InforMare Quotidiano online per gli operatori e gli utenti del trasporto

Adriatic Sea Network, portale sull'economia del mare dell'Alto Adriatico è il primo portale italiano di informazioni marittime dedicato a porti, trasporto merci e passeggeri, cantieristica navale, politica economica, logistica, nautica e tecnologie. Il sito è curato dalla redazione multimediale del Secolo XIX ed è aggiornato, in tempo reale, sette giorni su sette (Genova). (Live Ships Map). This web site is part of an academic, open, community-based project. It is dedicated in collecting and presenting data which are exploited in research areas. It provides free real-time information to the public, about ship movements and ports, mainly across the coast-lines of many countries around the world. The project is currently hosted by the Department of Product and Systems Design Engineering, University of the Aegean, Greece. The initial data collection is based on the Automatic Identification System (AIS).


The Clean Shipping Coalition is the only global international environmental organisation that focuses exclusively on shipping issues (Brussels).

DEVPORT, recherche en géographie, aménagement et économie maritime, portuaire et logistique. DEVPORT est un réseau de chercheurs qui travaillent sur les problématiques maritimes et portuaires ainsi que sur les impacts terrestres de ces activités.

Seas At Risk, the European association of non-governmental environmental organisations working to protect and restore to health the marine environment of the European seas and the wider North East Atlantic.

PortEconomics is a web-based initiative aiming to advance knowledge exchange on seaport studies. Developed by maritime economists affiliated to academic institutions in three different European countries (Belgium, Greece and the Netherlands), it provides freely accessible research, education, information, and network-building material on critical issues of port economics, management and policies.

PortEconomics at Erasmus University, Rotterdam (NL).

Freight by Water promotes the movement of UK domestic freight and near-continental import/export by short-sea, coastal and inland waterborne transport. Established in 2003, it is recognised by Government as the UK's official Shortsea Promotion Centre. It is a membership organisation that collectively represents ship, barge and port operators, shippers and various other maritime-related organisations and consultants. As a not-for-profit body, it receives funding from the Department for Transport which recognises its aim to strengthen both UK and European freight transport policy. (in precedenza denominato "Sea and Water").

ISTIEE, Istituto per lo Studio dei Trasporti nell'Integrazione Economica Europea (Trieste)

CIRT, Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Trasporti (Università di Genova)

CTE Center for Transportation and the Environment (NCSU, North Carolina State University, USA)

EMSA, European Maritime Safety Agency

IAPH, the International Association of Ports and Harbors

The IMarEST - The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, London (UK). The leading international membership body and learned society for marine professionals, with over 15,000 members worldwide.

Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) (D)

INRETS, Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité

ISL, Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics - Institut für Seeverkehrswirtschaft und Logistik (Bremen, D)

Korea Maritime Institute (KMI). Center for Global Maritime Research.

Lighthouse Maritime Competence Centre, Göteborg, Sweden. Lighthouse is a unique multidisciplinary maritime competence and research centre initiated by Chalmers, the School of Business, Economics and Law at Göteborg University and The Swedish Shipowners’ Association. The group aims to make shipping more efficient, safer and more environmentally friendly as well as to ensure that Swedish shipping continues to be strongly competitive.

Logistica economica, Università di Napoli (a cura di Ennio Forte) : logistica, portualità, autostrade del mare

NAPA, North Adriatic Ports Association (Ravenna, Venice, Trieste, Koper, Rijeka).

Osservatorio permanente sui traffici di cabotaggio marittimo a corto raggio nel Mediterraneo, portale sul Short Sea Shipping, ora inserito nel portale TRAIL, il portale della mobilità e dei trasporti in Liguria.

EMAR – Séminaire Maritime INRETS. I seminari dell'INRETS e dell'ISEMAR (Institut Supérieur d’Economie Maritime) affrontano i temi del trasporto intermodale, del rapporto tra ferrovie e porti e del Short Sea Shipping (documenti riassuntivi, presentazioni e documenti di sintesi in lingua francese)

EcoPorts Foundation (EPF). The EcoPorts Foundation is a network of Ports and Port related stakeholders sharing environmental experience. A non profit organization, the Foundation was established in 1999 by European ports for the benefit of ports and port communities.

Rete Autostrade Mediterranee S.p.A è la Società creata nel 2004 dall’Agenzia nazionale per l’attrazione degli investimenti e lo sviluppo di impresa Spa già Sviluppo Italia, a seguito di una convenzione con il Ministero dei Trasporti e delle Infrastrutture già Ministero dei Trasporti, per promuovere l’attuazione del Programma Nazionale delle Autostrade del Mare, che fa capo al più vasto Progetto europeo Autostrade del Mare, inserito nel Piano Generale delle Reti Transeuropee TEN-T. L’obiettivo è di promuovere lo sviluppo delle reti di trasporto marittime, garantendo un accesso privilegiato ai Paesi che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo.

Short Sea Shipping (Ufficio di promozione - Italia). Informazioni su porti e linee, documenti e statistiche. is an initiative launched by the Carbon War Room and industry-leading partners to increase information flows around international shipping's energy efficiency and ultimately help reduce the environmental impacts of the world's shipping fleet. enables anyone with access to the internet to tell an efficient, low-emission ship from an less efficient one, for the first time. Using a simple search function, users can pull up an A to G rating for around 60,000 existing ships, including the majority of the world's container ships, tankers, bulk carriers, cargo ships, cruise ships and ferries. The rating uses methodology developed by the United Nations' International Maritime Organization's (IMO) for the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and data from the world's largest ship registry, IHS Fairplay. Ship-owners and operators are encouraged to update records at when efficiency improvements to vessels have been implemented.

The World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI) is dedicated fighting against climate change by initiating programs at the ports that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. Supported by the world’s leading marine ports' organization, the project ports and scroll ports are working together and implementing a wide range of actions to achieve these objectives.

The Worldwide Ferry Safety Association is a not-for-profit dedicated to bringing innovation in training methods, as well as use of technology to provide notification for sudden hazardous weather, curb overloading, and enhance marine rescue technology.


Nikita Pavlenko, Bryan Comer, Yuanrong Zhou, Nigel Clark, Dan Rutherford, The climate implications of using LNG as a marine fuel. Working Paper 2020-02. International Council on Clean Transportation, January 2020, 40 p. [formato PDF, 887 kB]. "Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) contains less carbon per unit of energy than conventional marine fuels, its use might not reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a life-cycle basis. This paper compares the life-cycle GHG emissions of LNG, marine gas oil (MGO), very low sulfur fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil when used in engines suitable for international shipping, including cruise ships. The analysis includes upstream emissions, combustion emissions, and unburned methane (methane slip), and we evaluate the climate impacts using 100-year and 20-year global warming potentials (GWPs). Over a 100-year time frame, the maximum life-cycle GHG benefit of LNG is a 15% reduction compared with MGO, and this is only if ships use a high-pressure injection dual fuel (HPDF) engine and upstream methane emissions are well-controlled. However, the latter might prove difficult as more LNG production shifts to shale gas, and given recent evidence that upstream methane leakage could be higher than previously expected. Additionally, only 90 of the more than 750 LNG-fueled ships in service or on order use HPDF engines. Using a 20-year GWP, which better reflects the urgency of reducing GHGs to meet the climate goals of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and factoring in higher upstream emissions for all systems and crankcase emissions for low-pressure systems, there is no climate benefit from using LNG, regardless of the engine technology. HPDF engines using LNG emitted 4% more life-cycle GHG emissions than if they used MGO. The most popular LNG engine technology is low-pressure dual fuel, four-stroke, medium-speed, which is used on at least 300 ships; it is especially popular with LNG- fueled cruise ships. Results show this technology emitted 70% more life-cycle GHGs when it used LNG instead of MGO and 82% more than using MGO in a comparable medium-speed diesel (MSD) engine. Given this, we conclude that using LNG does not deliver the emissions reductions required by the IMO's initial GHG strategy, and that using it could actually worsen shipping's climate impacts. Further, continuing to invest in LNG infrastructure on ships and on shore might make it harder to transition to low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels in the future. Investing instead in energy-saving technologies, wind-assisted propulsion, zero-emission fuels, batteries, and fuel cells would deliver both air quality and climate benefits."

Anastasia Christodoulou, Marta Gonzalez-Aregall, Tobias Linde, Inge Vierth, Kevin Cullinane, Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air. A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures. Maritime Business Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2019, pp. 16-30 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 709 kB]. "Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the various initiatives developed and implemented across the globe for the abatement of maritime air emissions. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, an extensive survey of various sources was conducted, including the official reports of international and regional institutions, government policy documents, port authority websites, classification society pages, private firms' sites and the academic literature. The initiatives were then categorized in accordance with the classification of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software to give some insight into their frequencies and the interrelationships between them. Findings - This exploratory review resulted in the establishment of a comprehensive global database of initiatives encouraged by the whole range of shipping stakeholders and decision-makers for the reduction of shipping air emissions. According to the findings, economic incentives that provide motivation for the adoption of less environmentally damaging practices are the most commonly used initiative, followed by infrastructure investments and informative policies. Research limitations/implications - The results provide implications for further research that include an in-depth analysis of ports' policies, as well as an evaluation of initiatives applied on a large scale to map their emissions reduction potential for shipping. Originality/value - The main contribution of this paper is the identification and analysis of all the diverse initiatives implemented globally in a comprehensive way and its dealing with air pollution from shipping as a whole."

Transport & Environment, One corporation to pollute them all. Luxury cruise air emissions in Europe. Transport & Environment, Brussels, June 2019, 29 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "The main purpose of this study is to analyse air pollution caused by luxury passenger cruise ships in European waters. The results show that the luxury cruise brands owned by Carnival Corporation & PLC emitted in 2017 in European seas alone 10 times more disease-causing sulphur oxide than all of Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Norway are the most exposed countries to cruise ship air pollution in Europe. Among the major cruise ports, Barcelona, Palma Mallorca and Venice are the most polluted. Analysis also reveals that even in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), where the most stringent marine sulphur fuel standard is mandated, air pollution from cruise ships remains of great concern. In Denmark, for example, whose coasts are entirely within SECAs, cruise ships emitted 18 times more SOX in 2017 than all 2.5 million passenger vehicles in a year. This is a reflection of both the effectiveness of the fuel quality directive for road transport fuels and the failure to implement equivalent standards for the shipping industry. Ships SOX will still remain considerably large compared to passenger car fleet even after the introduction of the global 2020 marine sulphur cap. When it comes to nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, cruise ships are also of great concern despite the air pollution impact of the ongoing land-based "dieselgate" in Europe. In Denmark again, 107 cruise ships analysed emitted as much NOX in the Danish maritime economic exclusive zone (EEZ) as half the passenger cars operating in the country itself. This report recommends a zero-emission berth standard for all European ports. In addition, extra stringent air pollution standards are recommended to apply to cruise ships. These ships usually operate close to the coast with long port calls at major tourist destinations, hence disproportionately affecting air quality. Initially, it is recommended to extend the emission control areas, currently in place in the North and Baltic Seas, to the rest of the EU seas and to tighten marine SECA standard in Europe to 10ppm, equivalent to fuel used in road transport. The report also suggests that cruise ships, the industry's public-facing luxury segment, be looked up and targeted as first-movers in regulations to decarbonise the sector. So, in addition to a zero-emission berth standard, cruise ships should also be the first required to switch to zero emission propulsion in EU territorial waters."

Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola, Theo Notteboom, Towards low carbon global supply chains: a multi-trade analysis of CO2 emission reductions in container shipping. PortEconomics, Conference Paper for the International Association of Maritime Economists 2018 Conference (IAME2018), held 11-14 September 2018, Mombasa, Kenya, 20 slides [formato PDF, 2,3 MB]. "How individual factors contribute to the carbon footprint associated with international maritime container supply chains? This is the key question of the latest port study co-authored by PortEconomics members Pierre Cariou, Francesco Parola and Theo Notteboom. The authors advance their research providing four key contributions: Identify six key contributing factors to container shipping emissions; Develop a model to isolate the contribution of individual factors; Apply the model to long-term emissions associated to 187 container services deployed in 2007 and 170 services in 2016; Discuss how their results can be used by shippers/logistics service providers to design low-carbon global supply chains."

Chris N. Le Fevre, A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine transport fuel. OIES PAPER: NG 133. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK, June 2018, 35 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. This in part is due to the relatively poor data quality on marine fuel usage but primarily a reflection on the still early nature of market development and uncertainties over alternative fuel options. This paper, which is a follow up to an earler study published in 2013, aims: to assess the most promising sectors for LNG in marine transportation in global shipping markets; to derive a set of metrics that could be used to generate forecasts of LNG demand in the marine sector and to assess the validity of current forecasts; to assess the current state and planned state of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development; to briefly mention the comparative prospects for LNG in land-based transport. The paper concludes that the shipping sectors that are likely to be more promising for LNG include ro-ro ferries, cruise ships, bulk carriers, large container vessels, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, LNG tankers. It would also appear that because of the costs of retrofitting, most LNG-fuelled ships will be newly built and owners/operators are unlikely to commit without concluding a long-term supply contract covering both pricing and physical delivery. LNG suppliers which are prepared to conclude such contracts will provide an important stimulus to the market. The lead times involved and the relatively low capital cost of infrastructure suggest that refuelling capacity is unlikely to be a constraint. A review of recent forecasts suggest that global demand will be in the range of 25 to 30 mtpa of LNG by 2030. The paper describes how many new or converted vessels fuelled by LNG would be required to reach this level, how it might be achieved and where the main obstacles to uptake are likely to occur. It concludes, that on balance, a demand level of around 15 mtpa (excluding LNG tankers) by 2030 is a more realistic prospect at present."

Eunice O. Olaniyi, Sina Atari, Gunnar Prause (Tallinn University of Technology), Maritime Energy Contracting for Clean Shipping. Transport and Telecommunication, 2018, volume 19, no. 1, 31-44 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,0 MB]. Open Access. "To reduce the Sulphur emission from shipping and ensure clean shipping, a number of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) were enforced in special areas around the globe. From 2015, in SECA, ship owners are not allowed to use fuel with more than 0.1% Sulphur content. One of the major concerns for the SECA regulation is that maritime stakeholders have had to take into consideration the costs as well as the tolerable risks of their compliance investment options. Besides that, low freight rates have increased the competition and had caused financial pressure on ship owners so that lower capital reserves and low credibility levels limit the manoeuvring space for investment activities. The indications from BSR after 2015 showed that the low fuel price has eased the economic effects of the SECA regulation and as a result, most ship owners have delayed their investment decisions. Even though the postponement of emission abatement techniques seems to have reduced the compliance expenses for SECA, they, however, did not improve the position of shipowners relative to their competitors. Consequently, new policy instruments to stimulate innovation, to raise competitiveness and to comply with the new environmental regulations are needed. It would have been easier to hedge fuel price volatility and offer maritime logistics services for a lower price, but to be able to ensure sustainable results in long-term, maritime stakeholders must be ready to device astute strategies that can propel them to unparalleled advantage. This research first appraised the investment risks and payback period associated with the scrubber using different capital budgeting methods. It further illustrated the Maritime Energy Contracting (MEC) model as a market mechanism for the delivery of a cost-effective emission reduction using the scrubber technology as well as an instrument to realise a competitive advantage for ship operators. The results are empirically validated by case studies from BSR."

Michael Traut, Alice Larkin, Kevin Anderson, Christophe McGlade, Maria Sharmina & Tristan Smith, CO2 abatement goals for international shipping. Climate Policy, 2018, (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB]. Open Access. "The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016, sets the ambitious climate change mitigation goal of limiting the global temperature increase to below 2°C and ideally 1.5°C. This puts a severe constraint on the remaining global GHG emissions budget. While international shipping is also a contributor to anthropogenic GHG emissions, and CO2 in particular, it is not included in the Paris Agreement. This article discusses how a share of a global CO2 budget over the twenty-first century could be apportioned to international shipping, and, using a range of future trade scenarios, explores the requisite cuts to the CO2 intensity of shipping. The results demonstrate that, under a wide range of assumptions, existing short-term levers of efficiency must be urgently exploited to achieve mitigation commensurate with that required from the rest of the economy, with virtually full decarbonization of international shipping required as early as before mid-century."

Fuelling Maritime Shipping with Liquefied Natural Gas. The Case of Japan. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, April 2018, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,9 MB]. "The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a ship fuel is expected to increase significantly from its current marginal share in the coming years. This will require new facilities where ships can take on board the LNG. Japan is positioning itself as a potential hub in Asia for LNG refuelling. This study assesses the factors that will influence the realisation of that ambition."

Decarbonising Maritime Transport. The Case of Sweden. Case-Specific Policy Analysis Report. International Transport Forum, Paris, March 2018, 30 p. [formato PDF, 2,7 MB]. "This report examines the factors that have put Sweden at the forefront of decarbonisation of maritime transport, and how other countries could learn from this success story. It details Sweden's efforts to decarbonise its shipping industry and sheds light on remaining challenges and potential solutions to achieve zero-carbon shipping."

Izabela Kotowska (Maritime University of Szczecin), Policies applied by seaport authorities to create sustainable development in port cities. 2nd International Conference "Green Cities - Green Logistics for Greener Cities", 2-3 March 2016, Szczecin, Poland. Transportation Research Procedia 16 (2016) 236-243 (8 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "Policies for sustainable development of transport rely on three pillars: striving for stable social and economic growth, while reducing the pollution and protecting the natural resources. Seaports play a significant role in economic growth of port cities. In each such a city the port generates even several thousand jobs directly connected with the port operation. Unfortunately, the port activities also affect the natural environment. Both sea vessels and means of transport used in the hinterland are a major source of pollution. The purpose of this article is to present the role of port authorities in creating sustainable growth of transport through striving for reduction of transport externalities."

Johanna Yliskylä-Peuralahti (University of Turku), Sustainable Energy Transitions in Maritime Transport. The Case of Biofuels. The Journal of Sustainable Mobility, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 67-93, December 2016 (27 p.) [formato PDF, 837 kB]. "In maritime transport, progress towards a reduction in the environmental impacts, and responses to more recent calls for corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been slow and geographically highly uneven. In this paper the multi-level perspective of transition studies is used as an analytical setting to understand the drivers and barriers for the environmental upgrading of maritime transport in the Baltic Sea region. The specific focus of the analysis is on energy questions in the shipping industry. A case study methodology is followed in gathering and analysis of the data. With a company case, a possible path to biofuel use in maritime transport is illustrated; and, in the light of the sustainability transition framework, the potential barriers that new renewable energy niches are currently facing-before they can become mainstream technologies-are discussed. The results show that at a landscape level, low fossil fuel prices reduce the economic profitability of using non-fossil energy sources in maritime transport, and inhibit the development of related infrastructure. At a regime-level, the limited demand for low-emission, non-fossil fuel-based maritime transport from the side of the cargo-owners, lack of interest, and maritime regulations that do not currently support greenhouse gas reduction or energy efficiency strongly enough, hinder the transition. The paper ends with a discussion and conclusions section, summarizing the research and highlighting policy implications."

International Transport Forum, Reducing Sulphur Emissions from Ships. The Impact of International Regulation. (International Transport Forum Policy Papers, No. 18). OECD, Paris, 2016, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,8 MB]. "This study assesses the impact of international sulphur emission reduction regulations on global shipping. Ships emit a large amount of sulphur oxides that have significant health impacts. To mitigate these, international regulations cap the sulphur content of ship fuel. In certain parts of the world, emission control areas (ECAs) with even stricter standards have been established. In the emission control areas, new requirements introduced in 2015 limit the sulphur content of ship fuel to 0.10%. A new, lower global sulphur cap of 0.50% is planned for 2020. This report examines the 2015 cap effects on shipping and the potential effects of the new requirements foreseen for 2020. It assesses the cost increase for maritime transport associated with the sulphur caps, impacts on shipping operations as well as on other transport modes, and on the environment. The report also highlights policy gaps and challenges for the enforcement of sulphur emissions regulation for shipping."

Helen Sampson, Michael Bloor, Susan Baker and Katrin Dahlgren, Greener shipping? A consideration of the issues associated with the introduction of emission control areas. Maritime Policy and Management, 2015 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 366 kB]. Open Access. "This paper draws upon original research undertaken in the United Kingdom and Sweden. It considers the enforcement of regulations associated with the limitation of air emissions from shipping. Specifically, it considers the enforcement of regulations pertaining to the Baltic and North Sea emission control areas (ECAs). The paper outlines the steps that have been taken to ensure vessel compliance in these ECAs. It describes the effectiveness of such enforcement as well as current limitations and gives specific emphasis to the views of vessel operators. The paper ends with a series of recommendations that have been arrived at following discussion of the research findings with a select group of industry experts."

Ipek Gençsü and Miyuki Hino, Raising Ambition to Reduce International Aviation and Maritime Emissions. Working Paper. Contributing paper for Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2015, 24 p. [formato PDF, 849 kB]. "Global aviation and shipping together produce about 5% of global CO2 emissions, and by 2050 this is expected to rise to 10–32%. Yet these sectors offer some of the most costeffective emission reductions available today, particularly through improved fuel efficiency. There is a 27% difference in the fuel efficiency of the least and most fuel-efficient US airlines, and the most efficient crude oil tankers are about one-fifth as fuel-intensive as the least efficient. While domestic aviation and shipping are covered under national policies and emissions inventories, international aviation and shipping, which make up the majority of emissions, are not. Two specialised UN agencies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), govern international aviation and shipping activities, and are therefore best placed to drive further action. While ICAO has committed to introducing measures to cap net emissions at 2020 levels, and new IMO design efficiency standards for new ships are expected to lead to efficiency gains that will save an average of US$200 billion in annual fuel costs by 2030, progress in both sectors has been slow. The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate recommends that emissions from the international aviation and maritime sectors be reduced in line with a 2°C pathway through action under ICAO and the IMO. ICAO should take a decision in 2016 to start implementation of a market-based measure (MBM) from 2020, and should also introduce a stringent aircraft CO2 standard. The IMO should adopt a global emission reduction target, and promote fuel saving through strong operational efficiency standards and a supporting data-sharing system. These measures could help reduce annual GHG emissions by 0.6–0.9 Gt CO2e by 2030".

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Anna Mellin, Effects of more stringent sulphur requirements for sea transports. European Transport Conference 2014. Transportation Research Procedia 8 (2015) 125-135 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 414 kB]. Open Access. "In 2008 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided on more stringent requirements from 2015 for airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide from sea transports in the sulphur emission control areas (SECA). The European SECA comprises the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. The paper contains an overview of the European studies that have been carried out to investigate the impacts of IMO´s more stringent sulphur requirements. All studies were carried out after IMO´s decision in 2008 (which means that the decision was taken based on other reasons). The studies focus on different aspects but all of them estimate how IMO´s stricter requirements will affect the sea transport costs. The Swedish impact studies are described in particular: in the 2009 study the national transport model Samgods was used and in 2013 both the Samgods model and the agent-based simulation model Tapas. Impacts on the choice of transport chains, routes and ports are calculated. The results indicate that shippers to some extent can reduce the increase in transport cost by transferring flows from the Swedish east coast to the Swedish south and west coast, the Norwegian coast and the land-based route via Denmark. Modal back shifts from sea to rail and road occur. These shifts are modest, especially if higher prices for diesel and higher rail track fees are assumed on top of more stringent sulphur requirements in the SECA. One important question is to what extent the increases in costs that are due to more stringent requirements can be compensated for by improved efficiency of the transports, such as the exploitation of economies of scale."

Linjie Hou, Harry Geerlings, Port related transport management and the governance of air pollution: A comparative study on emission standards between china and Europe and the position of ports. European Transport \ Trasporti Europei (2014), Issue 56, Paper n° 9 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 237 kB]. "It can be observed that hinterland connections of ports have experienced an unprecedented growth over the last two decades due to the emerging economies in the Asian countries and the related process globalization. At the same time, this development has sincere negative effects on the natural environment, in particular emissions with a regional impact and emission with a global effect, in particular CO2 emissions. Addressing these issue is becoming more urgent but there are different approached to come to a coherent strategy. Emission standards are a promising tool as they can set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that is emitted into the environment. Therefor standards setting can be considered as an efficient way of direct regulation to realize objectives on the global, national, regional and local level as they do not only set limits (a constraint on behavior), but standards can also function as a positive impetus to stimulate technological development. This paper focus the role of standards from a port and hinterland transport perspective and it describes the various policy initiatives undertaken in China and Europe (who represent the biggest ports in the world) with respect to standard setting in transportation with the aim to improve the air quality in ports and the hinterland connections and the results of these efforts so far. The most striking conclusion is that, despite the sense of urgency, the public concern and the willingness of the government in China to address air pollution, standards are completely lacking. This is in contrast to Europe where clear standards are formulated for vehicle emissions even for the period after 2020."

S. Becagli, D. M. Sferlazzo, G. Pace, A. di Sarra, C. Bommarito, G. Calzolai, C. Ghedini, F. Lucarelli, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, M. Severi, R. Traversi, and R. Udisti, Evidence for heavy fuel oil combustion aerosols from chemical analyses at the island of Lampedusa: a possible large role of ships emissions in the Mediterranean. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3479-3492, 2012 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 2,08 MB]. "Measurements of aerosol chemical composition made on the island of Lampedusa, south of the Sicily channel, during years 2004–2008, are used to identify the influence of heavy fuel oil (HFO) combustion emissions on aerosol particles in the Central Mediterranean. Aerosol samples influenced by HFO are characterized by elevated Ni and V soluble fraction (about 80% for aerosol from HFO combustion, versus about 40% for crustal particles), high V and Ni to Si ratios, and values of Vsol>6 ng m-3. Evidence of HFO combustion influence is found in 17% of the daily samples. Back trajectories analysis on the selected events show that air masses prevalently come from the Sicily channel region, where an intense ship traffic occurs. This behavior suggests that single fixed sources like refineries are not the main responsible for the elevated V and Ni events, which are probably mainly due to ships emissions. Vsol, Nisol, and non-sea salt SO4²- (nssSO4²-) show a marked seasonal behaviour, with an evident summer maximum. Such a pattern can be explained by several processes: (i) increased photochemical activity in summer, leading to a faster production of secondary aerosols, mainly nssSO4²-, from the oxidation of SO2 (ii) stronger marine boundary layer (MBL) stability in summer, leading to higher concentration of emitted compounds in the lowest atmospheric layers. A very intense event in spring 2008 was studied in detail, also using size segregated chemical measurements. These data show that elements arising from heavy oil combustion (V, Ni, Al, Fe) are distributed in the sub-micrometric fraction of the aerosol, and the metals are present as free metals, carbonates, oxides hydrates or labile complex with organic ligands, so that they are dissolved in mild condition (HNO3, pH1.5). Data suggest a characteristic nssSO4²-/V ratio in the range 200–400 for HFO combustion aerosols in summer at Lampedusa. By using the value of 200 a lower limit for the HFO contribution to total sulphates is estimated. HFO combustion emissions account, as a summer average, at least for 1.2 µg m-3, representing about 30% of the total nssSO4²-, 3.9% of PM10, 8% of PM2.5, and 11% of PM1. Within the used dataset, sulphate from HFO combustion emissions reached the peak value of 6.1 µg m-3 on 26 June 2008, when it contributed by 47% to nssSO4²-, and by 15% to PM10."

Alyson Azzara, Dan Rutherford, Haifeng Wang, Feasibility of IMO Annex VI Tier III implementation using Selective Catalytic Reduction. (Working paper 2014-4). ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), March 2014, 9 p. [formato PDF, 262 kB]. "In 2008 the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) agreed upon progressively stricter limitations for nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from vessels based on their date of engine installation, with the strictest Tier III requirements to take effect in designated Emission Control Areas (ECA) beginning in 2016. At MEPC-66 in April 2014, an amendment that would delay the introduction of the Tier III standards to 2021 will be considered based on concerns arising from perceived equipment, supply chain, and cost barriers raised at MEPC-65. This paper investigates the current status of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), a key technology to meet Tier III requirements. Challenges and costs of the technology, including applicability to various engine and vessel types, potential environmental side effects, urea and catalyst availability and disposal, and anticipated system costs, are discussed. Based on this evaluation of technological capabilities and history of successful application of SCR technology to maritime vessels, we find no substantial equipment, supply chain, or cost barriers to necessitate the delay of IMO’s Tier III requirements."

Dagmar Nelissen, Jasper Faber, Economic impacts of MRV of fuel and emissions in maritime transport. Report. Delft, CE Delft, January 2014, 40 p. [formato PDF, 504 kB]. "In June 2013, the European Commission issued a legislative proposal to establish an EU system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) of CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports. There are different methods to monitor fuel on ships. This report analyses the costs and accuracy of the different methods. Methods with low investment costs in general incur higher costs in monitoring and reporting. The accuracy of the different methods varies significantly: from about 5% for bunker delivery notes to potentially less than 0.5% for fuel flow monitoring. This also has an impact on the potential environmental benefits. While MRV in itself will not result in efficiency improvements, accurate data about fuel consumption can provide a basis for taking action to improve efficiency. Less accurate methods are unlikely to result in efficiency improvements."

Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Josephine S. C. Chong, Supply Chain Decarbonisation in Shipping and Logistics Transportation. Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2013, 233-237 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 548 kB]. "The development and implementation of decarbonisation in shipping and logistics transportation is crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the perspective of products, supply chain, and organizations. There are increasing research interests on supply chain decarbonisation initiated by severe climate change, environmental awareness, government policy pressure, and corporate sustainability responsibility. A decarbonisation framework is developed as backbone for the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction in freight transport. The framework includes the introduction and review of the life cycle assessment, performance measurement metric, model emission targets, implementation, and monitoring tools. Carbon dioxide life cycle assessment is discussed with a recent example of a global fortune 500 corporations. Latest development and examples of carbon auditing and carbon calculator are presented. A review on the recent decarbonisation technology development and industrial practice is conducted with examples from companies from global 500. The analysis in the paper provides useful means for the future direction needed towards reducing the greenhouse gas emission in supply chain and logistics, with consideration on technology, education, corporation social responsibility, public environmental awareness, and government measures."

Po-Hsing Tseng (Kainan University), A Qualitative Investigation of Low Emission Port Development. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.9, 2013, 7 p. [formato PDF, 767 kB]. "An in-depth interview study of the practice within low emission port was undertaken to ascertain strategy implication in green port issue. The main focus of the study was streamlined to emissions from ships and trucks. Interviews explored the specific strategies managers used to reduce air pollution from four ports in Taiwan and their perceptions of the efficacy of them. Research findings show that, when explored qualitatively and in-depth, the strategies that stakeholders (e.g. port authorities, terminal operators) should pay more attention to, such as the port planning and development, are seen from a broad perspective, and the mitigation strategy of air pollution should be flexibly designed and managed to achieve resource use rationalization and environment balance."

Giuseppe Tattara (Univ. Ca’ Foscari Venezia), É solo la punta dell’iceberg! Costi e ricavi del crocierismo a Venezia (rev. 27.03.2013). (Note di Lavoro No. 02/NL/2013). Dipartimento di Economia dell’Università di Venezia, Marzo 2013, 42 p. [formato PDF, 2,91 MB]. "Il porto di Venezia ha visto crescere esponenzialmente, negli ultimi anni, l’arrivo di navi da crociera. I crocieristi imbarcati, sbarcati e in transito sono stati nel 2012 più di 1.700.000. Il crocierismo genera ricavi dovuti alle spese dei turisti-crocieristi in città e alle spese delle compagnie di crociera relative all’approdo, stazionamento e rifornimento delle navi, e costi non monetari per le esternalità negative determinate dal traffico navale, dovuti all’inquinamento dell’aria, del mare e agli effetti dei gas serra sul cambiamento climatico. Solo per alcune esternalità è possibile fare una stima in valore degli inquinanti e del relativo costo; andrebbero valutati i costi relativi all’effetto dell’inquinamento sul degrado dei monumenti, sull’alterazione della morfologia della laguna provocata dal passaggio delle grandi navi e altri ancora, e si raggiungerebbe un valore molto elevato. Lo studio richiama il principio che, in queste situazioni, il mercato genera un eccesso di offerta dei servizi crocieristici. Si apre in più un problema distributivo di grande importanza: gran parte dei ricavi sono concentrati in poche categorie economiche, che includono operatori turistici nazionali e internazionali di grandi dimensioni, mentre i costi sono sopportati da tutti i residenti nel centro storico. Coloro che percepiscono i ricavi non si fanno carico dei costi relativi alle esternalità negative generate dalla loro attività, mentre i residenti nel centro storico li subiscono involontariamente."

Simon Ng, Cruise Ship Emissions and Control in Hong Kong. Civic Exchange, Hong Kong, March 2013, 20 p. [formato PDF, 1,47 MB]. "This paper makes an attempt to estimate cruise ship emissions in Hong Kong in 2012, as well as to predict emissions produced by the cruise ships that are planning to berth at the new Kai Tak Cruise Terminal in the latter half of 2013 and in early 2014. Results show that at-berth emissions at Ocean Terminal and in Victoria Harbour near Hung Hom and Kowloon Bay represent a significant portion of cruise ship emissions in Hong Kong. At-berth emissions expected at the new Kai Tak Cruise Terminal will add to the problem. For the benefit of air quality and people’s health, swift actions should be taken to reduce cruise ship emissions."

European Environment Agency, The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing. EEA Technical report n.4/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 9,77 MB]. "The main objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature and reports, taking into account expert knowledge, on the maritime transport sector. The report addresses the sector's impact on air quality and climate forcing in Europe. In order to provide this overview a broad range of topics have been addressed. Key findings, as highlighted below, focus on the importance of emissions compared to other sectors; present and future air quality issues; and, the contribution of the sector to present day and future climate forcing. Emissions from maritime transport in European waters constitute a significant share of worldwide ship emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This report also shows that the number of ships registered in the EU-27, combined with ships owned by European companies but registered in third countries, is substantial. In 2011, about 19 % of the world merchant vessel fleet above 100 gross tonnage (GT) were registered in European countries. When taking into account ships registered abroad by European ship owners the European share of the global merchant fleet will be higher. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from international maritime transport in European waters are projected to increase and could be equal to land-based sources by 2020 onwards. The report includes a review of recently developed scenario studies on ship emissions and shows that NOX emissions could be equal to land-based emissions sources from 2020 onwards. SO2 emissions in European waters will continue to decrease further from 2020 onwards due to legislation on the sulphur content in fuel. It is expected that this will also lead to a decrease in emissions of PM2.5. Shipping emissions can contribute significantly to local air quality problems in Europe, but the pan.European knowledge and observation base needs to be improved to provide a more complete picture. The review of available observation data shows that there are relatively few measurement data available to attribute the contribution of ship emissions to local air pollution. Available data shows that the contribution of particulate matter from shipping to local concentrations can be up to 20–30 %, especially for fine particulate matter."

Haakon Lindstad, Emission and Cost reductions in shipping through Economy of scale and Speed Differentiation. International Maritime Statistics Forum, Oslo, May 2012, presentation, 19 slides [formato PDF, 606 kB].

Osservatorio delle Trasformazioni Territoriali e Sociali dell’Associazione AmbienteVenezia, Grandi navi in Laguna di Venezia. Risorsa o problema per la città e per la popolazione? Problemi ambientali e sanitari, impatto ambientale, inquinamento collegati al traffico marittimo. Materiali d'informazione. Associazione AmbienteVenezia, Venezia, dicembre 2011, 22 p. [formato PDF, 2,33 MB]. "Il dossier riassume un lavoro di ricerca e raccolta su studi internazionali sugli impatti ambientali e sanitari causati dal traffico marittimo, ed in particolare delle "grandi navi da Crociera e Trasporto".

Massimiliano Bultrini, Marco Faticanti, Alfredo Leonardi, Assoporti, Traffico marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle principali aree portuali nazionali. (Rapporti 95/2009). ISPRA, Roma, 2009, 177 p. [formato PDF, 5,75 MB]. "Il Rapporto Traffico marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle principali aree portuali nazionali, realizzato da ISPRA in collaborazione con l’Associazione Porti Italiani (Assoporti), presenta i dati relativi al trasporto marittimo nelle 23 Autorità Portuali italiane istituite ai sensi della Legge n. 84 del 1994 ed esamina alcuni aspetti ambientali legati al trasporto, quali sversamenti di petrolio in mare, emissioni in atmosfera, gestione dei rifiuti. In evidenza, riportando sia alcuni esempi di buone pratiche che la presenza di eventuali certificazioni ambientali, anche il grado sensibilità da parte delle Autorità Portuali verso le tematiche ambientali. Il presente rapporto si compone di cinque capitoli e un’appendice. Nel primo capitolo viene esaminato uno dei parametri tipo di considerazione dei porti, il volume dei traffici disaggregato tra le principali macro categorie; in appendice sono riportate delle schede complete di dati di traffico (merci e passeggeri) per ognuna delle Autorità Portuali prese in considerazione; il secondo capitolo è una panoramica su alcuni aspetti della convenzione Marpol 73/78, attualizzando alcuni aspetti riguardo allo sversamento di petrolio di un precedente lavoro elaborato dalla Federazione del Mare [2] (cui aderisce Assoporti) e approfondendo alcuni aspetti sulla normativa nazionale e internazionale sulle emissioni in atmosfera; il terzo e quarto capitolo prendono in esame alcuni aspetti propriamente ambientali connessi al trasporto marittimo ed alla realtà portuale, quali le emissioni di agenti inquinanti in atmosfera e la gestione dei rifiuti; il capitolo cinque, infine, focalizza l’attenzione sulla certificazione ambientale e sui diversi esempi di buone pratiche poste in essere, avviate e programmate da alcune Autorità Portuali italiane."

Zabi Bazari, Tore Longva, Assessment of IMO mandated energy efficiency measures for international shipping. Estimated co2 emissions reduction from introduction of mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships. Project final report. Lloyd‘s Register, Det Norske Veritas, London/Oslo, 31 October 2011, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,72 MB]. "This IMO-commissioned study into the impact of mandatory energy efficiency measures for international shipping shows that implementation of the measures will lead to significant reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships, specifically reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting from enhanced fuel efficiency. The study found that, by 2020, an average of 151.5 million tonnes of annual CO2 reductions are estimated from the introduction of the measures, a figure that by 2030, will increase to an average of 330 million tonnes annually. CO2 reduction measures will result in a significant reduction in fuel consumption, leading to a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry."

Apollonia Miola, Biagio Ciuffo, Emiliano Giovine, Marleen Marra, Regulating Air Emissions from Ships: The State of the Art on Methodologies, Technologies and Policy Options. (JRC Reference Reports). Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, November 2010, 68 p. [formato PDF, 7,03 MB]. "This report provides the first comprehensive overview of methodologies for estimating air emissions from shipping, describes technological solutions and proposes policy options for reducing carbon emissions and air pollution in this sector. Maritime transport causes about 4% of global man-made CO2 emissions, which makes its carbon footprint approximately as high as Germany's."

Sara Janhäll (Göteborg Univ.), Particle emissions from ships. The Alliance for Global Sustainability, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2007, 19 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "The background for this report is an anticipated shift in fuels from residual oils to marine diesel. It is a summary of the available literature on emissions of particles from sea traffic. Included are short descriptions of engines and fuels emitting the particles, together with description of the particles, different particle measures and effects on health and the environment. Particle emissions impose a threat both to human health and to the environment. Health effects are mainly studied either related to specific sources or related to the mass of particles in the air. According to this study, particle emissions for all particle sizes decrease when fuel is shifted from residual oil to marine diesel. The content of the particle also shifts into less harmful compounds. Thus this shift has, with present knowledge, neither negative impact on the environment nor human health."

Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jan Hulskotte (TNO), Methodologies for estimating shipping emissions in the Netherlands. A documentation of currently used emission factors and related activity data. (BOP report. Report 500099012). Netherlands Research Program on Particulate Matter, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, April 2010, 56 p. [formato PDF, 2,02 MB]. "Shipping is an important source of PM. Total emissions of sea shipping in and around Europe are estimated at ~300 kton annually. The Netherlands is a coastal country with major ports like Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Hence the share of shipping on Dutch territory in total Dutch emissions is significant especially for SO2, NOx and PM10. For 2008 shipping contributed 53%, 31% en 19% to total Dutch SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions, respectively. The majority of this emission (> 80%) occurs on the Dutch part of the Continental shelf (NCP), CBS (2009). Proper estimation and allocation of shipping emissions is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping on air quality and health in harbour cities and coastal regions. This report summarizes the emission factors and methodologies to estimate emissions from inland shipping and sea shipping by the Dutch Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR). Inland shipping is split in national and international inland shipping. Emissions from seagoing ships are split in emissions from seagoing ships on the Dutch continental shelf, seagoing ships, manoeuvring in and towards Dutch harbours and emissions from seagoing ships at berth. The core of the present report is a clear and concise documentation of the Dutch emission estimation methodology based on available (Dutch) reports and protocols developed since 2000. These methodologies rely heavily on the work done in the frame work of the project Emission registration and Monitoring Shipping (EMS) executed in 2000-2003. EMS was initiated by DG Goederenvervoer (Directorate-General freight transport1) of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. It is important to stress that the objective of the current report is not to report shipping emissions. These can be obtained through the Dutch national statistics as a product of the Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR; see CBS, 2009). The objective is to document the methodologies used in the PRTR regarding PM emissions from shipping, including any implemented updates. Furthermore, it is also considered important, now and in the future, to provide internationally accessible and transparent descriptions of the Dutch methodology. Such a concise (English) documentation was not yet available. Sometimes the PRTR methodology was updated since the original report or protocol was published. In such cases, the change has been documented and if applicable explained by providing reference and/or inclusion of the underlying motivation. This implies that for some specific features e.g. the correction of SO2 emission due to introduction of low sulphur fuels the current report can be seen as an update of the in-use methodology. As such the report will be presented to the PRTR for discussion and as an optional documentation of the in-use methodology. The report also contains e.g. as a result of a review of recent literature on the impact of fuel quality on emissions, suggestions how the PRTR could be improved. An original contribution in this report is the methodology to consistently estimate emissions from total European inland shipping. Although this methodology is less accurate than the current PRTR approach, it is less data demanding and can be applied to all European countries based on freight statistics. Total PM10 emission in Europe due to inland shipping is estimated at ~ 7kton/yr making it a minor source. However, locally it can be important. The Netherlands contributes about 15 % to this total. A review of the methodology and underlying data to estimate emissions from inland shipping in the Netherlands show that over time the vessels grow in size and an update of emission factors would be needed as it is currently based on the year 2003 survey. Especially PM10 emission factors for inland shipping are considered uncertain. Finally, the report notes and discusses new developments such as field measurements of shipping emissions and the use of AIS (automatic identification system) to estimate shipping emissions. Recommendations for further research, based on new developments as well as weaknesses in the current methodologies are discussed in the final section of this report Last but not least it should be stressed that the present report is not a complete documentation of shipping-related emissions in the Netherlands. The goal of BOP is to reduce uncertainties about particulate matter (PM) and hence a complete documentation of all methodologies to estimate all other (non-PM) pollutants from shipping is out of scope of the present report."

Jasper Faber (CE Delft), Malte Freund (GL Environmental Research), Martin Köpke (GL Environmental Research), Dagmar Nelissen (CE Delft), Going Slow to Reduce Emissions. Can the current surplus of maritime transport capacity be turned into an opportunity to reduce GHG emissions?. Seas At Risk, Brussels; CE Delft, January 2010, 29 p. [formato PDF, 962 kB]. "Global shipping emits over 3% of manmade greenhouse gases. In order to contribute to reducing emissions and keeping the temperature rise well below 2 ºC, it needs to reduce its absolute emissions. A large number of measures may contribute to this, of which lowering the speed is an important one. The global shipping industry currently faces an oversupply of ships. This creates an unique opportunity to reduce speed in order to match the supply with demand. This would also result in lower emissions. This report estimates that emissions of bulkers, tankers and container vessels can be reduced maximally by about 30% in the coming years by using the current oversupply to reduce speed, relative to the situation in 2007. This estimate takes technical constraints into account. It is based on projected global trade growth rates and fleet developments. For container vessels, the reduction is somewhat lower, for bulkers it is higher."

David McCollum, Gregory Gould, David Greene, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Challenges. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, December 2009, 56 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050—reductions scientific studies suggest are necessary to stabilize the climate and avoid the most destructive impacts of climate change (IPCC 2007)—will require lowering GHG emissions across all sectors of the economy. Aviation and marine transportation combined are responsible for approximately 5 percent of total GHG emissions in the United States and 3 percent globally1 and are among the fastest growing modes in the transportation sector. Controlling the growth in aviation and marine transportation GHG emissions will be an important part of reducing emissions from the transportation sector. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that global demand for aviation increased by 5.9 percent and demand for marine transportation by 5.1 percent, during 2005 alone (IPCC 2007). Business-as-usual (BAU) projections for CO2 emissions from global aviation are estimated at 3.1 percent per year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine transportation emissions is more uncertain. BAU growth projections by the IEA (2008b) and IMO (2008) are between 1 and 2 percent per year. By 2050, international marine transportation emissions are estimated to increase by at least 50 percent over 2007 levels. In summary, the potential for mitigating GHG emissions from aircraft and marine vessels is considerable— reductions of more than 50 percent below BAU levels by 2050 from global aviation and more than 60 percent for global marine shipping are possible. For these reductions to be realized, however, international and domestic policy intervention is required. Developing an effective path forward that facilitates the adoption of meaningful policies remains both a challenge and an opportunity."

Jacob Balzani, Balint Alfoldy, Friedrich Lagler, Annette Borowiak, Jens Hjorth (Joint Research Centre), Johan Mellquist, Fred Prata, Daan Swart, Jan Duyzer, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Monica Posada, A Comparison of Remote Measurements of Ship Emissions. Conference "Monitoring Ambient Air 2009 : Air Quality - The Major Challenges", London, 9-10 December 2009, 34 slides [formato PDF, 1,62 MB]. "Ships are a major emitter of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). It has been estimated that in the absence of further policies, emissions of SO2 and NOx in EU sea areas will be as large as all emissions from land-based sources. Internationally, under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), Annex VI of the Marine Pollution Convention (MARPOL) regulates the maximum permitted levels of sulphur in marine fuels. Currently, the Annex specifies that in the North Sea and Baltic Sea Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) no fuel can be burned if its sulphur content exceeds 1.5% by mass. Outside of SECAs, the limit is 4.5%. These provisions are mirrored in EU Community law in the form of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels. In addition, the directive stipulates that ships at berth in EU ports must burn fuels with less than 0.1% sulphur from 1 January 2010. It has been widely reported that significant numbers of fuel samples of fuels intended for use in the SECAs have sulphur levels in excess of the permitted level of 1.5%. At the current time, the only means available to check compliance is by way of inspection of the Ship's log book, air pollution certificates, and bunker delivery notes (and to undertake fuel sulphur analyses). On behalf of DG Environment the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission is currently carrying out a study (2009 - 2010) to screen potential remote sensing techniques for the detection of sulphur dioxide in exhaust gas plumes. The aim is to develop an assessment system that can be employed routinely by regulatory authorities in the Member States as a means of identifying gross polluting vessels so as to increase the effectiveness of port state controls and improve compliance with legally binding fuel sulphur limits. For the purpose of the study a comparison measurement campaign will be carried out in the Rotterdam area of the Netherlands during autumn 2009. Several European research teams will try to measure from the shore, or with a ‘flying’ sampling system, the emissions of passing ships. Involved measurement methods are Differential Optical Absorbtion Spectrometry (DOAS), Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and classical gaseous air pollutant instrumentation like chemiluminescence (NOx), UV-fluorescence (SO2) and non-dispersive IR (CO2). The results of the SO2, NOx and CO2 measurements will be used among others to calculate the sulphur content of the fuel used. The performance and user-friendliness of the measurement methods will be evaluated in order to identify a method of choice for compliance testing with the EU and IMO regulations. First results of the measurement campaign will be presented."

Per Kågeson, Market-based instruments for NOx abatement in the Baltic Sea. (Air Pollution and Climate Series, 24). Air Pollution & Climate Secretariat (AirClim), the European Environmental Bureau (EEB) and the European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Göteborg, November 2009, 40 p. [formato PDF, 655 KB]. "Large emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a cause of major environmental problems in the Baltic Sea area. Ships account for a large and growing share of these emissions. However, in 2008 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided to strengthen somewhat the NOx requirements for new ships from 2011. In addition, the IMO decided that in Emission Control Areas (ECAs) very stringent rules will apply from 1 January 2016. Ships will have to reduce emissions of NOx by about 80 per cent from the current limit values that took effect in 2000. The States surrounding the sea are expected to apply to the IMO for a Baltic Sea ECA for NOx. However, a problem in the context of the new rules is that they will apply to new ships only, and the turnover of the fleet is slow. The aim of this report is therefore to assess potential market-based instruments for reducing emissions from existing vessels and an early introduction of efficient NOx abatement technologies for newly built ships (ahead of 2016). This paper proposes the introduction of a NOx-differentiated en-route charge. Port authorities around the Baltic Sea would be mandated to assist a common authority that collects a mandatory charge reflecting the visiting ship’s NOx emissions during its latest trip in Baltic Sea waters. The charge would correspond to emissions emitted from the point of entry into Baltic Sea waters or since departure from another Baltic port. A rough calculation of the emission reduction potential indicates that application of an emissions charge, as outlined above, could cut NOx emissions from ships in the Baltic Sea by 72 per cent in 2015. If it is assumed that only four out of five of ship owners respond to the incentives in the way foreseen, the actual effect on emissions would be lowered to 58 per cent. This would correspond to a reduction of about 270,000 tons in NOx, from a business-as-usual level of approximately 460,000 tons in 2015."

Helge Rørdam Olesen, Morten Winther, Thomas Ellermann, Jesper Christensen, Marlene Plejdrup (Aarhus University), Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark. Present situation and future scenarios. (Environmental Project No. 1306, 2009). National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Roskilde, 2009, 134 p. [formato PDF, 3,79 MB]. "In 2020, shipping in Danish waters is expected to have reduced its emission of SO2 by 91 % in relation to 2007. The reduction is a result of the requirements adopted in the international shipping organisation, IMO. On the other hand, the emission of NOx is expected to rise by 2 %, because the IMO requirements in this area are more than outweighed by the expected growth in shipping traffic. These figures come from a new report that the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University has prepared for the Ministry of the Environment. As one of the main parts of the study a new, improved inventory of ship emissions in the Danish marine waters has been established. Both new (NERI) and old (EMEP, 2008) emission inventories have been applied for model calculations of air quality in Denmark, thus allowing an assessment of the effect of the revised inventory. Furthermore, scenario calculations for 2011 and 2020 have been carried out, in order to evaluate the effect of the IMO regulations. The scenario calculations have been based on expected reductions in ship emissions and an estimate for land-based emissions in 2020. Finally, the contribution to local air pollution from ships at ports has been assessed in various ways, based on updates of previous studies."

Inge Vierth, Nicklas Lord, Anna Mellin, Transporteffekter av IMO:s skärpta emissionskrav – modellberäkningar på uppdrag av Sjöfartsverket. (Transport effects of IMO's more stringent emission requirements. Model calculations on behalf of the Swedish Maritime Administration). (VTI notat 15-2009). VTI, Linköping , 2009, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,39 MB]. "The Swedish Government has commissioned the Swedish Maritime Administration to assess the consequences of the new rules for airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from maritime transport, adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in October 2008. On behalf of the Swedish Maritime Administration, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has shed light on whether the IMO’s more stringent emission requirements in the SOx Emission Control Area (SECA – covering the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the English Channel), will lead to transfer of freight transport from maritime to other modes of transport. Model calculations have been made with the aid of the new national Samgods logistics model Version 2.0 for three of the alternatives examined by the Swedish Maritime Administration. In Alternative 1, a calculation is made on the effect of a reduction in the maximum sulphur content of marine fuel from the current 1.5 weight per cent to 0.1 weight per cent by 2015 within SECA on transport performance’s extent and distribution for different modes of transport. It is assumed to entail that fuel costs will rise by 12 per cent for ferries, 72 per cent for ro-ro ships, 81 per cent for container ships and 36 per cent for other ships. Everything else is assumed to be the same, e.g. fuel costs for other modes of transport are assumed to be unchanged. The model calculations indicate that there will be a transfer of maritime transport to land-based modes of transport. It is estimated that there will be a marginal increase of transport performance on land and a reduction of maritime transport performance of around one billion tonne kilometres (compared with the current approximately 40 billion tonne kilometres) within Sweden. This transfer is expected to take place mainly to road transport in Sweden and to rail transport outside Sweden. The greatest single effect is the transfer from routes via the port of Göteborg to routes via the Öresund Bridge. The transfer to road is expected to take place mainly in southern and central Sweden. For maritime transport, the results show a transfer from the east coast to the west coast of Sweden. With the assumed costs, it will also be advantageous to avoid SECA, i.e. to use, for example, the port of Narvik instead of ports in northern Norrland. It is also expected that there will be transfers from ports in northern Sweden to ports in central and southern Sweden, which will lead to longer connecting transportation on land. In Alternative 2 and Alternative 3, it is assumed that the fuel costs for maritime transport will increase by an additional 75 per cent and 150 per cent respectively due to higher crude oil prices within and outside SECA. The model calculations show larger transfers from sea to land. In these alternatives, maritime transport to/from the Mediterranean area is also affected while the effects of Alternative 1 are largely limited to northern Europe. It is estimated that the sulphur emissions of marine transport will decrease sharply due to the more stringent emission requirements. Shippers are expected to be able to avoid the higher costs for marine fuel to a limited extent by choosing transport solutions that include land transport. However, these solutions may entail unwanted external effects with regard to emissions, road safety etc. It should be possible to carry out a socio-economic analysis with a more detailed analysis with the new logistic model." [English summary].

Per Kågeson, Linking CO2 Emissions from International Shipping to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. (Texte 24/2009). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, September 2009, 43 p. [formato PDF, 373 kB]. "The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO2 emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO2 allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO2 would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector"

Per Kågeson, Christian Bahlke, Arnulf Hader, Andreas Hübscher, Market Based Instruments for Abatement of Emissions from Shipping. A pilot project for the Baltic Sea. (Texte 25/2009). Umweltbundesamt,Dessau-Roßlau, September 2009, 121 p. [formato PDF, 1,44 MB]. "Emissions from shipping, especially SOx, NOx, and PM, are perceived increasingly as a problem for human health and the environment. Efforts by the International Maritime Organisation to reduce these emissions by international agreements have not resulted in legislation that takes account of more than a very limited part of the existing technological potential. These efforts will not even offset the expected increase in emissions due to traffic growth. This seemed a good reason to start investigating potential marked-based incentives aimed at motivating action beyond internationally legally required measures. This project summarises the situation for the Baltic Sea with regard to technical standards and opportunities to reduce ship emissions, and looks at the expected growth in traffic and emissions up to 2020. It then provides an analysis of the legal enforceability and feasibility of market based instruments for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions in the area. Based on two scenarios for traffic growth in the Baltic Sea, effect of the implementing different measures for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions is calculated and compared with the reduction of social costs. The calculation shows that under socio-economic cost/benefit considerations it is reasonable to expect that emissions can be reduced to below what can be achieved under current rules. However, the additional measures have to start soon and be substantial in order to at least offset the expected increase in ship emissions. Finally, a proposal is made on how to begin implementing market based instruments for the reduction of SOx and NOx emissions in the Baltic Sea."

Richard G. Derwent, David S. Stevenson, Ruth M. Doherty, William J. Collins, Michael G. Sanderson, Colin E. Johnson, Janusz Cofala, Reinhard Mechler, Markus Amann, and Frank J. Dentener, The Contribution from Shipping Emissions to Air Quality and Acid Deposition in Europe. Ambio 34 (2005) 54–59 [formato PDF, 2,20 MB]. "A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO2, NOx, VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m-2 yr-1 over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met."

Eelco den Boer, Jasper Faber, Dagmar Nelissen, Proposal for an Environmental Ship Index. Air pollutants and CO2. Delft, CE, February 2009, 48 p. [formato PDF, 400 kB]. "In a study commissioned by the ports of Le Havre, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bremen and Hamburg, CE Delft has developed an Environmental Ship Index (ESI) that from 2010 onwards will be used on a voluntary basis to encourage more environmentally benign shipping. The index identifies vessels that perform better in terms of emissions than under current international regulations on the average technology to be applied in new vessels. The index can be used by port authorities, carriers and dispatchers alike. Indexing is not a novel topic, being similarly employed for both aviation and road vehicles, in establishing ‘green zones’ and in differentiating taxes. The report comprises the following: 1. Evaluation of existing indices in the maritime sector. 2. Evaluation of the lessons to be learned from use of such indices in other sectors. 3. Design of a proposal for an ESI. 4. A proposal for an ESI organisation to administer a database and manage vessel inspection. The ESI proposal covers emissions of NOX and SOX and reporting on the IMO energy efficiency operational index (EEOI). As yet, it is unfeasible to include particulates in the index."

Sven Hunhammar (SEPA), Policy instruments used in Sweden to limit environmental impacts from international shipping. Global Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008, Guadalajara, Mexico. Presentation, 2008, 26 slides [formato PDF, 612 kB].

Oyvind Endresen, Magnus S. Eide, Stig Dalsoren, Ivar S. Isaksen, Eirik Sorgard, The environmental impacts of increased international maritime shipping. Past trends and future perspectives. Global Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008, Guadalajara, Mexico. Presentation and text, 2008, 43 p. + 22 slides [formato PDF, 1,04 MB + 1,10 MB].

Johanna Wahlström, Niko Karvosenoja and Petri Porvari, Ship emissions and technical emission reduction potential in the Northern Baltic Sea. (Reports of Finnish Environment Institute 8/2006). Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki, 2006, 73 p. [formato PDF, 4,15 MB]. "The aim of this study was to evaluate emissions and the technical reduction potential of SO2, NOx, CO, HC and PM from waterborne traffic in Finland and in marine areas near Finland in 2000 and 2015. The energy consumption of ships in 2000 was estimated based on statistics mapping ship movements in the ports of Finland, Russia, Estonia and Sweden. Combined with emission factors, this data was used as a basis for evaluating the total amount of emissions. Emissions in 2015 were calculated based on predicted growth rates in ship traffic and four different reduction technology scenarios. In 2000 the ship-based SO2 and NOx emissions on sea routes totalled 36000 and 107000 tonnes, respectively. Current international regulations have little impact on emission rates in the studied marine areas. The required reduction technologies are internal engine modifications and fuel with a maximum sulphur content of 1.5 %. The results of the scenario study show that ship-based SO2 and NOx emissions will increase by 20 % and 40 % respectively by 2015 if no further emission reduction methods are introduced. These emissions could be reduced significantly through introduction of more effective reduction technologies, such as lowering the sulphur content in fuel, adding water to the engine process, exhaust gas recirculation and selective catalytic reduction technology. The potential is substantial, especially for NOx emissions from cargo ships, which could be reduced by approximately 90 % from the 2015 baseline level."

Ludvik Penko, Vesna Rovšek (Univ. of Ljubljana), Air pollution from ships. 11th International Conference on Transport Science, Portorož, 28. - 29. maj 2008, 9 p. [formato PDF, 162 kB]. "Ships are fast becoming the biggest source of air pollution. Ships pour out great quantities of pollutants into the air in the form of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the concentrations and fallout of harmful air pollutants. These emissions contribute serious adverse health and environmental effects. In contrast to the progress in reducing emissions from land-based sources, shipping emissions of sulphur from maritime sector will increase by around 45 per cent and nitrogen oxides are expected to continue increasing by 67 per cent up to 2020. In both cases, by 2020 the emissions from international shipping around Europe will have surpassed the total from all land-based sources in the 25 EU member states combined Emissions to air from ships are regulated internationally with Annex VI of the Marine Pollution Convention MARPOL 73/78 of the International Maritime Organization. This contains provisions on Sulphur oxide Emission Control Area (SECA) and nitrogen oxide emissions standards for ships. There are no international emission standards for PM, CO2, CO and VOC emissions from ship diesel engines. Further measures must be taken to reduce air pollution from ships in order to protect human health and the environment."

Veronika Eyring, James J. Corbett, David S. Lee, and James J. Winebrake, Brief summary of the impact of ship emissions on atmospheric composition, climate, and human health. Document submitted to the Health and Environment sub-group of the International Maritime Organization on 6 November 2007. London, 2007, 7 p. [formato PDF, 138 kB].

James Corbett (Univ. of Delaware), Emissions from Maritime Shipping Sector in a Freight Context. Presentation to OECD/ECMT JTRC Working Group on Transport GHG Reduction Strategies, Paris, 21-22 May 2007, 34 slides [formato PDF, 3,58 MB].

Janusz Cofala, Markus Amann, Chris Heyes, Fabian Wagner, Zbigniew Klimont, Max Posch, Wolfgang Schöpp, Leonor Tarasson, Jan Eiof Jonson, Chris Whall, Andrianna Stavrakaki, Analysis of Policy Measures to Reduce Ship Emissions in the Context of the Revision of the National Emissions Ceilings Directive. Final Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, April 2007, 74 p. [formato PDF, 2,83 MB]. "Maritime activities constitute a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in Europe. In 2000, SO2 and NOx emissions from international maritime shipping in Europe amounted to approximately 30 percent of the land-based emissions in the EU-25. While legislation is in force to control emission from international shipping, the expected increase in the volume of ship movements will compensate the positive environmental impacts of these measures and will lead to a further growth in ship emissions. Under business-as-usual assumptions, by 2020 emissions from maritime activities would come close to the projected baseline emission levels from land-based sources, and surpass the target levels established by the European Commission in its Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution for land-based sources. This anticipated increase in ship emissions will counteract the envisaged benefits of the costly efforts to control the remaining emissions from land-based sources in Europe. While at present emissions from ships are responsible for 10 to 20 percent of sulphur deposition in coastal areas, their contribution is expected for 2020 to increase to more than 30 percent in large areas in Europe, and up to 50 percent in coastal areas. Technologies exist to reduce emissions from shipping beyond what is currently legally required. The study has identified a set of emission control measures that are technically available and that could – if fully applied – reduce by 2020 80 percent of the SO2 emissions from international shipping, and almost 90 percent of the NOx emissions. Total costs of these measures are estimated at 5.5 billion €/yr. For comparison, the costs of the measures proposed by the Thematic Strategy amount to 7.1 billion €/yr. The study has explored several packages of measures that could reduce emissions at lower costs. These include combinations of seawater sulphur scrubbing, lower sulphur content in residual oil, humid air engines for new built ships, slide valves retrofitting in existing ship engines, as well as the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Marginal costs of these measures are well below the costs of the measures for land-based sources that have been proposed by the Thematic Strategy. To judge the cost-effectiveness of such measures against those for land-based sources, the analysis considered the impacts that emission reductions from shipping have on human health and natural environment. That analysis included the distance between the location of emissions from shipping and the receptor areas. The study examined potential contribution of four emission scenarios from shipping to achieving air quality targets from the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. Cost-optimal emission reductions and control costs by national emission sources were determined and compared with costs of reducing emissions from maritime shipping. Analysis clearly demonstrates that limiting air pollution from shipping reduces the necessity to further control emissions from land-based sources and provides important cost savings in achieving air quality targets in Europe."

Bart Boon, Report on maritime transport and the environment for Latin America. (CEPAL. Serie Recursos naturales e infraestructura ; 127). United Nations, Santiago, Chile, october 2007, 60 p. [formato PDF, 772 kB]. "This report presents information on the environmental impact of vessels during their general operation. It is shown that the emissions from vessels can substantially contribute to local air quality problems over land and also impact the climate change process. Up to now, the contribution of the maritime sector to air quality problems in Latin America and Caribbean coastal cities has received little or no attention. Studies for the United States and Europe show that the contribution of this sector may however be significant. Given the persistence of air quality problems in Latin America, it appears worthwile to consider this sector in emission inventories and mitigation policies. The recommendations at the end of the report include several measures that may be implemented at little or no costs, but that do provide incentives to improve the environmental performance of the sector. Based on further research on the particular contribution of the shipping sector to air quality problems, more far reaching measures may have to be considered. With respect to climate change, it is recommended to stimulate participation in trials with the IMO CO2 index that is under development"

James J. Corbett, James J. Winebrake, Erin H. Green, Prasad Kasibhatla, Veronika Eyring, and Axel Lauer, Mortality from ship emissions: a global assessment. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (2007) 8512–8518 [formato PDF, 1,91 MB]. "Epidemiological studies consistently link ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) to negative health impacts, including asthma, heart attacks, hospital admissions, and premature mortality. A team of leading global scientists led by James Corbett modeled ambient PM concentrations from oceangoing ships using two geospatial emissions inventories and two global aerosol models. This groundbreaking work, which was peer-reviewed and published in the December 15, 2007 issue of the American Chemical Society Journal Environmental Science & Technology, estimated for the first time global and regional mortalities by applying ambient PM increases due to ships to cardiopulmonary and lung cancer concentration-risk functions and population models. The results indicate that shipping-related PM emissions are responsible for approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths annually, with most deaths occurring near coastlines in Europe, East Asia, and South Asia. Under current regulation and with the expected growth in shipping activity, the study estimates that annual mortalities could increase by 40% by 2012."

Veronika Eyring (DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics), Past, Present-day and Future Ship Emissions, presentation at the seminar "How to make the sea green: seminar on air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport", Brussels, 17 October 2007, 24 slides [formato PDF, 2,00 MB].

P. Hammingh, J.M.M. Aben, W.F. Blom, B.A. Jimmink, W.J. de Vries, M. Visser (eds), Effectiveness of international emission control measures for North Sea shipping on Dutch air quality, (MNP Report 500092004/2007), Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, September 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 646 KB]. "Far-reaching measures to reduce emissions caused by North Sea shipping have proven to be cost-effective in improving air quality in the Netherlands. Measures at sea are important, considering shipping’s significant contribution to air pollution in the Netherlands. Effective measures include use of low sulphur fuels and cleaner engine technology in both old and new ships."

Axel Friedrich, Falk Heinen, Fatumata Kamakaté, Drew Kodjak, Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from ocean-going ships: impacts, mitigation options and opportunities for managing growth, International Council on Clean Transportation, March 2007, 102 p. [formato PDF, 1,26 MB]. "This report describes the results of the ICCT review, focusing on the emission-reduction potential, feasibility, costs, and cost- effectiveness of available environmental mitigation measures for the shipping sector. It also analyzes the legal context within which local, regional, and international programs can be developed. The report concludes with a series of policy recommendations aimed at achieving steady, incremental progress towards reducing emissions from marine vessels that will result in significant environment and public health benefits."

Tom Plenys (Coalition for Clean Air), Marine emissions: addressing local and global challenges, Presentation at the Clean Ships Conference, San Diego, CA, February 8, 2006, 21 slides [formato PDF, 810 KB].

NERA Economic Consulting, Economic Instruments for Reducing Ship Emissions in the European Union, European Commission, Directorate-General Environment, 26 September 2005, 138 p. [formato PDF, 698 KB]. This report, sponsored by the European Commission’s DG Environment, analyses in detail four “economic instrument” (Credit-Based Trading Approach, Consortium Benchmarking, Environmentally Differentiated Charges, Environmental Subsidy Approach) approaches to reducing emissions from maritime sources in European seaareas.

The Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, Cost-benefit analysis of using 0,5% marine heavy fuel oil in European sea areas Documento di sintesi, comprende la valutazione economica di costi e benefici (utilizzando un modello dell’IIASA di Vienna) derivanti dalla sostituzione del combustibile attualmente usato per le navi (con il 2,7 % di zolfo) con olio combustibile col 0,5% di zolfo nelle aree marittime europee. I vantaggi economici e ambientali derivanti da questa sostituzione sarebbero assai rilevanti, dato che – considerate le tendenze delle emissioni di SO2 nei 25 paesi dell’UE tra il 2000 e il 2030 – in mancanza di interventi specifici, le emissioni di SO2 provocate dal trasporto marittimo supereranno tra il 2015 e il 2020 quelle provenienti da fonti terrestri. Gennaio 2005, 9 p. [formato PDF, 82 kB].

European Environmental Bureau, European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Seas at Risk, Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, Air pollution form ships, updated November 2004, 15 p. [formato PDF, 209 kB] (le emissioni di SO2 e NOx dovute alla navigazione, la possibilità di ridurle notevolmente limitando il contenuto di zolfo nel combustibile marino).


C. James Kruse, Nathan Hutson, North American Marine Highways. (NCFRP Report 5). National Cooperative Freight Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2010, 108 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. "North American Marine Highways explores the potential for moving intermodal containers on chassis, non-containerized trailers, or rail cars on marine highways in North America. The report includes an assessment of the conditions for feasibility; an analysis of the economic, technical, regulatory, and logistical barriers inhibiting greater use of the marine highway system; and potential ways to eliminate these barriers."

Yutaka Watanabe (Tokyo Univ. of Marine Science and Technology), Japanese Short Sea Shipping, How it works (Environmental Contribution of Short Sea Shipping on Japanese Coast). Incheon International Logistics Seminar, 13-14.10.2004, 17 slides [formato PDF, 1,32 MB].

Autoroutes maritimes et ferroviaires. Critères de choix par les entreprises pour le transport non accompagné. Rapport d’études. Bagneux, Service d'études sur les transports, les routes et leurs aménagements (Sétra), Septembre 2007, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,26 MB]. "Cette étude pilotée par le Sétra propose une réflexion sur les critères de pertinence du transport routier non accompagné pour le transport de marchandises sur moyenne et longue distance. L’objectif est de comprendre, à travers les enseignements tirés des expériences d’utilisateurs actuels, comment et sous quelles conditions un transporteur routier est prêt à utiliser un service de transport non accompagné." Lo studio analizza gli esempi dell'autostrada del mare Toulon-Civitavecchia e l'autostrada ferroviaria alpina Aiton-Orbassano.

Antonio Danesi, Chiara Lepori, Marino Lupi (Univ. of Bologna), The Italian motorways of the sea system: current situation, policies and prospects, 11th International Conference on Transport Science, Portorož, 28.-29. maj 2008, 10 p. [formato PDF, 200 kB]. "The EU transport policy supports the development of the “motorways of the sea” system as a priority axis of the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T). The deployment of the motorways of the sea network is expected to absorb a significant part of the forecasted increase in road freight traffic, in order to improve the accessibility of peripheral regions and to reduce congestion and environmental impacts due to road transport. In recent years, traffic volumes on motorways of the sea links to/from Italian ports have undergone a major increase. Nowadays, they represent 5% of the total freight traffic volumes served by the Italian inland motorway system and an amount of 8% is the target-value expected for year 2011. In this paper, the state of the art regarding the implementation of the motorways of the sea program in Italy is illustrated, with special regard to the services now in operation and the specific transport policy initiatives promoted by the Italian national authorities."

Gilbert Meyer, Etude de faisabilité de nouvelles lignes fluvio-maritimes Karvor entre l’axe Rhône-Saône et l’Espagne ou l’Italie. Paris, CATRAM Consultants, 2003, 121 p. [formato PDF, 1,26 MB]. "L'étude a pour objet de tester la faisabilité de lignes fluviomaritimes conteneurisées régulières entre l'axe Rhône-Saône et l'Espagne et / ou l'Italie. Plus précisément, il s'agit de définir le marché potentiel d'un porte-conteneur fluvio-maritime spécifique d'une nouvelle génération, le Karvor, sur des lignes régulières entre Chalon / Lyon et des ports italiens ou espagnols. Sont tout d'abord présentés : l'environnement fluvial et portuaire de l'axe Rhône - Saône (caractéristiques et coûts des ports et de la voie d'eau, durées de navigation) ; le transport fluvio-maritime, (historique, activité fluvio-maritime en Méditerranée et sur le Rhône, nature des trafics fluvio-maritimes actuels du Rhône) ; la structure de l'industrie de la région Rhône-Alpes et d'une partie de la Bourgogne, la nature des industries mouillées. Les besoins des chargeurs et leurs contraintes logistiques sont ensuite analysés ainsi que les caractéristiques des marchés du transport entre la région Rhône-Alpes et Bourgogne d'une part, l''Espagne et l'Italie d'autre part. Les coûts liés à l'exploitation d'un transport fluvio-maritime selon différentes hypothèses relatives à la rotation des navires et différents types de marchandises à transporter , ainsi que les taux de fret fluvio-maritimes sont calculés et comparés aux prix du transport routier direct. L'auteur souligne enfin les facteurs clés de réussite d'un service Karvor et ses avantages environnementaux et sociaux."

Napier University, Heriot-Watt University and Industry Partners, UK Marine Motorways Study: Summary Final Report (LINK Future Integrated Transport (FIT) Programme), March 2003, 22 p. [formato PDF, 175 kB](lo studio esamina le possibilità di "Autostrade del mare" nel Regno Unito, e valuta che trasportando i camion su traghetti veloci ci sarebbero dei benefici ambientali con costi superiori, il che richiede sussidi pubblici).

Uniontrasporti, Camere di Commercio di Genova, Salerno e Savona, Sviluppo del Cabotaggio nazionale e mediterraneo. Rapporto sull' "Offerta di Trasporto Marittimo", Dicembre 2001, 25 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]

Uniontrasporti, Camere di Commercio di Genova, Salerno e Savona, Sviluppo del Cabotaggio nazionale e mediterraneo. Rapporto sul "Mercato di Riferimento", Novembre 2001, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,51 MB] (analisi dell’import-export tra Italia e Spagna e del trasporto merci tra Italia del Nord-Ovest e Sud Italia, e stima del traffico potenziale Short Sea).

Uniontrasporti, Camere di Commercio di Genova, Salerno e Savona, Sviluppo del Cabotaggio nazionale e mediterraneo. Rapporto sulla "Domanda di Trasporto Marittimo", Dicembre 2001, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,08 MB] (analisi delle caratteristiche e costi del trasporto merci su strada e combinato strada-mare tra Italia e Spagna e tra Italia del Nord-Ovest e Sud Italia, basata su interviste ad aziende italiane di logistica e di autotrasporto).


International Transport Forum, Zero Carbon Supply Chains. The Case of Hamburg. International Transport Forum Policy Papers, No. 91. OECD, Paris, 2021, 38 p. [formato PDF, 2,6 MB]. "This report assesses the potential of zero carbon supply chains via a case study of the freight transport chain linked to the port of Hamburg. It analyses the initiatives taken by selected main stakeholders to decarbonise freight transport. In addition, it offers recommendations on how the move towards zero carbon supply chains could be accelerated. The analysis is based on desk research and interviews with the relevant stakeholders."

Ana MarÍa Manzur Tirado, Rowan Brown, Osiris A. Valdez Banda, Risk and safety management of autonomous systems: a literature review and initial proposals for the maritime industry. (Aalto University publication series SCIENCE + TECHNOLOGY, 1/2019). Aalto University, School of Engineeering, Marine Technology, 2019, 66 p. [formato PDF, 1,6 MB]. "Maritime autonomous systems pose many challenges to their designers. A fully autonomous vessel must be able to handle everyday navigation and propulsion in addition to an extensive list of other tasks such as cargo handling, emergency manoeuvering, ship-ship and ship-shore communications, situational awareness, and much more. If such systems are to be implemented for the sake of increased safety, their operational risk and safety must be managed and assured. The goal of this report is to investigate how risk and safety of these systems can and should be managed. There are three categories of system modelling methods that can be used for this purpose. The oldest category is "sequential methods", followed chronologically by the most popular category, called "epidemiological methods", and then by the newest category, called "systemic methods". This report first contains an overview of these three categories. Following this is a literature review that investigates the approaches to risk and safety management of autonomous systems that are taken within four transportation industries (aviation, railway, automotive, and maritime). Next are three SWOT analyses, one for each category of methods. Within these analyses there contains the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats presented by or towards each method. For the role of autonomous maritime systems, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that STPA (a systemic method) is the optimal choice (if one method that current exists is to be used). This is because it is a comprehensive method that can handle complex socio-technical systems, such as those in question, while providing useful safety improvement recommendations. However, no single method is better than every other in all situations, and STPA presents certain limitations and drawbacks. First, it is very resource heavy, demanding long time investments from expert personnel. Second, because few data on the proposed systems exist, it is very difficult to conclusively recommend a suitable method. Therefore, if practitioners decide to employ STPA, they should be open to considering other methods in case they can yield better results. Finally, STPA (and other systemic methods) cannot currently yield accident probabilities. This means that STPA, in its current form, is unable to entirely satisfy the IMO's FSA, which is important for the future of autonomous ships. Conversely, the literature review and SWOT analyses indicate that methods that can satisfy the FSA are unsafe for this application. This is because they are too theoretically simplistic and not comprehensive enough to produce trustworthy results. To solve this issue, one of the following should take place: (a) STPA (or another systemic method) is augmented to include probabilistic abilities; (b) STPA (or another systemic method) is combined with a sequential method to achieve the benefits of both categories (e.g. comprehensive and probabilistic results); or (c) a new systemic method is created that provides the depth of analysis of STPA as well as the required probabilistic capabilities. However, barring the FSA issue, the enclosed analysis indicates that the optimal choice is a systemic method (specifically STPA) despite its heavy burden to resources. This may seem like a cavalier recommendation, but it is the most comprehensive method and it produces the most safety improvement recommendations, thereby making it the optimal choice. It is additionally recommended that system analysis is performed from the design concept stage through to system operation, regardless of the method chosen. This is so that the analysis can be improved as more system data are produced."

Trasporto marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle aree portuali italiane. (Rapporti 242/2016). ISPRA, Roma, Maggio 2016, 282 p. [formato PDF, 9,1 MB]. "Il Rapporto sul curato dal settore Progetti Aree Portuali dell'ISPRA presenta le ultime novità legislative in merito alla riforma del sistema portuale italiano, gli incentivi al trasporto intermodale, i vantaggi dell'uso di combustibili alternativi e dei sistemi di elettrificazione delle banchine per la riduzione delle emissioni da navi in porto ed infine la pianificazione in ambito portuale. Oltre ai contenuti già citati, il Rapporto presenta inoltre i dati di traffico (dal 2005 al 2014) di merci e passeggeri oltre ad informazioni relative alle buone pratiche ambientali messe in campo dalle 24 Autorità Portuali nazionali."

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Piano Strategico Nazionale della Portualità e della Logistica. Roma, luglio 2015, 226 p. [formato PDF, 3,87 MB]. "Il Piano disegna una strategia per il rilancio del settore portuale e logistico da perseguire attraverso il valore aggiunto che il "Sistema Mare" può garantire in termini quantitativi di aumento dei traffici, ed individua azioni di policy a carattere nazionale - sia settoriali che trasversali ai diversi ambiti produttivi, logistici, amministrativi ed infrastrutturali coinvolti - che contribuiranno a far recuperare competitività all'economia del sistema mare in termini di produttività ed efficienza. Il "Sistema Mare" viene presentato come strumento attivo di politica economico commerciale euro-mediterranea, e come fattore di sviluppo e coesione del Mezzogiorno nonché come fattore di sostenibilità, innovazione, sostegno al sistema produttivo del Paese. Nella prima parte si analizzano i profili che condizionano le performance dei porti italiani quali porte di scambio dei sistemi territoriali economico - produttivi e dei consumi. Si analizzano poi gli aspetti legati agli accordi Euro-Mediterranei, gli scenari geo-economici globali di riferimento, l'andamento della domanda dei traffici nei diversi segmenti, l'attuale offerta infrastrutturale e dei servizi. Molto spazio è dedicato poi alla disamina delle vigenti procedure amministrative dei controlli e dello sdoganamento delle merci: una delle principali cause della scarsa competitività internazionale del sistema portuale nazionale. Si evidenzia quindi una normativa eccessivamente complessa e disomogenea, con stratificazione multilivello di iter procedurali, istituzionali ed amministrativi. Infine vengono esposti gli scenari tendenziali di domanda sulla base di analisi macroeconomiche, geopolitiche e sociali, nonché di posizionamento di mercato degli attori di settore e della struttura delle reti distributive, allo scopo di rivedere i possibili cambiamenti dell'organizzazione delle filiere logistiche e trasportistiche. Sulla scorta delle analisi condotte il Piano individua una strategia integrata, con azioni da compiere sia nei porti sia sulla loro accessibilità - da mare e da terra - al fine di potenziare il ruolo dell'Italia nel Mediterraneo e negli scambi internazionali. La strategia è articolata per dieci Obiettivi strategici, declinati al loro interno in specifiche e dettagliate azioni: Semplificazione e snellimento; concorrenza, trasparenza e upgrading dei servizi; miglioramento accessibilità dei collegamenti marittimi; integrazione del sistema logistico; miglioramento delle prestazioni infrastrutturale; innovazione; sostenibilità; certezza e programmabilità delle risorse finanziarie; coordinamento nazionale e confronto partenariale; attualizzazione della governance del sistema. L'attuale assetto della governance portuale è plasmato dalla legge n.84 del 1994, ed ha evidenziato, nel corso degli anni, limiti e distorsioni evidenti. Il Piano individua nella dimensione "mono-scalo" degli organi di governo dei porti uno dei fattori principali su cui intervenire, avendo tale assetto prodotto nel tempo una non efficiente allocazione delle risorse e degli investimenti, anche per l'assenza di una stringente strategia nazionale volta a sviluppare il sistema portuale italiano nel suo complesso. E' quindi proposto un nuovo modello di governance, da realizzarsi attraverso atti legislativi successivi, in ossequio al disposto dell'art. 29 decreto legge 12 settembre 2014, n. 133, cd. "Sblocca Italia", che pone tra gli strumenti serventi alla realizzazione degli obiettivi del Piano la razionalizzazione, il riassetto e l'accorpamento delle Autorità portuali esistenti. In particolare il piano definisce una strategia di intervento ipotizzando l'istituzione di Autorità di Sistema Portuale (AdSP). In prospettiva, il Piano costituirà uno dei piani di settore che andranno a confluire in un documento programmatico più ampio, plurisettoriale e plurimodale, e, segnatamente, nel Documento di Programmazione Pluriennale che il Ministero delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti intende redigere ed approvare entro la fine del corrente anno 2015, secondo il disposto del decreto legislativo n. 228/2011, e nella cornice del Piano Strategico Nazionale dei Trasporti e della Logistica."

Andrea Appetecchia (Isfort), Sviluppo dell'intermodalità. Autostrade del mare 2.0 e combinato marittimo. Rapporto finale. Confcommercio, Roma, 21 luglio 2015, 47 p. [formato PDF, 1,12 MB]

Andrea Appetecchia (Isfort), Sviluppo dell'intermodalità. Autostrade del mare 2.0 e combinato marittimo. Presentazione. Confcommercio, Roma, 21 luglio 2015, 25 slides [formato PDF, 2,77 MB]

Olaf Merk, Theo Notteboom, Port Hinterland Connectivity. (Discussion Paper 2015-13). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 35 p. [formato PDF, 1,14 MB]. "This paper identifies main port-hinterland connectivity challenges and current and potential policy responses to resolve these challenges. It dissects port hinterland connectivity in three related domains: maritime hinterlands, inland hinterland corridors, hinterland traffic in port-cities, and multi-level governance framework related to hinterland transport."

Sergio Bologna, Trading ships not cargo. Alcune considerazioni sulla fase attuale del mercato marittimo-portuale, in occasione della stesura del "Piano dei porti e della logistica". Giugno 2015, 25 p. [formato PDF, 562 kB].

Olaf Merk, Bénédicte Busquet and Raimonds Aronietis, The Impact of Mega-Ships. Case-Specific Policy Analysis. OECD/International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2015, 108 p. [formato PDF, 3,92 MB] "There are cost savings of mega-ships, but these are decreasing and might not even be realized. Doubling the maximum container ship size over the last decade has reduced total vessel costs per transported container by roughly a third. However, these cost savings are decreasing with size; the cost savings of the newest generation of containerships are four to six times smaller than the savings from the previous round of upsizing. Approximately 60% of the cost savings of the most recent container ships are related to more efficient engines and not to scale. In addition, mega-ship development and the related container fleet capacity growth has taken place despite sluggish growth of world containerized seaborne trade. The massive ordering of new mega-ships has resulted in oversupply of container ships, which will most likely dampen some of the cost savings due to larger ships, as low demand results in fewer savings per transported container. The transport costs due to larger ships could be substantial. There are size-related fixes to existing infrastructure, such as bridge height, river width/depth, quay wall strengthening, berth deepening, canals/locks and port equipment (crane height, outreach). Mega-ships also require expansion of infrastructure to cater to the higher peaks related to mega-ships; as a result, more physical yard and berth capacity is needed. These annualised transport costs related to mega-ships could amount to US$ 0.4 billion, according to our rough and tentative estimations. Roughly a third of the additional costs might be related to equipment, a third to dredging and another third to port infrastructure and port hinterland costs. A substantial share of the dredging, infrastructure and hinterland connection costs are costs to the public sector in many countries. Supply chain risks related to bigger container ships are rising. There are concerns about insurability of mega-ships and the costs of potential salvage in case of accidents. Mega-ships also lead to service and cargo concentration, reduced choice and more limited supply chain resilience, especially since bigger ships have coincided with increased cooperation of the main shipping lines in four alliances. In addition, public policies need to better take account of this and act accordingly. Key question is how the costs for the public sector imposed by mega-ships could be covered. Many ports and countries have, either accidentally or on purpose, encouraged the development of mega-ships. More balanced decisionmaking would be needed, with clearer alignment of incentives to public interests, policy support to enhance supply chain productivity, more regional collaboration and the creation of an appropriate forum for a discussion between liner companies and all other relevant transport actors. Further increase of maximum container ship size would raise transport costs. So one could wonder if such increases would be desirable. The potential cost savings to carriers appear to be fairly marginal, but infrastructure upsizing costs could be phenomenal. Introduction of one hundred 24,000 TEU ships in 2020 would require substantial investments in those places where these ships would be first introduced (Far East, North Europe, Mediterranean), but would also - via cascading effects - result in introduction of 19,000 TEU ships in North America and 14,000 TEU ships in South America and Africa. This would imply additional investment requirements there as well."

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Iniziativa di studio sulla portualità italiana. Dipartimento per la programmazione e il coordinamento della politica economica, Roma, luglio 2014, 143 p. [formato PDF, 2,12 MB] "Lo Studio ricostruisce lo stato delle infrastrutture portuali e della relativa programmazione e finanziamento, l’andamento e le previsioni di traffico riguardanti le merci, le modifiche del quadro normativo a partire dalla legge n. 84/1994, con particolare riferimento alle procedure di affidamento delle concessioni e dei lavori in ambito portuale, e le principali proposte di riforma. Sulla base dei predetti elementi e delle indicazioni della Commissione Europea nell’ambito della revisione delle Reti Transeuropee di Trasporto (TEN-T), lo Studio individua una serie di indicatori per l’allocazione di future disponibilità finanziarie pubbliche e per la pianificazione del settore, nonché alcune raccomandazioni per azioni/misure di policy finalizzate allo sviluppo del sistema portuale italiano. Oltre alla analisi della documentazione disponibile a livello nazionale e internazionale, è stato chiesto alle Autorità Portuali (AP) di fornire dati riguardo alla realtà dei singoli porti, ai progetti infrastrutturali in atto - ivi comprese le opere di bonifica -, ai collegamenti del porto con la rete viaria/ferroviaria, alla capacità residua di movimentazione, ai piani regolatori e alle relazioni con altri porti. Alle maggiori compagnie di shipping internazionali è stato chiesto di esprimere una valutazione comparativa, in termini di efficienza e competitività, dei porti dell’Alto Tirreno e di quelli del Nord Adriatico a confronto con i porti del Northern range e del West Med, oltre che valutazioni su tempi di percorrenza e costi di spedizione delle merci verso località significative."

Stratégie nationale de relance portuaire Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie, Direction générale des infrastructures, des transports et de la mer, La Défense, Mai 2013, 16 p. [formato PDF, 2,66 MB] "Vous trouverez dans cette brochure les principaux axes stratégiques de la relance à savoir : faire des ports des architectes de solutions logistiques maritimes et terrestres ; des lieux d’implantation privilégiés d’activités industrielles génératrices de trafics maritimes ; des aménageurs et gestionnaires de leurs territoires."

Arianna Buonfanti, Lo shipping e la portualità nel Mediterraneo: opportunità e sfide per l’Italia, Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPoT), 2013, n° 3, articolo 1, 18 p. [formato PDF, 682 kB] "Scopo di questo paper è delineare l’andamento e i possibili futuri scenari logistici nel Mediterraneo, che non si limita più ad essere un’area di transito per i flussi internazionali di merci che da Est sono diretti ad Ovest ma sta diventando una regione di scambio autonoma per effetto dell’aumento dei flussi intramediterranei dovuta allo sviluppo dei Paesi della Sponda Sud-Est. In questo contesto, chiare appaiono le potenzialità di sviluppo dei Paesi europei che si affacciano sul bacino e, in particolare dell’Italia, che vanta oltre ad un posizionamento geografico favorevole che le consente di intercettare oltre il 30% del traffico internazionale in transito, anche consolidati rapporti commerciali con i Paesi dell’area Med dei quali è il 1° partner nell’UE 27 in termini di import-export. Il lavoro si propone di effettuare un’analisi della logistica e delle sue prospettive nei Paesi della Sponda Sud, associando un approfondimento della domanda, strettamente collegata agli importanti flussi marittimi di merci che attraversano il bacino, con quello dell’offerta, in termini di infrastrutture portuali destinate ad accogliere quelle merci. Ci si è focalizzati sull’aspetto del trasporto su nave essendo la “logistica marittima” a nostro avviso il driver più importante nelle relazioni economiche tra il nostro paese e questi territori. L’analisi evidenzia l’intensificarsi delle merci che transitano nel Mediterraneo che viaggiano sulle navi che passano per il canale di Suez; anche lo Short Sea Shipping - inteso quale segmento del mercato del trasporto marittimo a corto raggio che, in ambito europeo, comprende i collegamenti via mare tra porti nazionali e internazionali nonché i servizi da e verso le isole dei Paesi dell’Europa geografica e degli altri Paesi che si affacciano sul Mar Baltico, sul Mar Nero e sul Mar Mediterraneo - ha assunto dimensioni significative. Il paper si sofferma quindi sullo scenario competitivo dei porti con riferimento alla dimensione euro-mediterranea, evidenziando le caratteristiche e le prospettive di sviluppo degli scali nelle diverse aree in cui si suddivide il bacino. Il peso dell’economia del mare in Italia è rilevante: il Pil generato dal sistema marittimo nazionale ammonta a 39,5 miliardi di euro, pari al 2,6% del totale nazionale; importante è anche l’aspetto occupazionale, registrandosi oltre 213.000 unità di lavoro dirette. L’interscambio marittimo ammonta a circa 241 miliardi di euro, il 19,7% di questo diretto verso l’Area Med. Il paper si conclude con alcune considerazioni relative all’ulteriore sviluppo del trasporto marittimo che potrà costituire un importante strumento per l’avvicinamento tra l’Europa comunitaria e i Paesi della Sponda meridionale e quindi per il processo di integrazione euro-mediterranea nel quale il nostro Paese potrà assolvere un ruolo da protagonista."

Olaf Merk, Markus Hesse, The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: the Case of Hamburg. (OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2012/06). OECD, Paris, 2012, 49 p. [formato PDF, 1,70 MB] "This working paper offers an evaluation of the performance of the Port of Hamburg, as well as an analysis of the port?s impact on its territory and an assessment of relevant policies and governance. It examines port performance in the last decade and identifies the principal factors that have contributed to it. In addition, the report studies the potential for synergies between the Hamburg and Bremerhaven ports. The study also considers the effect of these ports on economic and environmental questions. The value added of the port cluster of Hamburg is calculated, and its linkages with other economic sectors and regions in Germany are delineated. Specifically, the paper outlines the impact of the port?s operations, and shows how its activities spill over into other regions. The report also assesses major policies governing the port, as well as transport and economic development, the environment and spatial planning. These policies include measures instituted by the port authority and local, regional and national governments. Governance mechanisms at these different levels are described and analysed. Based on the report?s findings, proposed recommendations aim to improve port performance and increase the positive effects of the port on its territory."

Theo Notteboom (ITMMA – University of Antwerp), Economic analysis of the European seaport system. Report serving as input for the discussion on the TEN-T policy. ITMMA, Antwerp, 14 May 2009, 65 p. [formato PDF, 5,70 MB] "This report aims at providing a deeper understanding of the market dynamics behind freight distribution patterns in the European port system. The report aims for a balanced approach covering all port regions in Europe and large as well as mid-sized and small ports. The findings of the report serve as input for the ongoing discussion on the revision of the TEN-T program of the European Commission. The report will demonstrate that the routing of maritime freight through European ports to the hinterland is guided by complex interactions between a large set of factors and actors. The first part discusses cargo dynamics in the European port system by analyzing the geographical spread of freight volumes in the European port system and the associated cargo concentration patterns at the local, regional and European scale. Next, the report zooms in on the market dynamics behind the routing of good flows via the European port system. The discussion includes an analysis of the underlying factors that lie at the heart of port and modal choice and of observed patterns in distribution networks, liner services, rail services and barge services. The last section of the report is aimed at providing a deeper insight in the actual routing of hinterland flows between the seaport system and the hinterland."

Ville Henttu, Lauri Lättilä and Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Financial and Environmental Impacts of a Dry Port to Support Two Major Finnish Seaports. (Research Report 224). Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2010, 141 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB] "Aim of this research was to find out if a dry port solution could decrease costs of transport, especially external costs. Dry port concept is an intermodal transport system, where inland transport between seaport and dry port is performed by rail transport instead of traditional road transport. In addition, dry ports offer similar services as seaports. Research is conducted by performing a literature review about dry port concept and costs of transport, especially external costs of transport. Financial and environmental impacts of the dry port concept are studied by comparing costs of road and rail transport by cost accounting and with a simulation model. Location of dry port is researched with different gravitational models. Results of the literature review are that rail transport is environmentally friendlier mode of transport than road transport. In addition, cost-efficiency of the transport system can be decreased by increasing proportion of rail transport. A cost model was created to compare internal and external costs of both the road and rail transport. According to the cost model, rail transport is more inexpensive mode of transport in external and internal costs. In addition, a simulation model was created to compare conventional road transport and dry port implemented transport. Results of the model are that if only costs of freight movement are considered, the dry port implemented transport is environmentally friendlier and more cost-efficient. Results of gravitational models are that city of Kouvola is in a good position to be a dry port if only Finnish inland distribution is considered. Russian transit traffic through Finland improves location of Kouvola to be a dry port."

MDS Transmodal Limited, NAPA: Market study on the potential cargo capacity of the North Adriatic ports system in the container sector. Draft Report. December 2011, 65 p. [formato PDF, 3,20 MB] "The North Adriatic Ports Association (NAPA) has commissioned MDS Transmodal (MDST) to carry out a market study on the potential cargo capacity of the North Adriatic Ports system in the container sector. This study, which is part-funded by the European Union TEN-T Programme, will help to determine the future development of the NAPA ports system in the container sector up to at least 2030. The five NAPA ports - Koper, Ravenna, Rijeka, Trieste and Venice – are all either developing new or enhanced container port facilities and/or have plans to do so. NAPA has a common objective of developing its container traffic and becoming a multi-port gateway, particularly between the dynamic Asian and Central and Eastern European economies; NAPA’s guiding principle is “coopetition”, where it co-operates internationally but competes internally. The key objective of this study therefore is to provide an independent and objective view as to the potential combined demand for the existing and potential container port facilities up to 2030, based on the port’s collective strengths and the likely future business environment.. The geographic scope of the study is focused on the existing NAPA ports of Koper, Ravenna, Rijeka, Trieste and Venice and the ports’ collective worldwide foreland and European hinterland. The study seeks to define both the existing and potential hinterland of the NAPA ports by country and, for the larger, countries, by region. The time horizon for the study is 2030, with intermediate forecasts required for 2015 and 2020."

Wlodzimierz Freda, Zbigniew Otremba (Gdynia Maritime University), Maritime transport - an environmental problem with ballast water: technical preventive measures. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2012), p. 153-158 (6 p.) [formato PDF, 206 kB] "The fast development of marine transport causes a lot of environmental concerns connected with possible accidents of ships transporting hazardous cargoes as well as oil pollution coming from an exploitation of engine rooms. Moreover, a significant problem is connected with a ballast water handling. The use of ballast water is necessary for the safe movement of large ships. Namely, in maritime transport a ship unloading causes a reduction in its draft – it is a cause of lower steering or even completely prevents the safe movement of the ship. Therefore, in place of the discharged freight the ballast water is collected (often just during the unloading). This water is pumped out from a ship at the site of re-loading. However, this implies the risk of transportation of living organisms over large distances, which (if at the point of discharge of ballast water will find suitable conditions) can become invasive species. Because of the risks involved in carriage of these organisms, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed rigorous standards for permissible amounts of organisms in the discharged ballast water. A number of methods of biological neutralization of ballast water, that meet the requirements of the IMO, have been developed. The topic of this paper is to review currently used methods of neutralization of ballast water. We consider clearing of ballast water from point of view of physics, especially by using electromagnetic radiation and ultrasonic waves."

Elen Twrdy, Igor Trupac, Jurij Kolenc (Univ. of Ljubljana), Container Boom in the Port of Koper. Promet – Traffic&Transportation, Vol. 24, 2012, No. 2, 169-175 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,63 MB] "For the Port of Koper the Central and Eastern European market is very important. The Port of Koper is especially interesting for goods flows relating to the exchange of goods on the East – West route (and vice versa) and bound for the EU, in particular to the catchment area of the North Adriatic ports. The year 2009 was a difficult year for business, especially due to the uncertain international economic situation. In the first nine months of 2010, 16% more goods were handled in the Port of Koper than in the same period in 2009. The container transport especially exploded in tons (45% increase) as well as in container units (40% increase). Within this period they handled 355,000 TEUs (new record) in the container terminal (214,000 TEUs in the same period on the seventh pier in Trieste). The growth of container transport in the Port of Koper as well as the beginning of construction on the new container terminal have made the reconstruction and extension of the current container terminal an absolute priority. The extension is in line with the estimated growth of traffic as well as with the exploitation of present and future terminal capacities. This paper aims to present and analyse: (I) supply chains of the flow of containerised goods through the Port of Koper to/from the countries of Central and Eastern Europe; (II) the changes which enable this boom, current state and strategies to handle even more containers in the future; (iii) market potential, current and future investments in new capacities."

Troubled waters: How to protect the Arctic from the growing impact of shipping. European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Brussels, September 2012, 24 p. [formato PDF, 754 kB] "This paper zooms in on three issues related to the potential impact of an increase in shipping in the Arctic region: increase of emissions of black carbon, the risks of carrying and burning heavy fuel oil, and the potential for regulated ship speeds. It also examines in detail protective measures that could be adopted as part of future regulations and it explores different ways that could be followed to ensure a sufficient level of protection to the vulnerable Arctic environment."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". Secondo volume. (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 17). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2012, 147 p. [file PDF, 928 kB]. "L’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica di Isfort dopo la prima esperienza condotta lo scorso anno in cinque porti nazionali (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste), ha proseguito l’indagine di campo circa l’organizzazione del lavoro nei porti italiani a seguito della legge di riforma del settore (l. 84/94), il cui aggiornamento è in corso di discussione nelle sedi parlamentari, e l’applicazione del Contratto Collettivo Nazionale dei Lavoratori portuali, estendendola ad altre cinque realtà portuali (La Spezia, Livorno, Palermo, Bari e Venezia)."

Jasper Faber, Dagmar Nelissen, Galen Hon, Haifeng Wang, Mikis Tsimplis, Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits. Delft, CE Delft, February 2012, 117 p. [formato PDF, 1,90 MB] "This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate change in developing countries. The report has been written by a team of experts from CE Delft, the University of Southampton and the ICCT. It was commissioned by Transport and Environment and Seas at Risk."

Fondazione CENSIS, Assoporti, La portualità come fattore di sviluppo e modernizzazione. Analisi dell'impatto economico e occupazionale dei porti commerciali italiani. Roma, 20 maggio 2008, 74 p. [formato PDF, 397 kB]. "Una ricerca realizzata dal Censis, promossa e finanziata da Assoporti, sull’impatto economico e occupazionale dei porti italiani. Lo studio esamina il ruolo del sistema portuale nella promozione della capacità logistica e della competitività del Paese. Vengono evidenziati, in particolare, il peso economico del settore portuale e la capacità di stimolare lo sviluppo e l’occupazione nel territorio, individuando i processi moltiplicativi del reddito e del numero di addetti attivati nell’economia nazionale."

S.E. Newton, Y. Kawabata, R. Smith, The Balance of Container Traffic amongst European Ports. Final Report. NEA, Zoetermeer, Netherlands, October 2011, 112 p. [formato PDF, 3,40 MB]. Report to: Port of Antwerp, Port of Rotterdam, Port of Hamburg. "Research conducted by the independent transport research agency, NEA indicates that the Northern seaports offer the most efficient route for container transport into a large part of the central European hinterland. Seaports located in the North of Europe have four times the container throughput of the principal ports competing along the Southern coastline of Europe. The analysis concludes that the distribution patterns underlying these shares is efficient, and is explained by a persistent combination of economic and geographical factors. The analysis was carried out on behalf of the Ports of Antwerp, Rotterdam and Hamburg. Five main factors determine the efficiency of the current situation. First, cargo generation and attraction rates are higher in the Northern Continent. The distribution of economic activity suggests a natural split of 70% for the Northern half. Second, Europe's physical geography strengthens the position of the Northern ports. The Alps and the Rhine waterways form a natural barrier and a natural corridor respectively, extending the catchment area of the Northern ports towards Switzerland and Austria. These two factors, volume and terrain, have assisted in the development of high capacity, low cost intermodal corridors being developed from the Northern range. Third, scale economies in the maritime networks linked to the Northern European ports are extending their competitive hinterlands further to the South. Deployment of large container vessels is lowering costs between Northern ports and the Far East. Clustering of activity, scale economies and deep water at the North European main ports permits the use of ships with the lowest unit costs available. Fourth, the ability of the Northern main ports to combine transhipment and hinterland functions contributes further to the scale effect. Finally, from an environmental perspective, large container ships are less polluting in terms of CO2 per tonne kilometre. This advantage is applicable for the full 20,000 kilometre trajectory between China and Western Europe. While it might be expected that current distribution patterns are efficient in terms of minimising internal costs, the study shows that including external costs within the optimisation of traffic distribution does not radically change the picture. Both internal and external cost drivers are similar, for example distance, modal split, fuel economy, scale and load factors. Considering both internal costs and external costs for a container arriving from the Far East via Suez, the Northern European ports have an advantage that reaches as far as the Southern German border. The findings of the study indicate that on the maritime side, market forces already play an important role in creating incentives for low transport costs and lowering carbon emission rates per container unit. It shows that attention must focus on technology, fuels, and load factors as well as on port selection. Largest volumes in the North, but fastest market growth in the South Economic growth in Slovenia, Croatia, and Hungary, resulting from improved infrastructure and economic integration, will foster scale economies in the South. Furthermore, inland intermodal links towards Hungary will help Adriatic ports to gain more shares. In the North however, market growth, even under pessimistic growth assumptions, is likely to be still strongly positive in absolute terms. Thus there is a continuing need for high capacity multimodal links. Future developments on Alpine routes: no extra capacity for maritime traffic On the inland side, the study confirms and supports the direction of the TEN-T core network policy, with the development of long distance multimodal corridors concentrating the flows between the main gateway ports and the inland centres of population and industry. In future, engineering a significant North to South shift through intervention will be limited by the availability and cost of rail infrastructure in the Alpine region. The additional rail capacity offered on Transalpine routes (the Mont Cenis, Lötschberg, Gotthard and Brenner) is likely to be needed for enabling road to rail shifts within intra-European flows rather than for reducing maritime traffic around the Atlantic coastline."

Enrico Beretta, Alessandra Dalle Vacche, Andrea Migliardi, Il sistema portuale italiano: un'indagine sui fattori di competitività e di sviluppo. (Questioni di Economia e Finanza. Occasional papers, n.39). Banca d’Italia, Roma, Febbraio 2009, 42 p. [formato PDF, 737 kB]. "Tra il 2003 e il 2007 il volume di traffico gestito dal sistema portuale nazionale è cresciuto in misura contenuta, nonostante il forte sviluppo del movimento marittimo nel Mediterraneo. Vi ha contribuito in parte la stasi dell'economia nazionale, in parte l'incapacità dei porti di espandere il proprio bacino di utenza alle aree limitrofe, a sua volta determinata da carenze quali-quantitative degli snodi portuali e terrestri. Il lavoro si propone di approfondire tali criticità, mediante un'indagine condotta presso le rappresentanze nazionali delle principali compagnie armatoriali mondiali. I principali svantaggi competitivi riguardano le infrastrutture terrestri; rilevano anche alcuni profili di inefficienza degli scali e carenze nelle loro dotazioni infrastrutturali. Il ciclo logistico nazionale appare poi frammentato rispetto ai sistemi integrati di altri paesi. I principali spunti di miglioramento individuati dagli operatori risiedono, oltre che in un potenziamento infrastrutturale, nella liberalizzazione del trasporto ferroviario e nell'evoluzione degli assetti di governance dei porti, in particolare nella direzione di una maggiore snellezza operativa e di una più ampia autonomia finanziaria per le Autorità portuali."

Bruno De Borger, Denis De Bruyne, Port activities, hinterland congestion, and optimal government policies: the role of vertical integration in logistic operations. (Research Paper 2010-012). University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Antwerpen, 2010, 44 p. [formato PDF, 258 kB]. "We study the implications of vertical integration in logistics and transport operations for welfare-optimal port access charges and hinterland congestion tolls. We show that, first, vertical integration of terminal operators and transport firms does not affect the optimal congestion toll rule for the hinterland, but it does imply higher optimal port access charges. Second, the government not only has an incentive to promote competition between downstream firms, it may also be beneficial to approve of vertical mergers in the logistic chain. Third, the government’s failure to respond to changes in industry market structure may have large welfare effects. Fourth, both under separation and integration, optimal port fees may imply subsidies if downstream firms enjoy a high degree of market power."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 15). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2011, 241 p. [file zip 2,12 MB - contiene file PDF, 4,12 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Rapporto "Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale". Sintesi del rapporto. (Rapporti periodici dell’Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica, 15). Isfort, Roma, luglio 2011, 23 p. [file Word, 1,56 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Andrea Appetecchia. Dania De Ascentiis, Flaviana Pessina, Far West Italia. Il futuro dei porti e del lavoro portuale. Isfort, Osservatorio nazionale sul trasporto merci e la logistica. Presentazione del rapporto, Roma, 13 luglio 2011, 32 slides [file PDF, 1,30 MB]. "Indagine svolta da Isfort in cinque porti italiani (Genova, Napoli, Gioia Tauro, Ravenna e Trieste) col supporto organizzativo e logistico dei delegati sindacali dislocati presso i porti analizzati."

Eric Heisman, Claire Danielle Tomkins, Shipping. Full Report. The Carbon War Room, Washington, D.C., March 2011, 35 p. [formato PDF, 4,01 MB]. "Satisfying client demands for cost savings and carbon savings stands to become a competitive issue for shipping companies, particularly as awareness by influential shippers of the latent emissions savings that could be relinquished profitably within shipping increases."

Theo Notteboom (Univ. of Antwerp), Dock labour and port-related employment in the European seaport system. Key factors to port competitiveness and reform. Report prepared for European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO). ITMMA, University of Antwerp, 25 May 2010, 94 p. [formato PDF, 4,38 MB].

Jean-Paul Rodrigue (Hofstra Univ.), Theo Notteboom (Univ. of Antwerp), Athanasios A. Pallis (Univ. of the Aegean), The financialisation of the port and terminal industry: revisiting risk and embeddedness. Paper accepted for publication at Maritime Policy and Management. 2011, 27 p. [formato PDF, 789 kB]. "The paper explores the evolving relationship between the port and terminal industry and the financial sector. Since the financial industry has taken an active role in global economic affairs, understanding global trade and transportation requires more than ever a perspective about financial issues and their impacts on transport operations. Paradoxically, the recent analytical emphasis on the strategies of port operators has rarely focused on one of the fastest and most radical changes ever to affect the maritime and port industries. The paper argues that through the lenses of financial issues – financialisation – a unique dimension of the maritime industry can be understood. It analyses how a changing pattern in risk perception has supported a bubble in the period 2002-2008 and how financial interests in the industry have repositioned themselves since the start of the economic crisis in 2008. The analysis demonstrates how since then, the financial sector is – reluctantly – rediscovering the risks that are part of the maritime industry, notably those related to business cycles."

W. Jacobs, C. Ducruet, P.W. de Langen, Integrating world cities into production networks: The case of port cities. Global Networks, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 92-113. 2010, p. 38 [formato PDF, 926 kB]. "This paper analyses location patterns of firms that provide specialized advanced producer services (APS) to international commodity chains that move through seaports. Such activities can take place in world cities or in port cities. The analysis of APS location patterns in port cities provides a good opportunity to integrate the study of world cities into the framework of global production networks. Based upon our empirical findings, we conclude that while port]related APS activities predominantly follow the world city hierarchy, a number of port cities stand out because they act as nodes in global commodity flows and as centres of advanced services related to shipping and port activities. Based upon these empirical findings we address future avenues of research."

Mary R. Brooks (Dalhousie University), Liberalization in Maritime Transport. (Forum Paper 2009-2). International Transport Forum, OECD, Paris, 2009, 31 p. [formato PDF, 252 kB] "This paper explores the state of liberalization in maritime shipping. It first examines sectors of the market that are liberalized and then narrows its focus to look at the cabotage rules of certain OECD countries, comparing the more liberalized markets with those that are most protected. In an era of trade liberalization and new public management approaches to governance, it seems surprising that further liberalization has not happened in regional markets. The inefficiencies that materialize as a result of the failure to further liberalize protected short sea markets are most evident in North America. The protection previously granted liner conferences and currently under review for consortia is also discussed."

UNCTAD, Review of Maritime Transport 2009. Report by the UNCTAD secretariat. United Nations, New York and Geneva, 2009, 219 p. [formato PDF, 2,31 MB] "The Review of Maritime Transport is one of UNCTAD´s flagship publications, published annually since 1968. It reports on the worldwide evolution of shipping, ports and multimodal transport related to the major traffics of liquid bulk, dry bulk and containers."

Jean-Paul Rodrigue (Hofstra University), Maritime Transportation: Drivers for the Shipping and Port Industries. International Transport Forum 2010 "Innovation and Visions for the Future of Transport", Paris, 26 January 2010, p. 21 [formato PDF, 1,25 MB].

Wouter Jacobs, Theo Notteboom, A theory on the co-evolution of seaports with application to container terminal development in the Rhine-Scheldt Delta. (Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography 10.03). Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2010, 43 p. [formato PDF, 2,33 MB]. "How do seaports evolve in relation to each other? Recent studies in port economics and transport geography focused on how supply chain integration has structurally changed the competitive landscape in which individual ports and port actors operate. Port regionalization has been addressed as the corresponding new phase in the spatial and functional evolution of port systems. However, these studies lack theoretical foundations that allow us to empirically assess both the role of the institutional context and of strategic agency in the competitive (spatial and functional) evolution of regional (integrated) port systems. The paper presents a theoretical framework to analyze and understand the co- evolution of seaports in a regional context by making use of the concept of windows of opportunity. The empirical part will unravel the role of seaport-based co-evolution in the processes aimed at positioning market players and ports on the container scene in the Rhine-Scheldt Delta."

A. Miola, V. Paccagnan, I., Mannino, A. Massarutto, A. Perujo, M. Turvani, External costs of transportation. Case study: maritime transport. (Maritime transport – report 2). (JRC Scientific and Technical Reports). (EUR 23837 EN). Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, 2009, 109 p. [formato PDF, 1,38 MB]. "This report aims at proposing a methodological approach to estimate the external costs of maritime transport. In order to do so, It is organised into two sections: (i)identification of all environmental impacts of maritime transport (at sea and in ports) and a detailed analysis for those already studied in previous researches in literature; (ii)Estimation of identified environmental impacts focusing on those related to air pollutants. In the first paragraph we review external costs of transportation. Then, a description of maritime transportation activities (par. 2) and vessels (par.3) is provided. This will contribute to clarify the sources of environmental impacts. The central part of this report will be devoted to a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts listed above. The ultimate objective is to highlight the gaps that have to be filled in future research works. All the environmental effects entailed by maritime activities (both in port and at sea) are analysed (par. 4). The following environmental impacts of maritime transport have been considered: emissions to air and water, soil and sediment contamination, erosion, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, and waste generation. In order to emphasise the complexity and uncertainty about the analysis of environmental impacts entailed by maritime transport, a review of research findings is provided (par. 5) and suggest research directions (par. 6). Next, we make a step forward and discuss the methodological aspects related to the economic valuation of these impacts (par. 7), so as to derive a monetary indicator able to summarise them. In particular, we review the economic literature regarding the valuation of the several environmental impacts discussed previously (par. 8 and 9), to sketch the state of the art. This review will provide a description of proposed methods for measuring each external cost. Then, we focus on impacts on air (par. 10). The strengths and limitations of existing approaches are described, by proposing at the same a methodological approach to estimate maritime pollution activities (par. 11). The proposed approach is tested through a case study, by estimating the external costs of a type of maritime activities in Venice (par. 12). The idea is to determine the relevant parameters that should be taken into account in the definition of an analytical approach, to signal research gaps so as to pave the way to future research activities. This will make possible to propose a methodology to be developed in future research for maritime transport and to test through a case study what are the main steps of such analysis. The last part of the report will emphasise future research directions."

Massimiliano Bultrini, Marco Faticanti, Alfredo Leonardi, Assoporti, Traffico marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle principali aree portuali nazionali. (Rapporti 95/2009). Istituto Superiore per la protezione e la ricerca ambientale (ISPRA), Roma, 2009, 177 p. [formato PDF, 1,45 MB]. "Il Rapporto Traffico marittimo e gestione ambientale nelle principali aree portuali nazionali, realizzato da ISPRA in collaborazione con l’Associazione Porti Italiani (Assoporti), presenta i dati relativi al trasporto marittimo nelle 23 Autorità Portuali italiane istituite ai sensi della Legge n. 84 del 1994 ed esamina alcuni aspetti ambientali legati al trasporto, quali sversamenti di petrolio in mare, emissioni in atmosfera, gestione dei rifiuti. In evidenza, riportando sia alcuni esempi di buone pratiche che la presenza di eventuali certificazioni ambientali, anche il grado sensibilità da parte delle Autorità Portuali verso le tematiche ambientali."

Valérie Lavaud-Letilleul (Univ. Paul Valéry - Montpellier 3), Le Delta d'Or autour de Rotterdam, Anvers et Zeebrugge: l'émergence d'une véritable région portuaire face au défi de la mondialisation?, les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport n.51/2007, p. 61-96 [formato PDF, 540 kB]. "Comme l’a montré Fernand BRAUDEL, les villes-ports sont les territoires par excellence de la mondialisation. Depuis les années 1970, l’utilisation généralisée du conteneur dans le transport des marchandises marque la dernière étape de ce processus dans les pays de la Triade. Or, au-delà des économies d’échelle réalisées, la conteneurisation tend, fait nouveau, à créer de véritables « régions portuaires » fondées sur des relations de compétition-coopération entre villes-ports. Cet article a pour but de mettre en évidence que le processus de régionalisation en cours constitue la marque, à l’échelle locale, de la mondialisation dans le domaine de la conteneurisation. Il s’appuie en particulier sur l’exemple européen du « Delta d’Or », le débouché de l’artère rhénane, centré autour des ports de Rotterdam, Anvers et Zeebrugge. L’idée de l’émergence d’une véritable région portuaire au milieu de la Rangée Nord se justifie tout d’abord à partir des critères de concentration spatiale, de bipolarité et d’interdépendance entre l’activité des trois ports. L’article explique ensuite le processus de régionalisation à l’œuvre : il s’agit en fait de l’échelle d’action la plus pertinente imaginée par les opérateurs de terminaux internationaux (global) pour déployer leur activité dans un contexte local très tendu (local). Jouer sur la complémentarité entre ports très proches dans le cadre de leurs réseaux de terminaux, leur permet de tirer parti des atouts de chacun de ces ports sur le plan technique, fonctionnel et commercial, tout en contournant les difficultés d’ordre technique, environnemental ou stratégique qui peuvent se présenter ici ou là. Sachant que de nouvelles mutations sont à venir dans l’activité conteneurisée, l’article pose in fine la question de la transformation de cette entité fonctionnelle en véritable territoire, sa gestion raisonnée requérant pour le moins un nouveau mode de gouvernement de la part des autorités publiques de la région."

Andreja Ana Lopac (Naftaplin), Recent trends in transporting of LNG, liquefied natural gas, 11th International Conference on Transport Science, Portorož, 28.-29. maj 2008, 9 p. [formato PDF, 238 kB]. "Transportation of liquefied natural gas, cooled down to -162°C and transported by ships from liquefaction terminals to receiving terminals, where it is again turned into gaseous form, is a modern orientation in global planning of energy flows. Since the first LNG transport in 1959 when the LNG carrier Methane Pioneer transported the first 5000 m3 of LNG from Louisiana to England, the technology of constructing the LNG carriers with implementation of new materials and developing of new LNG reservoir systems as well as carrier engines, led to contemporary LNG carriers that. Traditionally, the largest number of carriers is tied up to a certain LNG project and owned by exporting or importing companies. A number of independent companies, dedicated only to ship transport, find their interest in contracting the construction of new carriers with specific characteristics in line with new conditions of world LNG trade. The article gives the overview of the world fleet of LNG carriers, as well as development trends in this area of LNG industry."

Claude Comtois and Brian Slack, Restructuring the maritime transportation industry: global overview of sustainable development practices. (Etudes et recherches en transport). Transports Québec, Montréal, April 2007, p. 225 [formato PDF, 5,10 MB].

Tina Wagner (Hamburg University of Technology, Institute for Transport Planning and Logistics), Logistics land use - A buffer between harbour areas and urban neighbourhoods? Real CORP 008, 13th International Conference on Urban Planning and Regional Development, Vienna, May 19-21 2008, 9 p. [formato PDF, 1,28 MB]. "The Port of Hamburg, being the second largest harbour in Europe, is directly adjacent to the urban neighbourhood Wilhelmsburg. On the border between the industrial harbour area and the housing areas, logistics and other commercial land uses are situated. According to the draft of the spatial development vision for the city of Hamburg, this area is also proposed for further logistics development, because a high demand for space for new logistics and distribution facilities (e.g. warehouses, distribution centers, transfer depots, truck depots, container storage) is expected. During the (re-)location of logistics companies, a strong opposition of residents can usually be observed. Logistics land uses are often perceived as space consuming, noisy and traffic intensive. This raises the question, if and how logistics land use can serve as a buffer between industrial harbour areas and housing areas. To answer this question, information on land consumption and traffic generation of logistics land use is necessary, because besides noise and emissions these factors determine how compatible they are with other forms of land use, particularly housing. However, there is very limited literature on how characteristics and size of logistics facilities relate to their trip generation. Aiming at a deeper insight into the characteristics and trip generation of logistics land uses, two surveys were recently conducted in the Hamburg region. A company survey was carried out in order to observe which services are offered by logistics companies, what patterns of land use they show, how many truck trips they generate and how the trips are performed (mode, time of the day, etc.). The second was a traffic count within two areas with a concentration of logistics companies. As a result of these surveys, general trip generation rates could be calculated and different types of logistics land use could be identified and described. The paper presents some general characteristics of logistics facilities and selected results of the empirical work relevant for this study. It introduces the local situation of the case study Hamburg Wilhelmsburg and discusses the compatibility of logistics and residential land use."

Theo Notteboom (ITMMA, Univ. of Antwerp), The relationship between seaports and the intermodal hinterland in light of global supply chains. European challenges. (Discussion paper No. 2008-10). Joint Transport Research Centre, Paris, March 2008, p. 44 [formato PDF, 0,99 MB].

Fondazione CENSIS, Assoporti, La portualità come fattore di sviluppo e modernizzazione. Analisi dell'impatto economico e occupazionale dei porti commerciali italiani. Sintesi della ricerca. Roma, 20 maggio 2008, 14 p. [formato PDF, 138 kB].

Cristina Capineri (Univ. Siena) and Filippo Randelli (Univ. Firenze), Freight transportation flows: new trade regions and trade routes. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 7 (2007) 93-112 [formato PDF, 290 kB]. "This paper highlights the trends in global freight transportation which has recently shown intense growth but also a “new” geography of flows. In particular the analysis describes the growth in relation to GDP with reference to destinations (Europe, United States) and to the origin of flows. The trends identified show the emergence of new patterns of routes and nodes. Moreover, logistic services are proving to be an advantage for the Mediterrean area which is the place of transshipment and unloading of containers arriving from Asia."

Alga D. Foschi, La concentrazione industriale per i sistemi di trasporto sostenibile: un caso di successo nel Mediterraneo orientale. Discussion Papers del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Università di Pisa, n. 63. Pisa, 2006, 31 p. [formato PDF, 330 KB]. (L'esempio dei trasporti Ro-Ro tra i porti turchi e Trieste).

Alga D. Foschi, The maritime container transport structure in the Mediterranean and Italy. Discussion Papers del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Università di Pisa, n. 24. Pisa, 2003, 34 p. [formato PDF, 768 KB]. "In this paper we will describe the liner shipping industry in the Mediterranean and in Italy. The structure of the industry is representative of the oligopolistic structure that is taking shape on a worldwide level. In particular the main terminals in Italy have undergone a “colonization process” by the big liner shipping companies. At the same time the Italian shipping industry is made up of small to medium companies that are strong in inter-regional and specialized traffic."

Enrico Musso, Movimento delle merci nei porti italiani e ruolo del trasporto ferroviario. Relazione a "Sistema portuale e sistema ferroviario", Taranto, 9 novembre 2004, 24 slides [formato PDF, 420 KB].

César Ducruet, Approche comparée du développement des villes-ports à l'échelle mondiale: problèmes conceptuels et méthodologiques, les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport n.48/2005, p. 59-79 [formato PDF, 1,76 MB].

Peter W. de Langen (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Port competition and selection in contestable hinterlands; the case of Austria, European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research 7 (2007) 1-14 [formato PDF, 270 KB]. (confronto tra i sei principali porti a servizio dell'Austria, cioè le tre coppie Amburgo-Brema, Rotterdam-Anversa e Trieste-Koper, con i giudizi comparativi dati dagli operatori che utilizzano questi porti).

C.E.S.P.E.S., Rilanciare e valorizzare il sistema marittimo. Lo sviluppo della rete portuale italiana. FISE Uniport, Novembre 2006, 116 p. [formato PDF, 410 KB] (necessaria la registrazione sul sito per scaricare il documento). "Il rapporto promosso da Uniport evidenzia numeri e trend legati alla attività portuali nazionali e internazionali e possibilità per rilanciare e valorizzare il sistema marittimo."

Actia Forum, Traffic flows between the Baltic Ports and other major European ports with focus on the UK Ports within Port-Net in preparation for Motorways of the Sea (Port-Net Study 03-2). Gdynia, Szczecin, Hamburg, July 2006, 81 p. [formato PDF, 3,37 MB].

Johannes Frass, Kapazitätsanalyse von Hinterlandverbindungen ausgewählter europäischer Seehäfen. (Analisi delle capacità dei collegamenti con l'hinterland di alcuni porti marittimi europei) (Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Transportwirtschaft und Logistik, Nr.4), Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, 2006, 118 p. [formato PDF, 4,51 MB]. Lo studio analizza il traffico dei porti di Amburgo, Brema e Koper-Capodistria con i paesi centroeuropei (Austria, Cechia, Slovacchia, Ungheria) e le infrastrutture di trasporto in Germania e Slovenia. "This work analyzes and systematizes the effects that the increasing amount of cargo import and export of the European ports of Hamburg, Bremen, Bremerhaven and Koper have on the traffic in the hinterland infrastructure. The research is an attempt to forecast whether or not these transactions will entirely clog traffic and/or alter infrastructure indefinitely. These measurements have been made for transportation routes within a 150 kilometre radius around the aforementioned ports. Having gathered current statistics and information on these transportation routes, a prediction will be made what future cargo traffic will look like and the effects it will have in 2010 as well as 2015. The research indicates that, if no changes are made, the hinterland connections around the sea ports of Hamburg and Koper will suffer most by the growing trade and might cause a loss of share of transhipment concernig goods which destination or origin country is Czech Republik, Slowak Republik, Austria and Hungary. There will probalbly be a certain amount of bottlenecks. However, transportation by way of ships along the many rivers may prove a reasonable alternative to road or railway traffic concerning the ports of Hamburg, Bremen and Bremerhaven."

Federazione del Mare, Fondazione CENSIS, III Rapporto sull'economia del mare 2006. Crescita economica, capitale umano e tutela dell'ambiente nel cluster marittimo italiano. FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2006, 219 p. [formato PDF, 1,63 MB]. "Questo Rapporto analizza i conti economici delle componenti produttive (armatori, cantieristica navale e delle imbarcazioni da diporto, porti, servizi logistici, attività ausiliarie ai trasport i marittimi, pesca) e istituzionali (Marina Militare, Capitanerie di Porto, Autorità portuali, Istituto di previdenza marittima) del cluster marittimo, oltre a definire un dettagliato quadro statistico settoriale."

Yves Cousquer et René Genevois, Regards sur la place et la compétitivité des ports français dans le système européen. Entre rétrospective et prospective. Séminaire maritime INRETS, 24 juin 2005, presentazione, 75 slides [formato PDF, 4,51 MB]. La situazione dei porti francesi nel contesto europeo, nei confronti del range portuale nordeuropeo e all'interno del range sudeuropeo (Marsiglia).

Theo E. Notteboom (ITMMA, University of Antwerp), Container shipping and ports: an overview. Review of Network Economics, Vol.3, June 2004, 86-106 [formato PDF, 298 kB]. "Globalisation, deregulation, logistics integration and containerisation have reshaped the port and shipping industry... Based on empirical evidence, this paper demonstrates that because of the rapidly changing environment the port and liner shipping markets are not stable any longer. Individual terminal operators and shipping lines tend to walk different paths on a quest for higher margins and increased customer satisfaction."

Department for Transport (UK), National Statistics, Focus on Ports. 2006 edition. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, 96 p. [formato PDF, 9,27 MB]. This report gives comprehensive statistical information about commercially active UK ports. It gives information about individual ports around the coast including details about ownership, type of operation carried out, and the sorts of traffic handled. The report also includes information on UK port employment and accident rates.

D. Cazzaniga Francesetti, I criteri di scelta dei porti internazionali e i porti italiani. Paper presentato all’8. riunione scientifica della SIET (Società Italiana Economisti dei Trasporti), Trieste, 29 giugno – 1 luglio 2006, 19 p. [formato PDF, 215 kB]. La prof.ssa Francesetti fa un ampio panorama dell’aumento dei traffici navali diretti al Mediterraneo (sopratutto dalla Cina) e analizza i limiti dei porti italiani rispetto a quelli di Francia, Spagna e della costa africana e asiatica. Auspicando l’acquisizione dei nuovi traffici da parte dei porti italiani, il documento ritiene necessari nuovi corridoi “eco-sostenibili” per trasportare più merci su gomma attraverso le Alpi.

Andrea Appetecchia, Mario Sommariva, Opzione mediterranea 2006 : alla ricerca della competitività del sistema logistico italiano oltre l’alibi del gap infrastrutturale. ISFORT, Roma, 23 marzo 2006, 65 p. [formato PDF, 374 kB]. Presentato al convegno ISFORT-ANCIP su “L’Italia e il Mediterraneo tra opportunità di sviluppo e minacce di declino”. Lo studio è centrato sul sistema portuale italiano e i traffici tra Europa e Estremo Oriente. Documento gratuito, necessaria la registrazione sul sito.

Andrea Appetecchia,Opzione mediterranea 2006 : alla ricerca della competitività del sistema logistico italiano oltre l’alibi del gap infrastrutturale. ISFORT, Roma, 23 marzo 2006, 34 slides [formato PDF, 832 kB]. Presentato al convegno ISFORT-ANCIP su “L’Italia e il Mediterraneo tra opportunità di sviluppo e minacce di declino”. Presentazione dello studio centrato sul sistema portuale italiano e i traffici tra Europa e Estremo Oriente. Documento gratuito, necessaria la registrazione sul sito.

CNEL (Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro), La competitività della portualità italiana, Rapporto, Roma, 27 ottobre 2004, 235 p. [formato World, 2,31 MB]. Importante analisi, utilizza numerosi indicatori (44) per mettere a confronto la competitività dei principali porti italiani.

D. Cazzaniga Francesetti, M. Rosa-Clot, Italian ports offer in Italian Chinese trade (This paper has been presented at the "Comitato Governativo Italia-Cina", Ministry of Foreing Affairs, Roma 17-3-2005). (relazione bilingue inglese/cinese sulla convenienza del trasporto di merci tra Cina ed Europa centrale usando i porti del Mediterraneo invece di quelli del range Nord-Europeo. Per calcolare il costo del trasporto terrestre gli autori hanno considerato il minore costo del trasporto merci su strada in Italia rispetto alla media europea, dovuto all’autosfruttamento dei padroncini e al mancato rispetto dei limiti di legge. I dati provengono da uno studio del Cetena). Presentazione, 33 slides [file PowerPoint, 13,6 MB; scaricabile come file Powerpoint compresso in formato zip, 6,24 MB]

Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics - Institut für Seeverkehrswirtschaft und Logistik, Entwicklungstendenzen der deutschen Nordseehafen bis zum Jahre 2015, Bremen, 2000, 387 p. [formato PDF, 8,46 MB]. Tendenze di sviluppo dei porti tedeschi del Mare del Nord fino al 2015, nel contesto dei porti europei.

D. Cazzaniga Francesetti, A.D. Foschi, The Development of Hub and Spokes Systems in the Mediterranean: a Problem of Sustainable Development, July 2002, 15 p. [formato PDF, 84 kB] (il ruolo crescente dei porti del Mediterraneo e i vantaggi ambientali del sistema di trasporto marittimo “hub & spokes” – le valutazioni ambientali sono basate sulle stime di Lombard e Molocchi)

Conseil National des Transports, Observatoire des politiques et des stratégies de transport en Europe, Le transport maritime, un avenir pour l’Europe, Dossier n.6, Octobre 2004, 106 p. [formato PDF, 1,15 MB] (la situazione attuale del trasporto marittimo nei principali paesi europei)

Freight Leaders Club, Un nuovo approccio metodologico per una efficace pianificazione del sistema portuale italiano nel rispetto dell’attuale quadro istituzionale e normativo, febbraio 2004, 25 p. [formato PDF] (necessaria registrazione/accredito gratuito)


Contribution to impact assessment of measures for reducing emissions of inland navigation, Panteia, Zoetermeer, June 2013, 241 p. [formato PDF, 9,0 MB]. [report financed by the European Commission]. "Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) is an efficient, safe and environmentally friendly mode of transport. However, the previously undisputed competitive position of IWT in the field of emissions, in comparison to air, is increasingly being contested. The gap – regarding emissions to air – between road transport and IWT is rapidly becoming smaller. A major concern thereby, is the poor progress made on the emission of air pollutants with in particular, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). In contrast to the road haulage sector the emission standards for new engines are much less stringent and the average lifetime of engines in inland vessels is very long. As a consequence, inland waterway transport already has higher air pollutant emission levels than road transport per tonne kilometre for certain vessel types. Without specific action this situation will further deteriorate in the future and the air pollutant emission will remain high for IWT. The analysis of the ‘Business as Usual’ (BAU) scenario confirms that the most persistent problem in relation to external costs of IWT (especially when compared to road transport) is to be found in the air pollutants NOx and PM, while IWT still has a clear advantage compared to road haulage in the performance of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The focus of this study therefore, lies on the reduction of the air pollutants NOx and PM in order to reduce the related external costs. This study concludes that addressing the emission standards for engines used in IWT is the most effective approach towards the reduction of these emissions."

Highway H2O. Comprised of the St. Lawrence River, the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes, Hwy H2O is a 3,700 kilometre marine highway that offers shippers direct access to the commercial, industrial and agricultural heartland of North America.

Carlo Crotti (Associazione per la Salvaguardia del Territorio Padovano e Veneziano), Idrovia Padova Mare: la funzione fluviomarittima, presentazione, 37 slides [formato PowerPoint, 8,92 MB]

Idrovia Padova Mare, sito dell'Associazione "Salvaguardia idraulica del territorio padovano e veneziano".

Inland Navigation Europe. "INE actively promotes inland shipping. Through its members, it provides practical and relevant information to businesses on moving freight by water. INE develops and shares best practice models for efficient and sustainable transport on canals and navigable rivers, supporting forward-thinking entrepreneurs to benefit from this cost-effective, reliable and congestion free system."

Friedrich von Stackelberg (Univ. Münster), Möglichkeiten und Probleme einer Verlagerung des Güterverkehrs von der Strasse auf das Binnenschiff. (Possibilità e problemi di un trasferimento del trasporto merci dalla strada al trasporto fluviale). Institut füf Verkehrswirtschaft an der Universität Münster, 2004, 37 slides [formato PDF, 787 KB].


B. Eklund, M. Elfström and H. Borg (Stockholm Univ.), Tributyltin Originates from Pleasure Boats in Sweden in Spite of Firm Restrictions, Open Environmental Sciences, 2008, 2, 124-132 [formato PDF, 1,04 MB]. DOI: 10.2174/1876325100802010124. "The temporal and spatial distributions of organic tin compounds, irgarol and metals in sediments from a marina and the harbor of a small town near Stockholm, Sweden were investigated as part of a study of the environmental impacts of anti-fouling paint. The upper (0-2 cm) sediment layer was collected at seven stations in the marina and eight stations in the small town harbor; two reference stations were also sampled. High levels of tributyltin (TBT) were detected in sediment that decreased along a spatial gradient moving away from the slipway in the marina. TBT was ten times higher in the surface sediment when compared to subsurface layers (10 cm deep). The highest concentrations of TBT were found at the slipways (up to 2000 ..g TBT/kg DW) of the harbor. Analysis of accumulated sediments obtained from a collection basin situated beneath a boat washer revealed very high concentrations of TBT (63 000 ..g/kg DW). These data provide persuasive evidence that TBT is still being released from pleasure craft even though it has been banned for use on such boats for 19 years. The source of the TBT is most likely from older paint that has been covered with newer coats. Our observations, together with other literature-based data, suggest that TBT is still being released into the environment and poses a serious ecological problem at marinas throughout the world."