Centro de Transporte Sustentable de México

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian cities through partnerships and sharing experiences.

CODATU (Coopération pour le Développement et l'Amélioration des Transport Urbains et Périurbains / Cooperation for urban mobility in the developing world). The CODATU was born from the world conference on the urban transport, organized in Dakar in 1980. It's an association with international vocation whose objective is to promote the actions of animation and scientific exchanges, technical, economic and social concerning the systems of urban displacements and periurbans ; it is based on experience sharing between the developing countries and the countries in the past industrialized.

World Resources Institute, EMBARQ, the WRI Center for Sustainable Transport. El Centro de Transporte Sustentable de WRI.

ITDP Institute for Transportation & Development Policy

International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFDRT) is a global network of individuals and organisations working together towards improved access, mobility and economic opportunity for poor communities in developing countries.

Mobility & Health / Mobilité et Santé / Movilidad y Salud. An international Research Programme on mobility and health in developing countries.

Solidarité Internationale sur les Transports et la Recherche en Afrique Sub-Saharienne (SITRASS). "Indépendant de tout gouvernement ou organisme international, le réseau SITRASS est né de la conjonction de bonnes volontés et de compétences d'Afrique francophone et de France."

Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). The SSATP is an international partnership to facilitate policy development and related capacity building in the transport sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Program is currently funded by the European Commission, Denmark, France, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, the Islamic Development Bank, and The World Bank.

SUTP Sustainable Urban Transport Project. SUTP’s main objective is to assist developing cities meet their sustainable transport goals, through the dissemination of information about international experience and targeted work with particular cities. The Project has two main branches in Asia and Latin America. In Asia (SUTP- Asia), the project is carried out in cooperation between German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), CITYNET, and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The office is based in Bangkok (Thailand). In Latin America, the project receives cooperation from Cooperación Andina de Fomento (CAF), ARPEL and TransMilenio and is based in Bogotá (Colombia).


Karl Peet, Cornie Huizenga, and Sudhir Gota, Transport and Climate Change. EcoMobility Dialogues / Technical Paper. ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, Bonn, September 2015, 28 p. [formato PDF, 975 kB]. "Urban transport constitutes 40% of total transport energy consumption, which is poised to double by 2050, despite ongoing vehicle technology and fuel economy improvements. At the same time, cities offer immense potential to scale up sustainable low carbon transport solutions to contribute to climate change mitigation, to improve health outcomes through non-motorized transport, and to create more compact developments to increase access and improve mobility. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), transport has traditionally been viewed as a sub-sector of energy, which has led to a failure of governments to significantly scale up transport projects to reduce climate impacts. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) have the potential to drive progress on transport, and among INDCs submitted to date, nearly 30% make specific reference to urban transport improvements. It is necessary to continue to raise the profile of sustainable urban transport within the UNFCCC framework - and especially through the actions of non-state actors - to help to raise mitigation ambition within the transport sector before and beyond 2020. An important leap forward can be seen in the growing role of cities through the Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), with the voluntary commitments made during and since the 2014 Secretary General (SG) Climate Summit a key example of non-state actors taking concrete transport mitigation actions. To complement the LPAA-backed initiatives, many city governments are taking steps to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon transport. The combination of these commitment types creates a key opportunity for matchmaking among 'supply-side' and 'demand-side' commitments, which can create further momentum to accelerate action on sustainable low carbon urban transport in the coming decades."

Prithvi Vijaya Simha, Disruptive Innovation on Two Wheels: Electrification of the Humble Bike. The case of E-Bikes in China. 2015, 14 p. [formato PDF, 1,83 MB].

Stephanie Ohshita, Nina Khanna, Gang He, Lixuan Hong, David Fridley and Yong Zhou, Urban form as a “first fuel” for low-carbon mobility in Chinese cities: Strategies for energy and carbon saving in the transport sector. eceee 2015 Summer Study on energy efficiency, Toulon/Hyères, France, June 2015, conference paper, 14 p. [formato PDF, 7,93 MB]. "From a systems perspective, the energy needed for urban mobility is fundamentally influenced by the design of a city, its urban form—the spatial layout, transport infrastructure, and social functions of a city. Thus urban form becomes a “first fuel” for mobility. This research examines the characteristics of urban form and other factors that encourage energy efficient and low-carbon mobility in Chinese cities. The analysis utilizes indicator systems and benchmarking in three tools (BEST Cities, ELITE Cities, and Urban RAM) to characterize and compare urban form and mobility across Chinese and international cities. The tools BEST and ELITE characterize operational energy and carbon, while Urban RAM takes a life-cycle perspective, giving attention to embodied energy in transport and other urban sectors. We highlight policies and infrastructure choices that are yielding results around the world and examine their applicability in Chinese cities, from integrated land-use and transportation planning and urban villages, to public transit investments and vehicle license restrictions. Throughout the paper, we use the city of Jinan in Shandong province, P.R. China, as a case study."

Akshima T. Ghate, S. Sundar, Can We Reduce the Rate of Growth of Car Ownership?. Economic & Political Weekly (Mumbai, India), June 8, 2013, vol XLVIII, no 23, p. 32-40 [formato PDF, 657 kB]. "The average level of ownership of cars in India, currently 13 per 1,000 population, is expected to grow exponentially. Estimating the average level of ownership in 2025 at 35 per 1,000, this article points out that the growing number of cars has serious implications for energy security, air pollution, road safety, and equitable allocation of road space, and argues that there is an urgent need for India to learn from the experiences of cities that have decoupled car ownership from economic growth, and reduce the rate of growth of car ownership in India."

Christopher Cherry, Jonathan Weinert, Yang Xinmiao, Eric Van Gelder, Electric bikes in the People’s Republic of China: impact on the environment and prospects for growth. Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 2009, 94 p. [formato PDF, 1,69 MB]. "Electric bikes (e-bikes) provide cheap, convenient, and relatively energy-efficient transportation to an estimated 40 million to 50 million people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as of 2007. They are quickly becoming one of the dominant travel modes in the PRC. As e-bike use grows, however, concerns are rising about lead pollution from their batteries and emissions from their use of grid electricity, primarily generated by coal power plants. This report examines the environmental performance of e-bikes relative to other competing modes, their market potential, and the viability of alternative battery technologies. The analysis is divided into five sections. Section 1 describes the environmental impact of e-bikes in the PRC. Section 2 analyzes the environmental impact of alternative modes and compares e-bike emissions with those of alternative modes. Section 3 discusses market potential and identifies factors that influence e-bike adoption. Section 4 presents prospects for battery technology improvements in the near and long term. Finally, section 5 frames the role of e-bikes in the PRC’s transportation system and recommends policies for the central government and the cities of the PRC."

Chao-Fu Yeh, Francis Papon, Sylvie Abours, Claude Soulas (INRETS), Conditions du développement des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai. les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, N° 58/2010, p. 29-53 [formato PDF, 404 kB]. "Cet article explore les questions liées au développement potentiel des deux-roues électriques dans la ville de Shanghai dans une perspective de développement urbain durable. Dans un contexte de passage très rapide des modes traditionnels, marche et vélo, aux modes motorisés individuels, les deux-roues électriques pourraient constituer une alternative plus respectueuse de l’environnement. L’examen des caractéristiques techniques des différents deux-roues, de leurs possibilités en termes de vitesse moyenne et de portée, ainsi que du profil de leurs usagers, montre que, pour les déplacements quotidiens d’une grande partie de la population, l’usage des deux-roues électriques est pertinent. Un bilan comparatif portant sur cinq critères -coût, vitesse moyenne, sécurité routière, efficacité énergétique et impact environnemental- met en évidence une supériorité globale des deux-roues électriques, ce qui plaide pour une politique en faveur de ce mode. Compte tenu du bouleversement des répartitions modales en une décennie, il y aurait urgence à infléchir la tendance, mais il semble nécessaire de traduire au préalable dans la réglementation les spécificités de ce mode, à la fois pour mieux profiter de ses avancées techniques et pour limiter l’accidentologie associée. Des recommandations en ce sens sont données en fin d’article." "This paper examines the potential for the development of electric two-wheelers in Shanghai from the standpoint of sustainable urban development. In the situation where the traditional modes of walking and cycling are very rapidly being replaced by personal motorized vehicles, electric two-wheelers could constitute a more environmentally friendly alternative. Our examination of the technical features of various two-wheelers and their possibilities in terms of average trip speed and range, as well as the profile of their users, shows that electric two-wheelers are suitable for most of the population’s daily trips. A comparative review based on five criteria -cost, mean speed, road safety, energy and environmental impact- highlights the comprehensive superiority of electric two-wheeled vehicles, justifying a policy to promote this mode. Urgent measures are required to reverse the radical change in modal split that has occurred in the last decade, but it seems necessary beforehand to modify the regulations in order to take account of the specific features of the mode, both to take advantage of technical breakthroughs and to limit the associated accident rate. Some recommendations in this regard are made at the end of the article."

Geetam Tiwari (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi), Key Mobility Challenges in Indian Cities. (Discussion Paper No. 2011-18). International Transport Forum, Paris, May 2011, 33 p. [formato PDF, 1,03 MB]. "The existing modal share in Indian cities is in favor of Non-motorized transport (NMT) and public transport. However given the hostile conditions for public transport and increasing risk to pedestrians and cyclists, the use of personal motorized vehicle is increasing. This trend is accompanied with the rise in traffic crashes and deteriorating air quality in cities. Emission levels vary with travel behavior which is dependent on city size, structure and mode choice available. In Indian cities, a large proportion of population lives in slums, for example in Mumbai percentage of population living in slums is 54.1%, Kolkata 32.5% and in Delhi it is 18.7% (Census of India, 2001). There is a significant proportion of people who cannot afford personal motorized vehicles (cars and two-wheelers) for transportation and subsidized bus systems are also too expensive for them for daily commute (Mohan and Tiwari, 2000). Their transportation needs are thus dependent on NMT (walking or cycling). As such, even in the megacities of India (population more than 8 million), 30% of the trips are made by NMT, 50% by PT (both formal bus systems and informal bus systems, tempos) and rest are by Personal Motorized Vehicles (PMV) i.e. cars and two wheelers. Any investment in infrastructure to improve mobility of motorized vehicles thus benefits only small group of affluent class of people who own PMV. Moreover, without facilities to regulate the interaction between motorized vehicles and NMT this new infrastructure limits the freedom of movement of the common citizen substantially. Also, any investments made in infrastructure to improve mobility of PMV results in improvement in vehicular speeds in the short term. This is often short lived eventually resulting in increase in congestion levels because of the increasing number of PMV (Grazi and van den Bergh, 2008). Moreover, the increasing number of PMV results in increasing negative environmental impacts like degrading air quality, noise and habitat loss and fragmentation (Demirel et al., 2008) and increasing number of accidents (Peden et al., 2004). For a long term solution and sustainable transportation it is required to promote the use of NMT and PT. This study discusses the key challenges in urban mobility in India in three parts as listed below: Urbanization and transport; Urbanization and population growth; City Profile; Vehicle ownership trends; Travel Patterns; Urban Transport challenges; Increasing share of personal motorized vehicles; Traffic crashes; Fuel consumption and GHG emissions; Current policies and interventions; NUTP; State level Policy; City level Policy."

Daniel Bongardt, Wolfgang Sterk, Frederic Rudolph, Achieving Sustainable Mobility in Developing Countries: Suggestions for a Post-2012 Agreement. Gaia - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 18/4 (December 2009), p. 307-314 [formato PDF, 175 kB]. "In December 2009, countries meet in Copenhagen to establish a new global climate agreement. This article links the need for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries with the current international climate negotiations. Arguing that a sustainable transport approach requires comprehensive policy packages, it assesses the suitability of current climate negotiation proposals in promoting sustainable transport. The project-based approach under the current climate regime incentivises neither comprehensive sustainable transport and mobility policies, nor sufficient numbers of local projects. Current proposals to increase efforts by developing countries, to reform the Clean Development Mechanism, and to create new emission trading mechanisms are promising but still have to overcome several obstacles. One obstacle involves how to properly assess the impact of actions while maintaining streamlined procedures. The authors conclude from their analysis that the best way forward would be to establish an international mitigation fund with a dedicated transport window financed by industrialised countries. This fund would enable developing countries to implement national policies and local projects. Developing countries would outline low-carbon development strategies, including a sectoral strategy for low-carbon transport."

Christopher Cherry (Univ. of Tennessee), Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Promise, Progress and Potential. Access n. 37, Fall 2010, p. 17-24 [formato PDF, 436 kB]. "Electric two-wheelers have transformed the way people move in most Chinese cities. In just ten years, growth in electric two-wheelers—a category that includes vehicles ranging from electric bicycles to electric motorcycles—has substantially increased the total number of vehicles in China. Electric bike sales began modestly in the 1990s and started to take off in 2004, when 40,000 were sold. Since then, over 100 million have been sold and now more than 20 million are sold each year. Electric two wheelers, in short, represent the first mass-produced and mass-adopted alternative-fuel vehicles in the history of motorization."

Govinda R. Timilsina, Ashish Shrestha, Why have CO2 emissions increased in the transport sector in Asia? Underlying factors and policy options. (Policy Research Working Paper No 5098). The World Bank, September 2009, 72 p. [formato PDF, 748 kB]. "Rapidly increasing emissions of carbon dioxide from the transport sector, particularly in urban areas, is a major challenge to sustainable development in developing countries. This study analyzes the factors responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in selected developing Asian countries during 1980-2005. The analysis splits the annual emissions growth into components representing economic development; population growth; shifts in transportation modes; and changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, and transportation energy intensity. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, particularly various fiscal and regulatory policy instruments. The study finds that of the six factors considered, three - economic development, population growth, and transportation energy intensity - are responsible for driving up transport sector CO2 emissions in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In contrast, only economic development and population growth are responsible in the case of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. CO2 emissions exhibit a downward trend in Mongolia due to decreasing transportation energy intensity. The study also finds that some existing policy instruments help reduce transport sector CO2 emissions, although they were not necessarily targeted for this purpose when introduced."

Study on Traffic and Transportation Policies and Strategies in Urban Areas in India. Final Report. Wilbur Smith Associates, Ministry of Urban Development, May 2008, 149 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "The share of personalized modes especially of two wheelers have gone up leaps and bounds clocking 12% per annum in the past two decades, while public transport has generally dwindled. Some public transport services have been even pushed out of business. Consequently street congestion has dramatically increased and overall speeds on major corridors have dropped. Operating bus services in congested streets have become increasinghly difficult in congested networks with turn around times increasing by the day. Fleet sizes in nearly all public undertakings have declined rather than grow to meet the demand. Another important observation is the decline of NMT especially cycling. Congestion, increase in trip lengths due to urban sprawl, increase in purchase power of people and totally inadequate facilities for cycling have all contributed to reducing cycling to less than 11% of the mode share which is down from nearly 30% in 1994. And for pedestrians our city roads have simply forgotten they exist. The percentage of roads with pedestrian footpaths runs to hardly 30% in most cities."

Dayo Mobereola, Africa’s First Bus Rapid Transit Scheme. The Lagos BRT-Lite System. (SSATP Discussion Paper No 9). The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, September 2009, 54 p. [formato PDF, 1,85 MB]. "Africa’s first bus rapid transit (BRT) scheme began operations on March 17, 2008, in Lagos, Nigeria. Called “BRT-Lite”, it is a form of the BRT system, but it is not of the highest specification like the TransMilenio in Bogota or the Brisbane South East Busway, both of which cost about $6 million per kilometer. This new form of the BRT scheme is aimed at delivering a transport system that will meet the needs of local users, while improving citizens’ quality of life, economic efficiency, and safety within a clearly defined budget. Two aspects of the system—the relatively short time, 15 months, required to go from conception to operation and its delivery at a cost of $1.7 million per kilometer—make its development unique. This experience is relevant to the many cities throughout the world seeking to develop a BRT system. The BRT-Lite system in Lagos is now carrying almost 200,000 passengers a day, but its capacity will not allow it to satisfy all the demand forecast. Within its first 100 days, the system carried 9.7 million passengers, and within its first six months of operation 29 million passengers. The BRT-Lite system operates along a 22-kilometer route of which 65 percent is physically segregated from the regular roadway and 20 percent is separated by road markings. However, its success stems not solely from its infrastructure but from a holistic approach that has included reorganizing the bus industry, financing new buses, creating a new institutional structure and regulatory framework to support the system, and training the personnel needed to drive, maintain, enforce, and manage it. While meeting these technical and organizational challenges, BRT officials were also engaging the public and promoting the new system. In return, the public quickly adopted the new system, and the praise was plentiful. All this was achieved within an extremely challenging environment and during an election for the new state governor. According to the evaluation of the BRT-Lite system completed in the fall of 2008, its users were saving travel time, had fewer transfers, were traveling cheaper, and felt safer. Businesses along the system’s corridor were positive; the new system improved accessibility—staff found it easier to get to work and to travel on company business. Negative comments primarily revolved around the need for more routes and buses. Problems, then, do exist and improvements will be made, but the overriding factor is that the BRT-Lite service is having a beneficial effect on the quality of life of a large part of the traveling population of Lagos. More broadly, the evaluation declared the scheme an unprecedented success. The critical success factors were defined as a significant and consistent political commitment, the presence and abilities of a strategic public transport authority in LAMATA (Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority), a scheme definition that concentrates on essential user needs and deliverability within a budget and program, the work undertaken to engage key stakeholders and ensure that they benefit, and a community engagement program that has worked to assure Lagosians that the BRT-Lite system is a community project created, owned, and used by them."

Gaël Raballand, Patricia Macchi, Dino Merotto, Carly Petracco, Revising the Roads Investment Strategy in Rural Areas. An Application for Uganda. (Policy Research Working Paper 5036). The World Bank Africa Region Transport Unit, September 2009, 81 p. [formato PDF, 1,64 MB]. "Based on extensive data collection in Uganda, this paper demonstrates that the rural access index, as defined today, should not be a government objective because the benefit of such investment is minimal, whereas achieving rural accessibility at less than 2 kilometers would require massive investments that are not sustainable. Taking into account the fact that plot size is limited on average to less than 1 hectare, a farmer’s transport requirement is usually minimal and does not necessarily involve massive investments in infrastructure. This is because most farmers cannot fully load a truck or pay for this service and, even if productivity were to increase significantly, the production threshold would not be reached by most individual farmers. Therefore, in terms of public policy, maintenance of the existing rural roads rather than opening new roads should be given priority; the district feeder road allocation maintenance formula should be revised to take into account economic potential and, finally, policy makers should devote their attention to innovative marketing models from other countries where smallholder loads are consolidated through private-based consolidators."

Gaël Raballand, Patricia Macchi, Transport Prices and Costs: The Need to Revisit Donors’ Policies in Transport in Africa. Fourteenth BREAD Conference on Development Economics, Chicago, September 27, 2008, 26 p. [formato PDF, 171 kB]. "This study is the first comprehensive and empirical effort in the last fifteen years to measure and quantify the determinants of transport costs and prices in Africa. Based on trucking surveys for more than 400 companies in thirteen African countries, it demonstrates that contrary to what most literature has presented, transport costs (cost to transport service providers) are not excessively high in the Sub-Saharan region but transport prices (costs to shippers) are, especially in Central Africa. This is mainly a result of official and unofficial market regulation and structure in trucking services, notably in West and Central Africa. In order to seriously tackle transport-related constraints on corridors in Africa, the donor community should support as a first priority transport market liberalization but also collection of data in the trucking industry and the use of country specific trucking data in the economic analysis and design of road maintenance strategies because, in most cases, investments in roads will probably not lead to decrease of transport costs for end-users of transport services."

Daniel Bongardt, Frederic Rudolph, Wolfgang Sterk, Transport in Developing Countries and Climate Policy: Suggestions for a Copenhagen Agreement and Beyond. (Wuppertal Papers no. 179). Wuppertal, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, May 2009, 51 p. [formato PDF, 528 kB]. "This Paper aims at connecting the need for transport actions in developing countries to the international negotiations on a post-2012 climate change agreement. It outlines the decisions to be taken in Copenhagen and the preparations to adequately implement these decisions from 2013. Arguing, that a sustainable transport approach needs to set up comprehensive policy packages, the paper assesses the substance of current climate negotiations against the fit to sustainable transport. It concludes that the transport sector's importance should be highlighted and a significant contribution to mitigation efforts required. Combining the two perspectives lead to several concrete suggestions: Existing elements of the carbon market should be improved (e.g. discounting), but an upscale of the carbon market would not be an appropriate solution. Due to a lack of additionality, offsetting industrialised countries' targets would finally undermine the overall success of the climate agreement. Instead, a mitigation fund should be established under the UNFCCC and financed by industrialised countries. This fund should explicitly enable developing countries to implement national sustainable development transport and mobility policies as well as local projects. While industrialized countries would set up target achievement plans, developing countries should outline low carbon development strategies, including a section on transport policy."

David Cole, Tony Furst, Sharon Daboin, Warren Hoemann, Michael Meyer, Richard Nordahl, Marygrace Parker, Leo Penne, Norman Stoner, Tianjia Tang, Freight Mobility and Intermodal Connectivity in China. International Technology Scanning Program. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, May 2008, 64 p. [formato PDF, 1,88 MB]. "Trade growth between the United States and China has increased U.S. interest in how the Chinese transportation system handles exports. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program sponsored a scanning study to identify how China provides intermodal access to its ports and uses investment strategies to foster freight mobility and intermodal connectivity. The scan team learned that China’s national, provincial, and metropolitan transportation policy is closely coordinated with the country’s economic policy and social harmony goals. The transportation system is expanding rapidly to meet global intermodal freight demands and promote expansion into underdeveloped regions of the country. Team recommendations for U.S. implementation include reviving a national transportation infrastructure focus to maintain U.S. competitiveness in the global market, conducting a study on how China uses performance measures to manage transportation policy, and synthesizing the results of this and earlier scans on intermodal freight and connectivity around the world."

Lee Schipper, Tuan Le Anh, Hans Orn, Maria Cordeiro, Wei-shiuen NG, Robyn Liska, Measuring The Invisible: Quantifying Emissions Reductions From Transport Solutions - Hanoi Case Study. EMBARQ, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, March 2008, 42 p. [formato PDF, 4,73 MB]. "This case study analyzes the emission impacts of two alternative transport policies previously outlined in the Hanoi Integrated Development and Environment Program (HAIDEP) Master Plan. One policy emphasizes improving public transport, while the other is a business-as-usual scenario with higher automobile growth (ALMEC, 2007). These mutually exclusive policies were thought to represent the most probable future scenarios for the city’s transport system. Most background data used for emission calculations came from the HAIDEP Master Plan, although some modifications and extrapolations were made based on proxy data from Europe or Turkey. The study includes a series of assumptions about changes in demand and supply of transport services and about policies for investment and vehicle emission standards that have been deemed reasonable by various experts."

Kathrin Kolossa (Institut für Afrikanistik der Universität zu Köln), The Kenyan Transport System. (Beiträge zur 1. Kölner Afrikawissenschaftlichen Nachwuchstagung (KANT I). 2007, 13 p. [formato PDF, 369 kB].

Heiner Monheim (Universität Trier), Afrika - Verkehrsprobleme, Verkehrsentwicklung und Verkehrspolitik (Africa: problemi, evoluzione e politica dei trasporti). 2007, 77 slides [formato PDF, 5,80 MB]. La presentazione per una conferenza del prof. Monheim fa una panoramica della mobilità urbana e rurale in Africa, mettendo in rilievo il ruolo della mobilità (soprattutto femminile) a piedi, in bici e con il paratransito (taxi, "matatu").

Hyungon Sung, Hyeja Kim, A study on sustainable urban transportation policies in the East-Asian Megacities (the 2nd step). Changing features and challenging issues on urban development and transportation in the Seoul metropolitan area. (Policy research 2007-04). The Korea Transport Institute, 2007, 105 p. [formato PDF, 1,31 MB]. "As the second step of an international joint project to draw sustainable urban transportation policies in Asian megacities, the study does not only cover changing features but also deduce challenging issues on urban development and transportation in the Seoul metropolitan area."

Shigeru Morichi, Surya Raj Acharya, New perspectives on urban transport policies for East Asian Megacities. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.6, 2007, 65 (16 p.) [formato PDF, 590 kB]. "This paper attempts to examine the special characteristics of and their implications for overall urban transport policy in East Asian Megacities. These characteristics create more challenges than opportunities when it comes to dealing with the urban transport problems. A broad framework of long-term vision and strategic approaches is recommended to face such challenges. The core element of the framework is transit dominated multimodal urban transport system and strategic timing of different policy options. Finally, the paper discusses some of the special policy issues and measures that are relevant to the case of East Asian Megacities."

Christopher R. Cherry (University of California, Berkeley), Advantages and Disadvantages of Electric Bike Use in Chinese Cities - an Analysis of Recent Policy Directions. UCTC Student Conference, February 16, 2007, 34 slides [formato PDF, 2,92 MB].

Kaushik Deb (The Energy & Resources Institute), Agenda 21 and Transport in India: A Pragmatic Approach Towards Sustainability. 2005, 22 p. [formato PDF, 190 kB]. "This paper identifies the degree of convergence between the concerns raised in Agenda 21 and the various transport policies in India. The paper is organized as follows. The first section highlights the role of the transport sector in India especially in terms of energy consumption and environmental impacts. Subsequently, the Agenda 21 concerns in the transport sector are discussed. The third section reviews transport sector policies – pre and post Rio in light of the concerns raised in Agenda 21. Section four evaluates these policies against the criterion laid down in Agenda 21 and section five identifies the gaps that need to be addressed. Subsequently, directions for changes in policy are suggested."

Intikhab Ahmed Qureshi, Lu Huapu (Tsinghua University, Beijing), Urban Transport and Sustainable Transport Strategies: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan. Tsinghua Science and Technology, June 2007, 12(3): 309-317 [formato PDF, 220 kB]. "The paper first reviews research related to sustainable transportation systems to comprehend the concept of sustainable development and transportation. The paper then evaluates the existing transportation and infrastructure system, national transportation policies, and urban transportation projects to determine if the current paradigm is moving toward or away from sustainable transportation. Furthermore, the principles for sustainable urban transportation are developed to see what significance national transportation policies have given to urban transportation from a sustainable transportation point of view. Finally some strategies are suggested, adoption of which may lead to a sustainable urban development and transportation system in Karachi."

Bart Boon, Report on maritime transport and the environment for Latin America. (CEPAL. Serie Recursos naturales e infraestructura ; 127). United Nations, Santiago, Chile, october 2007, 60 p. [formato PDF, 772 kB]. "This report presents information on the environmental impact of vessels during their general operation. It is shown that the emissions from vessels can substantially contribute to local air quality problems over land and also impact the climate change process. Up to now, the contribution of the maritime sector to air quality problems in Latin America and Caribbean coastal cities has received little or no attention. Studies for the United States and Europe show that the contribution of this sector may however be significant. Given the persistence of air quality problems in Latin America, it appears worthwile to consider this sector in emission inventories and mitigation policies. The recommendations at the end of the report include several measures that may be implemented at little or no costs, but that do provide incentives to improve the environmental performance of the sector. Based on further research on the particular contribution of the shipping sector to air quality problems, more far reaching measures may have to be considered. With respect to climate change, it is recommended to stimulate participation in trials with the IMO CO2 index that is under development"

Kate Molesworth (Swiss Tropical Institute), Mobility and Health: The Impact of Transport Provision on direct and indirect Determinants of Access to Health Services. January 2006, 27 p. [formato PDF, 2,87 MB]. "Human mobility presents a significant public health issue both in terms of epidemiological aspects of disease and physical access to health services. In recent years the relationship between mobility and the transmission of certain infections – notably HIV, avian influenza, and SARS (Weiss & McMichael 2004) - has necessitated focused action and research to address public health concerns posed by a number of specific diseases. However, the potential enabling role of mobility and transport in public health remains neglected both in terms of research and inclusion in development agendas. With a view to providing a resource for interested researchers and development strategists, this paper sets out to review the knowledge base of the relationship between mobility and access to health services in low-income countries. Using an in-depth case study, this paper also highlights the broad interplay of impacts of transport interventions upon access to health at the micro-level. It supports the argument for an integrated approach to transport development and health in low-income countries which has the potential to indirectly enhance health through non-medical aspects of improved mobility as well as through more direct health access routes."

Brendan Martin, The World Bank, railways privatisation, and trade unions. (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Briefing Papers N° 4/2007). Bonn, 2007, 8 p. [formato PDF, 224 kB]. "For the International Transport Workers' Federation, we have been looking at how the World Bank has been restructuring railways in Africa and Latin America, and the impact on workers and services."

Alan Harding, Gylfi Pálsson, Gaël Raballand, Port and Maritime Transport Challenges in West and Central Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP Working Paper No. 84). May 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 460 KB]. "This Working Paper presents the current trends in maritime transport and port sectors in West and Central Africa (WCA), and proposes several policy recommendations to improve maritime transport and port efficiency in order to enhance economic growth. West and Central African economies, which depend on maritime transport for an overwhelming proportion of their trade, rely on efficient maritime transport and port sectors to be competitive on world markets."

CODATU, Decentralized Cooperation in Urban Transport. Methodological Guide. Works resulting from the conference CODATU XII on the decentralized cooperation for urban transports, Lyon, July 5-7, 2006, Editions du CNFPT, 44 p. [formato PDF, 176 KB].

Marius de Langen, Theo Rwebangira, Enoch Kitandu, Stephen Mburu, Urban road design in Africa: the role of traffic calming facilities. Proceedings of Codatu XI, Bucharest (Romania), 2004, 7 p. [formato PDF, 91 kB]. "In Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, Tanzania, a range of traffic calming interventions were implemented in 1996-99. Their immediate effects have been reported earlier. This paper summarises an evaluation of their long-term impact, with the aim to increase understanding of the performance of various traffic calming facilities in African road and traffic conditions, in particular: their lasting impact on traffic safety and efficiency, and their maintenance requirements. The most important finding is the great effectiveness of the raised zebra crossing. This facility has a very positive permanent effect on the traffic flow, has low maintenance requirements (if well designed and constructed) and, combined with other measures (a/o the systematic use of minibus bays/platforms) can play an important role in increasing the efficiency of informal public transport. The long-term impact of a range of other interventions is also documented in the paper."

Marius de Langen, Urban road infrastructure policies in Africa: the importance of mainstreaming pedestrian infrastructure and traffic calming facilities. World Transport Policy & Practice, Volume 11 (2005), Number 2, pp. 17-32 [formato Word, 121 kB]. "This paper discusses the importance of now main-streaming pedestrian infrastructure and traffic calming facilities as a first priority task -precisely because of the enormous backlog in infrastructure supply as well as of the low traffic performance quality that most currently adopted road infrastructure designs in practice lead to."

Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (Universidad Nacional de Colombia), La autosostenibilidad del Sistema de Transporte Público Masivo TRANSMILENIO en Bogotà. Bogotà, 2005, 52 p. [formato PDF, 670 KB]. Studio sul sistema di Bus Rapid Transit di Bogotà, una delle più importanti esperienze di successo del genere.

Lee Schipper (EMBARQ), Transport and CO2 emissions in developing countries: doing it right the first time. Presentation at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 2007, 54 slides [formato PDF, 1,63 MB].

EMBARQ, Center for Sustainable Transport in Mexico, Metrobus, welcome aboard, Sustainable Mobility, October 2006, 48 p. [formato PDF, 4,22 MB]. Pubblicazione sul sistema del Bus Rapid Transit a Mexico City.

Carlos F. Pardo (GTZ SUTP), Problemas de transporte en el mundo en desarrollo y estrategias para afrontarlo. I Seminario Internacional de Transporte Sostenible. Santiago de Chile, Octubre 2007, 49 slides [formato PDF, 5,33 MB].

Carlos F. Pardo (GTZ SUTP), Retos políticos y el proceso de implantación de peajes urbanos. Tercer Congreso Internacional de Transporte Sustentable, México, Septiembre 2007, 43 slides [formato PDF, 2,29 MB].

Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia: Making the Vision a Reality. Main Report. Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia (PSUTA), 2007, 62 p. [formato PDF, 1,37 MB]. "This report summarizes the main findings from the PSUTA. It identifies indicators of sustainable transport to help decision makers in Asian cities better understand the current sustainability, or lack of it, of their urban transport systems and to develop more structured and quantified approaches to policy making."

Jonathan X. Weinert, Chaktan Ma, Xinmiao Yan, Christopher R. Cherry, The Transition to Electric Bikes in China and its Effect on Travel Behavior, Transit Use, and Safety. (UCD—ITS—RR—06—15). Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 2006, 18 p. [formato PDF, 1,22 MB].

Ashok Kumar (Univ. of Mumbai), Sustainable Transport Environment in Indian Megacities: Problems and Remedies. 2005, 12 p. [formato PDF, 165 KB].