impatti della frammentazione. Discussione dell’efficienza delle misure e dei loro effetti sul rapporto tra costi/benefici."

Doing the Right Thing: Improving Transportation and Enhancing Ecosystems, FHWA (Federal Higway Administration), Exemplary ecosystem initiatives (progetti dell'US Department of Transportation per la tutela e il ripristino di ambienti naturali)

Marguerite Trocmé (Swiss Agency for the Environment), Habitat Fragmentation due to Linear Transportation Infrastructure: An overview of mitigation measures in Switzerland. 6th Swiss Transport Research Conference, Monte Verità/Ascona, March 15.-17. 2006, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,73 MB]. "Switzerland has one of the densest infrastructure networks of Europe (3-4 km/km2 on the Central Plateau). Linear transport infrastructure has an important impact on wildlife populations and natural habitats. More than 20’000 large mammal road casualties are counted every year (BUWAL, 2003). This affects a number of wildlife populations. For example road casualties are responsible for 23 % of the European lynx mortality in Switzerland (Oggier et al., 2001). As the red lists of endangered species in Switzerland lengthen, fragmentation has become a major conservation concern."

Iuell, B., Bekker, H., Cuperus, R., Dufek, J., Fry, G. L., Hicks, C., Hlavac, V., Keller, J., Le Marie Wandall, B., Rosell Pagès, C., Sangwine, T., Torslov, N. (editors), Wildlife and Traffic: A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions. COST 341. KNNV Publishers, Delft, 2003, 172 p. [formato PDF, 39.4 MB]. "It is a solution-orientated handbook, based upon the accumulated knowledge of a broad range of experts from participating countries and from numerous international contacts. It gives practical guidance for those involved in the different phases of the planning, construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure. The main aim of this handbook is to assist planners and engineers to minimise ecological barriers and fragmentation effects of transportation infrastructure such as roads, railways and waterways. The handbook takes the reader chapter-by-chapter through all the different phases, from the first steps of strategic planning, through the integration of roads in the landscape, the use of mitigation measures such as overand underpasses for different animals, the lesser known field of compensatory measures, and finally to consider the monitoring and evaluation of the chosen solutions. This European Handbook on Habitat Fragmentation due to Linear Transportation Infrastructure contains: methodology/indicators to define and quantify ‘fragmentation’; priorities for tackling environmental bottlenecks; best practice in mitigation/compensation measures for existing and planned infrastructure; technical description/maintenance; methods to evaluate/monitor the effectiveness of measures; recommendations on methodological aspects of a monetary evaluation of external effects; habitat fragmentation in Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Impact Assessment; recommendations for planners to help them with planning procedures.

Otto Holzgang, Ursula Sieber, Daniela Heynen, Franziska von Lerber, Verena Keller und Hans Peter Pfister, Wildtiere und Verkehr : eine kommentierte Bibliographie. Schweizerische Vogelwarte, Sempach, 2000, 75 p. [formato PDF, 704 KB].


DOCUMENTI

Cerema, Amphibiens et dispositifs de franchissement des infrastructures de transport terrestre. Cerema, Janvier 2019, 58 p. [formato PDF, 19,4 MB]. Pubblicazione gratuita, registrazione necessaria. "Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques biologiques des amphibiens et des menaces qui pèsent sur ce groupe, le présent ouvrage précise les enjeux de protection et les impacts des infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT), en particulier les routes. Les infrastructures de transport terrestres (ITT) font courir deux risques majeurs aux amphibiens : la fragmentation (disparition, diminution, dégradation et isolement des surfaces d'habitats favorables, extinction des petites populations) et la mortalité directe par les collisions. Divers dispositifs associés aux mesures "Eviter, Réduire, Compenser" (ERC) sont destinés à éviter l'impact ou le supprimer, atténuer ou réduire ces risques ou tenter de compenser les dommages. Cet ouvrage présente les dispositifs temporaires et permanents de protection des amphibiens, en particulier les "crapauduc" ou "batrachoduc"), et les principes de conception. Les méthodes de dénombrement, les mesures d'accompagnement, l'entretien et le suivi de l'efficacité de ces mesures, la pérennisation des corridors rétablis (politiques foncières) et quelques estimations de coût sont également abordés. Il s'adresse principalement aux concepteurs de ces installations et aux gestionnaires d'infrastructures mais également à tous les autres acteurs qu'ils appartiennent à des structures associatives ou institutionnelles intéressées et impliquées dans l'initiative et la mise en oeuvre de ces mesures."

Pierre L. Ibisch, Monika T. Hoffmann, Stefan Kreft, Guy Pe'er, Vassiliki Kati, Lisa Biber-Freudenberger, Dominick A. DellaSala, Mariana M. Vale, Peter R. Hobson, Nuria Selva, A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status. Science 16 Dec 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6318, pp. 1423-1427 (6 p.), [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. "Roads fragment landscapes and trigger human colonization and degradation of ecosystems, to the detriment of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. The planet's remaining large and ecologically important tracts of roadless areas sustain key refugia for biodiversity and provide globally relevant ecosystem services. Applying a 1-kilometer buffer to all roads, we present a global map of roadless areas and an assessment of their status, quality, and extent of coverage by protected areas. About 80% of Earth's terrestrial surface remains roadless, but this area is fragmented into ~600,000 patches, more than half of which are <1 square kilometer and only 7% of which are larger than 100 square kilometers. Global protection of ecologically valuable roadless areas is inadequate. International recognition and protection of roadless areas is urgently needed to halt their continued loss."

European Environmental Agency, Effects of air pollution on European ecosystems. Past and future exposure of European freshwater and terrestrial habitats to acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants. (EEA Technical Report n.11/2014). European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2014, 42 p. [formato PDF, 6,91 MB]. "The report assesses the proportion of European ecosystems exposed to nitrogen and sulphur-containing pollutants above sustainable levels. When pollutants exceed these levels they can harm plants and animals. In the 1970s, many European governments became increasingly concerned about acid rain, which was damaging forests and killing fish such as the brown trout and Atlantic salmon. The report shows that acidification has been greatly reduced since its peak in 1980 when almost half of the sensitive ecosystem area in the 28 EU Member States was affected. This has been reduced to around 5 % of ecosystems today. Air pollution also contributes to eutrophication, an oversupply of nitrogen. This can change ecosystems, for example creating conditions more favourable to certain plants, thus reducing the 'species richness' in grasslands and other sensitive areas. Eutrophication from air pollution peaked in 1990 with around 80 % of sensitive ecosystems in the EU exposed above safe levels. Despite some improvements almost 60 % of the ecosystems are still affected. While the situation is set to improve further, the report indicates that air pollution will cause significant eutrophication for some years to come."

Christopher J. W. McClure, Heidi E. Ware, Jay Carlisle, Gregory Kaltenecker and Jesse R. Barbe (Boise State Univ.), An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2013; 280 (1773): 20132290 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 780 KB]. Published 6 November 2013. "Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale—thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals—alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off—during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our ‘Phantom Road’ and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites—suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals." [full text free, supplementary data].

Jirí Gaisler, Zdenek Rehák and Tomáš Bartonicka, Bat casualties by road traffic (Brno-Vienna). Acta Theriologica 54 (2): 147–155, 2009 [formato PDF, 174 KB]. [Free access until December 31, 2011]. "We studied the impact of road E461, Brno-Vienna, on bat mortality, with the goal to predict this impact after the road has been reconstructed and turned into highway, R52. In the Czech territory, two proposed road sections of E461 were selected, 3.5 and 4.5 km long, and divided into segments 100 m in length. Bat carcasses were picked up from emergency stopping lanes, and bat activity was recorded by ultrasound detectors along the road and 100 m away on both sides from the central strip. From May to October 2007, 25 checks of bat mortality performed at weekly intervals revealed 119 bat carcasses representing 11 or 12 species.Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pygmaeus andMyotis daubentonii were the most frequent traffic casualties. The greatest mortality was documented from early July to mid-October, with a peak in September. Monitoring bat activity by ultrasound detectors (one night per month in May, June and September) yielded 12 bat species and 3 species couples (Myotis mystacinus/brandtii, M. emarginatus/alcathoe, Plecotus auritus/austriacus), mostly the same taxa as found dead on the road. Significantly greater bat numbers were revealed in the section where the road was situated between two artificial lakes, as compared to a road section without any lakes directly adjacent to the road. In the former section, significant correlation was found between the number of carcasses found and the activity detected, according to road segments."

Proyecto Provisional de Seguimiento de la Mortalidad de Vertebrados en Carreteras (PMVC), Mortalidad de vertebrados en carreteras. Documento técnico de conservación nº 4. Sociedad para la Conservación de los Vertebrados (SCV), Madrid, 2003, 350 p. [13 files, formato PDF, totale 5,72 MB]. "En este trabajo se resumen los resultados obtenidos durante la realización del Proyecto Provisional de Seguimiento de la Mortalidad de Vertebrados en Carreteras (PMVC). Durante este proyecto se realizaron 4.145 recorridos de toma de datos, se recorrieron más de 60.000 km de carreteras y se recogieron 43.505 datos de vertebrados atropellados en carreteras españolas de 301 especies. Se estudian de forma individualizada más de 150 especies. En cada una de ellas se indica la distribución geográfica de los datos, gráfica estacional (detallando distintas regiones o provincias si el número de datos es suficiente), transectos con mayores IKAs con las características de esos tramos y comparativa con otros países europeos. Se exponen 105 puntos negros encontrados en la red viaria española que destacan por el alto número de animales atropellados. Analiza de forma detallada todos los factores que pueden influir a la hora de detectar los animales accidentados en carreteras y, en base a esta información, se aportan estimaciones globales de vertebrados atropellados al año en España. Realiza una primera recopilación de estudios a nivel mundial y se recopilan 2.300 referencias bibliográficas sobre mortalidad de fauna en carreteras. Se revisan los factores que inciden en el campo de la seguridad vial en su relación con los atropellos, y se exponen resultados y experiencias de otros países. Está considerado el mayor estudio sobre mortalidad de fauna en carreteras que se haya hecho nunca por el número de participantes, km recorridos y datos recopilados."

Federico Capitani, Marco Dinetti, Claudio Fangarezzi, Claudio Piani, Enrico Selmi, Barriere fonoassorbenti trasparenti: impatto sull'avifauna nella periferia della città di Modena. (Bird collisions with transparent noise barriers in the city of Modena, Italy) Riv. ital. Orn., Milano, 76 (2): 115-124, 30-XI-2007 [formato PDF, 84 KB]. "Gli impatti con vetri costituiscono una delle principali cause di mortalità per gli uccelli indotte dall’attività antropica. In questo studio sono stati monitorati i decessi per impatto contro barriere fonoassorbenti trasparenti in due zone (A e B) alla periferia della città di Modena, prima e dopo l’implementazione di interventi di mitigazione ambientale. I due tratti di barriera fonoassorbente lunghi 580 e 350 metri sono stati realizzati nel 1997. Negli anni 1998-2000 sono stati applicati adesivi “anticollisione” a forma di falco in volo, fino al raggiungimento di una densità di 1 sagoma/1,5 mq di pannello, ed in alcuni tratti sono state aggiunte anche strisce verticali adesive di colore giallo poste a 12 cm di distanza. Nel sito A sono stati complessivamente trovati 133 esemplari di 23 specie (da gennaio 1998 a settembre 2001), nel sito B 187 individui di 22 specie (fino a giugno 2001). Confrontando la mortalità prima e dopo l’installazione degli adesivi, già dopo il primo anno nel sito A si è verificata una diminuzione dell’89%, in quello B del 37%. I nostri dati confermano l’elevato pericolo per gli uccelli, anche per specie rare nella zona, rappresentato dalle strutture trasparenti o riflettenti. La collocazione di adesivi anticollisione è in grado di ridurre notevolmente le collisioni: ottimi risultati si ottengono con una buona densità di sagome a forma di falco, e un azzeramento completo degli incidenti mortali con le strisce verticali. Un aspetto che non è stato valutato approfonditamente nella presente indagine è l’”effetto barriera” per gli spostamenti della fauna terrestre e la frammentazione ambientale provocata da lunghi tratti di barriere fonoassorbenti montate sopra terrapieni." "Bird-window collisions are main human induced causes of mortality. This study considers the impacts with transparent noise barriers in two suburban areas of Modena (Northern Italy), before and after the implementation of mitigation measures. The barrier in study area A is 580 meters in length, and in B is 350 meters, both put up in 1997. In the years 1998-2000 we stuck raptor silhouettes at the density of 1 silhouette/ 1.5 sq. meters of plate glass, and in some tracts also yellow vertical strips 12 cm apart. In study area A we have found 133 dead birds of 23 species (from January 1998 until September 2001), and in B 187 dead birds of 22 species (until June 2001). The mortality comparison before and after the silhouette installation at 1 year’s distance shows a mortality decrease by 89% in A and by 37% in B. Our data confirm that transparent and reflective windows are highly dangerous for birds, also of rare species. A high density of raptor silhouettes decreases bird mortality noticeably, and with the use of the vertical strips the danger is eliminated. Another impact which is not evaluated in this research is the “barrier effect” on terrestrial fauna, and the habitat fragmentation caused by long tracts of the noise barriers."

Roberto de la Peña Leiva, Óscar Llama Palacios, Mortalidad de aves en un tramo de línea de ferrocarril. SEO/BirdLife, Grupo local SEO-Sierra de Guadarrama, Diciembre 1997, 32 p. [formato PDF, 212 KB]. "Durante un periodo de dos años, se han realizado una serie de transectos a lo largo de un tramo de vía de ferrocarril, con objeto de estudiar la mortalidad cuantitativa y cualitativa de diferentes especies de aves. El estudio se ha realizado en la línea de ferrocarril Madrid-Ávila, concretamente en el tramo que une las estaciones de Las Zorreras y El Escorial, en la provincia de Madrid. Este tramo atraviesa distintos tipos de vegetación, destacando los encinares adehesados (Quercus rotundifolia), las fresnedas (Fraxinus angustifolia) y los melojares (Quercus pyrenaica). Se han encontrado un total de 94 cadáveres correspondientes a 37 especies distintas de aves. Las especies más accidentadas son, el cárabo común (Strix aluco), la corneja negra (Corvus corone) y el mochuelo (Athene noctua). Se observa una variación estacional en la mortalidad, siendo el verano la época del año donde se producen más accidentes (46.8 % del total de muertes), seguida del otoño (23.4 %). En la primavera y el invierno la mortalidad disminuye bastante (16 % y 13.8 %, respectivamente). El encinar adehesado figura como el biotopo donde la mortalidad es máxima (Imb = 9 aves/km/año) y donde mayor es la diversidad de especies afectadas (n = 24). Se han obtenido tendencias estadísticas, de las cuales se desprende que la longitud y la pendiente de los terraplenes, son las dos variables que influyen en la mortalidad de manera más decisiva, de tal manera que cuanto mayor es el valor de estas dos variables mayor es la mortalidad, sobre todo en las especies que presentan altos índices de mortalidad (cárabo común y corneja negra). La abundante presencia del conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus) en los terraplenes de la línea de ferrocarril, parece ser la causa de la alta mortalidad del cárabo común, al ser este lagomorfo uno de los componentes principales en la dieta de esta estrigiforme. Finalmente, se realiza una pequeña descripción de las medidas existentes en la actualidad que podrían minimizar o evitar los accidentes. La utilización de las medidas protectoras empleadas para evitar la colisión de aves con las líneas de transporte de energía eléctrica, debería ser la pauta a seguir en el futuro para minimizar y evitar la mortalidad de aves en las líneas de ferrocarril." "During a period of two years, series of transects have been carried out along a railway line tract in order to study quantitatively and qualitatively different bird species mortality. The study have been made on Madrid-Avila railway line, concretely on the section that runs between Las Zorreras and El Escorial train stations, in the province of Madrid. This tract goes through different types of vegetation, where holm oaks (Quercus rotundifolia), ash trees (Fraxinus angustifolia) and oaks (Quercus pyrenaica) open forests are remarkable. A total of 94 cadavers corresponding to 37 different bird species have been found. The most affected species are tawny owl (Strix aluco), black crow (Corvus corone) and little owl (Athene noctua). It is perceveid a seasonal variation in the mortality, being the summer (46.8 % of the total of deaths) the season where more accidents happens, followed by the autumn (23.4%). In spring and winter mortality decrease quite a lot (16% and 13.8% respectively). The open forest of holm oak is the biotope where the mortality is at its maximum (Imb = 9 birds/km/year) and where the afected species diversity is highest (n = 24). Some statistic tendencies could being achieved, from wich is remarkable to say that embankments length and inclination are both the two variables that influence on a most decisive way in mortality. The higgest is the value of these two variables the higgest is mortality, over all in species that register high mortality values like tawny owl, black crow and little owl. Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) ample presence in embankments seems to be cause of tawny owlt high mortality, cause rabbit is one of the main component in this strigiforme diet. Finally, a short descripition about actually existing measures to avoid and minimize accidents for birds is carried out. Protective measures used to avoid birds collision with overhead wires in power lines is model to follow in next future to minimize and avoid bird mortality on railway lines."

Fumihiro Hara, Transport Ecology in Japan and Asia. IENE 2010 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 27 September – 1 October 2010, Velence, Hungary, 7 p. [formato PDF, 131 KB]. "Wildlife-vehicle collisions are of growing concern in Asia, as it is already in Europe and North America. I will report the current state of wildlife-vehicle collisions and the efforts to prevent such collisions in Japan, China and Korea. The outline of the report follows. 1. The state of wildlife-vehicle collisions by region, wildlife type and accident cause in Japan. 2. The analysis using GIS of vegetation and landscape features as factors contributing to deer-vehicle collisions which are rapidly increasing in Hokkaido, the northern most island of Japan. 3. Measures that have been implemented in Hokkaido to prevent deer-vehicle collisions and their effectiveness. 4. The state of rare animal-vehicle collisions and efforts to reduce such accidents in Japan through literature research and the hearing from rare animal-vehicle collision experts. The rare animals include black rabbits, iriomote wild cats and okinawa rails. 5. The state of animal-vehicle collisions and collision prevention efforts in China and Korea through literature research. The prevention efforts include those made in the occasion of Qinghai highland railway construction."


SITI

ANET, Australasian Network for Ecology & Transportation is a professional network dedicated to the research, design and implementation of environmentally-sensitive linear infrastructure (rail, roads and utility easements) across Australasia.

IENE - Infra Eco Network Europe. "Established in 1996, is a European network of authorities and experts involved in the phenomena of habitat fragmentation caused by the construction and use of linear transport infrastructure, especially motorways, railways and canals (waterways)."

Center for Transportation and the Environment - CTE (NC State University, USA). "The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) conducts research, education, and technology transfer that seek to mitigate the impacts of surface transportation on the environment."

Eco-Kare International is a federally incorporated company established in Ontario, Canada in 2009 in response to an increasing demand for green infrastructure. Eco-Kare specializes in Translating Road Ecology Science into Practical Road Mitigation Solutions. (Peterborough, Ontario, Canada).

The Ontario Road Ecology Group (OREG) is championed by the Toronto Zoo. As an organization comprised of government and non-government scientists, educators and transportation planners, our goal is to raise awareness about the threats of roads to biodiversity in Ontario and to research and apply solutions. (Scarborough, Ontario, Canada).

Habitat and Highways - Defenders of Wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife is a national, nonprofit membership organization dedicated to the protection of all native animals and plants in their natural communities. Based in Washington, DC.

Road Ecology Center, University of California, Davis (USA). "The Center brings together researchers and policy makers from ecology and transportation to design sustainable transportation systems based on an understanding of the impact of roads on natural landscapes and human communities."

Grimsö Wildlife Research Station (Sweden), Roads & Wildlife: analysis, evaluation, mitigation. "Our research focuses on direct ecological effects of roads and railroads on wildlife". Sito ricco di documenti, informazioni e links.

Wildlands CPR, Missoula, MT (USA). In 1995, Reed Noss, (Davis-Shine Professor of Conservation Biology at the University of Central Florida) oversaw development of a bibliographic database on the ecological effects of roads and motorized recreation. We've updated the database every other year, and it now contains more than 10,000 citations. It's been used by activists and land managers throughout the U.S., including nearly every federal agency that manages land (e.g. Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs). Researchers from Australia, Brazil, Canada, England, Germany, Indonesia, Israel, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden, The Netherlands, and many other countries have also used the database - it is one of the largest collections of road and off-road vehicle information in the world.

Wildlife and Roads, A resource for mitigating the effects of roads on wildlife using wildlife crossings such as overpasses, underpasses, and crosswalks. This website is a dynamic part of a National Cooperative Highway Research Program sponsored research project titled; 'Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings.'


EFFETTI SUI BENI CULTURALI: DOCUMENTI

Patrizia Bonanni [et al.], L'impatto dell'inquinamento atmosferico sui beni di interesse storico-artistico esposti all'aperto. Roma, APAT, 2006, 74 p. [formato PDF, 660 KB]. "In Italia è custodita la maggior parte dell’intero patrimonio storico-artistico mondiale. In questi ultimi decenni tale patrimonio ha subito un degrado maggiore rispetto a quello a cui si è assistito in passato. L’inquinamento atmosferico è ritenuto uno dei fattori principali di questo processo. La pluriennale collaborazione tra l’APAT e l’Istituto Centrale per il Restauro si inserisce nell’ambito dello studio sugli effetti degli agenti inquinanti sui beni storico artistici esposti all’aperto."


EFFETTI SUL PAESAGGIO: DOCUMENTI

Marie Lessard, Marie-Andrée Huard, Marie-Claude Paradis, Mathieu Gillet, Requalification d'autoroutes et réhabilitation paysagère et urbaine. quelques expériences nord-américaines et européennes. (Etudes et recherches en transport). Transports Québec, Montréal, Mars 2006, 132 p. [formato PDF, 3,74 MB].


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