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Decarbonizzare i trasporti. Evidenze scientifiche e proposte di policy. Primo Rapporto elaborato dagli esperti della Struttura Transizione Ecologica della Mobilità e delle Infrastrutture (STEMI) del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e della Mobilità Sostenibili (MIMS). MIMS, Ministero delle Infrastrutture e della Mobilità Sostenibili, aprile 2022, 100 p. [formato PDF, 5,0 MB]. "Il primo Rapporto realizzato dalla struttura istituita nel 2021 dal Ministro risponde alla necessità di fornire una base conoscitiva solida, fondata sullo stato della ricerca in tema di tecnologie per la decarbonizzazione dei trasporti, per assumere le decisioni politiche più opportune per accelerare la transizione ecologica e il raggiungimento degli obiettivi di riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 ed inquinanti con il miglior rapporto costi-benefici, nonché il rafforzamento della competitività dell'economia italiana e il miglioramento della qualità della vita dei cittadini. Il Rapporto STEMI si articola in varie sezioni dedicate alle diverse modalità di trasporto - automobili, veicoli commerciali, autobus per trasporto pubblico locale, treni, navi, aerei - e analizza le tecnologie disponibili e le infrastrutture necessarie alla decarbonizzazione in termini di efficienza, costo, potenzialità di riduzione delle emissioni e scalabilità industriale nel contesto italiano."

Robert Hrelja & Tom Rye, Decreasing the share of travel by car. Strategies for implementing 'push' or 'pull' measures in a traditionally car-centric transport and land use planning. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2022, 14 p., [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2022.2051098 "This paper analyzes strategies that can be successfully pursued to implement measures to reduce car traffic in what has traditionally been a very car-centric planning praxis. Analytically, the paper use path dependency theory to provide an understanding of why certain types of measure are not implemented in cities on as widespread a basis as policy objectives may require, and to understand how transport planning path dependence in urban authorities might be changed. Empirically, the analysis builds on a comparative case study of transport and land use planning in Swedish cities. The most effective strategies do not appear to be radical policies leading to fast implementation of goals about sustainable transport, for example by implementing very car restrictive measures, even in the face of resistance from the public and from within the city administration. The results support an approach that from a strategy making perspective can be understood as an institutionalizing process by which internal organizational and external public support for car restrictive and potentially controversial measures are built. Implementation may be achieved by building new institutions within city administrations, where routines and norms gradually change so that car restraint measures gradually become part of the normal way of doing transport planning. This then starts to lock-in certain patterns of travel and make further car restraint measures more feasible and institutionalized as part of a standard menu of measures that cities use, and not something out of the order."

Fernando Gil-Alonso, Cristina López-Villanueva and Jenniffer Thiers-Quintana (Universitat de Barcelona), Transition towards a Sustainable Mobility in a Suburbanising Urban Area: The Case of Barcelona. Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2560 (32 p.) [formato PDF, 7,7 MB]. Open Access. "This article aims to address the apparent contradiction between the urban demographic and migratory trends and the transition towards a more sustainable mobility that local and metropolitan governments seek. To that end, it uses the case of Barcelona, and its metropolitan area during the first decades of the 21st century, characterized by suburbanisation and gentrification. Employing demographic, mobility and transport, and air quality statistics, we intend to analyse: (a) the spatial demographic trends in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (AMB), particularly regarding the core and periphery population growth or decline; (b) trends in daily mobility and how the public and private transport mix has changed; and (c) pollution data changes confirming the success or failure of the private vehicle reduction policy. Findings confirm our initial hypothesis: the slow but steady transition towards sustainable forms of mobility in the core city and the dense contiguous municipalities is counterbalanced by what occurs in the peripheral suburbs. There, the use of private vehicles is still preeminent and growing. Nevertheless, the air quality has improved in the most central municipalities of the AMB (for which data are available), even if not all parameters have seen a similar pollution reduction."

Paula Kuss, Kimberly A. Nicholas (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies), A dozen effective interventions to reduce car use in European cities: Lessons learned from a meta-analysis and Transition Management. Case Studies on Transport Policy (2022), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2022.02.001 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 1,1 MB]. Open Access. "Transitioning to fossil-free transport and reducing car use are necessary to meet European and national climate goals. Cities are promising leverage points to facilitate system transitions by promoting local innovation and policy experimentation. Building on transition management, we developed a knowledge base for the implementation of transition experiments to reduce city-level car use. From screening nearly 800 peer-reviewed studies and case studies, including in-depth analysis of 24 documents that met quality criteria and quantitatively estimated car use reduction, we identify 12 intervention types combining different measures and policy instruments that were effective in reducing car use in European cities. Most interventions were led by local government, planned and decided in collaboration with different urban stakeholders. We evaluated the potential of the identified intervention types to be implemented in a pilot study of Lund, Sweden, using three criteria from Transition Management of novelty, feasibility, and suitability, as assessed by interviews with local experts. We recommend three transition experiments to reduce local car use in Lund: Parking and Traffic Control, Workplace Parking Charge, and Mobility Services for Commuters. We suggest practitioners follow our method to identify effective and locally suitable interventions to reduce car use, and future research quantify the effectiveness of interventions to reduce car use using the standardised outcome measure of annual passenger kilometres travelled by car.

Natalie Gravett, Luis Mundaca (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University), Assessing the economic benefits of active transport policy pathways: Opportunities from a local perspective. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 11 (2021) 100456 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 8,8 MB]. Open Access. "Combined with concerns about climate change, air pollution and human health, the COVID-19 pandemic has renewed the use of and policy interest in active transport (AT) modes, namely cycling and walking. However, we note a high degree of uncertainty and lack of assessments addressing the economic benefits of AT policies; particularly when they are used as a mix of policies at the local level. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. We use the city of Oxford as a case study and apply the WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool and different baselines to assess four policy packages promoting a mode shift to AT for the 2030-2050 period. In total, 312 policy scenarios were produced and analysed. Results show that a policy mix that maximises economic benefits entails bike-sharing, cycle parking, training and education, low traffic neighbourhoods, e-bike grants, a workplace parking levy and increased use of a 'cycle-to-work' Scheme. Considering the health impacts from increased physical activity and avoided CO2 emissions, benefits are estimated in the range of: 62-256 prevented premature deaths; 18-50 million tonnes of avoided CO2e emissions; resulting in a total gross benefit of €3.45-11.28 billion. These impacts remain high and robust when key input parameters are tested via a sensitivity analysis. We conclude that investing in AT policy measures represents a multi-faceted low-carbon opportunity that should not be missed by policymakers."

Stefan Gössling, Jessica Kees, Todd Litman, The lifetime cost of driving a car. Ecological Economics 194 (2022) 107335 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 722 kB]. Open Access. The car is one of the most expensive household consumer goods, yet there is a limited understanding of its private (internal) and social (external) cost per vehicle-km, year, or lifetime of driving. This paper provides an overview of 23 private and ten social cost items, and assesses these for three popular car models in Germany for the year 2020. Results confirm that motorists underestimate the full private costs of car ownership, while policy makers and planners underestimate social costs. For the typical German travel distance of 15,000 car kilometers per year, the total lifetime cost of car ownership (50 years) ranges between €599,082 for an Opel Corsa to €956,798 for a Mercedes GLC. The share of this cost born by society is 41% (€4674 per year) for the Opel Corsa, and 29% (€5273 per year) for the Mercedes GLC. Findings suggest that for low-income groups, private car ownership can represent a cost equal to housing, consuming a large share of disposable income. This creates complexities in perceptions of transport costs, the economic viability of alternative transport modes, or the justification of taxes."

Marko Germani, Dario Zanette, La dieta elettrica del traffico. Utili riflessioni per le associazioni ambientaliste interessate a gestire proattivamente l'imminente transizione energetica dei trasporti e per chiunque voglia saperne di più sulla mobilità presente e futura. Sapere, febbraio 2021, 22-27 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 867 kB]. Open Access. "Questo articolo nasce a seguito di una serie di ragionamenti fatti dagli autori (ciclisti urbani e automobilisti elettrici) nel corso degli anni, a loro volta frutto della perplessità nel vedere i vari movimenti ambientalisti avere posizioni labili, contraddittorie e inefficaci sul tema della mobilità sostenibile. Se da un lato la società civile sta lentamente prendendo coscienza dell'emergenza climatica, dall'altro c'è scarsa conoscenza delle soluzioni possibili e molta confusione sull'efficacia dei singoli strumenti. In particolare, se da una parte nell'ultimo decennio efficienza e risparmio energetico, produzione da rinnovabili e stoccaggio hanno avuto sviluppi impressionanti, dall'altra il marketing dell'industria automobilistica e petrolifera sta facendo notevoli sforzi per rallentare il più possibile l'abbandono del business as usual, gettando discredito su forme di mobilità diverse da quella automobilistica privata e su qualsiasi proposta radicale e necessaria per la salvaguardia dell'ecosistema in cui viviamo. È necessario un position paper del mondo ambientalista, unitario e basato sull'evidenza scientifica che tratti in modo obiettivo il tema del futuro dell'auto privata, evitando sia di minimizzare il problema che di finire in massimalismi sterili e irrealizzabili. I pensieri qui esposti vogliono essere uno spunto di dibattito per chi volesse fissare dei paletti ed essere parte attiva e propositiva nella necessaria e inevitabile trasformazione dello scenario italiano ed europeo della mobilità, senza però perdersi nel mare delle false alternative e del green washing (l'ecologismo di facciata) di certa industria."

Annina Thaller, Alfred Posch, Anna Dugan, Karl Steininger (University of Graz), How to design policy packages for sustainable transport: Balancing disruptiveness and implementability. Transportation Research Part D 91 (2021) 102714 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. Open Access. "In order to achieve emission reduction targets in the passenger transport sector, the demand side and especially the mobility behavior of consumers deserve special attention. It is unlikely that such behavior will change without significant political intervention, nor will single policy instruments be sufficient to induce the needed changes. In this study, therefore, we analyze the design of so-called disruptive policy packages required to drastically reduce passenger transport emissions in industrialized countries and illustrate it for the case of Austria. Our research approach consists of three methods: a literature review to develop a policy category system, expert interviews to build effective policy packages and a stakeholder workshop to identify the specific needs of different geographical areas. For the design of successful policy packages, we identify two critical dimensions, disruptiveness (having high-level and rapid effectiveness) and implementability. A well-balanced combination of diverse policy instruments is required to adequately address both dimensions."

Fabio Hirschhorn, Didier van de Velde, Wijnand Veeneman, Ernst ten Heuvelhof (Delft University of Technology), The governance of attractive public transport: Informal institutions, institutional entrepreneurs, and problem-solving know-how in Oslo and Amsterdam. Research in Transportation Economics (2020) in press (11 p.) [formato PDF, 545 kB]. Open Access. "Public authorities are under mounting pressure to promote more sustainable urban mobility, including a modal shift from cars. With an empirical focus on Oslo and Amsterdam metropolitan areas, this paper analyses how the interplay between formal frameworks, informal institutions, and individuals' agency can contribute to making public transport more attractive in relation to other modes. Findings indicate that formal frameworks, informal institutions, and key actors co-exist and interact in complementary, substitutive, and accommodating manner; they work alongside each other to facilitate collective decision-making on issues ranging from integrating land use and transport to dealing with budget constraints. By identifying these types of interaction, this study shows that, to advance transport sustainability, authorities not only need insight on what policies to design, but can also benefit from understanding how policy-making and implementation unfold. A broader insight offered by the paper is that financial performance goals appear as a main policy driver in public transport, eclipsing sustainability concerns."

Liu Shaokun, Can Chinese Cities Leave the Car Behind? Gridlock, Pollution and the Future of Public Transportation. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, Volume 16, Issue 14, Number 2, Jul 15, 2018, pp. 1-9 [formato PDF, 2,2 MB]. "For years, China's city planners have prioritised cars, but they're now taking a different route. Investing in public transport, supplemented by the electric bike and shared bike, are among the ways Chinese cities are trying to minimise car use."

Lew Fulton, Jacob Mason, Dominique Meroux, Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation. How to achieve the full potential of vehicle electrification, automation and shared mobility in urban transportation systems around the world by 2050. Report. UC Davis, ITDP (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), New York, 2017, 41 p. [formato PDF, 2,4 MB]. "The new report was produced by the University of California, Davis, and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. It compares the environmental and fiscal impacts of three scenarios involving new transportation technology: 1) Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario-Through 2050, we continue to use vehicles with internal combustion engines at an increased rate, and use transit and shared vehicles at the current rate, as population and income grow over time. 2) Revolutions (2R) scenario-We embrace more technology. Electric vehicles become common by 2030, and automated electric vehicles become dominant by 2040. However, we continue our current embrace of single-occupancy vehicles, with even more car travel than in the BAU. 3) Revolutions (3R) scenario-We take the embrace of technology in the 2R scenario and then maximize the use of shared vehicle trips. By 2050, cities have ubiquitous private car sharing, increased transit performance-with on-demand availability-and strengthened infrastructure for walking and cycling, allowing maximum shared trip efficiency."

Xiao Zhao, Anjali Mahendra, Nick Godfrey, Holger Dalkmann, Philipp Rode, Graham Floater, Unlocking the power of urban tranport systems for better growth and a better climate. Technical note. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2016, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,27 MB]. "Sustainable transport systems are crucial for underpinning the economic performance and prosperity of nations. They are also critical for tackling global climate change, improving road safety and reducing local air pollution. This is particularly the case in the world’s urban areas, as the majority of transport trips take place in and between cities. Each week, 1.4 million people are being added to urban areas, and urban travel constitutes more than 60% of all the kilometres travelled globally, the largest single source of global transport-related carbon emissions. The business-as-usual pattern of urbanisation and transport mobility in many regions remains characterised by unplanned sprawl and inter-city and intra-city transport networks dominated by conventional motorisation. The complex interaction between urban development and transport connectivity has led to declining urban densities, a reduction in the share of non-motorised transport and public transport, and enormous growth in private vehicles. An area the size of Manhattan is being added to urban areas each and every day. A continuation of this pattern could lead to the global urban land area tripling and the number of motorised vehicles in the world doubling by 2030. These trends have already created a wide range of economic, social and environmental costs, which can significantly constrain improvements in quality of life. The total social cost of Beijing’s dependence on motorised transport, including congestion and air pollution, is estimated at 7.5–15.0% of GDP. China added 17 million new cars in 2014 alone. In the United States, work by the New Climate Economy (NCE) demonstrates that urban sprawl costs over US$1 trillion per annum, including US$400 billion in costs to the public purse and more than US$600 billion in costs related to private vehicle use."

Hans Jakob Walnum, Carlo Aall and Søren Løkke, Can Rebound Effects Explain Why Sustainable Mobility Has Not Been Achieved?. Sustainability 2014, 6, 9510-9537 (28 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. Open Access. "Since the report “Our Common Future” launched sustainable development as a primary goal for society in 1987, both scientific and political discussions about the term’s definition and how to achieve sustainable development have ensued. The manifold negative environmental impacts of transportation are an important contributor to the so-far non-sustainable development in financially rich areas of the world. Thus, achieving sustainable mobility is crucial to achieving the wider challenge of sustainable development. In this article, we limit our sustainability focus to that of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We discuss whether rebound effects can reveal why sustainable mobility has not been reached. Rebound effects refer to behavioral or other systemic responses after the implementation of new technologies or other measures to reduce energy consumption. Three main strategies exist for achieving sustainable mobility: efficiency, substitution, and volume reduction. (1) The efficiency strategy is based on the idea that environmental problems caused by transport can be improved by developing new and more efficient technologies to replace old, inefficient, and polluting materials and methods; (2) The second strategy—substitution—argues for a change to less polluting means of transport; (3) The volume reduction strategy argue that efficiency and substitution are not sufficient, we must fundamentally change behavior and consumption patterns; people must travel less, and freight volumes must decrease. We found rebound effects associated with all three of the main strategies that will lead to offsetting expected savings in energy use and GHG emissions in the transport sector."

Philipp Rode, Graham Floater, Nikolas Thomopoulos, James Docherty, Peter Schwinger, Anjali Mahendra, and Wanli Fang, Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form. (NCE Cities Paper 03). LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, 2014, 61 p. [formato PDF, 1,24 MB]. "This paper focusses on one central aspect of urban development: transport and urban form and how the two shape the provision of access to people, goods and services, and information in cities. The more efficient this access, the greater the economic benefits through economies of scale, agglomeration effects and networking advantages. This paper discusses how different urban accessibility pathways impact directly on other measures of human development and environmental sustainability. It also presents the enabling conditions for increasing accessibility and low-carbon mobility in cities. In summary, this paper suggests that more compact urban growth, aligned with the increased provision of public transport infrastructure and services and pro-active support for non-motorised transport use, is likely to deliver substantial net economic and social benefits. Despite this, current urban development trajectories across much of the world diverge considerably from more efficient urban accessibility pathways. This paper provides an overview of current global patterns and trends in the physical development of cities and related urban mobility behaviour. Overall, cities continue to sprawl excessively, with some estimates suggesting that total urban land area could triple between 2000 and 2030. Similarly, in many key emerging economies (such as China and India), private motorised vehicle use and modal share is expanding rapidly, with a range of negative economic and social implications. At the same time, however, evidence on tipping points towards more sustainable development trajectories is emerging in cities across different wealth levels. As a result of socio-demographic change, shifting public opinion, strong political leadership and technological innovation, some cities are moving towards a more compact and public-transport oriented urban development model with increasing shares of non-motorised transport. The last section of this paper then discusses the key policy areas (and related instruments) relevant to enabling spatially- and energy-efficient urban development. Undertaking strategic spatial planning in relation to key infrastructure developments, managing compact urban growth by identifying areas for intensification rather than simply restricting development, and closely integrating the provision of housing with public transport are among the key planning approaches adopted by leading city governments. In addition, the strategic use of incentives and revenue mobilisation instruments is recognised as essential to ensuring the availability of financing for urban infrastructure investment, respecting the ‘polluter pays’ principle and creating positive feedback mechanisms between infrastructure investment, transport modal choice and urban form."

Stefan Gössling, Scott A. Cohen, Why sustainable transport policies will fail: European Union climate policy in the light of transport taboos. Journal of Transport Geography (in press, 2014) (36 p.) [formato PDF, 525 kB]. "There is widespread consensus that current climate policy for passenger transportation is insufficient to achieve significant emission reductions in line with global climate stabilization goals. This article consequently has a starting point in the notion of ‘path dependency’ (Schwanen, Banister and Anable 2011) and an observed ‘implementation gap’ (Banister and Hickman 2012), suggesting that significant mitigation policies for transport do not emerge in the European Union because of various interlinked ‘transport taboos’, i.e. barriers to the design, acceptance and implementation of such transport policies that remain unaddressed as they constitute political risk. The paper argues that without addressing transport taboos, such as highly unequal individual contributions to transport volumes and emissions, social inequality of planned market-based measures, the role of lobbyism, and the various social and psychological functions of mobility, it will remain difficult to achieve significant emission reductions in passenger transport. Yet, transport taboos remain largely ignored among EU policy makers because their discussion would violate ‘order’, i.e. harm specific interests within neoliberal governance structures and the societal foundations and structures of transport systems built on these."

Giuseppe Calabrese, Scenari e politiche industriali per l’auto ecologica, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 2, 14 p. [formato PDF, 270 kB] "La ricerca di nuovi metodi di propulsione per le automobili è oggetto di intenso dibattito a tutti i livelli a causa del riscaldamento globale, delle emissioni degli agenti inquinanti e più in generale per la necessità di sviluppare in modo sostenibile l’industria automobilistica. In un prossimo futuro, il panorama più pro-babile sarà la coesistenza di un portafoglio di tecnologie sviluppate per soddisfare segmenti di utenti di-versi, in termini di prestazioni del veicolo, con una predominanza dei veicoli convenzionali. Il presente articolo dopo aver presentato le diverse traiettorie tecnologiche per la mobilità sostenibile si sofferma sui possibili scenari industriali - della diversità, della gradualità e della rottura - che si stanno delineando rimarcandone le condizioni necessarie per la loro realizzazione e le possibili conseguenze. In ciascun scenario emerge preponderante la necessità di adeguate politiche industriali, ma anche la consta-tazione dei limiti relativi all’auto elettrica, dovuti anche alla presenza di numerosi fattori limitanti tali da generare una sorta di path dependance. L’articolo si conclude con alcune proposte di policy per favorire il progressivo superamento di tali limi-tazioni e promuovere un nuovo paradigma industriale per il settore automotive."

Claire Papaix, Bénédicte Meurisse, Overview of the policy toolbox for low-carbon road mobility in the European Union. (Information and debates Series n. 26). Chaire Economie du Climat, Paris, July 2013, 45 p. [formato PDF, 1,04 MB] "The transition to sustainable transport, which necessarily implies low-carbon transport, will require a major structural shift in both passenger and freight transport systems. Indeed, rapidly increasing traffic and a high dependency on fossil fuels have made transport a crucial but also a challenging issue with regard to the action required to fight climate change. Indeed, CO2 emissions from transport have been sharply increasing over the last decades contrary to the observed trends in the other industrial sectors. Since road represents most of carbon emissions we choose to focus in this report solely on the levers for reducing emissions from road mobility systems. When it comes to the means to steer low-carbon road mobility, most of transport’s carbon emissions are not directly covered by "first best" (CO2-oriented) economic instruments, such as fossil fuel taxation, or very heterogeneously in Europe when it is the case. Therefore, we propose ic this report a French and European review of such "first best" and "second best" (not directly CO2-oriented) policy-tools for rolling out low-carbon transport systems. In particular, command-and-control levers, economic instruments, collaborative initiatives and information and communication policies – applying both to the demand and the supply side of road transportation will be thoroughly analyzed here. Beyond the proposed framing and efficiency appraisal of the policy-tools, one of the key outcomes of this report is that such regulation package for reducing carbon in transport emissions may be recognized as opportunities for innovation and growth rather than constraints if consistently anticipated and time-wisely influenced by all the actors."

Claus Doll, Johannes Hartwig, Florian Senger, Markus Maibach, Daniel Sutter, Damaris Bertschmann, Udo Lambrecht, Wolfram Knörr, Frank Dünnebeil, Wirtschaftliche Aspekte nichttechnischer Maßnahmen zur Emissionsminderung im Verkehr (Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions). (Texte 11/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 199 p. [formato PDF, 1,91 MB] "Ziel und Ansatz: Die Studie untersucht die Wirkungen ausgewählter Maßnahmen der Verkehrspolitik für Umwelt, Verkehrsteilnehmer, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft bis zum Jahr 2030. Betrachtet werden Verlagerungen zu Fuß-, Radverkehr und ÖPNV, Verkürzung von Pkw-Fahrten und effizientere Autonutzung im Personenverkehr, sowie mehr Bahn im Güterverkehr. Aus Perspektive der Verkehrsteilnehmer werden private Kosten, Fahrzeit, Gesundheitseffekte, Schadstoff- und Treibhausgasemissionen, Lärm und Verkehrssicherheit bewertet. dynamischen Verkehrs- und Wirtschaftsmodell ASTRA-D analysiert. Ergebnisse: Die Umweltwirkungen der Maßnahmen divergieren stark und werden von den Kosten durch Treibhausgasemissionen dominiert. Maßnahmen, die den Fernverkehr einschließen, erzielen größere Emissionsreduktionen als rein städtische Maßnahmen. Speziell für den ÖPNV ergeben sich noch erhebliche Potenziale zur Minderung seiner externen Kosten. Aktive Mobilität fördert die Gesundheit und reduziert das Risiko chronischer Erkrankungen. Jedoch bedarf die Sicherheit von Radfahrern und Fußgängern in Städten einer höheren Aufmerksamkeit. Die Investitionshöhen der untersuchten Maßnahmen reichen bis 10 Mrd. Euro für die Attraktivitätssteigerung lokaler Fahrziele. Die Beschäftigung entwickelt sich hierdurch in fast allen Maßnahmen positiv, und Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt liegt in vier von fünf Maßnahmen in 2030 leicht höher als im Referenzszenario. Empfehlung: Sinnvolle Maßnahmenpakete können die Effektivität und Effizienz der Verkehrspolitik deutlich steigern. Im Zentrum stehen dabei Ansätze des "Push & Pull" im Sinne einer Verlagerungs- und Finanzierungsstrategie." "Aim and methodology: This study looks at the impact of selected transport policy measures on environment, transport users, economy and society by the year 2030. Considered are shifts to cycling, walking and public transport, shorter car trips and more efficient car use in passenger travel, as well as more rail in freight transport. Out of the transport user perspective private costs, travel time, health effects, air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic safety are assessed. Macroeconomic impacts are appraised using the system-dynamics transport and economics model ASTRA-D. Results: The environmental impacts of the measures diverge widely and are dominated by the costs of greenhouse gas emissions. Measures, which include long-distance travel, achieve higher impacts than pure urban transport measures. In particular for public transport considerable potentials to reduce its external costs from air pollution were identified. Active mobility enhances personal health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. However, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in cities requires increased attention. The investment costs for the measures investigated differ strongly, but reach up to 10 billion euros annually for more attractive local destinations. Accordingly, employment develops positively in almost all measures, and the gross domestic product (GDP) is slightly above the base case in 2030 in four out of the five cases. Recommendations: sensible bundles of measures may clearly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of transport policy. Core elements are “push-and-pull” approaches combining transport shift and funding policies."

Claus Doll, Johannes Hartwig, Florian Senger, Markus Maibach, Daniel Sutter, Damaris Bertschmann, Udo Lambrecht, Wolfram Knörr, Frank Dünnebeil, Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions. Summary. (Texte 11/2013). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, März 2013, 29 p. [formato PDF, 196 kB]. "This study looks at non-technical options to reduce the emissions of motorized road traffic. The focus of the study is on the effect of measures to reduce emissions and the associated consequences for the private sector and the economy as a whole. This study aims to provide an objective basis for the debate about the commercial and social consequences of more sustainable traffic behavior on the part of both individuals and companies."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. di Sassari), Car and the city: Socio-technical pathways to 2030. (Contributi di Ricerca CRENoS 2013/06). Centro Ricerche Economiche Nord Sud CRENoS, Cagliari, March 2013, 36 p. [formato PDF, 2,12 MB]. "A socio-technical approach is used to show that the future of urban mobility will depend on the competition between coalitions of innovative actors who support alternative transport systems. The current positioning of these coalitions is mapped with reference to innovation and power. The supporting coalition of the ‘individual car’ system benefits from a dominant position on current alternatives, but faces external pressures for change. Three transition pathways to 2030 are considered: 1) ‘AUTO-city’, i.e. the reconfiguration of the ‘individual car’ supporting coalition through the stable integration of producers of batteries; 2) ‘ECO-city’, i.e. the empowering of local coalitions which integrate all non-car modes, and their diffusion from pioneering to laggard cities; 3) ‘ELECTRI-city’, i.e. the empowering of a new coalition centered on electric operators which establish a new ‘electric vehicles + smart grids’ system. The deployment of one or another transition pathway also depends on the ability of supporting coalitions to influence political institutions. Without a political action for the weakening of the dominant position of the ‘individual car’ system, the ‘AUTO-city’ transition pathway will prevail. To support the ‘ECO-city’ and the ‘ELECTRI-city’ transition pathways, a multilevel transport policy or a national/federal industrial policy is needed, respectively."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. of Sassari), Get out of the car! Actors and institutions to change the transport regime, 2nd International TEMPO Conference, Oslo, 31.01-01.02.2011, 12 slides [formato PowerPoint, 627 kB].

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. of Sassari), Structure, agency and change in the car regime. A review of the literature, European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 47 (2011): 1-18 (19 p.) [formato PDF, 276 kB]. "This paper is aimed at filling the gap between the already well structured literature on the 'car regime' and the debate on policies for sustainable transport. Two main results emerge from the literature on the past and current evolution of the car regime: - the car regime was established thanks to the ability of purposeful private actors to use the technology of internal combustion to influence markets and institutions, and finally society as a whole; - previous attempts to make urban and regional mobility more sustainable fail because multiple - and mutually reinforcing - path-dependence phenomena lock the society into the car regime. For the future, the dominant scenario appears to be the internal transformation of the existing car regime, which is currently driven by the automotive industry and based on hybrid technology; the emergence of an alternative electric car regime - driven by producers of batteries and managers of electric utilities - remains a secondary option. Further research is needed to understand how - starting from the existing alternatives to the car and the innovations in the car itself - a coalition of public and private actors may be promoted and sustained to create a new regime of sustainable mobility."

Green light for light rail. (Report). Department for Transport, London, September 2011, 61 p. [file PDF, 560 kB]. "The terms of reference for this review were: what are the key cost drivers for light rail?; and what steps could be taken to help make this mode more cost effective in the future? In the latest light rail and tram statistics published in August 2011, passenger journeys in England for light rail and tram systems have shown to have increased by 5.5 per cent between 2009/10 and 2010/11 with 196.5 million passenger journeys in 2010/11. This represents the highest number of passenger journeys to date. There are eight tramway/light rail systems currently in operation in England. These are in Croydon, London's Docklands, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield, Tyne and Wear, Nottingham and Blackpool. There are currently a number of extensions to the Manchester Metrolink system under construction, funded with Central Government support and which will see Metrolink extended to Oldham and Rochdale, as well as Ashton-Under-Lyne and East Didsbury. Further extensions to the system are under active consideration by Transport for Greater Manchester, the local transport authority, using local sources of funding. In addition, the upgrade to the Blackpool and Fleetwood tramway is well underway and is nearing completion, as well as work commencing on the modernisation of the Tyne and Wear Metro. Further extensions to existing networks are also close to final approval. These include extensions to the Midland Metro Line One into Birmingham city centre and to the Nottingham Express Transit system. In addition a new tram system in Edinburgh is being developed. Today’s report builds on action already taken since May 2010 in support of light rail, including: - removing the requirement for light rail schemes to have a higher proportion of local contributions compared to other modes; - providing funding support to a number of light rail schemes; and - supporting a tram train pilot in South Yorkshire and working with Hertfordshire County Council/Network Rail on the possibility of converting the St Albans Abbey Line to light rail. The review has considered evidence from the various inquiries that have taken place previously. This includes findings from the reports published by the National Audit Office, the Transport Select Committee and the All Party Parliamentary Light Rail Group. Further evidence was also provided by other organisations such as UKTram and scheme promoters, as well as research on costs of major infrastructure projects undertaken overseas for which the Department is very grateful." "Light rail has a future in this country if capital costs can be reduced Local Transport Minister Norman Baker said today as he published a review looking at how trams can be more cost effective in the future. Despite tram passenger numbers being at record levels, high building costs have meant that even where passenger forecasts may justify its consideration, light rail has often not been seen as an affordable option for local transport authorities. Recommendations from the review for local authorities and industry include: - to implement a new project design of light rail systems which is uniform across the industry; - to look at lower cost schemes overseas to see whether they could be adopted in this country; and - to set up a ‘centre of procurement excellence’ to advise on the best procurement options." "Findings show that light rail has the potential to provide high capacity transport into and around major conurbations which reduces congestion, supports growth and improves regeneration opportunities. The Department will therefore hold a summit of the light rail sector to agree a sector-led implementation plan for getting light rail on the right track. The report found that one of the main reasons for high construction costs is the need to divert and locate utilities which lie under the road where the tram is to be built e.g. water and gas main pipes. The Department for Transport will now launch a consultation to seek views on how this system can be simplified and ultimately how costs can be reduced."

René Bormann, Michael Gehrmann, Helmut Holzapfel, Matthias Knobloch, Marion Jungbluth, Joan Mirbach, Oliver Mietzsch, Martin Stuber, Eckpfeiler einer zukünftigen nachhaltigen Verkehrspolitik [Pietre angolari di una futura politica sostenibile dei trasporti]. (WISO Diskurs). (Diskussionspapier des Arbeitskreises Innovative Verkehrspolitik der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung). Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn, August 2009, 16 p. [formato PDF, 133 kB].

Daniel Albalate, Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), "High-Speed Rail: Lessons for Policy Makers from Experiences Abroad". (IREA Working Paper 2010/03). Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i Pública, Universitat de Barcelona, 2010, 34 p. [formato PDF, 704 kB]. "In April 2009 the US government unveiled its blueprint for a national network of high-speed passenger rail (HSR) lines aimed at reducing traffic congestion, cutting national dependence on foreign oil and improving rural and urban environments. In implementing such a program, it is essential to identify the factors that might influence decision making and the eventual success of the HSR project, as well as foreseeing the obstacles that will have to be overcome. In this article we review, summarize and analyze the most important HSR projects carried out to date around the globe, namely those of Japan, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. We focus our attention on the main issues involved in the undertaking of HSR projects: their impact on mobility, the environment, the economy and on urban centers. By so doing, we identify lessons for policy makers and managers working on the implementation of HSR projects."

Germà Bel (Universitat de Barcelona), Política de transporte: ¿Más recursos o mejor gestión?. Economistas, 111 (2007), 279-284 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 126 kB]. "Sin grandes reformas en curso, la política de transporte ha seguido idénticas pautas a las de los últimos años. Las grandes líneas establecidas a finales de los 1990s continúan marcando las prioridades de la política, entre las que destaca la omnipresencia del tren de alta velocidad. Pero es probable que España haya entrado ya en el club de economías maduras en grandes infraestructuras de transporte. El principal argumento del papel es que las nuevas inversiones en infraestructuras son cada vez menos importantes para mejorar la eficiencia y eficacia del transporte en España. Por contra, son cada vez mayores las ganancias potenciales de bienestar derivadas de reformas en los sistemas de gestión y financiación de las infraestructuras."

José Allende, Iñaki Barcena, Rosa Lago (Universidad del País Vasco – Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea), Carta abierta a la PTP (Lettera aperta alla PTP - Respuesta al comunicado de la PTP). 2007, 7 p. [formato PDF, 30 kB]. "Carta abierta de profesores de la UPV a la Asociación para la Promoción del Transporte Público (PTP)"- Nel giugno 2007, a nome della Asociación para Promoción del Transporte Público en Cataluña (PTP), associazione aderente alla federazione T&E (Transport and environment), l'ing. Pau Noy Serrano diede pubblicamente un giudizio positivo sul progetto di ferrovia ad alta velocità nel Paese Basco, la cosiddetta "Y basca", e la sua associazione pubblicò un documento critico rispetto al manifesto contrario al progetto sottoscritto da 124 docenti e ricercatori dell'università del Paese Basco. In risposta al comunicato della PTP catalana, tre docenti dell'università del Paese Basco hanno stilato questa lettera aperta alla PTP, in cui mettono in evidenza con grande chiarezza che il progetto non ha nulla a che vedere con la mobilità sostenibile (cosa affermata dalla PTP) e che il progetto era inutile dal punto di vista politico, sociale, finanziario e trasportistico, anzi dannoso perchè sottrae fondi al trasporto ferroviario locale mettendoli su linee che produrranno perdite da colmare con fondi pubblici. Il testo si riferisce ai principali studi sul tema (De Rus, Bermejo, Vickerman, González-Savignat) e chiede alla PTP di citare fonti bibliografiche di pari valore (che invece mancano completamente dal documento della PTP).

Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Are Vehicle Travel Reduction Targets Justified? Evaluating Mobility Management Policy Objectives Such As Targets To Reduce VMT And Increase Use Of Alternative Modes Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada), September 2009, 27 p. [formato PDF, 336 kB]. "This report investigates whether transportation policies should include targets to reduce vehicle travel and encourage use of alternative modes, called mobility management objectives. Such objectives are justified on several grounds: they help insure that individual short-term decisions support strategic goals, they provide numerous benefits, and they help prepare for future travel demands. Many mobility management strategies are market and planning reforms that increase transport system efficiency and equity. Mobility management criticism tends to reflect an older, automobile-oriented transportation planning paradigm which considers a limited range of objectives, impacts and options. More comprehensive analysis tends to favor mobility management. Appropriate mobility management can reduce vehicle travel in ways that minimize costs and maximize benefits to consumers and society."

European Environmental Agency, Beyond transport policy - exploring and managing the external drivers of transport demand. Illustrative case studies from Europe. (EEA Technical Report n.12/2008). EEA, Copenhagen, [December] 2008, 90 p. [formato PDF, 4,71 MB]. "Historically, the demand for transport has been examined by placing the transport sector at the centre of the analysis, and seeking variables that explain the observed changes to transport patterns. However, transport demand and growth are normally created by decisions and developments outside the transport sector; transport is more often a means to an end, such as shopping, working and holiday trips. Decisions made in these sectors outside of transport influence the carbon footprint of the transport sector as they are often taken without considering the consequences on transport demand and greenhouse gas emissions. To tackle the challenge of increasing CO2 from transport, a detailed analysis of sectors of economic activities outside the transport sector is therefore needed. In order to better understand these external drivers, this study formulated a conceptual framework to identify main sectors and factors which impact on demand. It shall be seen as an initial attempt to understand key sectors and factors which impact transport demand, and to identify measures that can be taken to manage demand. It is meant to facilitate the inclusion of demand management into the policy discussions on the development towards a sustainable transport system. Following a literature review of approximately 90 publications, the factors that were identified included socio-demographic changes, economic growth and globalisation, physical changes to urban form/land use, organisational changes at workplaces and schools, socio-cultural changes and technological developments. The key sectors consisted of retail, leisure/tourism, business, education, and industry. Both passenger and freight transport demand were examined, though it is understood that those fields of transport have different drivers of transport demand. From a matrix of factors and sectors previously described, nine topics were identified as case study candidates, ranging from the effects of e-commerce on shopping journeys, to the demands of an ageing population on leisure trips. A number of aspects such as carbon reduction potential, EU policy influence, cost effectiveness and political/social acceptability were considered to select the three following case studies: Effects of food production and consumption on shopping journeys and freight traffic; The increasing use of short-haul air travel for business and leisure travel; Effects of 'education based' travel on transport demand."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. di Sassari), Getting out of the car: an institutional/evolutionary approach to sustainable transport policies. (Contributi di Ricerca CRENoS 2008/14). Centro Ricerche Economiche Nord Sud CRENoS, Cagliari, 2008, 14 p. [formato PDF, 183 kB]. "Orthodox economics sees transport as a market which can be made more sustainable by improving its self-regulating capacity. To date this static approach has not been able to limit the growing demand for transport and its increasing environmental impact. Better results might be obtained by using evolutionary and institutional economics. Starting from these theories, a sustainable transport policy should be based on three fundamental considerations. First, transport is not a market, but a sum of systems affected by path-dependence and lock-in phenomena. Second, transport is not sustainable because it is locked in environmentally sub-optimal systems. Third, structural changes in technologies and organisations, institutions, and values are needed to establish more sustainable transport systems. We give an example of the use of an institutional/evolutionary approach to sustainable transport policies in the transition from the system of mass motorisation to the new urban mobility system."

Jitka Andersson, Reducing environmental impacts of freight transport sector: The case of the Czech Republic. Lund University, Dep. of Technology and Society, (International Master’s Programme in Environmental Science), Lund, January 2005, 48 p. [formato PDF, 2,77 MB]. "The transport system in the Czech Republic has gone through substantial changes since 1990, mostly due to political and economical changes in the country. During this period, the environmental performance of many sectors, such as industry and energy has improved; however it is not so in the case of freight transport. The demand for freight transport in the Czech Republic has been steadily increasing during the latest years and demand is expected to continue growing. Furthermore, the most polluting road transport sector has become overwhelmingly dominant. There are several reasons for this development, such as currant trends in production and logistics and slow adoption of the railway sector to competition from more flexible and reliable road sector. Moreover, the external costs of the road sector are significantly higher then external costs of the rail sector, which makes the road favored at the expense of rail. The analysis of transport related air emissions has shown that the contribution of this sector to the total of air emissions is small compared to OECD average. The reason for this is the high emission intensity of energy and industry sectors. However, freight transport related emissions of carbon dioxide have been increasing fast during the studied period and so have emissions of nitrogen oxides. Furthermore, the situation concerning the exceeding of air pollution concentration limit values in urban areas in the CR is serious. This shows that the current trends in freight transport performance would lead to negative effects on human health and environmental degradation and there is urgent need for measures in order to reduce these effects. For the reduction of environmental damage caused by road freight transport, there is a need for strong emission regulations, implementation of new technologies as well as solutions in order to reduce the demand for transport. Those measures are important in working towards sustainable transport, however, they are unlikely to divert the currant development in emission trends. In order to attain a sustainable freight transport sector it is necessary to increase the share of railways on the freight transport market. Measures aiming at improving efficiency and opening up the freight railway market to competition will make this sector more competitive in comparison to the road freight sector. However, because the forces driving the modal slant towards road transport are powerful, more efficient policy instruments internalizing the external costs of road transport need to be implemented."

Gerardo Marletto (Univ. di Sassari), Crossing The Alps: Three Transport Policy Options. (Contributi di Ricerca CRENoS 2007/12). Centro Ricerche Economiche Nord Sud CRENoS, Cagliari, gennaio 2008, 15 p. [formato PDF, 368 kB]. "In recent years crossing the Alps has become a central issue in transport policy. The constant increase in global transport flow has contributed to bringing two distinct objectives to the centre of attention: making transalpine transportation of goods easier and reducing the negative impact of this on the alpine environment. The debates and disagreements on the subject are often bad-tempered, and are evidence of the lack of communication between the interested parties. This is also due to the existence of three distinct transport policy options: territiorial competition, sustainable development and de-growth. The different positions taken by the various parties are more understandable when one is aware of these options, and this awareness could assist the parties in making the necessary decisions, which all those involved recognise are important."

Kenneth A. Small, Kurt Van Dender, Long Run Trends in Transport Demand, Fuel Price Elasticities and Implications of the Oil Outlook for the Transport Policy. (Discussion paper No. 2007-16). Joint Transport Research Centre, Paris, December 2007, p. 38 [formato PDF, 287 KB].

Marco Percoco, Urban Transport Policies and the Environment: Evidence from Italy. (Nota di Lavoro 59.2007). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milano, May 2007, 34 p. [formato PDF, 248 KB]. "The paper reviews urban transport policies in Italian cities and their impact on the concentration of NO2 and PM10. Using parametric and non-parametric techniques, it finds no significant effect of the policy actions currently implemented. Further, it finds evidence of a weak positive impact of plans adoption. These results are interpreted as evidence of positive externalities among actions. Finally, by also discussing case studies, the paper points out the absence of economic instruments and argues that significant welfare gains would derive from their adoption." Dallo studio risulta lo scarso successo ottenuto dalle politiche della mobilità nel ridurre l'inquinamento da traffico nelle città italiane.

Anna Donati, Azioni ed incoerenze del governo Prodi per la mobilità e le infrastrutture. Relazione al seminario di formazione "Aria e mobilità", Milano, 29 settembre 2007, 23 slides [formato PDF, 1,40 MB].

The Eddington Transport Study. The case for action: Sir Rod Eddington's advice to government, (Summary report), London, Department of Transport, December 2006, 64 p. [formato PDF, 2,04 MB]. Sintesi e conclusioni dello studio commissionato dal governo inglese a Sir Eddington sul rapporto tra i trasporti e il sistema economico inglese. Lo studio propone l'applicazione generalizzata del road pricing al trasporto su strada per contrastare le evidenti tendenze alla saturazione della rete stradale e autostradale. "Policy should get the prices right (especially congestion pricing on the roads and environmental pricing across all modes) and make best use of existing networks." E' disponibile anche il rapporto completo in 4 volumi con allegati, The Eddington Transport Study

Roman Rudel, Schweizer Politik zur Verkehrsverlagerung am Gotthard. Ein Zwischenbericht. Luzern, 1.-3. Dezember 2005, Internationale Konferenz "Verkehr durch die Alpen - Monitraf", 12 slides [presentazione PDF, 288 kB]. In lingua tedesca. Una sintesi sugli effetti, i vantaggi e i limiti della tassa sul traffico pesante nel contesto della politica svizzera dei trasporti. Versione ampliata della relazione tenuta a Napoli.

Roman Rudel, La tassa sul traffico pesante e nuove infrastrutture ferroviarie in Svizzera. Una storia di successo? Napoli, 24 settembre 2005, relazione al convegno ISFORT "Logistica Sostenibile", 13 slides [presentazione PDF, 151 kB]. In italiano. Una sintesi sugli effetti, i vantaggi e i limiti della tassa sul traffico pesante nel contesto della politica svizzera dei trasporti.

Gerardo Marletto, La globalizzazione e l’attraversamento delle Alpi: opzioni alternative di politica dei trasporti. Paper presentato all’8. riunione scientifica della SIET (Società Italiana Economisti dei Trasporti), Trieste, 29 giugno – 1 luglio 2006, 12 p. [formato PDF, 194 kB]. Marletto analizza le tre opzioni presenti: quella dello sviluppo, che vuole intercettare i nuovi traffici internazionali indotti dalla globalizzazione (es. Cina) e quindi vuole costruire nuove grandi infrastrutture di trasporto (es. Lione-Torino), quella della sostenibilità che vuole contrastare la crescita dei trasporti con il trasferimento dalla strada alla rotaia e con l’internalizzazioe dei costi, e la terza opzione, quella della decrescita, che vuole combattere la globalizzazione e la crescita del trasporto ricorrendo ai circuiti economici regionali (cosiddetta “filiera corta” ), riducendo i flussi di merci invece di aumentarli.

Gerardo Marletto, Lo spazio di una politica della logistica: dal trasporto sostenibile alla riduzione dei trasporti. Intervento al seminario di CIPRA Italia e Pro Natura (Torino, 30 gennaio 2006) ”Più treni nel futuro delle Alpi?”. 2006, 6 p. [formato Word, 60 kB]

Gerardo Marletto, Prime riflessioni per un nuovo ciclo di governo dei trasporti. 2005. 4 p. [formato PDF, 82 kB].

Giuseppe Pinna, Note sui temi della logistica in Italia, 17 marzo 2005, La Fabbrica del Programma (Muovere persone e cose)

Gerardo Marletto, Una politica industriale per un’altra mobilità, Istituto per il Lavoro (IpL), marzo 2004, working paper [formato PDF, 146 kB].

Romeo Danielis, Edoardo Marcucci, Dalla gomma alla ferrovia: la velocità non è tutto. 19.12.2005. Tratto dal sito http://www.lavoce.info


Hyunhong Choi, Stephen Youngjun Park, HyungBin Moon, The shared mobility services ban in South Korea: Consumer preferences and social opportunity cost. Travel Behaviour and Society 28 (2022) 214-226 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2022.04.006 "With the advancement of information and communication technologies and the emergence of sharing economy, various shared mobility services have been introduced in many countries and some are achieving rapid growth. However, in South Korea, shared mobility services that were once introduced are now banned by laws and regulations following extreme opposition from taxi drivers and heated social conflict. This study analyzed consumer preferences for key technological and non-technological attributes that consists vehicle-based mobility services to investigate the social cost related to the ban. To be specific, this study evaluated the social opportunity cost of the ban on shared mobility services in South Korea and investigated the impact of potential options that may improve existing mobility services and minimize costs for various demographic groups. The results show that carpooling and professional ride-hailing services could assume significant amount of taxis' current market share if they were fully available. This implies that significant social opportunity cost may be incurred from the ban as consumers are unable to use the services they want. In particular, females tended to have a higher cost than males, and the cost appeared to increase by age. The choice probability for banned mobility services (social opportunity cost) of the female older adult is the highest (73.8%) among consumer groups. Moreover, this study suggests that providing incentives to induce taxis' electrification and strictly regulating and managing taxi drivers' service quality could be a useful strategy for policymakers to minimize the social costs of the ban on shared mobility services."

Clare Brown, Michael Hardman, Nick Davies and Richard Armitage, Mobility as a Service: Defining a Transport Utopia. Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 300-309 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 496 kB]. Open Access. "Having been widely acknowledged as enabling access to education, employment, leisure and social activities, transport choices are also the cause of many challenges cities face. Recognising that change is needed, planners and policymakers are considering alternative methods of planning and delivering transport. Mobility as a Service (or MaaS) is one such idea that has gained traction with academics and professionals alike. Hailed as the answer to integrating complex transport systems, MaaS has yet to be implemented at scale in urban transport systems due in part to the lack of an agreed conceptual definition, the top-down approach to implementing what is meant to be a more personalised method of accessing transport, and the lack of local promoters (in comparison to global corporations and lobbyists). This article reflects on the current barriers to defining MaaS, considers how a novel public engagement approach could be used to create local definitions that support citizen engagement, and suggests a route forward for future research."

Toke Haunstrup Christensen, Freja Friis, Marie Vang Nielsen, Car sharing schemes and MaaS: A study of shifting mobility practices from ownership to access. Proceedings from the Annual Transport Conference at Aalborg University, Vol. 28, No. 1 (2021), 5 p. [formato PDF, 636 kB]. "Transport levels and private car use continue to increase worldwide representing complex challenges to climate change mitigation and the liveability of cities. In recent years, interest has arisen in the concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as one possible path towards sustainable mobility futures. MaaS builds on the idea of a shift from private car ownership to a seamless and integrated system providing access to multimodal mobility options including public transport and shared mobility services like car and bike sharing. Currently, only few examples of MaaS schemes exist and knowledge of user experiences is limited. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how shared mobilities, like in MaaS, fit with the everyday life of citizens. Methodologically, the paper draws on insights from qualitative interviews with families using a car sharing scheme in Copenhagen. The interviews are informed by a practice theoretical approach to study the potential of integrating car sharing within the complex of social practices from which the everyday life consist. To inform the discussion of our empirical results, and their implications for future MaaS designs, we base our study on a literature review of existing studies of user experiences with MaaS and an analysis of user practice representations in existing MaaS trials. Our findings indicate three ways forward to promote MaaS as an alternative to private cars. First, future MaaS designs should aim to acknowledge the importance of the interconnections between mobility and other everyday practices. Second, the shift from ownership to access provides several positive benefits like modal flexibility and a new sense of freedom, which the future MaaS design should focus strategically on in order to challenge the ideals around individual ownership. Third, strategic interventions that privilege sustainable mobility solutions through effective initiatives such as road-pricing and physical limitations in private car traffic and parking are needed."

Xiaoyun Zhao, Claudia Andruetto, Bhavana Vaddadi, Anna Pernestål (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), Potential values of maas impacts in future scenarios. Journal of Urban Mobility 1 (2021) 100005 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. " Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is considered a strategy that can provide potential solutions for a sustainable transport system. The current literature claims that MaaS can deliver net positive impacts for the transport system. However, whether these impacts are marginal or significant is unclear, as estimations typically are based on a few pilot tests. The lack of understanding of these impacts could create barriers for decision-making on policy and regulation in adopting MaaS strategy. The paper proposes a feasible evaluation to explore how and to what extent MaaS leads to, for example, reduced emissions, reduced fossil energy consumption, reduced car ownership and vehicle kilometres travelled on a large scale. The aim of this paper is to provide potential values of MaaS impacts based on analysis of future scenarios. The potential values of MaaS impacts can be used to support decision-making within both public organisations and among service developers for MaaS implementation and development."

Miloš N. Mladenović, Noora Haavisto, Interpretative flexibility and conflicts in the emergence of Mobility as a Service: Finnish public sector actor perspectives. Case Studies on Transport Policy 9 (2021) 851-859 (9 p.) [formato PDF, 535 kB]. Open Access. "Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) is still largely under development, with high uncertainties of its societal implications. This development is happening across sectoral, multi-layered, and multi-actor networks. Previous case studies on understanding networked governance of MaaS inform us that there is a range of challenges in the current institutional arrangements, lack of shared MaaS vision, divergent interests, and even conflicts over roles and responsibilities. These case studies have used analytical frameworks based on socio-technical transitions theory, complemented with theories from institutional and business studies. This study focuses on Finland, aiming to provide additional insights about perspectives of non-commercial actors. In particular, we provide a more sophisticated understanding of underlying reasons for conflict and lack of cooperation concerning an understanding of MaaS, its implications, and associated governance actions. The applied analytical framework is building upon concepts from the philosophy and sociology of emerging technology, as well as the contemporary political theory of Chantal Mouffe. Interview findings from seventeen non-commercial organisations have been classified into five categories, namely definitions, operational and business aspects, user perspectives, systemic effects, and governance. Discussion of these interview findings focuses on the interpretative flexibility of MaaS and governance processes in the context of inherent conflict in the value-laden mobility domain. The paper concludes with outlining directions for further synthesis in developing analytical frameworks for studies of governance and responsible innovation in the domain of emerging mobility technologies."

Joel Wolff and Esko Hakanen (Aalto University), Managing the Disruption of Mobility Services: How to align the value propositions of key ecosystem players. Technology Innovation Management Review, 2021, 11(4): 13-25 (13 p.) [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. Open Access. "Many industries nowadays are facing drastic changes that enable and require new forms of interdependencies that facilitate complex ecosystems of interconnected actors. This paper investigates such a transformation facing the mobility sector, as user-centric bundles of mobility services are being introduced and compiled, by referring to the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) concept. In the process, new value propositions arise that call for aligning the established players with new entrants. The implementation of MaaS is still in its infancy, and many open questions remain about how local authorities should support its emergence. One key challenge relates to decomposing the focal offering of the MaaS ecosystem into complementary value propositions for key players in the industry. This paper presents the results of a constructive design research project, building on interviews with a leading MaaS provider, as well as stakeholders representing national and local authorities in four European cities. The findings emphasize the need to balance a shared desire to disrupt conventional ways of offering mobility services against reluctance to overturn the industry's public and private incumbents. The co-design framework that results serves to summarize five steps that enable MaaS by guiding strategic interaction between local authorities and various players in the mobility ecosystem. In addition, the article builds on ecosystem research insights and emphasizes the need to align value propositions among multiple stakeholders. The study suggests that the mobility sector provides a prominent empirical context for future ecosystem research."

Yves Crozet, Jean Coldefy, Mobility as a Service (MaaS): a digital roadmap for public transport authorities. [Research Report]. CERRE (Centre on Regulation in Europe), Brussels, January 2021, pp. 62 [formato PDF, 2,8 MB]. "The mobility of people in urban areas is important, in the context of both the transition to climate neutrality and the impact of the digital revolution. As the title indicates, the themes of decarbonisation and digitalisation are also at the heart of this report. It follows on from the report that CERRE published in September 2019 on shared mobility and MaaS. While providing a perspective on the current potential of new mobility services, the report invited public transport authorities (PTAs) to show greater ambition in the digital field and its applications. This new report will deepen these recommendations with concrete content. It will present what could be the digital roadmap of the organising mobility authorities (OMAs), whose tasks exceed solely organising the traditional modes of public transport such as buses, tramways, metros, and trains."

Elena Alyavina, Alexandros Nikitas, Eric Tchouamou Njoya (University of Huddersfield), Mobility as a service and sustainable travel behaviour: A thematic analysis study. Transportation Research Part F 73 (2020) 362-381 (20 p.)[format o PDF, 2 MB]. Open Access. "Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a novel brand of transport that promises to replace private cars with multimodal personalised mobility packages enabled by a digital platform capable of integrating travel planning, booking and ticketing, and real-time information services. It is an intervention that through its digitisation, connectivity, information and sharing merits intends to inspire and support the transition to a more sustainable mobility paradigm. Recent research suggests, however, that the potential uptake of MaaS might not be overwhelming; current car drivers could face considerable difficulties in bypassing their personal car for it and, more worryingly, future MaaS users may substitute not only personal car trips but also public transport journeys with car-sharing and ride-sharing services. This means that MaaS might not be able to create travel behaviour change, and even if it does, the changes may not be always towards the right direction. Through conducting 40 semi-structured interviews in three different UK cities, namely London, Birmingham and Huddersfield, and employing a robust Thematic Analysis approach, this study explores the factors underpinning the uptake and potential success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism. The challenges and opportunities reflecting and affecting potential for responsible MaaS usage refer to five core themes Car Dependence; Trust; Human Element Externalities; Value; and Cost, each of them with distinctive and diverse dimensions. Policy-makers and mobility providers should realise that MaaS success relies on changing people's attitudes to private cars (something very challenging) and thus they should incentivise responsible MaaS use, promote public transport as its backbone, use public engagement exercises and trials to expose people to the concept and somewhat demonise private car ownership and car use."

Melinda Matyas (University College London), Opportunities and barriers to multimodal cities: lessons learned from in-depth interviews about attitudes towards mobility as a service. Transp. Res. Rev. 12, 7 (2020) (11 p.) [formato PDF, 563 kB]. Open Access. "With the emergence of the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concept, it is important to understand whether it has the potential to support behaviour change and the shift away from private vehicle ownership and use. This paper aims to identify potential ways that MaaS (specifically MaaS plans) could help encourage behavioural change; and understand the barriers to using alternative transport modes. In-depth interviews and qualitative analysis are applied to the case study of London. The results indicate that individuals segment the transport modes offered via MaaS into three categories: essential, considered and excluded. Soft measures should target each individuals' consideration set as this is where the most impact can be made regarding behaviour change. Respondents also highlighted factors that make them apprehensive towards certain modes, such as safety, service characteristics and administration. Interventions that focus on the socio-demographic groups that are most affected could help make these modes more appealing."

Xiao Qin and Wei Wang (Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport), Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS): Comparative analysis of country-specific offerings between Germany and China. E3S Web of Conferences 145, 02016 (2020), 9 p. [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "This study focuses on mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) and services. The country-specific differences, which relate to mobility behaviour and supply, as well as the importance of MaaS in Germany and China, are summarised and illustrated by: that the development of MaaS by analysing the current state of mobility offers in Germany and China must be closely compared. With the help of service-dominant logic, self-determination theories and cultural dimensions theory, customer wishes and mobility behaviour are taken into account and discussed in the development of the MaaS, so that one can explore how MaaS responds accordingly and how such offers change. Today's services on the market are presented and summarised, they are public transport, biking, car, ride-sharing, etc. Furthermore, the importance is to be analysed by examining the influence and synergy of the MaaS on the micro, meso and macro levels. The reasons for country-specific differences and own development problems can then be discussed. Finally, the trend towards future development is based on the previous analysis and some recommendations are to be offered for the optimisation of the MaaS offers and their implementation."

Koichi Sakai, MaaS trends and policy-level initiatives in the EU. IATSS Research (2019) (in press), 9 p. [formato PDF, 617 kB]. Open Access. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2019.11.001 "The concept of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) was conceived in Finland, and it is characteristically user-oriented. Interest in MaaS has quickly spread across Europe along with the rapid advances in information and communications technology and the internet of things in recent years, as the realization of MaaS is consistent with the policy directions of the EU member states promoting the use of public transport. This paper describes the MaaS concept in EU, the birth of the concept in Finland and its background, and EU-wide policy level initiatives and their characteristics."

Keith Bevis, Oycan Sozcu, Russell Fenner, Mobility as a Service: Early implementations in the UK. EEVConvention: Policies and Best Practice, Oslo Congress Center, Oslo, Norway, 25 Sep 2018, 15 p., [formato PDF, 648 kB]. "Mobility as a Service, MaaS, has been developing at a pace across Europe. While engaged in an InnovateUK project, MotionHub, to implement a MaaS scheme in a municipality in the South East England, the authors began to ask two fundamental questions; what is MaaS and to what extent is it materialising in the UK. From the experience of MotionHub, it is clear that UK implementations would be slow. Combining a number of web-based services and amalgamating their financial transactions is relatively straightforward. However, introducing the potential for public transport ticketing as well raises additional security, scale and financial constraints. Motion Hub has engaged with major players and regulators across the public transport industry. In its latter stages project was rolled out to the public. The various individual services became available from the single website via one membership application and the use of a single card. Other MaaS styled initiatives have been reviewed and it appears that there are just five other MaaS projects being trialled concurrently with MotionHub that provide journey planning and single point ticket purchase for multimodal journeys. A number of other initiatives provide just some aspects of MaaS. The project has also reviewed customer perceptions, suitability of various types of town to MaaS initiatives and the varying enthusiasm amongst local government officials. From these reviews it is clear that the MaaS uptake will be slow. However, reflecting on the theoretical discussions about Maas, there appears to be a significant gap between theory and practice In particular of the claimed benefits of de-congestion and reduced pollution seem to be some way off in the future. This is not a criticism of MotionHub and the other implementations, some of which are substantial investments. It is acknowledgement that the goal of seamless adaptive travel is an extremely ambitious one."

Anne Durand, Lucas Harms, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Toon Zijlstra, Mobility-as-a-Service and changes in travel preferences and travel behaviour: a literature review. KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, The Hague, September 2018, 57 p. [formato PDF, 978 kB]. "Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), a transport concept integrating various mobility services into one single digital platform, elicits high expectations as a means of providing customised door-to-door transport solutions. To date, the frequent claims about the positive contributions MaaS will make towards achieving sustainability goals rely on a scattering of limited yet insightful research findings. Many research questions remain unanswered, however. Are people willing to accept MaaS as a new transport service (on a daily basis)? The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis looked for answers by means of an extensive research program."

Anna Kramers, Tina Ringenson, Liridona Sopjani and Peter Arnfalk, AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport. Creating a framework to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources. EPiC Series in Computing, Volume 30, 2018, p. 1-16 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 504 kB]. [Proceedings of the] ICT4S2018, 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability. "In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article."

Yanying Li, Tom Voege, Mobility as a Service (MaaS): Challenges of Implementation and Policy Required, Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2017, 7, 95-106 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 827 kB]. "Mobility as a service (MaaS) is a relatively new concept, which holds the promise for a paradigm shift in the provision of urban mobility. The concept of MaaS is to use a single app to access and pay for various transport modes within a city or beyond; and the app will give options to allow a traveller to select the most suitable transport mode. The concept of MaaS is enabled by the current mass uptake of smartphones and social media as well ubiquitous internet connection. By studying current applications of MaaS in Europe and US conditions of operation of MaaS have been summarised. Based on the necessary conditions, a checklist has been developed for potential developers of MaaS to assess if they can implement MaaS in a city. This paper also discusses challenges of implementation of MaaS and their potential impacts on urban mobility and societal changes".


Lisa Ruhrort Can a rapid mobility transition appear both desirable and achievable? Reflections on the role of competing narratives for socio-technical change and suggestions for a research agenda. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 2022 (18 p.) [formato PDF, 616 kB]. Open Access. "As research on socio-technical transitions has repeatedly shown, positive or negative narratives can play a key role in galvanizing public support for or resistance against socio-technical transitions. In the mobility sector, many countries have recently seen some indications of beginning socio-technical change dynamics. In the case of Germany, key practices of a low-carbon transport system - such as cycling, substitution of travel through home office or 'shared mobility services' - are moving from niches to mainstream, while grassroots initiatives are successfully demanding improvements for cycling and walking. In this dynamic situation competing narratives of change begin to emerge, which claim to define what a transition towards 'sustainable' mobility should look like and how it could be accomplished. Against the backdrop of these recent discursive shifts the article highlights three key conflictual dimensions, along which competing narratives of a mobility transition in Germany, but also in other European countries, are likely going to diverge. The article suggests that research into mobility transitions should focus on the intensifying discursive struggles, in which different social groups with highly differing power will attempt to shape the broader socio-technical vision of a 'sustainable' mobility future."

Lamia Abdelfattah, Diego Deponte, Giovanna Fossa, The 15-minute city as a hybrid model for Milan. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment 2022, 71-86 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. Open Access. "With a special focus on Milan, we explore the interpretation of the 15-minute city as a hybrid model, where soft mobility is integrated in a holistic urbanism approach. Contemporary urban challenges, synthetized in the 15-minute city model, look for a sustainable "proximity mix": mix of uses (overcoming rigid zoning and building codes), mix of inhabitants and users, mix of time schedules and multi-purpose open space. The proposed hybrid approach considers the living-working urban experience as a whole: it proposes to consider, as a starting point for measuring the timeframe of 15 minutes, not only homes but workplaces as well. It welcomes innovative working facilities among those to be considered as essential services reachable within the 15-minute walking timeframe and it integrates open spaces within urban infrastructures by mixing the neighborhood "eco-system" - both of environment and mobility - and designing them around the central role of walking."

Giulia Isetti, Valeria Ferraretto, Agnieszka Elzbieta Stawinoga, Mirjam Gruber, Nives DellaValle, Is caring about the environment enough for sustainable mobility? An exploratory case study from South Tyrol (Italy). Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives 6 (2020) 100148 (10 p.)[formato PDF, 428 kB]. Open Access. "Sustainable mobility has a positive impact on quality of life, in both urban and rural contexts. Policies aimed at promoting greener travel behaviors - at European, as well as at state and regional level - require a deep knowledge of differing mobility cultures across European regions. In order to better understand the relationship between the (stated) propensity towards sustainability, reported mobility patterns and users' lifestyles in rural areas, an exploratory study was conducted in South Tyrol, a rural region in Northern Italy that strives to become a model region for sustainable alpine mobility by 2030. More specifically, an online survey on sustainable mobility was administered to the inhabitants, exploring motivations, preferred incentives and drivers that may lead towards the adoption of sustainable mobility solutions (with a focus on e-mobility). By analyzing how pro-environmental self-identity interacts with consumers' heterogeneity, results show that heterogeneity exists in the individual pro-environmental identity measure. Based also on evidence from the literature that extrinsic rewards might negatively impact intrinsic motivations to engage in a certain behavior, this study warns policy-makers of potential unintended consequences of current policy tools used to incentivize the adoption of sustainable means of transport, such as the provision of monetary incentives for electric vehicles."

Donati Anna, Petracchini Francesco, Gasparini Carlotta, Tomassetti Laura, Cozza Valentina, Scarpinella Maria Stella (a cura di), 3. Rapporto MobilitAria 2020. Politiche di mobilità e qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane 2020. Analisi e proposte al tempo del Covid-19. Kyoto Club, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-IIA), maggio 2020, 180 p. [formato PDF, 99,7 MB]. "Nel 2019 migliora leggermente la qualità dell'aria nelle città rispetto all'anno precedente, tuttavia permangono valori critici che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. Nel periodo di lockdown invece, complice il blocco del traffico, si registra un netto calo dell'inquinamento soprattutto per il crollo del biossido di azoto (NO2). Nel frattempo, le città provano ad attrezzarsi per essere sempre più sostenibili, mentre il Dl Rilancio appena licenziato dal Governo si dimostra timido e insufficente a contrastare la crescita della congestione e del traffico che in modo progressivo torneranno ad invadere le nostre città dopo la ripartenza: ora più che mai è necessario accelerare la giusta transizione verso la mobilità sostenibile. A questo scopo Kyoto Club e CNR-IIA avanzano nel III Rapporto proposte concrete per la fase2, per contrastare la crescita del traffico veicolare: smart working, risparmio di traffico, piano degli orari della città, sostegno alle alternative in bicicletta, a piedi, sharing mobility, micromobilità, veicoli elettrici e trasporto collettivo. Sono questi i principali temi del terzo Rapporto "MobilitAria 2020" che analizza i dati della mobilità e della qualità dell'aria nelle 14 città metropolitane nel 2019 e nei primi 4 mesi del 2020, in piena emergenza Covid-19. Il periodo di lockdown ha avuto effetti considerevoli sugli spostamenti dei cittadini: di conseguenza il livello di emissioni e di inquinamento dovuti al settore trasporti hanno segnato, nei mesi di marzo e aprile 2020, una battuta d'arresto a Roma, Milano, Torino e Napoli, le quattro città analizzate in questa parte dello studio. A registrare un calo netto è stato sopratutto il biossido di azoto (NO2). Il crollo principale di NO2 è avvenuto a Roma, dove le concentrazioni medie sono inferiori alle annualità precedenti (2016-2019) rispettivamente del -59% per il mese di Marzo e del -71% per il mese di Aprile. A Torino invece il calo è del -43% per il mese di Marzo e -51% per il mese di Aprile, a Milano si è avuta una riduzione del -29% e -43% rispetto alla media dello stesso periodo 2016-2019, mentre Napoli registra rispettivamente una riduzione del -33% e -57%. L'analisi condotta sulla qualità dell'aria per l'annualità 2019 ha mostrato la persistenza per alcune città italiane di valori di concentrazioni elevati che non sono sufficienti a garantire il rispetto dei limiti normativi in vigore. occorre pertanto maggiore impegno da parte delle Amministrazioni locali per ridurre le concentrazioni e i superamenti al valore limite. È stato inoltre analizzato nel periodo del lockdown nazionale a seguito dell'emergenza epidemiologica da COVID-19 l'effetto sulla qualità dell'aria. I due mesi di blocco hanno permesso di comprendere l'importante impatto del traffico veicolare, in particolare quello privato, oltre che sulle emissioni di alcuni inquinanti anche sulle concentrazioni rilevate dalle centraline; tale evidenza risulta molto marcata, in accordo con quanto emerso dalle analisi delle stesse Agenzie per gli inquinanti legati direttamente al traffico, quale il biossido di azoto e in modo minore ma comunque allo stesso modo evidente anche per il particolato atmosferico."

Iván López, Jordi Ortega and Mercedes Pardo, Mobility Infrastructures in Cities and Climate Change: An Analysis Through the Superblocks in Barcelona. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 410 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 5,9 MB]. Open Access. "Cities are key actors in the fight against climate change since they are major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while at the same time they experience the negative impact of this phenomenon. Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires fundamental changes in urbanism and city automobile traffic. Superblocks, a grid of blocks and basic roads forming a polygon, approximately 400 by 400 m, are one of the instruments for such changes. These type of city Superblocks represent a new model of mobility that restructures the typical urban road network, thereby substantially reducing automobile traffic, and accordingly GHG emissions, while increasing green space in the city and improving the health and quality of life of its inhabitants. Furthermore, the Superblocks do not require investment in hard infrastructures, nor do they involve demolishing buildings or undertaking massive development; they are in fact very low-tech urbanism. The city of Barcelona has been implementing Superblocks as one of the measures to combat climate change with very positive results. The paper analyzes the concept of the Superblock and its relation with climate change in cities. Along these lines, it analyzes the pioneer experience of Barcelona in the development and implementation of the Superblocks, as a radical plan aimed at taking back the streets from cars. The role of political power and institutional leadership has been key in societal acceptance and the achievement of tangible results. But there are also obstacles and drawbacks in the development of these types of Superblocks, such as the necessity to redesign the collective transport network so that car traffic can truly be reduced in cities, the possible negative influence on traffic going in and out of the city, the lack of visible advantages if they are not implemented in the entire city, the risk of gentrification in the areas with Superblocks, public opposition, and opposition from certain sectors of the business community."

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Urban and transport planning pathways to carbon neutral, liveable and healthy cities; A review of the current evidence. Environment International 2020, in press (10 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Introduction: Half the world population lives in cities and this is likely to increase to 70% over the next 20 years. Suboptimal urban and transport planning has led to e.g. high levels of air pollution and noise, heat island effects and lack of green space and physical activity and thereby an increase in morbidity and premature mortality. How can better urban and transport planning improve public health? Methods: A narrative meta-review around a number of cutting edge and visionary studies and practices on how to improve public health through better urban and transport planning reported in the literature and from meetings over the past few years. Results: We describe the latest quantitative evidence of how cities can become healthier through better urban and transport planning. It focuses and provides evidence for important interventions, policies and actions that can improve public health, including the need for land use changes, reduce car dependency and move towards public and active transportation, greening of cities, visioning, citizen involvement, collaboration, leadership and investment and systemic approaches. Health impact assessment studies have recently provided new powerful quantitative evidence on how to make cities healthier and will be used as examples. At the same time these measures make also our cities more sustainable (i.e. carbon neutral) and liveable creating multiple benefits. Conclusion: Better urban and transport planning can lead to carbon neutral, more liveable and healthier cities, particularly through land use changes, a move from private motorised transportation to public and active transportation and greening of cities."

Erling Holden, David Banister, Stefan Gössling, Geoffrey Gilpin, Kristin Linnerud, Grand Narratives for sustainable mobility: A conceptual review. Energy Research & Social Science, 65 (2020) 101454, 10 p. [formato PDF, 527 kB]. Open Access. "The concept of sustainable mobility has had a relatively short life, first being used about 30 years ago. In that time, some progress has been made, but transport is still not contributing enough to the internationally set reduction targets for carbon emissions. This paper provides a conceptual review that presents nine narratives addressing elements of sustainable mobility, each of which has been derived from a review of the agents and strategies taken over the last 30 years. From these narratives, we develop three Grand Narratives that bring together the key elements identified from the wider set of narratives-low mobility societies, collective transport 2.0, and electromobility. We then assess each of the three Grand Narratives in terms of its feasibility, acceptability, centrality, and compatibility. We conclude that each of the Grand Narratives provides a necessary but insufficient condition for achieving sustainable mobility. Thus, although each one has the potential to make significant contribution to sustainable mobility, it is only through the strong and immediate application of all three that the goal of sustainable mobility can be achieved."

Susan Shaheen, Adam Cohen, Michael Randolph, Emily Farrar, Richard Davis, Aqshems Nichols, Shared Mobility Policy Playbook. Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), University of California, Berkeley, December 2019, 224 p. [formato PDF, 8 MB]. "This Shared Mobility Policy Playbook provides an introduction and definitions of shared mobility services, mode-specific resources for agencies looking to develop policies in their community, and policy-focused tools demonstrating case studies and best practices for shared mobility".

Erling Holden, Geoffrey Gilpin and David Banister, Sustainable Mobility at Thirty. Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1965 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 647 kB]. Open Access. "It is now almost three decades since the concept of 'sustainable mobility' first appeared in the 1992 EU Green Paper on the Impact of Transport on the Environment. This paper reviews the literature and reflects on how societies' understanding and interpretation of the concept of sustainable mobility has evolved. We track this evolution over six dimensions: research and policy, transport impacts and categories, scientific disciplines, methodological approach, and research questions. From this review we assert that the mainstream understanding and interpretation of sustainable mobility can be grouped into four generations of studies. The first generation of studies (1992-1993) were techno-centric and focused on how to limit transport's negative environmental impacts by improving then-existing technology. The second, third and fourth generations of studies (1993-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2018 respectively) increasingly acknowledge the limitations of preceding efforts to achieve sustainable mobility, and open for a more diverse set of alternatives. These studies have gradually become more interdisciplinary in nature-reflecting the inter-relatedness of mobility with all other aspects of society. We conclude that despite the ensuing elevation of mobility into the holistic picture society, we still have not achieved a sustainable mobility system. Furthermore, what is much needed now, more than ever, is a bold set of new narratives."


Cercle des Transports, Transports et dette publique. Des membres du Cercle des Transports alertent sur la dérive des déficits publics résultant des transports. Paris, Avril 2012, 71 p. [formato PDF, 2,61 MB]. "Les membres du Cercle des Transports, réunissant des experts et des professionnels du secteur, ont publié fin avril un rapport sous la forme d'une " alerte sur la dérive des déficits publics résultant des transports ". Une commission de travail a été créée afin " d'analyser les différentes perspectives d'évolution du secteur au plan économique et budgétaire, et les éventuelles conséquences sur la dérive des déficits publics, à l'horizon 2030 ". Les auteurs explorent ainsi deux scénarios extrêmes, faisant apparaître que si rien est fait dans les vingt prochaines années, " 130 milliards d'euros supplémentaires alourdiraient le montant de la dette publique ", alors qu'un " scénario de désendettement conduirait à […] 110 milliards d'allégements budgétaires ". L'objectif de cette étude est clairement d'alerter les décideurs publics en cette période électorale. Les auteurs présentent un large éventail de choix politiques possibles pour limiter l'impact du secteur des transports sur l'endettement public de la France, tout en maintenant des services de qualité."


Jérôme Verny (INRETS), The importance of decoupling between freight transport and economic growth. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 7 (2007) 113-128 [formato PDF, 579 kB]. "The aim of this research is to improve the sustainable mobility reflexion from current behaviour of freight mobility and their determinants."

European Environmental Agency, Transport and environment: facing a dilemma. TERM 2005: indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union. EEA Report 3/2006, Copenhagen, 2006, 52 p. [formato PDF, 3,73 MB]. Le tendenze più recenti del trasporto nell’UE: non c’è disaccoppiamento tra crescita economica e crescita dei trasporti, anzi, continua l’aumento del trasporto di persone e merci su strada, e aumenta ancora l’emissione di CO2.

Hedwig Verron [et al.], Determining factors in traffic growth. Developments, causes and possible future directions. Texte 32/05. Dessau, Umweltbundesamt, December 2005, 64 p. [formato PDF, 586 kB]. Analisi delle cause della produzione di traffico (persone e merci), il traffico indotto, la mobilità del tempo libero. Esiste anche una versione in lingua tedesca: Determinanten der Verkehrsentstehung, Texte 26/05.

SPRITE (Separating the Intensity of Transport from Economic Growth), progetto europeoFinal Publishable. Leeds, 2005, 42 p. [file Word, 612 KB]

M.R. Tight, P. Delle Site and O. Meyer-Ruhle, Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth: Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 4 (2004) pp. 381-404 [file PDF, 112 KB]

Julien Brunel,Freight transport and economic growth: an empirical explanation of the coupling in the EU using panel data. Lyon, 2005, 19 p. [file PDF, 164 KB]

Richard Gilbert and Kathleen Nadeau,Decoupling economic growth and transport demand: a requirement for sustainability. TRB Economic development Conference, Portland, Oregon, May 5-7, 2002, 11 p. [formato PDF, 220 KB]. (differenze tra USA ed Europa per quanto riguarda il “decoupling”).

Mario Contaldi, Roberta Pignatelli, La mobilità in Italia: indicatori su trasporti e ambiente. Dati di sintesi - anno 2005. APAT, Roma, novembre 2005, 59 p. [file PDF, 988 kB]

Duccio Bianchi, La resistenza italiana alle politiche per la riduzione delle emissioni climalteranti e il declino dell’efficienza energetica nazionale. Atti del convegno “Clima che cambia” (Legambiente Lombardia), aprile 2004, 12 p. [formato PDF, 129 kB].

FERROVIE VELOCI O ALTA VELOCITA' ? (il trasporto di persone a media distanza e le implicazioni ambientali ed economiche delle strategie ferroviarie)

David Banister (University of Oxford), Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The case of High Speed 2. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR), 18(3), 2018, pp.262-275 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 218 kB]. "T he achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of UK transport policy (2010-2015) where revenue support has been cut, but capital expenditure has increased, and it comments on the difficulties of making decisions on large scale transport infrastructure projects in the absence of a NSTS. The recent policy statements and initiatives on transport and sustainability are covered, looking backwards and forwards. It then takes the case of High Speed 2 (HS2) and identifies five main narratives in the debates over the arguments in support of this huge investment. It seems that sustainable transport has not been a central part of that debate, and there is a need to reframe the discussion on HS2, as part of a NSTS."

Silvia Maffii, Riccardo Parolin, Marco Ponti, L'"errore strategico" nelle valutazioni italiane. Le maggiori distorsioni finalizzate a dimostrare la fattibilità economico-finanziaria di infrastrutture di trasporto non fattibili. Paper, convegno Sipotra "La valutazione economica delle infrastrutture di trasporto tra errori passati e prospettive future", Milano, 6 giugno 2014, 10 p. [formato PDF, 642 kB]. "Le note che seguono si riferiscono ad alcuni fatti molto concreti e dimostrabili: il primo e più evidente è la sistematica assenza di valutazioni negative nelle analisi rese note al pubblico; il secondo è la scarsità di tali analisi; il terzo è l’assoluta mancanza di “terzietà”, caratteristica indispensabile per dare un minimo di credibilità alle analisi stesse. Queste sono sempre eseguite da portatori di interessi favorevoli della fattibilità dell’opera analizzata. Il quarto è l’assoluta assenza di analisi comparative, e tale assenza comporta che, anche se tutte le analisi avessero davvero dato risultati positivi, sia impossibile stabilire una qualche priorità, cioè escluderne alcune come “meno urgenti”. Tutto e sempre deve risultare fattibile, e possibilmente dar luogo all’apertura dei cantieri. Vi sono ovviamente anche molte considerazioni soltanto indiziarie, per la difficoltà o l’impossibilità di reperire dati e aprire archivi assolutamente riservati, pur trattandosi di risorse e progetti di interesse pubblico. Questi problemi sono inoltre resi ancora più difficili dal fatto che tra oggi e alcune vicende sono trascorsi parecchi anni. Il quadro complessivo che ne emerge tuttavia non consente maggiori dubbi sulla solidità dell’assunto."

Perspectives du système ferroviaire de transport de voyageurs. Faut-il mettre fin au développement de la grande vitesse à la française ?. (Les Carnets de TDIE). TDIE (transport développement intermodalité environnement), Paris, 2012, 10 p. [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. "Entre les gains de vitesse, l’amélioration des capacités et les facilités de correspondance aux noeuds du réseau, il existe une gamme de réponses possibles en fonction des spécificités de chaque territoire, comme le démontre la diversité des solutions mises en oeuvre chez nos voisins européens. Pour spectaculaire qu’il soit, ce changement d’approche s’inscrit dans une évolution encore plus large et plus profonde : la proposition de mettre en chantier une planification intégrée et cohérente du système de transport."

Per Kageson, Environmental aspects of inter-city passenger transport. (Discussion Paper No 2009-28). OECD/ITF, December 2009, 27 p. [formato PDF, 526 kB]. "Many governments in different parts of the world are investing in high speed rail. Some of them do so thinking that it will be an important part of climate change mitigation. Intercity traffic over medium distances is particularly interesting in the environmental context as it constitutes the only transport segment where aircraft, trains, coaches and cars naturally compete for market shares. This report calculates the effect on emissions from building a new high speed link that connects two major cities located 500 km apart. It assumes that emissions from new vehicles and aircraft in 2025 can be used as a proxy for the emissions during a 50 year investment depreciation period. The emissions from the marginal production of electricity, used by rail and electric vehicles, are estimated to amount on average to 530 gram per kWh for the entire period. Fuels used by road vehicles are assumed to be on average 80 percent fossil and 20 per cent renewable (with a 65% carbon efficiency in the latter case). Traffic on the new line after a few years is assumed to consist to 20 per cent of journeys diverted from aviation, 20 per cent diverted from cars, 5 per cent from long-distance coaches, and 30 per cent from pre-existing trains. The remaining 25 per cent is new generated traffic. Under these assumptions would the investment result in a net reduction of CO2-emissions of about 9,000 tons per one million one-way trips. Assuming 10 million single journeys per year, the total reduction would be 90,000 tons. When the price of CO2 is $40 per ton, the socio-economic benefit of the reduction would amount to $3.6 million, which is very little in the context of high speed rail. The sensitivity analysis shows that alternative assumptions do not significantly change the outcome. One may also have to consider the impact on climate change from building the new line. Construction emissions for a line of this length may amount to several million tons of CO2. There is no cause to prohibit investment in high speed rail on environmental grounds so long as the carbon gains made in traffic balances the emissions caused during construction. However, marketing high speed rail as a part of the solution to climate change is clearly wrong. Investment in infrastructure for modal shift should only be considered when traffic volumes are high enough to carry the cost. The principal benefits of high speed rail are time savings, additional capacity and generated traffic, not a reduction of greenhouse gases."

FILIERA CORTA, FOOD MILES (consumo di prodotti locali e riduzione di trasporti a lunga distanza)

Erik Mathijs, Annelies Van Hauwermeiren, Gert Engelen, Hannelore Coene, Scientific Support Plan for a Sustainable Development Policy (SPDS II). Instruments and institutions to develop local food systems. Final Report. Part1: Sustainable production and consumption patterns. (CP/59). Belgian Science Policy, Brussels, April 2006, 83 p. [formato PDF, 778 kB] "The aim of this project is to investigate whether local food systems (LFS) can contribute to more sustainable production and consumption patterns and how the development of such systems can be stimulated. The objectives and expected outcomes of the project as originally laid out are: 1. to make an inventory of indicators and instruments used to increase citizens’ awareness of the environmental, economic and social impact of different food systems (chapter 1), 2. to develop a scientifically sound set of indicators for Flanders after analysing their validity and to introduce these indicators as instruments to be used by institutions dealing with these issues (chapter 2), 3. to make an inventory of existing LFS in Flanders and of the institutions that facilitate their establishment and working (chapter 3), 4. to investigate the potential to expand LFS by both institutions already active in this field and other institutions and to facilitate the implementation of this potential (chapter 4), 5. to synthesize and disseminate these results by the establishment of a website, the publication of a book and other material targeted at a wide audience and the production of scientific publications (chapter 5)."

The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development. Final Report produced for DEFRA. Harwell, AEA Technology Environment, July 2005, 117 p. [formato PDF, 994 kB] "The four key findings of the study are summarised below. 1. A single indicator based on total food kilometres is an inadequate indicator of sustainability. The impacts of food transport are complex, and involve many trade-offs between different factors. A single indicator based on total food kilometres travelled would not be a valid indicator of sustainability. To capture the complexities of the issue, we recommend a suite of indicators which reflect the key adverse impacts of food transport (see below). 2. Data is available to provide and update a meaningful set of indicators on an annual basis. A spreadsheet system for collating the data and calculating the indicators accompanies the report. The key transport stages (HGV and LGV transport in the UK, car shopping trips for food and international sea and air freight) are covered by good quality DfT and HM Customs and Excise statistics gathered annually. Areas where the data quality is poor are either of less policy interest to DEFRA (road transport overseas), or currently have a negligible role in UK food transport (rail, inland waterway). 3. Food transport has significant and growing impacts. Food transport accounted for an estimated 30 billion vehicle kilometres in 2002, of which 82% are in the UK. Road transport accounts for most of the vehicle kilometres, split between cars, HGVs and LGVs. - Food transport accounts for 25% of all HGV vehicle kilometres in the UK. - Food transport produced 19 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2002, of which 10 million tonnes were emitted in the UK (almost all from road transport), representing 1.8% of the total annual UK CO2 emissions, and 8.7% of the total emissions of the UK road sector. - Transport of food by air has the highest CO2 emissions per tonne, and is the fastest growing mode. Although air freight of food accounts for only 1% of food tonne kilometres and 0.1% of vehicle kilometres, it produces 11% of the food transport CO2 equivalent emissions. 4. The direct environmental, social and economic costs of food transport are over Lst9 billion each year, and are dominated by congestion. Using standard government methodology, the social cost of congestion, associated with food transport is estimated at Lst5 billion. This is over 50% of the social costs associated with food transport, and arises from the use of HGVs, LGVs, and cars are associated with food transport in the UK. Accidents lead to social costs of Lst2 billion per year (Table E1). Greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, and infrastructure cost a further Lst2 billion. The total costs are very significant compared with the gross value added of the agriculture sector (Lst6.4 billion), and the food and drink manufacturing sector (Lst19.8 billion) in 2002. It should be noted that these cost estimates depend on the assumptions and methodology used. For example, the congestion costs are marginal costs, as the impact of an extra kilometre travelled depends on the existing level of traffic. The use of average costs, although not recommended, would give lower values. Also, the costs reflect only immediate impacts. For congestion, these impacts are short term and reversible, whereas climate change impacts are long term and irreversible. It should be stressed that not all impacts are included in this assessment (for example noise, infrastructure and congestion costs from air transport are not quantified)."

Stefanie Böge, The well-travelled yogurt pot: lessons for new freight transport policies and regional production. World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 1 No. 1, 1995, pp. 7-11 [formato PDF, 42 kB]

Stefanie Böge, Der Weg eines Erdbeerjoghurts. Erfassung und Bewertung von Transportvorgängen: Die produktbezogene Transportkettenanalyse. Dortmund, 1992, 29 p. [formato PDF, 194 kB]


Japan International Transport Institute, Seminar on Global Warming and Road Transportation: The Impact of Motorization in Fast-Growing Developing Nations as China and India. Research paper. Washington DC, November 2005, 41 p. [formato PDF, 578 kB]

Iwao Matsuoka (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University), Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Road Transportation in China. Washington DC, November 2005, 19 slides [formato PDF, 90 kB]

Sanjay Marwah (Japan International Transport Institute), Impacts of Motorization in China and India on Global Warming. The Importance of Forecasts and Policy Measures. Washington DC, November 2005, 13 slides [formato PDF, 285 kB]

Philippe Mühlstein, Energie, transport et effet de serre : l’impasse néo-libérale, Attac-France, 13.05.2005, 9 p. [formato Word, 81 KB].

Stephan Brückl, Walter Molt, La verità sui costi. Infrastrutture viarie e sviluppo economico. (traduzione italiana di: Kostenwahrheit - Verkehrsinfrastruktur und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Studie des Süddeutschen Instituts für nachhaltiges Wirtschaften und Oeko-Logistik GmbH im Auftrag vom Transitforum Austria-Tirol, 1996. Edizione italiana a cura della CIPRA Italia, Torino, 1997, 63 p. [non esiste in formato elettronico]


Andrea Boitani, Riforma e controriforma dei trasporti pubblici locali, pubblicato in ASTRID-Rassegna, n.12 del 2005, 12 p. [formato PDF, 74 kB]. Commento sulla prima fase della riforma dei servizi pubblici locali, e la ricaduta della nuova normativa sui trasporti pubblici locali.

Gerardo Marletto, L’applicazione della concorrenza ai trasporti italiani: una valutazione critica. ISFORT, Roma, gennaio 2006, 52 p. [formato Word, 265 kB]

Marco Ponti, Andrea Boitani, Concorrenza e regolazione dei trasporti in Italia, Milano, 12 settembre 2005, 13 slides [formato PDF, 470 kB].

Carlo Scarpa, Andrea Boitani, Paolo M. Panteghini, Luca Pellegrini, Marco Ponti, Come far ripartire le liberalizzazioni nei servizi, p. 43+161 [formato PDF, 228 kB + 1,40 MB] e 24 slides [formato PowerPoint, 660 kB].


Soyoung (Iris) You, Gunwoo Lee, Stephen G. Ritchie, Jean-Daniel Saphores, Mana Sangkapichai, Roberto Ayala, Air Pollution Impacts of Shifting San Pedro Bay Ports Freight from Truck to Rail in Southern California. (UCTC-FR-2010-07). University of California Transportation Center, Irvine, March 2010, 22 p. [formato PDF, 553 kB]. "Escalating concerns about air quality in Southern California have led authorities of the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, also known as the San Pedro Bay Ports (SPBP), to consider and adopt a number of emission mitigation measures. One possibility is to shift to trains some of the containers currently transported by drayage trucks. This alternative is attractive because it would decrease congestion and air pollution on the main freeways (I-710 and I-110) and arterials that serve the SPBP. In addition, it would increase road safety along the busy Alameda freight corridor between the SBBP and downtown Los Angeles. One drawback would be an increase in pollutant emissions from train operations in the Alameda corridor, but trains tend to pollute less than trucks per ton-mile and new federal regulations are tightening the emission standards for diesel locomotives. The goal of this paper is to quantify the net impact of such a modal shift on the emissions of PM and NOx, which are the two air pollutants of most concern in the SPBP area. Our analysis relies on microscopic simulation to better capture emissions resulting from stop-and-go traffic on the freeways serving the SPBP. We find that emissions of both NOX and PM2.5 can be significantly reduced by switching from drayage trucks to trains. This suggests that modal shift should be encouraged, especially if there is unused train capacity, and as long as it does not conflict with the shippers’ interests."

Martin Lambrecht, Christoph Erdmenger, Michael Bölke, Volker Brenk, Kilian Frey, Helge Jahn, Andrea Kolodziej, Ines Kruppa, Stephan Naumann, Dorothea Salz, Lars Schade, Hedwig Verron, Strategie für einen nachhaltigen Güterverkehr [Strategia per un trasporto merci sostenibile]. (Texte 18/2009). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, Oktober 2009, 137 p. [formato PDF, 2,71 MB]

Christina S. Casgar, David J. DeBoer, David L. Parkinson, Rail Short Haul Intermodal Corridor Case Studies: Industry Context and Issues. Foundation for Intermodal Research & Education, in association with U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C., March 2003, 50 p. [formato PDF, 802 kB]. "The objective of this report is to provide an industry context for public officials who are interested in rail short haul intermodal corridors and to offer a template for analyzing related costs and benefits. Public agency analysis and investment in short haul corridors present a fundamentally new sort of challenge for public sector transportation planners. Therefore the background material and the case studies open the door to a number of short haul intermodal issues, which are subject to an increasing level of state and local attention." Analisi delle potenzialità del trasporto intermodale lungo corridoi merci negli USA a distanze inferiori a 700 miglia (Short haul), confrontando i costi di trasporto su strada e su ferro.

Transportation Economics and Management Systems, Inc. (TEMS), Impact of high oil prices on freight transportation : modal shift potential in five corridors. Technical report. Maritime Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, D.C., October 2008, 60 p. [formato PDF, 768 kB]. "In an environment of high oil prices, the results of this study, as well as the previous NC/NV Market Assessment, indicate that container shipping services are likely to become viable not only on the GLSLS but now also on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast corridors as well. Further work to follow up such high level analysis with greater market detail appears to be warranted. Overall, the impact of higher oil prices is to create a strong case for investing in the waterborne transportation industry – for both inland and coastal distribution. Potential increases in oil prices already forecast could increase transport costs two- to eight-fold. Despite the wide range in forecast oil prices, even the minimum forecast is creating a transportation environment more like that of Europe in the 1990’s than previous short-term fuel price hikes previously experienced in the United States. Historically, coastal and inland waterborne transportation has enjoyed a larger market share in Europe than in the United States because of Europe’s higher inland rail and truck transport costs that make water cost-effective. The recent European experience also demonstrates that water-based logistics chains can work effectively, for distributing not only bulk goods and industrial products but consumer goods as well. This could well become the case in the United States, if the cost differential between truck, rail, and water transportation is sustained at the levels reached during the summer of 2008 as the result of higher oil prices. Finally, it is recommended that fuel price levels be considered in future freight planning with respect to the relative roles of the various modes of transportation. While rail has enjoyed dramatically improved productivity in recent years, many of its gains relative to water stand to be erased should fuel prices rise to anticipated levels in coming years. As water is the most energy-efficient mode of freight transportation, planners should recognize it is likely to play a greatly expanded role in the future. Hence, national policy towards the water mode needs to become more proactive. Given higher oil prices, market forces could well promote a significantly enhanced role for water in the U.S. transportation system, provided that the potential for this modal shift is recognized and supported by public policies that are directed toward developing the needed infrastructure and in encouraging industry to make the needed investments."

Allianz pro Schiene, Mehr Bahn wagen: 13 erfolgreiche Verlagerungsbeispiele aus dem Güterverkehr. (13 casi di successo di trasferimento modale nel trasporto merci). Berlin, 2007, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. L'opuscolo contiene 13 schede di casi di aziende che, negli ultimi anni, sono riuscite a trasferire il trasporto di determinate merci dalla strada alla rotaia o al trasporto combinato, all'interno della Germania o tra la Germania e l'estero, su distanze che variano tra i 40 e i 3.000 Km.

Inhibitors to the Growth of Rail Freight. Research Project carried out for the Scottish Executive by the Road Haulage Association Ltd. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh, September 2007, 13 p. [formato PDF, 696 KB]. "This report outlines the findings of a research study into the opportunities for multi-modal shift of freight from our roads and onto rail. The study was funded on the basis of its potential to support Scottish Ministers’ policy of transferring freight onto more environmentally friendly rail, or waterborne, alternatives. In particular, the study sought to establish how easy or difficult it might be for any of the small companies (with fleets of less than 50 HGVs) that predominate Scotland’s road haulage industry to use rail as an alternative, and more environmentally friendly, mode of freight transport. In this report of their study, the authors argue that by combining the strengths of the road haulage and rail freight industries, there would be advantages for road hauliers, rail freight operators and their customers, in addition to environmental benefit." Il rapporto mette in evidenza i limiti delle compagnie di trasporto ferroviario scozzesi in termini di flessibilità, completezza del servizio e costo, il che rende molto difficile assorbire traffico merci dal trasporto su strada, e cita diversi casi di "prove" effettuate da aziende scozzesi con risultati negativi. Secondo l'associazione dei trasportatori stradali, servono anche in Scozia aziende intermodali specializzate come Hupac, Cemat ecc., mentre le attuali aziende di trasporto ferroviario non sono all'altezza del compito che il governo scozzese vorrebbe loro affidare, cioè il trasferimento dalla strada alla rotaia.

Istituto di Ricerche Economiche (Università della Svizzera Italiana), Verkehrsverlagerung: Zauberformel oder Wunschdenken: Grundlagen, Trends und Thesen. (Il trasferimento modale: formula magica o pio desiderio? Fondamenti, tendenze e tesi). Erstellt im Auftrag von SPEDLOGSWISS, Verband schweizerischer Speditions- und Logistikunternehmen, Lugano, Mai 2003, 23 p. [formato PDF, 370 KB].

Sergio Bologna, Val di Susa: un tunnel per trasportare aria? ItaliaMondo, maggio 2006, 3 p. [formato PDF, 624 KB]. (Esperto di logistica e docente universitario, il prof. Bologna denuncia l'inefficienza della logistica italiana e chiarisce che gli imprenditori chiedono più infrastrutture senza capire che queste non risolveranno i problemi, dato che in Italia quasi metà dei camion circolano vuoti. Bisogna investire invece nelle filiere e catene logistiche).


Karl Regner, Die Öffentliche Hand als Verursacher von vermeidbarem Lkw-Fernverkehr im Land Salzburg, Salzburg, 2005, 13 p. [formato PDF, 118 kB] (studio sui trasporti di merci su strada indotti dal settore pubblico nel Land di Salisburgo (Austria) che potrebbero essere ridotti o sostituiti da trasporto su ferrovia; l’autore analizza i diversi tipi di trasporto e di prodotti trasportati, e individua le alternative possibili)

Karl Regner, Die Öffentliche Hand in Kärnten als Verursacher von vermeidbarem Lkw-Fernverkehr, Salzburg, 2005, 10 p. [formato PDF, 99 kB] (studio sui trasporti indotti dal settore pubblico in Carinzia (Austria) che potrebbero essere ridotti o sostituiti da trasporto su ferrovia)

Trasporto di rifiuti su strada e su ferrovia in Svizzera e dalla Germania alla Svizzera. Documentazione per la stampa (conferenza stampa del 14.11.2005 a Berna) prodotta dalla Iniziativa delle Alpi, 9 pagine [formato PDF, 318 kB]. Premio “Rote Teufelsstein” per il 2005.

Trasporti assurdi sulle strade europee, swissinfo, 30.10.2004. Premio “Rote Teufelsstein” per il 2004, attribuito dalla Iniziativa delle Alpi alla panetteria francese Délifrance che importa dall’Olanda il pane venduto in Svizzera (panini preconfezionati).

Un assurdo trasporto di acque minerali. La Nestlé Waters, leader mondiale della distribuzione di acqua in bottiglia, si è vista consegnare il “sasso rosso del diavolo” (premio trasporti inutili per il 2003).


Michel Didier et Rémy Prud'homme, Infrastructures de transport, mobilité et croissance. La Documentation française, Paris, 2007, 242 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB]. "Le rapport rappelle que notre politique des transports est fortement orientée par trois idées : le renforcement de la concurrence, la décentralisation et la politique dite de « report modal ». Cette dernière vise à transférer des ressources de la route vers les « modes de transport alternatifs à la route ». La justification de cette politique de report modal est de limiter les nuisances (accidents, dégradation de l’environnement) des transports, notamment de la route qui est aujourd’hui le moyen de déplacement largement dominant. Une des questions centrales abordée par les auteurs est celle de savoir jusqu’où cette politique peut être poussée sans contraindre la mobilité des personnes et des marchandises et peser sur la croissance économique et sur l’emploi." Il rapporto esamina il ruolo economico dei trasporti in Francia, la domanda e l'offerta, i costi sociali, il trasferimento modale, il ruolo delle infrastrutture e il loro finanziamento.

Transport demand to 2025 & the economic case for road pricing and investment. December 2006, 166 p. [formato PDF, 982 kB]. Allegato allo studio di Sir Eddington. Questa ricerca è basata sulle previsioni di traffico al 2025 nel Regno Unito (National Transport Model) e analizza i possibili investimenti nelle infrastrutture di trasporto in presenza o assenza del road pricing, con i loro impatti economici, sociali ed ambientali.

Michael Mann, Step change transport improvements: an assessment of the potential for 'step change' transport improvements to generate wider economic benefits. 2006, 38 p. [formato PDF, 308 kB]. Allegata allo studio di Sir Eddington per il governo britannico, questa ricerca analizza vantaggi e svantaggi di una linea ferroviaria ad alta velocità nel contesto del Regno Unito. La conclusione è che i vantaggi economici sarebbero limitati e, soprattutto, bisognerebbe prima esaminare il possibile impiego dei grandi investimenti necessari in tutta una serie di opzioni alternative, tra cui il miglioramento delle infrastrutture e dei servizi esistenti.

"Conclusions on the strategic economic case for High Speed Rail: 41. Transformational economic benefits are unlikely to arise from a north-south high speed line because:

43. High speed rail options or other new build infrastructure (eg new commuter or freight lines) could help tackling such problems by freeing up capacity for commuter services, but this would require very large sums of money. Its value for money would need to be compared with the full range of alternative options, including incremental improvements to existing transport infrastructure and services."

Marco Ponti, Andrea Boitani, I grandi progetti infrastrutturali: divergenze sui criteri di valutazione. La lezione del ponte sullo Stretto. 28.11.2002, Tratto dal sito http://www.lavoce.info [formato PDF, 18 KB]


Commission nationale du débat publique. La legge francese, anche in applicazione della Convenzione di Aarhus, organizza la partecipazione del pubblico ai dibattiti sui progetti di grandi infrastrutture. "Le principe de participation résulte d’une part d’une prise de conscience des impacts de certains projets d’aménagement ou d’équipement sur l’environnement et d’autre d’une évolution dans la conception du principe de concertation préalable à la réalisation des projets d’aménagement du territoire." Questo sito contiene la documentazione sui dibattiti in corso e conclusi, con le decisioni definitive prese dal governo.

COWI, Analisi degli studi condotti da LTF in merito al progetto Lione-Torino (sezione internazionale). Rapporto finale [commissionato da DG-TREN della Commissione Europea], aprile 2006, 158 p. [formato PDF, 1,15 MB].

TAV : Toscana batte Piemonte? Un bilancio dopo dieci anni sulla costruzione della linea ferroviaria ad alta velocità nel Mugello e in Toscana: gli impatti ambientali, i movimenti popolari e il ruolo dei Comuni e della Regione. Interventi di Giovanni Maltinti (IRPET), Gianni Bechelli (TAV), Piera Ballabio (Legambiente Mugello), Claudio Corbatti (sindaco di Fiorenzuola), Gianni Gianassi (sindaco di Sesto Fiorentino), Girolamo Dell’Olio (Associazione Idra), Riccardo Conti (Regione Toscana), Stefano Rossi (ARPAT Firenze). Idee sulla Toscana n.55, IRPET, Firenze, 29 febbraio 2006, 16 p. [formato PDF, 70 kB] [!! pagina eliminata dal sito dell'Irpet !!]

Infrastrutture e territorio nel Friuli Venezia Giulia Contributo per il XXV Congresso INU a cura del Direttivo INU FVG, Roma, 1 e 2 dicembre 2005, 4 pag. [formato Word, 36 kB]. Per uscire da questa impasse sembra, quindi, necessario che il soggetto pubblico responsabile debba dotarsi di nuove regole di governo e di nuovi strumenti di pianificazione e di progettazione delle opere basati sulla ricerca di una condivisione con tutti quegli attori che, a livello locale ed extralocale, possono offrire spunti, conoscenze e progettualità in grado di indurre un salto qualitativo sulle scelte a disposizione ed un parallelo ampliamento del vantaggio pubblico complessivo. … Il problema, cioè, non è come calare un opera in un territorio considerato, nella migliore delle ipotesi, un supporto neutro ma come elevare il progetto di un’infrastruttura (riconosciuta come necessaria) a ‘progetto territoriale’ costruito in relazione ad un sistema di conoscenze condiviso con i territori interessati.”


Karl Krähmer, Studio per un progetto integrato sul territorio della ferrovia CuneoVentimiglia/Nizza, tesi di laurea triennale, a.a. 2013-2014, Politecnico di Torino, Corso di Laurea in Pianificazione Territoriale, Urbanistica e Paesaggistico-Ambientale, 18.12.2014, 84 p. [formato PDF, 33,4 MB]. "Questa tesi ha lo scopo di definire delle linee guida per un progetto territoriale integrato che metta in valore la ferrovia CuneoNizza/Ventimiglia ed evidenzi quindi le potenzialità di sviluppo che essa presenta per il suo territorio".

East West Rail (aiming to be England’s first major railway re-opening) is a major project to establish a strategic railway connecting East Anglia with Central, Southern and Western England. The project is being promoted by the East West Rail Consortium – a group of local authorities and businesses with an interest in improving access to and from East Anglia and the Milton Keynes South Midlands growth area.

SELRAP - Skipton East Lancs Railway Action Partnership. The campaign to reopen the 11 mile missing rail link between Lancashire & Yorkshire - linking cities & regions across the north. The 11.5 mile link between Skipton and Colne is the missing link in what would otherwise be the lowest level trans-Pennine rail route between the Humber & West Coast ports, between Preston and the West Coast Main Line and Leeds and the cities of Yorkshire. It is an alternative to the heavily graded and trafficked Huddersfield & Calder Valley trans-Pennine routes, and also avoids the already congested lines in Manchester. Although under increasing threat, the trackbed is essentially intact and the railway could be restored at a relatively low cost: any further incursion would destroy a resource of national value and would be contrary to government policies. The line connects the socially deprived and depressed areas of north-east Lancashire (Nelson, Burnley, Colne, etc) to the more prosperous West Yorkshire area, and provides an alternative to road transport for people visiting Skipton/the Aire Valley from Lancashire, and vice versa. Car ownership is low in East Lancashire leading to social exclusion. "We are a volunteer campaign group whose aim is to campaign for the re-instatement of the Colne-Skipton line as a trans-pennine route, a part of the national network, linking the Aire Valley and Yorkshire to East Lancashire, Manchester, Preston and beyond. As of 8th March, 2012, the Campaign has the support of 808 organisations, 725 individual politicians, our 500 members and 67 affiliated groups."

Massimo Andreis Allamandola, La linea ferroviaria Ceva-Ormea: una risorsa locale per il futuro del trasporto pubblico in Alta Valle Tanaro. Garessio (CN), 2012, 6 p. [formato PDF, 1,32 MB]. Il documento contiene alcune riflessioni sul futuro della Ceva-Ormea, mirate a prevenire la chiusura del servizio ferroviario, che invece dovrebbe essere ottimizzato, rendendolo integrato e competitivo all’interno dell’offerta turistica e pendolare tra il Piemonte e la Liguria.

Rail Roya, Nouvelles de la ligne Roya-Bevera / Notizie dalla linea Roia-Bevera. Blog bilingue francese e italiano per il mantenimento e la valorizzazione della linea Nizza-Ventimiglia-Cuneo-Torino.

Gadea Alonso Peraita Cabrera [et al.], Posibilidades y viabilidad para la reapertura del Canfranc. Zaragoza, Consejo Económico y Social de Aragón, 2009, 196 p. [formato PDF, 3,48 MB]. "Consideraciones finales y análisis DAFO: • El análisis contenido en el estudio realizado permite concluir que la explotación técnica y económica del tramo Jaca-Bedous, en especial el subtramo Canfranc-Bedous, es muy difícil y supone un incremento de los costes de tracción, aunque inferior a los de cambio de ejes o trasbordo en la frontera que se producen actualmente. • Se plantea por tanto un escenario que, a medio plazo (año 2013), con inversiones asumibles en la Alternativa A.1, con una cifra de no más de 500 millones de euros, podrían ser razonablemente asumidas. La tasa de rendimiento del proyecto es del 3,68% (sin electrificar) y del 4,87% (electrificada) para el operador, ascendiendo hasta el 6,26% (sin electrificar) y el 5,86% (electrificada) si se incluyen las diferencias de los costes externos como beneficios sociales del proyecto. • La rentabilidad del túnel de baja cota se ha obtenido de los estudios de la Travesía Central Pirenaica y no han sido objeto de análisis crítico. • La reapertura supondría un nuevo paso a Francia por unas Regiones que no cuentan actualmente con infraestructura ferroviaria que les comunique. • La línea es complementaria a la Travesía Central Pirenaica, que es un proyecto estratégicamente mucho más ambicioso. Su ventaja competitiva es que puede ponerse en marcha en un plazo más corto (Escenario 2013) con una inversión relativamente modesta (300-500 millones) en comparación con el túnel de baja cota que no estaría operativo antes de 2030 ó 2035 y cuya inversión es, por su mayor capacidad, muy superior. Además, si se presta un buen servicio ferroviario a las mercancías, la reapertura del Canfranc permitiría ir consolidando clientes, usos y experiencia que redundaría positivamente cuando se abriese el túnel de baja cota. • Diversifica el reparto de los tráficos de la cadena pirenaica, aliviando la posible saturación de los pasos fronterizos existentes. • Para Aragón el Canfranc es una prioridad, ya que le aproxima a Europa y atrae actividad a la región. Además se crearía la posibilidad de convertir a Zaragoza en un importante nudo logístico ferroviario. • La apertura de Canfranc se podría hacer por fases, de manera que en lo que respecta al transporte de viajeros tuviera en principio un fin turístico regional uniendo Aquitania y Aragón. La liberalización el mercado en el futuro puede ser una oportunidad para dar acceso a las pistas de esquí, turismo de ocio, viajes transfronterizos regionales entre Aragón y Aquitania y entre Francia y España. • La saturación de la red viaria de transporte de las infraestructuras en los actuales pasos de Cataluña y País Vasco son un argumento de peso para la reapertura. • El ferrocarril es notablemente más favorable desde la óptica medioambiental que la carretera. El ejemplo del transporte de automóviles a través del Pirineo es bien evidente: donde un camión para coches puede cargar entre 8 y 10 vehículos, el ferrocarril puede transportar alrededor de 500 automóviles por servicio."

La Coordinadora para la Reapertura del Ferrocarril Canfranc-Olorón (CREFCO) trabaja para recuperar la línea internacional Zaragoza-Canfranc-Pau, cerrada en la parte francesa desde el 27 de marzo de 1970. El Ferrocarril de Canfranc es la mejor alternativa para mejorar las comunicaciones entre España y Francia respetando el medio ambiente pirenaico (Zaragoza). Coordinamento di associazioni e sindacati per il recupero della linea a binario unico (in gran parte non elettrificata) Zaragoza-Canfranc-Pau, che attraversa i Pirenei. Il tratto francese è stato chiuso nel 1970, di recente la regione dell'Aquitania ha finanziato il recupero del tratto Oloron-Bedous.

Comité pour la réouverture de la ligne Oloron-Canfranc (CRÉLOC). Le CRÉLOC est une association loi 1901 qui œuvre à la remise en service du chemin de fer Pau-Saragosse, en collaboration avec son homologue aragonaise, la CREFCO – Coordinación por la reapertura del ferrocarril Canfranc-Olorón. Le CRÉLOC milite pour la réouverture complète de la ligne internationale Pau-Oloron-Canfranc-Saragosse en 25 000 volts et à écartement UIC de 1,435 m. La désélectrification provisoire du 1 500 volts continu, sur le tronçon Pau--Oloron à partir de septembre prochain, s’inscrit dans la perspective d’une réouverture modernisée commencée avec la remise à neuf de la voie sur Pau--Oloron et la réhabilitation du tronçon Oloron--Bedous pour 2010, voulue et financée par la Région Aquitaine. (Bedous, vallée d’Aspe, F).

El Canfranero. Sito trilingue di Jürg Suter (Deutsch, Castellano, Français) sulla ferrovia Zaragoza-Canfranc-Pau, che contiene anche la sua tesi "Inwertsetzung der Bahnlinie Zaragoza–Canfranc–Pau. Bedürfnisse und mögliche Realisierung des Angebotes im Personen- und Güterverkehr", Geographisches Institut der Universität Bern, tradotta anche in francese e spagnolo.

Preserving Freight and Passenger Rail Corridors and Service. A Synthesis of Highway Practice. (NCHRP Synthesis 374). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2007, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,06 MB]. "This synthesis will be of interest to state department of transportation (DOT) personnel, as well as to others who work with them in the area of rail corridor preservation. Today, the shrinkage of rail service seems to vary dramatically from state to state. However, the rising cost and complexity of establishing new transportation corridors and growing congestion on all surface modes of travel focuses new attention on the issues surrounding retention of rights-of-way or restoration of rail services. Survey results indicated that some of the best restoration efforts appeared to include direct engagement by the future rail service providers from the earliest stages of rail line assessment. Six respondents claimed success in restoration of previously dormant rail corridors, with activity centered in North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. California’s Rail Inventory, undertaken by the California DOT in 2001, signaled the start of corridor evaluation for passenger rail or public transit use. More detailed investigations yielded six interesting rail corridor success stories where it was said that vision, perseverance, and the ability to reach out to multiple stakeholders brought about the preservation of properties."

Marco Ponti (Marco Brambilla, Stefano Erba), Come migliorare la linea storica [Torino-Lione], 20.12.2005. Tratto dal sito http://www.lavoce.info

CEVA, Liaison ferroviaire Cornavin - Eaux-Vives - Annemasse (sito ufficiale). Il progetto CEVA ristabilisce il contatto tra la rete ferroviaria svizzera (da Ginevra Cornavin) e quella francese (Annemasse) con un tratto parzialmente interrato e il recupero delle linea preesistente, trasformata in collegamento urbano e suburbano a servizio dell'area di Ginevra e dell'area transfrontaliera ("RER franco-valdo-genevois", servirà un milione di abitanti).

Association Sauvons le Tonkin (Saint-Gingolph, FR) – Associazione per il recupero della linea ferroviaria sul lato meridionale del lago di Ginevra, detta “del Tonkino” (17,8 Km, tra Evian e Saint-Gingolph)

ALP-Rail (Association Lémanique pour la Promotion du Rail) (Ginevra, CH), promuove il collegamento ferroviario Cornavin – Eaux-Vives – Annemasse (CEVA), per collegare Ginevra alla rete ferroviaria francese ad Annemasse, e – con la linea del Tonkino – con Martigny e Sion senza passare a Nord del lago di Ginevra (linea congestionata).

Treno Alto Adige / Südtirol Bahn (prima: Il treno della Val Venosta / Die Vinschgerbahn) L'esempio della linea ferroviaria Merano-Malles, dismessa dalle FS e recuperata e ammodernata con grande successo dalla Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano. Il treno gestito dalla Provincia Autonoma adesso viaggia anche sulla Bolzano-Merano e da lunedì 2 marzo 2009 il trasporto ferroviario in Alto Adige ha un unico sistema tariffario: quello provinciale.



Sina Selzer, Martin Lanzendorf (Goethe University Frankfurt/Main), Car independence in an automobile society? The everyday mobility practices of residents in a car-reduced housing development. Travel Behaviour and Society 28 (2022) 90-105 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 3,3 MB]. Open Access. "Lately, transport researchers and practitioners are showing renewed interest in car-reduced neighborhoods and their residents' mobility to investigate possible factors influencing sustainable transport. With a biographically inspired practice-theoretical approach, this study considers the 'context of travel behavior' and, thus, focuses on mobility as a 'practice' in order to improve the understanding of everyday mobility as well as the potential and limitations of implementing car-reduced housing. Based on qualitative interviews with residents of two German car-reduced neighborhoods, we first identify different compositions of materials, competences, and meanings (including the feelings and emotions) of car-(in)dependent mobility practices. Second, we discover the personal, social, temporal, and socio-structural circumstances of the residents' travel behavior alongside 'practice bundles' that interact with car-(in)dependent mobility. Finally, our findings indicate, on the one hand, that the car-centric material context outside car-reduced neighborhoods, the incorporation of private car driving with the practice of everyday life, and the affective satisfaction with car use and ownership negatively influence car independence. On the other hand, our results highlight that residential location and its materiality in the case of car-reduced housing developments, as well as the personal-temporal and socio-cultural contexts of their residents' mobility practices stabilize and support car independence and low-carbon mobility."

Aaron Kolleck, Does Car-Sharing Reduce Car Ownership? Empirical Evidence from Germany. Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7384 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "The sharing economy is making its way into our everyday lives. One of its business models, car-sharing, has become highly popular. Can it help us increase our sustainability? Besides emissions and vehicle miles traveled, one key aspect in the assessment regards the effect of car-sharing on car ownership. Previous studies investigating this effect have relied almost exclusively on surveys and come to very heterogeneous results, partly suggesting spectacular substitution rates between shared and private cars. This study empirically explores the impact of car-sharing on noncorporate car ownership and car markets in 35 large German cities. The analysis draws on publicly available data for the years 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2017, including, among others, the number of shared cars per operating mode (free-floating and station-based) and the number of cars owned and registered by private individuals (i.e., excluding company cars). We find that one additional station-based car is associated with a reduction of about nine private cars. We do not find a statistically significant relation between car ownership and free-floating car-sharing. Neither type of car-sharing appears to impact the markets for used and new cars significantly. Given the measurable impacts on car ownership levels, this result is surprising and invites future research to study car-sharing's impact on the dynamics of car markets"

Flemming Giesel, Claudia Nobis (German Aerospace Center (DLR), The Impact of Carsharing on Car Ownership in German Cities. Conference Paper, International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Transforming Urban Mobility, mobil.TUM 2016, 6-7 June 2016, Munich, Germany. Transportation Research Procedia 19 (2016) 215-224 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 190 kB]. Open Access. "Carsharing, currently growing strongly in Germany, is an important instrument for sustainable urban mobility. The present boom is mainly due to so-called "free-floating carsharing". Whilst the environmental effects of station-based carsharing have been intensively studied in the German-speaking context, to date there have been hardly any empirical findings on the effect of free-floating carsharing. Using the example of DriveNow and Flinkster in Berlin and Munich, this article examines to what extent free-floating carsharing leads to a reduction of car ownership compared to station-based carsharing. Based on online surveys (n=819/227) carried out within the "WiMobil" project (9/2012 - 10/2015), descriptive analyses and two binary logistic regressions were performed. The findings show that station-based and free-floating carsharing leads to a reduction of private cars but to different degrees (DriveNow 7%; Flinkster 15%). The shedding of cars is influenced by the frequency of use of carsharing and the increasing membership of station-based carsharing providers. Furthermore, for many people of both systems carsharing is an important reason not to buy a car. But there is also a significant proportion of people planning a car purchase. This is true especially for car-savvy persons for whom car ownership is very important. Thus, carsharing can be an important factor for sustainable urban mobility. In order to maximize the positive effects of carsharing, it is of central importance to reach additional user groups such as women and elderly people with private car ownership."

Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, Andrew Little, The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. ICF International, February 2008, 34 p. [formato PDF, 150 kB]. "This study began with the hypothesis that public transportation interacts with land use patterns, changing travel patterns in neighborhoods served by transit. Importantly, this effect would apply not just to transit riders, who make an exchange of automobile use for transit, but also for people who do not use transit. These people, who live in places shaped by transit, would tend to drive less, reducing their overall petroleum use and their carbon footprint. In order to test this hypothesis, we began with a survey of the literature on the interaction of land use and travel patterns. The literature focuses on three major categories of influences on travel: land use/urban environment, socio-demographic factors, and cost of travel. For the purposes of this study, land use/urban environment variables were further broken down to include a separate category for transportation infrastructure. Many past studies have found a significant correlation between land use variables and travel behavior, though results vary depending on how the problem and the variables are defined. Boarnet and Crane (2001) emphasized that without accounting for social characteristics, like age and education, land use-transportation models are incomplete. They also discussed the importance of economic measures, such as household or personal income, as a measure of the cost of travel time. Other studies evaluated the relative importance of these and other variables, informing this model. After evaluating possible variables for this model, we formed a statistical model that would allow us to tease apart the relationship between land use, transit availability, and travel behavior."

Roger Mackett (Centre for Transport Studies, UCL), Making children healthier through walking. Presentation for the Pro Walk/Pro Bike conference, held in Victoria BC, Canada, 9 September 2004, 38 slides [formato PDF, 733 kB].

My bus o "yellow buses". "Now 150 brand new yellow buses provide dedicated home-to-school transport for over 9000 pupils at 132 West Yorkshire schools." Grazie a un finanziamento del governo inglese, da alcuni anni è in corso un progetto per il trasporto casa-scuola nella regione del West Yorkshire (GB). Circa 150 autobus dedicati trasportano ogni giorno 8.000 scolari delle scuole elementari e medie verso 130 scuole. Di questi, circa il 70% (elementari) e il 20% (medie) prima veniva accompagnato a scuola in automobile.

Jillian Anable, Ben Lane, Tanika Kelay, An evidence base review of public attitudes to climate change and transport behaviour. Final Report. For the (UK) Department for Transport, July 2006, 228 p. [formato PDF, 3,93 MB].

Integrated Transport Planning Ltd, Making personal travel planning work: research report. Department fo Transport, London, 2007, 164 p. [formato PDF, 972 KB]. "Personal Travel Planning (PTP) is an approach to delivering targeted information directly to travellers, to help them make sustainable travel choices. It seeks to overcome habitual use of the car, enabling more journeys to be made on foot, bike, bus, train or in shared cars. It can also seek to discourage unnecessary travel, through the provision of local or site-specific information. PTP can be applied in a number of contexts, for example schools, workplaces and residential communities. This report considers residential-based PTP. It contains evidence collated from an initial review of the literature accompanied by 12 in-depth case studies, 10 smaller vignette case studies and contributions from a panel of 17 experts in the field of PTP and smarter choices measures. The case study sites provide extensive evidence, collectively accounting for PTP programmes that have targeted 229,000 households."

Integrated Transport Planning Ltd, Making personal travel planning work: case studies. Department fo Transport, London, 2007, 232 p. [formato PDF, 2,89 MB]. "This report, prepared for the DfT by ITP Ltd, provides information on the case studies underpinning the document 'Making Personal Travel Plans Work'." Lo studio esamina i casi di Worcester, Peterborough, Darlington, Lancashire, Bristol, Brighton and Hove, Transport for London, Nottingham e di Perth, Brisbane e Melbourne.

Marcel Robert, Pour en finir avec la société de l'automobile CarFree France, 2005, 53 p. [formato PDF, 915 kB]. Ottima monografia in francese sulla dipendenza e i danni creati dall'automobile e la possibilità di farne a meno, intervenendo soprattutto sull'urbanistica e cambiando stile di vita.

Kerstin Pfetsch, Aus(zeit) fürs Auto: nur einmal im Jahr? Studie über die Langzeitwirkung der Aktion AUTOFASTEN (Kurzfassung) (Rinunciare all'auto: solo una volta all'anno? Studio dell'università di Trier sugli effetti a lungo termine dell'azione DIGIUNO DALL'AUTO (Sintesi). Da quasi dieci anni diverse diocesi cattoliche ed evangeliche della Germania, Austria e Lussemburgo organizzano durante il periodo della Quaresima una iniziativa di "Digiuno dall'auto" (Autofasten), che consiste nel rinunciare il più possibile all'uso dell'auto in favore della mobilità sostenibile (andare a piedi, in bici, usare i trasporti pubblici), come segnale di una maggiore responsabilità verso l'ambiente e della possibilità di un diverso stile di vita. All'iniziativa aderiscono anche enti pubblici, associazioni ambientaliste ed aziende di trasporto pubblico. Queste ultime offrono ai partecipanti biglietti a tariffa ridotta per il trasporto pubblico. Hanno aderito all'iniziativa anche le diocesi di Trento e Bolzano.

Frédéric Héran, La réduction de la dépendance automobile (Cahiers Lillois d'Economie et de Sociologie, n.37, pp. 61-86). Lille, 2001, 21 p. [formato PDF, 115 kB]. Definizioni e origini della dipendenza dall'automobile, politiche e metodi per ridurla.

Gabriel Jourdan, Rompre avec le cercle vicieux de la dépendance automobile. Cahier d'expert. Contribution invitée par la Commission particulière du débat public (DPDT) sur le projet de contournement routier de Nice. Nice, GIR Maralpin, Janvier 2006, 8 p. [formato PDF, 222 kB]. I motivi della crescita del traffico sulla Costa Azzurra, il dominio dell'automobile e le proposte urbanistiche e trasportistiche per invertire la rotta.


Daniel Rosenbloom, Jochen Markard, Frank W. Geels, Lea Fuenfschilling, Opinion: Why carbon pricing is not sufficient to mitigate climate change-and how "sustainability transition policy" can help. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2020 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 843 kB]. Open Access. "Carbon pricing is often presented as the primary policy approach to address climate change. We challenge this position and offer "sustainability transition policy" (STP) as an alternative. Carbon pricing has weaknesses with regard to five central dimensions: 1) problem framing and solution orientation, 2) policy priorities, 3) innovation approach, 4) contextual considerations, and 5) politics. In order to address the urgency of climate change and to achieve deep decarbonization, climate policy responses need to move beyond market failure reasoning and focus on fundamental changes in existing sociotechnical systems such as energy, mobility, food, and industrial production. The core principles of STP can help tackle this challenge."

David Gray, Richard Laing, Iain Docherty, Delivering lower carbon urban transport choices: European ambition meets the reality of institutional (mis)alignment. Environment and Planning A, Vol 49, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 226-242 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector has become a critical imperative for public policy as our understanding of the impacts of the mobility system on the environment has developed. This paper contrasts policy development in three cities (Aberdeen, Bremen and Malmö) that collaborated as part of a European Union knowledge exchange programme designed to share innovative approaches to carbon reduction in the transport sector. We identify a number of critical aspects of governance, including the approach to policy formulation and implementation, and the status of consensus and cohesion, as key determinants of transport outcomes. We conclude that the degree of institutional alignment evident in each city's governance network is crucial in explaining their appetite for the pursuit of low carbon policies, and in turn the real potential for policy transfer to occur as envisaged by European Union collaboration frameworks."

David Gray, Richard Laing, Iain Docherty, Delivering lower carbon urban transport choices: European ambition meets the reality of institutional (mis)alignment. Environment and Planning A, Vol 49, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 226-242 (17 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector has become a critical imperative for public policy as our understanding of the impacts of the mobility system on the environment has developed. This paper contrasts policy development in three cities (Aberdeen, Bremen and Malmö) that collaborated as part of a European Union knowledge exchange programme designed to share innovative approaches to carbon reduction in the transport sector. We identify a number of critical aspects of governance, including the approach to policy formulation and implementation, and the status of consensus and cohesion, as key determinants of transport outcomes. We conclude that the degree of institutional alignment evident in each city's governance network is crucial in explaining their appetite for the pursuit of low carbon policies, and in turn the real potential for policy transfer to occur as envisaged by European Union collaboration frameworks."

Aimée Aguilar-Jaber, Daniela Glocker, Shifting towards low carbon mobility systems. (Discussion Paper 2015-17). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 29 p. [formato PDF, 833 kB]. "The present section of this report provides results obtained through modelling carried out for the Transport Outlook of the International Transport Forum (ITF) of the long-term CO2 mitigation potential of aligning policies towards public transport-oriented urbanisation in Latin America, China, and India (part 1). It will then review some of the major institutional challenges for achieving policy coordination and implementing sustainable urban transport strategies in urban centres (part 2). It also provides evidence from cities that have made significant progress in increasing institutional coordination for advancing sustainable urban transport strategies (part 3)."

H.P.J. de Wilde, P. Kroon, Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020. (Report ECN-E--13-005). ECN, Petten, February 2013, 35 p. [formato PDF, 482 kB]. "The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020."

L.C. (Eelco) den Boer, A. (Arno) Schroten G.M. (Gijs) Verbraak, Opties voor Schoon & Zuinig verkeer. Effecten op klimaatverandering en luchtverontreiniging (Options for clean and efficient transport. Impacts on climate change and air pollution). Rapport. Delft, CE Delft, februari 2010, 91 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "For policy reviews of the revised European NEC Directive and the Gothenburg Protocol and the Dutch government’s climate change programme ‘Clean and Efficient’, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency commissioned CE Delft to update the existing option documents for transport emissions reduction for the year 2020. In the ensuing study the following options were elaborated in the form of factsheets. CO2: Road pricing for passenger cars and light goods vehicles - Speed limit reduction on motorways - CO2 differentiation in company car tax charge - Lowering of tax-free rebate for business travel - Car scrappage premium on purchase of efficient vehicle - Lowering of excise duty on motor fuels - Speed limiters on light goods vehicles - More efficient tyres - CO2 standards for heavy goods vehicles - Hybrid buses - Emissions trading scheme for fuels - Kerosene duty for European air flights. NOx: Road pricing for freight vehicles - Incentives for Euro 6 heavy goods vehicles - Incentives for Euro 6 passenger cars - Increase in road vehicle diesel duty - Car scrappage premium for old vehicles - NOx charge for inland shipping + subsidy - Quayside power for inland shipping - Incentive scheme for particle filters for inland shipping - Tier III for fisheries - Quayside power for seagoing vessels - Differentiation in marine port dues based on NOx performance - LTO differentiation based on NOx performance." (Report in Dutch).

Department for Transport, Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future. A Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport. London, July 2009, 117 p. [formato PDF, 1,49 MB]. "This strategy sets out how we intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport. It also shows how transport will make a major contribution to UK efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by 2022 and 2050 in line with the Climate Change Act 2008." Questo rapporto del governo inglese è già stato criticato dalla Light Rail Transit Association per aver ignorato le potenzialità del trasporto locale su ferro.

Department for Transport, Impact Assessment of the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport, Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future. London, July 2009, 129 p. [formato PDF, 990 kB]. "This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport, “Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future”. It provides a high level discussion of costs, benefits and other impacts of the Carbon Reduction Strategy between 2008 and 2022."

European Environment Agency, Success stories within the road transport sector on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and producing ancillary benefits. EEA Technical report n.2/2008, Copenhagen, March 2008, 70 p. [formato PDF, 1,41 MB]. "Using reduction of greenhouse gases and additional ancillary benefits as criteria to determine success, TRL undertook an extensive review of case studies from across the EEA member countries by going through more than 10 different data bases. This initial review identified very few good examples of post-implementation evaluation reports, including results on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reductions. The final choice of case studies was, in addition to the criteria on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and ancillary benefits, intended to cover different types of measures. The size of the project limited the total number of 'success stories' identified and reported upon in this study to a total of 6. They represent various levels of implementation (national, local/city level, and organisation/business); a range of target groups (private, public and freight), types of measure (planning, regulatory, economic and information); and types of impact (environmentally friendly vehicles, transport efficiency, mode shift and urban planning). (Ecodrive programme, Netherlands; Speed control measure, Rotterdam; Congestion charging, London; Environmental zone, Prague; Freight Construction Consolidation Centre, London; Teleconferencing, the United Kingdom)."

Christian Brand (Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University), Personal air and car travel – just don’t do it!. ECEEE 2007 Summer Study "Saving Energy - Just Do It!", 12 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "Greenhouse gas emissions from personal transport have risen steadily in the UK and most other countries of the EU. Yet surprisingly little is known about who exactly is contributing to the problem at the personal level and the extent to which different groups of the population will be affected by the any responses to the climate change problem. This paper describes an innovative methodology and evaluation tool for profiling annual climate change emissions from personal travel across all modes of travel. A case study application of the methodology involving surveys of UK residents provides an improved understanding of the extent to which individual and household travel activity patterns, choice of transport mode, geographical location, socio-economic factors and vehicle technology choice impact on greenhouse gas emissions."

CarbonLimited, The potential for personal carbon trading in tackling CO2 emissions from the transport sector. RSA, London, 2008, 11 p. [formato PDF, 124 kB]. "This discussion paper sets out to assess the implications of this idea for the transport sector. In doing so we hope to promote discussion amongst transport professionals and stakeholders of all kind, to help further develop thinking on the appropriateness of PCT as a response to the pressing issue of carbon emissions."

Chris Davies (relatore), Progetto di relazione sulla strategia comunitaria per ridurre le emissioni di CO2 delle autovetture e dei veicoli commerciali leggeri. (2007/2119(INI)) Parlamento Europeo, Commissione per l'ambiente, la sanità pubblica e la sicurezza alimentare, 8.6.2007, 11 p. [formato PDF, 194 KB]. (La relazione di Chris Davies ha destato l'attenzione dei media perchè propone, tra l'altro, di proibire (dal 2013) l'ammissione sul mercato dell'UE di automobili più veloci di 162 km/h, per ridurre le emissioni di CO2 dovute ai trasporti. Tra le proposte di Davies, sembra più interessante l'idea di introdurre (dal 2011) un sistema di riduzione delle quote di carbonio (CARS) per premiare le aziende il cui parco macchine produce emissioni inferiori di CO2 e penalizzare invece quelle il cui parco macchine è più inquinante, facendo pagare ai costruttori e importatori di auto delle penalità in proporzione all'eccedenza di emissioni per automobile venduta e concedendo invece crediti per le autovetture prodotte con emissioni inferiori a un determinato limite. Davies propone anche che almeno il 20% dello spazio dedicato alla pubblicità di nuove auto sia impiegato per fornire informazioni sui risparmi di carburante e le emissioni di CO2.)

Chris Davies (rapporteur), Draft report on the Community Strategy to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles. (2007/2119(INI)) European Parliament, Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, 8.6.2007, 10 p. [formato PDF, 193 KB]. (translation in all languages of the EU at the Agenda of the 25/06/2007 Meeting of the Committee).


The New Mobility Agenda. The Politics of Transportation: New thinking & world-wide collaborative problem-solving

Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione, Laboratorio di Politica dei Trasporti - TRASPOL / Research Center on Transport Policy

Agricultural Sustainability Institute, University of California : Assessing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Food System. "The goal of this initiative is to study energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions throughout the food system, from "farm to fork" in order to identify technologies, methods, and consumer food choices that can reduce energy and carbon emissions of the food system." Relazioni, dicumenti e bibliografia sulle "food miles" (consumi di energia ed emissioni dovute al trasporto di alimenti).