vai a


International Transport Forum (ITF), Mode Choice in Freight Transport. ITF Research Reports. OECD Publishing, Paris, February 2022, 86 p. [formato PDF, 9,4 MB]. Open Access. "This report examines why freight carriers and shippers choose one transport mode over others. It analyses the main determinants for using road, rail, inland waterways, coastal shipping or pipelines to move goods and assesses government policies to influence it. The study also reviews how shifting freight to more sustainable modes could reduce the contribution of goods transport to climate change and provides recommendations for more effective policies. The role of mode choice in alleviating congestion and making goods transport safer is also addressed. Three case studies from China, Canada and the Netherlands highlight modal-shift policies."

Ufficio Studi Confcommercio, Analisi e previsioni per il trasporto merci in Italia. Confcommercio, Roma, maggio 2014, 63 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB]

Martin Lambrecht, Christoph Erdmenger, Michael Bölke, Volker Brenk, Kilian Frey, Helge Jahn, Andrea Kolodziej, Ines Kruppa, Stephan Naumann, Dorothea Salz, Lars Schade, Hedwig Verron, Strategie für einen nachhaltigen Güterverkehr [Strategia per un trasporto merci sostenibile]. (Texte 18/2009). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, Oktober 2009, 137 p. [formato PDF, 2,71 MB]


Marissa Moultak, Nic Lutsey, Dale Hall, Transitioning to zero-emission heavy-duty freight vehicles. White Paper. International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, September 2017, 59 p. [formato PDF, 586 kB]. "In this report, we assess zero-emission heavy-duty vehicle technology to support decarbonization of the freight sector. We compare the evolution of heavy-duty diesel, diesel hybrid, natural gas, fuel cell, and battery electric technologies in the 2025-2030 timeframe. We synthesize data from the research literature, demonstrations, and low-volume commercial trucks regarding their potential to deliver freight with zero tailpipe emissions. We analyze the emerging technologies by their cost of ownership and life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for the three vehicle markets of China, Europe, and the United States."

Eelco den Boer, Sanne Aarnink, Florian Kleiner, Johannes Pagenkopf, Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential. Report. CE Delft, Delft, July 2013, 151 p. [formato PDF, 3,83 MB]. "The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, a the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market."

Trasporto merci su strada. Analisi economico-statistica delle potenzialità e criticità di un settore strategico per lo sviluppo sostenibile. ANFIA, Automobile Club d’Italia, Febbraio 2013, 102 p. [formato PDF, 4,07 MB]. "I numerosi fattori di criticità del nostro sistema dei trasporti – come l’inefficienza logistica, l’anzianità del parco circolante, la carenza di soluzioni intermodali e di piattaforme logistiche verso l’Europa e verso l’Africa, oltre alla situazione di crisi che investe sia i produttori di autoveicoli e rimorchi, sia le aziende di autotrasporto – hanno spinto ACI (Automobile Club d’Italia) e ANFIA (Associazione Nazionale Filiera Industria Automobilistica) a mettere sotto la lente d’ingrandimento l’intero settore, analizzandone con attenzione le attuali dinamiche e cercando di coglierne le tendenze di sviluppo. I principali argomenti trattati nei cinque capitoli sono: l’analisi dello scenario internazionale degli scambi di beni e servizi e del ruolo della strada, passando dalla mobilità globale al trasporto merci nell’Europa a 27, fino allo scenario Italiano; l’andamento dell’industria automotive nell’economia mondiale, europea e nazionale, descritto attraverso i dati di produzione e di mercato dei veicoli commerciali e industriali; l’analisi dell’evoluzione del parco autocarri italiano (veicoli commerciali fino a 3.500 kg, autocarri sopra i 3.500 kg, rimorchi e semirimorchi sopra i 3.500 kg); l’analisi delle condizioni di mobilità e sicurezza della rete stradale in Europa e della rete stradale e autostradale in Italia; infine, la descrizione del contesto mondiale e nazionale dell’efficienza logistica."

Legal – Illegal – Egal? Probleme und Kontrollen im Straßengüterverkehr und auf der Donau. Tagungsband. (Problemi e controlli nel trasporto merci su strada e sul Danubio). (Verkehr und Infrastruktur Nr 31). Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Wien, 2007, 107 p. [formato PDF, 1,83 MB]. "Im Bereich des Straßengüterverkehrs und auch in der Binnenschifffahrt herrscht beinharter Wettbewerb – verstärkt durch die jüngsten EU-Erweiterungen, der immer mehr Unternehmen dazu verleitet, die bestehenden Gesetze und Regeln zu umgehen. Effektive Kontrollen sind fast unmöglich, die „weißen Schafe“ unter den Unternehmen, die Verkehrssicherheit und die LenkerInnen bleiben auf der Strecke. In Deutschland stehen zurzeit zwei der größten Spediteure wegen illegaler Beschäftigung, Steuerhinterziehung und anderer Vergehen vor Gericht."

Laurent Guihéry (Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports), International road freight transport in Germany and The Netherlands. Driver costs analysis and French perspectives. European Transport Conference 2008, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, The Netherlands, 6–8 October 2008, 10 p. [formato PDF, 58 kB]. "The aim of this research is to investigate the structure of the road freight market and the driving costs of German and Dutch international road freight companies. The research has been mainly based on interviews, data analysis, statistics and observations. We show first, for Germany, that German road freight transport sector is split in two parts, West Germany where high costs of transport are linked with efficiency, high quality and reliability of transport and East Germany which is acting as “low cost carrier” facing directly East European countries. In some sector German companies are leading on global markets (car manufacturing for example) and reliability of transport and high quality services are the key factors : these companies are involved in a “just in time” strategy and reliability of inputs and outputs are a necessity. It appears also that some companies ask for “German” transport and refuse that East-European sub contractors are involved in the transport. We also notice that German drivers are in international freight transport driving at the maximum available (around 56,5 hours per week) and that high inequalities exist between East and West but also between large companies (with wages collective agreement) and small ones (free wages market). For the Netherlands, we show that this market is very dynamic and reveals a high efficiency linked with high drivers' costs and higher operating costs of companies in comparaison with large countries in Europe. The leading role of Rotterdam Harbour and a very open-mind life and culture in the Netherlands could be an explanation of the success of Dutch road freight transport today in Europe despite a high costs structures. This Research was managed by the French Committee of Road Freigt Transport (CNR /Comité National Routier)."

Claus Doll, Davide Fiorello, Enrico Pastori, Christian Reynaud, Peter Klaus, Patrick Lückmann, Kathrin Hesse, Joachim Kochsiek, Long-Term Climate Impacts of the Introduction of Mega-Trucks. Study for the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER). Fraunhofer-Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, May 2009, 156 p. [formato PDF, 2,31 MB] "The European Commission is currently exploring the pros and cons of extending truck size and weight limits. This study seeks to contribute to the exploration process by pointing to possible long-term threats associated with the introduction of Mega-Trucks, in particular with regard to European climate policy and to the market position of the railways. The main findings of the study are summarised by subject, drawing on the various elements of analysis applied by the multi-national project team. Experience from German field tests reveal that Mega-Trucks may take 20 % of HGV goods volumes. If allowed on all roads, this share may increase to 30 %. While simulations for the UK arrive at lower values, the application of the LOGIS model finds a total replacement of conventional trucks in high quality logistics markets in long distances above 1000 km concentrating on major corridors. These findings are confirmed by the two European case studies. Moreover, current studies suggest a share between 10 % and 30 % of long distance rail container shipments may be shifted to road in case of a general permission of Mega-Trucks in the EU. Contribution of Mega-Trucks to climate policy: the study finds strong evidence that the introduction of Mega-Trucks will most likely end up in a negative climate gas balance in the medium term: in most scenarios negative impacts in the medium run are much stronger than initial positive effects. Thus, the authors reject the consideration of longer and heavier road freight vehicles as a suitable element of climate protection policy. Long-term climate impacts with a time horizon to 2025 are derived with a System Dynamics model created within this study. The model outputs suggest that the impact of Mega-Trucks takes place in three phases: (1) The road sector accepts Mega-Trucks rather quickly, resulting in a decrease of CO2-emissions due to efficiency gains on the road. Within a time horizon of 3 to 6 years an annual decline of 0.5 Mt is expected. (2) If Mega-Trucks are established in road haulage, modal shift tendencies will take place in the rail sector. With a high degree of certainty modal shift effects will counterbalance CO2 reduction targets. Within 5 to 20 years an additional emission of 2 Mt CO2 per annum is expected due to the introduction of 60 t Mega-Trucks. (3) If demand for road freight transport keeps on growing faster than rail demand, in the long run efficiency gains in the road sector might partly compensate for the additional CO2 emissions due to modal shift. But this option will only happen with 60 t Mega- Trucks and within a time frame of 15 to 30 years. Reducing the maximum gross weight of Mega-Trucks from 60 t to 50 t will increase their likely adverse climate impacts due to lower efficiency gains in the road sector. However, the modal shift tendencies will only slightly be affected as most goods that have a potential for modal shift are volume critical. These results of the System Dynamics model are very strong. Potential modal split effects by Mega-Trucks: analytical studies for Germany and the UK uncover rather high impacts of Mega- Trucks on road – rail modal shares. The highest affected market segment is container shipments, where losses of rail demand up to 50 % are predicted. This, however, depends highly on assumptions on operational and service-related responses of the carriers due to declining demand. Across all unitised goods and container markets the study arrives at a risk for rail container shipments to be shifted to road between 10 % and 30 %. Mega-Trucks appear a strong competitor rather than a supplement to combined rail-road transport as their cost saving potential in long-distance unimodal road haulage is much higher than in terminal access. Actual implementation of Mega-Trucks in Sweden and field tests in the Netherlands and Germany have led so far to lower modal shift effects due to restrictions of Mega- Trucks to motorways in national traffic only and to specific exceptional permissions. Applications of the LOGIS model contrast this by arriving at reductions of rail container traffic by up to 85 % in high value trans European combined transport markets in case of the EU-wide allowance of 60t Mega-Trucks. Besides container markets Mega-Trucks are also expected to take some share of rail bulk goods markets. Given the specific industry structure in the UK, here a range between 5 % and 10 % is estimated for potential modal shift. The study has arrived at the following ranges of traffic volumes lost by the railways due to the introduction of 60 t Mega-Trucks: • Bulk goods including heavy industry and chemical products 3 % to 5 %, • Food, food products and semi final products 10 % to 15 %, • Continental container traffic 20 % to 30 % and • Maritime container traffic 10 % to 20 %."

Laurent Guihéry (Université Lumière Lyon 2), Transport routier de marchandises et coûts de personnel de conduite aux Pays-Bas. Etude conduite par Laurent Guihéry pour le compte du Comité National Routier. CNR, Paris, Octobre 2007, 46 p. [formato PDF, 700 kB] "Le troisième pavillon européen en transport routier de marchandises international est … celui des Pays-Bas ! Ses entreprises, majoritairement tournées vers l'international, ont développé un modèle économique surprenant, certes alimenté par le plus grand port maritime européen, mais étonnamment résistant à l'ouverture internationale du marché de TRM malgré ses coûts élevés. Ceux-ci sont probablement compensés par une forte productivité, même si elle n'est pas toujours bien révélée."

Laurent Guihéry (Université Lumière Lyon 2), Le TRM en Allemagne. Etude conduite par Laurent Guihéry pour le compte du Comité National Routier. CNR, Paris, Mars 2007, 98 p. [formato PDF, 1,58 MB] "Avec les mêmes camions, les mêmes lois européennes sur le temps de conduite, de travail et de repos, le même marché international, la même monnaie, des chauffeurs mieux payés à l'Ouest, des concurrents occidentaux plus proches, l'Allemagne réussit là où la France décline."

Mattias Hjort, Mattias Haraldsson, Jan M. Jansen, Road Wear from Heavy Vehicles – an overview. (Report nr. 08/2008). NVF (Nordic Road Association), Borlänge, Sverige, 2008, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,07 MB] "This report is an overview on how different studies of road wear have reported the effect of various vehicle dependent parameters, for heavy vehicles, such as axle load, tyre properties etc. The intention with this overview has only been to collect the different results, without any kind of evaluation. The overview is mainly based on Cebon’s Handbook of Vehicle-Road Interaction, the DIVINE project, and COST 334."

Jean-Noël Chapulut, Denise Ravet, Matthieu Bereni, L’acceptabilité sociale des poids lourds. Pour une régulation durable du transport routier de marchandises. Centre d'analyse stratégique, Paris, Avril 2008, 61 p. [formato PDF, 500 kB] + Annexes, 88 p. [formato PDF, 1,41 MB].

C.C. Schoon, G. Schermers, Risicoverhogende factoren voor langere en zwaardere vrachtautocombinaties op het onderliggend wegennet (Factors increasing the risk for longer heavier goods vehicles using the secondary road network). (R-2008-2). SWOV, Leidschendam, 2008, 37 p. [formato PDF, 533 KB]. "An LHV, a longer heavier goods vehicle - longer and heavier than the regular ones -, can only use the secondary road network when the local road authority has granted permission to do so. To support the road authorities, CROW Information and Technology Platform for Infrastructure, Traffic, Transport and Public space is preparing a publication containing the criteria which road sections and intersections must meet before permission can be granted. During the preparation several road safety questions came up. CROW turned to SWOV for the answers, and they are given in this report. The questions are about the following subjects: 1. risks of overtaking; 2. interaction with vulnerable road users at intersections; 3. suction effect on two-wheelers; 4. risks for moped riders using the roadway; 5. risks at dusk or dark. These questions aim to get answers about whether LHVs have an increased risk of a crash compared with regular vehicle combinations. Considering the short time limit for the answers, no new knowledge was gathered, but only available knowledge has been used."

Klaus-Peter Glaeser, Rolf Kaschner, Markus Lerner, Christian Kurt Roder, Roland Weber, Andreas Wolf, Ulf Zander, Auswirkungen von neuen Fahrzeugkonzepten auf die Infrastruktur des Bundesfernstraßennetzes. Schlussbericht (Effetti dei nuovi tipi di veicoli [camion da 60 t] sulle infrastrutture della rete stradale federale. Rapporto finale). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Bergisch Gladbach, November 2006, 180 p. [formato PDF, 6,32 MB]. "Die Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen wurde vom Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung damit beauftragt, die technischen Fragen derartiger Lastzugkombinationen auf dem Bundesfernstraßennetz zu untersuchen. Entsprechend der zu bearbeitenden vorwiegend technischen Fragestellung waren weder die speditionsseitig zu erwartenden Nutzen, noch die ökologisch prognostizierten Erwartungen einer Einsparung von Treibstoff und einer Verringerung der Abgasemissionen Gegenstand der Untersuchungen. Die Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen hat eine Arbeitsgruppe eingerichtet, die mit diesem Bericht die Ergebnisse ihrer Bearbeitung vorgelegt hat. Die Untersuchungen konzentrierten sich im Einzelnen auf die folgenden Themenschwerpunkte: Auswirkungen auf die Straßenschädigung; Auswirkungen auf die Brücken und Tunnel; Befahrbarkeit von Verkehrsanlagen; Beeinflussung des Verkehrsablaufs; Unfallgeschehen."

Klaus-Peter Glaeser, Rolf Kaschner, Markus Lerner, Christian Kurt Roder, Roland Weber, Andreas Wolf, Ulf Zander, Effects of new vehicle concepts on the infrastructure of the federal trunk road network. Final report. Abstract (Effetti dei nuovi tipi di veicoli sulle infrastrutture della rete stradale federale. Rapporto finale. Riassunto). BASt (Federal Highway Research Institute), Bergisch Gladbach, November 2006, 5 p. [formato PDF, 32 KB]. Riassunto in lingua inglese del rapporto finale steso per il governo tedesco sui possibili effetti dei gigaliners sulle infrastrutture stradali federali in Germania.

Keine Monstertrucks! www.gueter-auf-die-schiene-de. Campagna contro i camion-mostro ("gigaliners") da 60 t e per il trasferimento del trasporto di merci dalla strada alla rotaia, promossa dalle associazioni aderenti ad Allianz pro Schiene.

MTRU, Heavier lorries and their impacts on the economy and the Environment (for Freight on Rail). October 2007, 20 p. [formato PDF, 113 KB]. Research undertaken on Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) by independent transport consultants MTRU, commissioned by Freight on Rail. "This report considers three key questions: Do bigger and heavier lorries reduce traffic? Does cheaper HGV travel encourage more of it? How important are the largest HGVs in producing greenhouse gas? After examining the most reliable sources of national statistics, the conclusions are: 1. Rather surprisingly, there is no direct evidence of larger or heavier lorries leading to reductions in the numbers of HGVs or total HGV traffic (measured as vehicle kilometres). 2. Despite several increases in maximum weight and volume, the average payload has fallen instead of rising. 3. One likely reason for the predicted benefits not arising is the bunching of almost all new vehicles at the maximum permitted weight, rather than a range of weights suited to actual loads. 4. The sensitivity of HGV vehicle kilometres to changes in cost in the UK appears to have been seriously underestimated, particularly taking mode transfer into account. 5. HGV traffic is an important source of greenhouse emissions from transport, second only to cars and vans and to international aviation. 6. Emissions from HGV traffic have grown significantly since 1990, by 25-30%, the latest revised DEFRA assessment appears substantially correct. 7. Without a significant change in freight policy, HGV emissions will not meet the targets in the draft Climate Change Bill. 8. A combined approach, transferring mode, reducing the amount that goods have to travel and improving vehicle fuel efficiency, could reduce CO2 emissions by 27% in a 10-15 year period. 9. This reduction would enable the freight sector to meet the Government’s Climate Change Bill targets for 2020."

Relazioni del convegno T&E di Vienna (27-28 ottobre 2004) "Conference on Sustainable Transport in Sensitive Areas" sul sito T&E . I temi sono: traffico merci e aree sensibili, esempi dalle Alpi e dai Pirenei, la Convenzione delle Alpi, il trasporto intermodale, il trasferimento del trasporto merci dalla strada alla rotaia, la tassazione del trasporto su camion (esempi dalla Svizzera e dall’Austria), le infrastrutture stradali in Slovenia e Repubblica Ceca, la VIA strategica, ed altro ancora.

Sustainable Freight Transport sito a cura di T&E

Federtrasporto (imprese aderenti a Confindustria)

Confetra Centro Studi

Freight Leaders Club, libera associazione privata, che riunisce i principali utenti e i principali rappresentanti del settore dei trasporti in Italia

IRU, International Road Transport Union

No Mega Trucks Campaign. The website NO MEGA TRUCKS is intended to provide information about longer and heavier vehicles and to give organisations from across Europe the opportunity to take a stand and become active in their own countries. Remember - the transport ministers and members of the European parliament from every country in the EU directly influence the decisions made by the Commission.


Hans Visser, Aad van den Engel, Study on the feasibility of organising a network of secured parking areas for road transport operators on the Trans European Road Network. Final Report. NEA Transport research and training, Rijswijk, January 2007, 134 p. [formato PDF, 5,66 MB]. "The European Commission has commissioned this study to investigate the extent of the security problems in and around parking areas, explore possible improvements/solutions of the problems and examine the regulatory and financial conditions for the provision of secure rest places."

Hans Visser, Aad van den Engel, Study on the feasibility of organising a network of secured parking areas for road transport operators on the Trans European Road Network. Final Report. Country Studies. NEA Transport research and training, Rijswijk, January 2007, 174 p. [formato PDF, 2,70 MB]. "This report accompanies the main report of the study on the feasibility of organising a network of secured parking areas for road transport operators on the Trans European Road Network. It presents the results of an inventory per country that is made up of information that is available on truck parking areas, criminality and legislation."


Freight on Rail - on track for sustainability. "Freight on Rail's aim is to get goods off roads and onto our railways as an important step in developing a more sustainable distribution system. Freight on Rail is a partnership between the transport trade unions, the Rail Freight Group, Network Rail, Transport 2000 and the rail freight operating companies." Portale per la promozione del trasporto merci su ferrovia, organizzato da aziende e sindacati.

Joaquin Jiménez Otero (ADIF - Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias), Developing the European Rail Freight Network in Spain. UIC, TREND Project Conference, Paris, 4th july 2006, presentation, 38 slides [formato PDF, 5,40 MB]. Lo sviluppo del sistema ferroviario spagnolo nell'ambito delle reti europee, con particolare attenzione alle direttrici transfrontaliere attraverso i Pirenei e le Alpi.


Pira International, Evaluation of EU Policy on the Transport of Dangerous Goods since 1994. TREN/E3/43-2003, Final Report. Section One: Policy Overview. 30 April 2005, 152 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB].

Pira International, Evaluation of EU Policy on the Transport of Dangerous Goods since 1994. TREN/E3/43-2003, Final Report. Section Two: Statistical Overview. 30 April 2005, 117 p. [formato PDF, 1,20 MB].

Renato Mari (Responsabile Servizi Logistici Federchimica), La sicurezza nel trasporto delle merci pericolose. Relazione di inquadramento al Convegno, Mobility Conference Exhibition, Milano, 30 gennaio 2006, presentazione, 43 slides [formato PowerPoint, 1,23 MB].

Salvatore La Fata (Primo Dirigente Polizia di Stato), Il controllo sui trasporti stradali delle merci pericolose. Intervento al Convegno, Mobility Conference Exhibition, Milano, 30 gennaio 2006, presentazione, 65 slides [formato PowerPoint, 2,57 MB].

Giuseppe Smeriglio (Direttore Trenitalia Logistica), La sicurezza nel trasporto delle merci pericolose. Intervento al Convegno, Mobility Conference Exhibition, Milano, 30 gennaio 2006, presentazione, 15 slides [formato PowerPoint, 2,66 MB].

Francesco Carpinteri (Capo Ufficio Sicurezza della Navigazione, Comando Generale del Corpo della Capitaneria di Porto), Normative sul trasporto marittimo di merci pericolose in imballaggi. Intervento al Convegno "La sicurezza nel trasporto delle merci pericolose", Mobility Conference Exhibition, Milano, 30 gennaio 2006, 7 p. [formato PDF, 127 kB].

Freight Leaders Club, Il trasporto delle merci pericolose via strada e ferrovia. Guida all'interpretazione della normativa vigente. Quaderni FLC n.17, Milano, ottobre 2005, 128 p. [formato PDF, 6,33 MB - zippato 5,55 MB].

GUNDI, Gefahrgutunfall-Datenbank in Internet (in tedesco) = banca dati sugli incidenti nel trasporto di merci pericolose

Il trasporto...pericoloso [blog]. News e commenti on line dal mondo del trasporto delle merci pericolose ...a cura di Enrico Cappella.


Comitato Centrale dell’Albo degli Autotrasportatori (Italia)