World Health Organization, WHO global air quality guidelines. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, 2021, 300 p. [formato PDF, 4,1 MB]. "New WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) provide clear evidence of the damage air pollution inflicts on human health, at even lower concentrations than previously understood. The guidelines recommend new air quality levels to protect the health of populations, by reducing levels of key air pollutants, some of which also contribute to climate change. Since WHO's last 2005 global update, there has been a marked increase of evidence that shows how air pollution affects different aspects of health. For that reason, and after a systematic review of the accumulated evidence, WHO has adjusted almost all the AQGs levels downwards, warning that exceeding the new air quality guideline levels is associated with significant risks to health. At the same time, however, adhering to them could save millions of lives. Every year, exposure to air pollution is estimated to cause 7 million premature deaths and result in the loss of millions more healthy years of life. In children, this could include reduced lung growth and function, respiratory infections and aggravated asthma. In adults, ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the most common causes of premature death attributable to outdoor air pollution, and evidence is also emerging of other effects such as diabetes and neurodegenerative conditions. This puts the burden of disease attributable to air pollution on a par with other major global health risks such as unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking. Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental threats to human health, alongside climate change. Improving air quality can enhance climate change mitigation efforts, while reducing emissions will in turn improve air quality. By striving to achieve these guideline levels, countries will be both protecting health as well as mitigating global climate change. WHO's new guidelines recommend air quality levels for 6 pollutants, where evidence has advanced the most on health effects from exposure. When action is taken on these so-called classical pollutants - particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), it also has an impact on other damaging pollutants. The health risks associated with particulate matter equal or smaller than 10 and 2.5 microns (µm) in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) are of particular public health relevance. Both PM2.5 and PM10 are capable of penetrating deep into the lungs but PM2.5 can even enter the bloodstream, primarily resulting in cardiovascular and respiratory impacts, and also affecting other organs. PM is primarily generated by fuel combustion in different sectors, including transport, energy, households, industry, and from agriculture. In 2013, outdoor air pollution and particulate matter were classified as carcinogenic by WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The guidelines also highlight good practices for the management of certain types of particulate matter (for example, black carbon/elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, particles originating from sand and dust storms) for which there is currently insufficient quantitative evidence to set air quality guideline levels. They are applicable to both outdoor and indoor environments globally, and cover all settings. "Air pollution is a threat to health in all countries, but it hits people in low- and middle-income countries the hardest," said WHO Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. "WHO's new Air Quality Guidelines are an evidence-based and practical tool for improving the quality of the air on which all life depends. I urge all countries and all those fighting to protect our environment to put them to use to reduce suffering and save lives."

Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jan Hulskotte (TNO), Methodologies for estimating shipping emissions in the Netherlands. A documentation of currently used emission factors and related activity data. (BOP report. Report 500099012). Netherlands Research Program on Particulate Matter, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, April 2010, 56 p. [formato PDF, 2,02 MB]. "Shipping is an important source of PM. Total emissions of sea shipping in and around Europe are estimated at ~300 kton annually. The Netherlands is a coastal country with major ports like Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Hence the share of shipping on Dutch territory in total Dutch emissions is significant especially for SO2, NOx and PM10. For 2008 shipping contributed 53%, 31% en 19% to total Dutch SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions, respectively. The majority of this emission (> 80%) occurs on the Dutch part of the Continental shelf (NCP), CBS (2009). Proper estimation and allocation of shipping emissions is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping on air quality and health in harbour cities and coastal regions. This report summarizes the emission factors and methodologies to estimate emissions from inland shipping and sea shipping by the Dutch Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR). Inland shipping is split in national and international inland shipping. Emissions from seagoing ships are split in emissions from seagoing ships on the Dutch continental shelf, seagoing ships, manoeuvring in and towards Dutch harbours and emissions from seagoing ships at berth. The core of the present report is a clear and concise documentation of the Dutch emission estimation methodology based on available (Dutch) reports and protocols developed since 2000. These methodologies rely heavily on the work done in the frame work of the project Emission registration and Monitoring Shipping (EMS) executed in 2000-2003. EMS was initiated by DG Goederenvervoer (Directorate-General freight transport1) of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. It is important to stress that the objective of the current report is not to report shipping emissions. These can be obtained through the Dutch national statistics as a product of the Pollutant Release & Transfer Register (PRTR; see CBS, 2009). The objective is to document the methodologies used in the PRTR regarding PM emissions from shipping, including any implemented updates. Furthermore, it is also considered important, now and in the future, to provide internationally accessible and transparent descriptions of the Dutch methodology. Such a concise (English) documentation was not yet available. Sometimes the PRTR methodology was updated since the original report or protocol was published. In such cases, the change has been documented and if applicable explained by providing reference and/or inclusion of the underlying motivation. This implies that for some specific features e.g. the correction of SO2 emission due to introduction of low sulphur fuels the current report can be seen as an update of the in-use methodology. As such the report will be presented to the PRTR for discussion and as an optional documentation of the in-use methodology. The report also contains e.g. as a result of a review of recent literature on the impact of fuel quality on emissions, suggestions how the PRTR could be improved. An original contribution in this report is the methodology to consistently estimate emissions from total European inland shipping. Although this methodology is less accurate than the current PRTR approach, it is less data demanding and can be applied to all European countries based on freight statistics. Total PM10 emission in Europe due to inland shipping is estimated at ~ 7kton/yr making it a minor source. However, locally it can be important. The Netherlands contributes about 15 % to this total. A review of the methodology and underlying data to estimate emissions from inland shipping in the Netherlands show that over time the vessels grow in size and an update of emission factors would be needed as it is currently based on the year 2003 survey. Especially PM10 emission factors for inland shipping are considered uncertain. Finally, the report notes and discusses new developments such as field measurements of shipping emissions and the use of AIS (automatic identification system) to estimate shipping emissions. Recommendations for further research, based on new developments as well as weaknesses in the current methodologies are discussed in the final section of this report Last but not least it should be stressed that the present report is not a complete documentation of shipping-related emissions in the Netherlands. The goal of BOP is to reduce uncertainties about particulate matter (PM) and hence a complete documentation of all methodologies to estimate all other (non-PM) pollutants from shipping is out of scope of the present report."

Paul Quincey (National Physical Laboratory), Issues with “reference” PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring methods. IAPSC, Birmingham, 11th December 2008, 25 slides [formato PDF, 1,85 MB].

Markus Amann, Janusz Cofala, Artur Gzella, Chris Heyes, Zbigniew Klimont, Wolfgang Schöpp, Estimating concentrations of fine particulate matter in urban background air of European cities. (IIASA Interim Report IR-07-001). IIASA, Laxenburg, January 2007, 50 p. [formato PDF, 844 KB]. "This report presents a generic methodology for estimating, for the purposes of a Europe-wide integrated assessment of the cost-effectiveness of emission control strategies, concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the urban areas of Europe. The report outlines the conceptual approach, discusses input data and presents results from a first implementation for 473 European cities based on input data that are readily available at the European level. The methodology hypothesizes a functional relationship that connects the most critical cityspecific factors with concentration increases in PM2.5 that result from the local low-level emissions in a city. The diameter of a city, annual mean wind speeds, the number of winter days with low wind speeds and emission densities have been identified as the most important local factors. Parameters of these functional relationships have been determined through a regression analysis of a sample of model responses derived from an ensemble of three state-of-the-art atmospheric dispersion models for seven cities. To extrapolate the found relationships to all European cities, a set with local input data for the 473 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants has been compiled from available European data sources. Most strikingly, significant differences in the emission densities across countries are detected, which have a dominating impact on the computed urban increments. A solid validation of the computed urban PM2.5 increments is hampered by the lack of reliable monitoring data."

Salvatore Saija, Riccardo De Lauretis, Riccardo Liburdi, Sviluppo ed uso di metodologie per la stima delle emissioni atmosferiche da trasporto stradale in Italia su scala provinciale. Rapporti 4/2001, ANPA (oggi APAT), Roma, 2001, 53 p. [formato PDF, 415 KB]. "il lavoro intende facilitare la realizzazione di inventari locali delle emissioni da trasporto su strada; sono riportati metodi e risultati della stima delle emissioni di 16 inquinanti in 103 province per 14 categorie di veicoli."

Robert Joumard, editor, Methods of estimation of atmospheric emissions from transport: European scientist network and scientific state-of-the-art. Action COST 319 final report. INRETS, March 1999, 160 p. [formato PDF, 715 KB].

APAT (Italia) : normativa sul tema Aria Leggi, Decreti, Circolari, Normativa europea (aggiornata al 15.03.2005)

Air Quality Guidelines. Global Update 2005. Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, 2006, 496 p. [formato PDF, 3,08 MB]. "The WHO air quality guidelines offer guidance to policy-makers on reducing the effects on health of air pollution. This book presents revised guideline values for the four most common air pollutants – particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. It also gives a comprehensive review of the issues affecting the use of the guidelines, which now apply the world over, in risk assessment and policy development."

Bjarne Sivertsen, Understanding air quality measurements, NILU, 2000, 73 p. [formato PDF , 1,82 MB] “an introduction to air quality measurement programmes is presented, included the design, instrumentation, methodology, dispersion models and data presentation and interpretation”.

Glossary of Air Pollution Terms (Air Resources Board, California, USA)


Marion Leroutier, Philippe Quirion, Air pollution and CO2 from daily mobility: Who emits and Why? Evidence from Paris. Energy Economics 109 (2022) 105941 (14 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Urban road transport is an important source of local pollution and carbon emissions. Designing effective and fair policies tackling these externalities requires understanding who contributes to emissions today. We estimate individual transport-induced pollution footprints combining a travel demand survey from the Paris area with NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 emission factors. We find that the top 20% emitters contribute 75%-85% of emissions on a representative weekday. They combine longer distances travelled, a high car modal share and, especially for local pollutants, a higher emission intensity of car trips. Living in the suburbs, being a man and being employed are the most important characteristics associated with top emissions. Among the employed, those commuting from suburbs to suburbs, working at a factory, with atypical working hours or with a manual, shopkeeping or top executive occupation are more likely to be top emitters. Finally, policies targeting local pollution may be more regressive than those targeting CO2 emissions, due to the different correlation between income and the local pollutant vs. CO2 emission intensity of car trips."

Andrea Chicco, Marco Diana (Politecnico di Torino), Air emissions impacts of modal diversion patterns induced by one-way car sharing: A case study from the city of Turin. Transportation Research Part D 91 (2021) 102685 (15 p.) [formato PDF, 1,7 MB]. Open Access. "This paper aims to understand to which extent the spread of one-way car sharing in an urban area can contribute to limit air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions by diverting trips from existing travel means. Modal switch models informed the definition of five mobility scenarios in the city of Turin (Italy). Related emissions were quantified to understand how to maximise the positive environmental impacts of car sharing. Models' results indicate that the car sharing modal share might increase up to a maximum of 10%. The diverted travel demand is mainly subtracted from private cars, however environmental benefits are partially offset by switches from public transport and active modes. The planning scenario would lead to a reduction of the externalities related to the emissions produced by the whole transport system of 1% in terms of social costs. Such benefits can be increased up to 3.6% by promoting electric car sharing fleets."

Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Folęga (Silesian University of Technology), Impact of Road Transport Means on Climate Change and Human Health in Poland. Promet - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 31, 2019, No. 2, 195-204 (10 p.) [formato PDF, 380 kB]. Open Access. "Operation of means of transport is one of major sources of environmental impact. The goal of this article was to analyse the greenhouse gas emissions and to assess the impact of operation of means of road transport in Poland on human health using the life cycle assessment technique based on an analysis of emission of dust and gas pollutants. Road transport was assessed by taking the following means of transport into account: passenger cars, other cars with weight of up to 3,500 kg, lorries, buses, motorcycles, mopeds and tractors. The analysis covered various dust and gas pollutants, including the emission of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, NOx, NMVOC, PM and SO2. Using the IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment method, transport was assessed in a breakdown into the following impact categories: greenhouse gas emission and damage to human health, including damage caused by organic and inorganic compounds. It has been evidenced that the highest emissions of dust and gas pollutants are caused by passenger cars, which is mainly due to the number of vehicles of this type traversing Polish roads. The main cause of climate changes due to road transport is CO2 emission, while NOx emission is the main factor determining individual categories of damage to human health. The negative environmental impact is primarily related to the operation of combustion engine vehicles. Diesel oil and petrol are currently the main fuels used in Polish transport. In order to reduce their impact on the environment one should intensify the efforts aimed at increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport."

E. Pisoni, P. Christidis, P. Thunis, M. Trombetti, Evaluating the impact of "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" on urban background air quality. Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 249-255 (7 p.) [formato PDF, 1,5 MB]. Open Access. "Air quality in European cities is still a challenge, with various urban areas frequently exceeding the PM2.5 and NO2 concentration levels allowed by the European Union Air Quality Standards. This is a problem both in terms of legislation compliance, but also in terms of health of citizens, as it has been recently estimated that 400 to 450 thousand people die prematurely every year due to poor air quality. Air quality in cities can be improved with a number of interventions, at different sectoral (industry, traffic, residential, etc) and geographical (international, European, national, local, etc.) levels. In this paper we explore the potential of city level plans to improve mobility and air quality (excluding electro-mobility options, not considered in this study). We applied the "Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans" (SUMPs) framework to 642 cities in Europe and modelled how the measures they include may impact at first on mobility and emissions at urban level, and then on urban background concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. Results show that annual averages moderately improve for both pollutants, with reductions of urban background concentrations up to 2% for PM2.5 and close to 4% for NO2. The impact on NO2 at street level (that will be higher than on urban background) is not evaluated in this work. The air quality improvement of the simulated SUMP would only partially alleviate air quality problems in urban areas, but such a reduction in the emissions of air pollutants should still be considered as a positive result of SUMPs, given that they correspond to a set of low-cost measures that can be implemented at local level. Furthermore, the introduction of electro-mobility options (not considered here) would increase the impact on air quality. Other types of benefits, such as reduced fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, higher impact at street level or accident rates reduction further add to the overall positive impact."

Camille Aneris, Daniela Cancelli, Luisella Ciancarella (ENEA), Massimo Ciuffini, Ilaria D'Elia (ENEA), Valeria Gentili, Delia Milioni, Raimondo Orsini, Luca Refrigeri, Gabriele Zanini (ENEA), La sfida della qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane. Dieci proposte di Green Economy. Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, 2017, 90 p. [formato PDF, 3,5 MB]. Ricerca realizzata dalla Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, in collaborazione con ENEA e in partneship con Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Coordinamento: Andrea Barbabella. "L'inquinamento atmosferico in Europa causa ogni anno la morte di oltre 500.000 persone e ha costi esterni stimati da 330 a 940 miliardi di euro, tra il 2% e il 6% del Pil comunitario. Per quanto riguarda i due inquinanti più critici a livello sanitario, particolato (PM10) e biossido di azoto (NO2), più della metà degli Stai membri, Italia compresa, è in procedura di infrazione. La qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane, nonostante i miglioramenti dovuti alle tecnologie, alle nuove regolamentazioni, a un mix energetico migliore e a carburanti più verdi, resta sempre critica soprattutto in alcuni hot spot. Non solo il bacino padano - da Torino a Venezia - ma anche l'area metropolitana di Roma, quella di Napoli, l'area del frusinate, la Puglia, la costa sud est della Sicilia. L'Italia, con oltre 90.000 morti premature e 1.500 decessi per milione di abitanti (1.116 solo per il particolato PM2,5) è maglia nera tra i grandi paesi europei per l'inquinamento atmosferico (1.100 in Germania, 800 in Francia e Regno unito, 600 in Spagna). I responsabili? Il traffico stradale, ma anche l'agricoltura e il riscaldamento a biomasse legnose. Dieci proposte che toccano temi di carattere generale e altri di tipo più specifico relativi ai singoli settori. Eccoli in sintesi: Gli amministratori locali sono diventati una specie di capro espiatorio e devono essere aiutati: per questo serve una Strategia nazionale per la qualità dell'aria, che rinnovi la governance migliorando l'integrazione e centralizzando alcune responsabilità per incidere sulle politiche nazionali dei trasporti, sull'energia, sull'edilizia etc. e individuare misure strutturali ed eccezionali valide su tutto il territorio nazionale; La combustione energetica è il principale responsabile dell'inquinamento atmosferico ma fino a oggi l'orientamento ambientale è stato quello di puntare a ridurre le emissioni di gas serra, anche a scapito della qualità dell'aria (come la promozione dei veicoli diesel o dell'utilizzo di combustibili legnosi in impianti inefficienti). Le politiche energetiche, a cominciare dalla nuova Strategia Energetica Nazionale, devono invece includere una valutazione degli impatti non solo sulla CO2 ma anche sui principali inquinanti atmosferici; Agire con misure straordinarie e divieti nelle città solo dopo che sono stati raggiunti livelli critici di inquinamento non consente di risolvere l'emergenza: è necessario passare a un "approccio preventivo all'emergenza" mettendo in campo le misure prima che vengano raggiunti livelli di inquinamento critico. Disponiamo oggi degli strumenti per poterlo fare ma dobbiamo puntare ancora di più su ricerca e conoscenza; Un sistema di mobilità basato sull'auto di proprietà è il primo ostacolo al miglioramento della qualità dell'aria nelle città: bisogna mettere in campo interventi e soluzioni per portare il parco circolante italiano a meno di 1 vettura ogni 2 abitanti (come oggi in Francia): si può fare scoraggiandone l'uso (low emission zone, aree pedonali e ciclabili, limitazione alla sosta, etc.) e sviluppando la mobilità condivisa (trasporto su ferro, bike sharing, car sharing, integrazione con il trasporto pubblico, etc.); Gli investimenti pubblici sulle infrastrutture per i trasporti seguono ancora vecchie logiche: solo il 10% va sulla mobilità urbana che invece è il primo settore su cui bisogna agire, e di questi meno della metà su modalità sostenibili: bisogna invertire questo rapporto e liberare ingenti investimenti pubblici in favore del trasporto rapido di massa, delle infrastrutture ciclo-pedonali, di sistemi di logistica intelligente; Le politiche incentrate sugli standard Euro non hanno funzionato come oramai diventato di pubblico dominio dopo lo scandalo del "dieselgate": servono nuovi strumenti fiscali, economici, regolatori per ridurre velocemente il numero dei veicoli diesel e benzina facendo crescere quelli ibridi plug-in, quelli full-electric e quelli a gas (in particolare su trasporto navale e merci) sul breve termine; Il settore residenziale è il primo responsabile dell'inquinamento da particolato atmosferico e negli ultimi anni, nonostante le politiche e misure messe in campo, non ha visto migliorare in modo significativo la propria efficienza energetica: serve un cambio di passo, con strumenti e sistemi di finanziamento innovativi capaci di promuovere interventi di deep renovation intervenendo su interi edifici o gruppi di edifici esistenti e raggiungendo riduzioni dei consumi nell'ordine del 60-80%; Nonostante siano spesso percepite come favorevoli all'ambiente e diano un contributo importante in termini di riduzione delle emissioni di CO2, le biomasse legnose contribuiscono in modo significativo all'inquinamento da particolato atmosferico nelle città: servono delle linee guida nazionali sull'utilizzo delle biomasse che forniscano chiare indicazioni circa le tecnologie da adottare e le modalità di utilizzo, incluse possibili interdizioni per impianti inquinanti in aree critiche; L'ammoniaca è un importante precursore del particolato atmosferico e l'agricoltura è responsabile del 96% delle emissioni nazionali di questo inquinante (principalmente da fertilizzanti e allevamenti) che secondo i risultati di alcune indagini a Milano contribuisce per il 35% dell'inquinamento dal PM10: il comparto agricolo deve quindi promuovere nuovi interventi volti a ridurre l'azoto in eccesso nei terreni (ad esempio con agricoltura di precisione e copertura dei suoli), a mitigare l'impatto degli allevamenti (ad esempio attraverso mangimi speciali e la produzione di biometano) e a sviluppare l'agricoltura biologica meno impattante; Nonostante i miglioramenti, l'ndustria è ancora il principale settore in Italia per emissioni di SOX e COVNM, che sono importanti precursori del particolato atmosferico: è possibile migliorare adottando per i grandi impianti (come impianti petrolchimici, cementifici, centrali elettriche, etc.) i limiti più stringenti previsti per le migliori tecnologie disponibili (le c.d. BAT), definendo nuovi limiti alle emissioni e istituendo un inventario delle emissioni per i piccoli impianti, promuovendo l'elettrificazione e l'utilizzo di combustibili a basso impatto ambientale in impianti ad altissima efficienza."

Andrea Barbabella (Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile), La sfida della qualità dell'aria nelle città italiane. Dieci proposte di Green Economy. Presentazione del Report. Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, Roma, 2017, 28 slides [formato PDF, 1,5 MB].

J E Jonson, J Borken-Kleefeld, D Simpson, A Nyíri, M Posch and C Heyes, Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe. Environ. Res. Lett. 12 (2017) 094017 (11 p.) [formato PDF, 1,9 MB] Open Access [+ Supplementary Data]. "Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These 'excess emissions' are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle's after-treatment system, as investigations during the 'Dieselgate' scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants and employ the EMEP MSC-W Chemistry Transport Model and the GAINS Integrated Assessment Model to determine atmospheric concentrations and resulting impacts. We compare with impacts from hypothetical emissions where light duty diesel vehicles are assumed to emit only as much as their respective type approval limit value or as little as petrol cars of the same age. Excess NO2 concentrations can also have direct health impacts, but these overlap with the impacts from particulate matter (PM) and are not included here. We estimate that almost 10000 premature deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in the adult population (age >30 years) can be attributed to the NOx emissions from diesel cars and light commercial vehicles in EU28 plus Norway and Switzerland in 2013. About 50% of these could have been avoided if diesel limits had been achieved also in on-road driving; and had diesel cars emitted as little NOx as petrol cars, 80% of these premature deaths could have been avoided. Ecosystem eutrophication impacts (critical load exceedances) from the same diesel vehicles would also have been reduced at similar rates as for the health effects."

European Environment Agency, Air quality in Europe - 2016 report. EEA report n. 28/2016. EEA, Copenhagen, 2016, 88 p. [formato PDF, 11,4 MB]. "This report presents an updated overview and analysis of air quality in Europe. It is focused in the state in 2015 and the development from 2004 to 2015. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems is also given."

European Environment Agency, EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. EEA report n. 21/2016. EEA, Copenhagen, 2016, 24 p. [formato PDF, 1,4 MB]. Contains Chapter 1: Guidebook introduction. For the following chapters, please see separate files available online: " The Guidebook remains the most recognised set of emission inventory estimation methods used in air pollution studies in Europe and the wider UNECE geographical area. Importantly, it also continues to evolve over time, incorporating new information and science relevant for the purposes of air pollutant emission inventory compilation. The 2016 update of the Guidebook's set of methodologies will help ensure comparable and consistent emissions data are reported by countries, in turn helping inform policymakers, the scientific community and the broader public."

Rolf Hagman, Christian Weber, Astrid Helene Amundsen, Utslipp fra nye kjøretøy – holder de hva de lover? Avgassmålinger Euro 6/VI - status 2015 (Emissions from new vehicles – trustworthy? Euro 6/VI vehicle technology – 2015 status). (TØI rapport 1407/2015). Transportøkonomisk Institutt/Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, 2015, 36 p. [formato PDF, 1,95 MB]. Text in Norwegian, English summary. "The air quality in several Norwegian cities don’t comply with the limit values for NO2. The EFTA control body, ESA, has criticised Norway for allowing high concentrations of NO2 and for not doing enough to reduce the problems. On behalf of TØI, VTT in Finland performed exhaust emission tests in a certified laboratory. The tests show that buses and Heavy Duty Vehicles, HDV with new Euro VI certified engines have very low emissions of Nitrous Oxide, NOx and exhaust Particulate Matter, PM. The reductions are over 90 % compared with earlier generations of HDVs. New Euro 6 light vehicles with diesel engines still have a problem with high emissions of NOX. New knowledge make it possible to implement more accurate measures, when reducing emissions of NOX and PM from road traffic is needed."

Carla Ancona, Risultati del progetto VIIAS: l'impatto del PM2.5 e dell’NO2 in Italia. Relazione al workshop "L'impatto dell'inquinamento atmosferico sull'ambiente e sulla salute"(nell'ambito del Progetto VIIAS, Valutazione Integrata dell’Impatto su Ambiente e Salute dell’inquinamento atmosferico), Roma, 4 giugno 2015, 59 slides [formato PDF, 3,77 MB].

Lena Nerhagen, Sara Janhäll, Exhaust emissions and Environmental classifications of cars. What indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?. (VTI notat 3A-2015). VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, 2015, 40 p. [formato PDF, 1,46 MB]. "Folksam is a Swedish insurance company that for more than 30 years has undertaken traffic safety research with an emphasis on the study of real-world accidents. Folksam provides advice on the best vehicles and on how accidents and injuries can be prevented. Environmental aspects have also been assessed in recent years, and Folksam now produces a yearly report on “Safe and Sustainable” new cars. Currently the guidelines developed by Folksam focus on the emissions of CO2 using the criteria determined by the EU. This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration (Vägverket, 2001) and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium (Mayeres & Proost, 2013). We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars (Ecotraffic, 2012 a and b) and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass; the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations."

Vinit K. Mishra, Prashant Kumar, Martine Van Poppel, Nico Bleux, Evelien Frijns, Matteo Reggente, Patrick Berghmans, Luc Int Panis, Roeland Samson, Wintertime spatio-temporal variation of ultrafine particles in a Belgian city. Science of The Total Environment 431 (2012) 307-313 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 952 kB]. "Simultaneous measurements of ultrafine particles (UFPs) were carried out at four sampling locations situated within a 1 km2 grid area in a Belgian city, Borgerhout (Antwerp). All sampling sites had different orientation and height of buildings and dissimilar levels of anthropogenic activities (mainly traffic volume). The aims were to investigate: (i) the spatio-temporal variation of UFP within the area, (ii) the effect of wind direction with respect to the volume of traffic on UFP levels, and (iii) the spatial representativeness of the official monitoring station situated in the study area. All sampling sites followed similar diurnal patterns of UFP variation, but effects of local traffic emissions were evident. Wind direction also had a profound influence on UFP concentrations at certain sites. The results indicated a clear influence of local weather conditions and the more dominant effect of traffic volumes. Our analysis indicated that the regional air quality monitoring station represented the other sampling sites in the study area reasonably well; temporal patterns were found to be comparable though the absolute average concentrations showed differences of up to 35%."

European Environmental Agency, Effects of air pollution on European ecosystems. Past and future exposure of European freshwater and terrestrial habitats to acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants. (EEA Technical Report n.11/2014). European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2014, 42 p. [formato PDF, 6,91 MB]. "The report assesses the proportion of European ecosystems exposed to nitrogen and sulphur-containing pollutants above sustainable levels. When pollutants exceed these levels they can harm plants and animals. In the 1970s, many European governments became increasingly concerned about acid rain, which was damaging forests and killing fish such as the brown trout and Atlantic salmon. The report shows that acidification has been greatly reduced since its peak in 1980 when almost half of the sensitive ecosystem area in the 28 EU Member States was affected. This has been reduced to around 5 % of ecosystems today. Air pollution also contributes to eutrophication, an oversupply of nitrogen. This can change ecosystems, for example creating conditions more favourable to certain plants, thus reducing the 'species richness' in grasslands and other sensitive areas. Eutrophication from air pollution peaked in 1990 with around 80 % of sensitive ecosystems in the EU exposed above safe levels. Despite some improvements almost 60 % of the ecosystems are still affected. While the situation is set to improve further, the report indicates that air pollution will cause significant eutrophication for some years to come."

Mariacarmela Cusano, Antonella De Santis (ISPRA), Trasporti: strumenti europei e nazionali per il risanamento della qualità dell'aria. (Rapporti 191/2014). ISPRA, Roma, 2014, 28 p. [formato PDF, 457 kB]. "Il settore trasporti è una delle principali sorgenti dell’inquinamento atmosferico in Europa. Nell’ultimo decennio, sia a livello europeo che nazionale, grazie all’attuazione di politiche mirate, sono state osservate rilevanti riduzioni delle emissioni di alcuni inquinanti atmosferici come monossido di carbonio, ossidi di zolfo e composti organici volatili; mentre per altri inquinanti, come biossido di azoto, materiale particolato ed ozono, sono state osservate riduzioni meno importanti delle emissioni con scarsi effetti sulla qualità dell’aria, soprattutto a causa della complessa relazione fra emissioni e concentrazioni in aria ambiente, che caratterizza questo tipo di inquinanti, ma anche in seguito all’applicazione di provvedimenti rivelatesi inadeguati. Il presente lavoro fornisce un quadro delle politiche dei trasporti messe in atto nell’Unione Europa e in particolare in Italia da regioni e province autonome nell’ambito dei piani per la qualità dell’aria."

European Environment Agency, Status of black carbon monitoring in ambient air in Europe. EEA Technical report n. 18/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, December 2013, 48 p. [formato PDF, 2,36 MB]. "This report provides a summary of black carbon (BC) definitions as discussed in the air quality monitoring community. Secondly, it provides a summary of the current status of BC-related monitoring in Europe. Information presented in the report includes an overview of available measurement techniques and associated technical issues, monitoring networks and current data reporting practices."

European Environment Agency, Air quality in Europe — 2013 report. EEA report n. 9/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, October 2013, 112 p. [formato PDF, 13,3 MB]. "This report presents an overview and analysis of air quality in Europe from 2002 to 2011. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives and gives an overview of policies and measures introduced at European level to improve air quality and minimise impacts. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems is also given."

European Environment Agency, The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing. EEA Technical report n.4/2013. EEA, Copenhagen, 2013, 88 p. [formato PDF, 9,77 MB]. "The main objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature and reports, taking into account expert knowledge, on the maritime transport sector. The report addresses the sector's impact on air quality and climate forcing in Europe. In order to provide this overview a broad range of topics have been addressed. Key findings, as highlighted below, focus on the importance of emissions compared to other sectors; present and future air quality issues; and, the contribution of the sector to present day and future climate forcing. Emissions from maritime transport in European waters constitute a significant share of worldwide ship emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This report also shows that the number of ships registered in the EU-27, combined with ships owned by European companies but registered in third countries, is substantial. In 2011, about 19 % of the world merchant vessel fleet above 100 gross tonnage (GT) were registered in European countries. When taking into account ships registered abroad by European ship owners the European share of the global merchant fleet will be higher. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from international maritime transport in European waters are projected to increase and could be equal to land-based sources by 2020 onwards. The report includes a review of recently developed scenario studies on ship emissions and shows that NOX emissions could be equal to land-based emissions sources from 2020 onwards. SO2 emissions in European waters will continue to decrease further from 2020 onwards due to legislation on the sulphur content in fuel. It is expected that this will also lead to a decrease in emissions of PM2.5. Shipping emissions can contribute significantly to local air quality problems in Europe, but the pan.European knowledge and observation base needs to be improved to provide a more complete picture. The review of available observation data shows that there are relatively few measurement data available to attribute the contribution of ship emissions to local air pollution. Available data shows that the contribution of particulate matter from shipping to local concentrations can be up to 20–30 %, especially for fine particulate matter."

European Environmental Agency, The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (EEA Report n.10/2012), EEA, Copenhagen, 2012, 92 p. [formato PDF, 8,94 MB]. "TERM 2012 presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission’s review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution."

Eric M. Fujita, David E. Campbell, Barbara Zielinska, William P. Arnott, and Judith C. Chow, Concentrations of Air Toxics in Motor Vehicle-Dominated Environments. (Research Report n.156). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, February 2011, 110 p. [formato PDF, 3,89 MB] "This report describes research funded under HEI's Air Toxics Hot Spot program. Dr. Eric Fujita and colleagues characterized concentrations of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other pollutants in potential Los Angeles County pollution hot spots, including on urban highways with a varying mix of gasoline- and diesel-powered traffic and sites at various distances from the highways and close to other roads. They conducted source apportionment using a chemical mass balance model to estimate the contributions of gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, and compared source contributions at the different sites."

Frank Kelly, H. Ross Anderson, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, Ben Barratt, Sean Beevers, Dick Derwent, David Green, Ian Mudway, and Paul Wilkinson, The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London. Part 1. Emissions Modeling and Analysis of Air Pollution Measurements; Part 2. Analysis of the Oxidative Potential of Particulate Matter. (Research Report n.155). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, April 2011, 194 p. [formato PDF, 8,77 MB] "This report describes a study by Dr. Frank Kelly of King's College, London and colleagues that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). The investigators used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors."

Antonella Bernetti, Riccardo De Lauretis, Gianluca Iarocci, Francesca Lena, Renato Marra Campanale, Ernesto Taurino, Trasporto su strada. Inventario nazionale delle emissioni e disaggregazione provinciale. (Rapporti 124/2010). ISPRA, Roma, 2010, 97 p. [formato PDF, 3,33 MB]. "Le stime delle emissioni da trasporto su strada effettuate da ISPRA costituiscono la fonte ufficiale di riferimento a livello internazionale, in ragione del ruolo dell’Istituto come responsabile della realizzazione annuale dell’inventario nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera, strumento di verifica degli impegni assunti a livello internazionale sulla protezione dell’ambiente atmosferico, come la Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici (UNFCCC), il Protocollo di Kyoto, la Convenzione di Ginevra sull’inquinamento atmosferico transfrontaliero (UNECE-CLRTAP), le Direttive europee sulla limitazione delle emissioni. La consistente domanda di mobilità di persone e merci su strada rende rilevante il problema dell’inquinamento da trasporti stradali soprattutto in considerazione dell’impatto sulle aree urbane, relativamente ad inquinanti quali il monossido di carbonio, i composti organici volatili (in particolare benzene), gli ossidi di azoto ed il particolato; inoltre il contributo alle emissioni di gas serra risulta particolarmente gravoso per le emissioni di anidride carbonica. A partire dall’inventario nazionale, viene costruito quello provinciale attraverso un approccio top-down, dall’alto verso il basso. Tale metodologia prevede l’utilizzo di cosiddette variabili proxy correlate all’attività delle sorgenti emissive ed i cui valori siano noti sia sull’area più estesa (in questo caso quella nazionale) sia al dettaglio territoriale di interesse (nello specifico quello provinciale). Alle emissioni nazionali da traffico stradale sono state applicate tre diverse metodologie di disaggregazione spaziale a livello provinciale (approccio top-down) che, all’interno del rapporto, vengono confrontate con diverse metodologie."

European Environmental Agency, Impact of selected policy measures on Europe's air quality. (EEA Technical Report n.8/2010). EEA, Copenhagen, 2010, 70 p. [formato PDF, 6,03 MB] "The main objective of the present study is to analyse and quantify the effects that certain past policy measures in the road transport and industrial combustion facilities have had on the magnitude of air pollutant emissions and subsequent air quality in Europe. The policies selected are the Euro emission standards for road vehicles and the EU directives on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and large combustion plants (LCP)."

R.W. Atkinson, B. Barratt, B. Armstrong, H.R. Anderson, S.D. Beevers, I.S. Mudway, D. Green, R.G. Derwent, P. Wilkinson, C. Tonne, F.J. Kelly, The impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on ambient air pollution concentrations in London. Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5493-5500 (21 p.) [formato PDF, 1,12 MB]. "On 17th February 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS), operating Monday–Friday, 07:00–18:00, was introduced in central London along with a programme of traffic management measures. We investigated the potential impact of the introduction of the CCS on measured pollutant concentrations (oxides of nitrogen (NOX, NO and NO2), particles with a median diameter less than 10 microns (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3)) measured at roadside and background monitoring sites across Greater London. Temporal changes in pollution concentrations within the congestion charging zone were compared to changes, over the same time period, at monitors unlikely to be affected by the CCS (the control zone) and in the boundary zone between the two. Similar analyses were done for CCS hours during weekends (when the CCS was not operating). Based on the single roadside monitor with the CCS Zone, it was not possible to identify any relative changes in pollution concentrations associated with the introduction of the scheme. However, using background monitors, there was good evidence for a decrease in NO and increases in NO2 and O3 relative to the control zone. There was little change in background concentrations of NOX. There was also evidence of relative reductions in PM10 and CO. Similar changes were observed during the same hours in weekends when the scheme was not operating. The causal attribution of these changes to the CCS per se is not appropriate since the scheme was introduced concurrently with other traffic and emissions interventions which might have had a more concentrated effect in central London. This study provides important pointers for study design and data requirements for the evaluation of similar schemes in terms of air quality. It also shows that results may be unexpected and that the overall effect on toxicity may not be entirely favourable."

Sean D. Beevers, David C. Carslaw, The impact of congestion charging on vehicle emissions in London. Atmospheric Environment 39 (2005) 1–5 (5 p.) [formato PDF, 235 kB]. "The London congestion charging scheme (CCS) was successfully implemented in February 2003 and has measurably reduced traffic flows in central London. The air pollution impact of the scheme has been difficult to assess using ambient measurements alone as the air pollution concentrations in 2003 were higher than in 2002 because of unusual meteorological conditions. However, a comprehensive analysis of the impact using detailed traffic data, combined with the Environmental Research Group’s road traffic emissions model, has identified a number of important results. First, between 2002 and 2003, total NOX emissions in the charging zone have reduced by -12.0% +-12% (2sigma) and have increased on the inner ring road (IRR) by +1.5%. PM10 emissions have reduced by -11.9% in the charging zone and by -1.4% on the IRR. There is a significant reduction in the emissions of NOX and PM10 associated with increases in vehicle speed and that this is as important in reducing emissions as changes in vehicle numbers. There is also evidence that the speed changes in kmh.1 are uniform across the whole range of average speed and therefore changes at the slower speeds have a disproportionate effect on vehicle emissions. Second, that changes in vehicle km, as a result of the scheme, are large (-15% +-4% (2 sigma) particularly in the charging zone itself. To meet the demand to travel into central London there has been increased bus use. However, the expected increase in emissions from buses have been mostly offset by the widespread introduction of particle traps to the new and existing bus fleet as well as the introduction of newer technology bus engines. Finally, there is a reduction in emissions of CO2 (-19.5%) but that unlike NOX and PM10 little additional benefit is apparent through new vehicle technology. The evidence presented shows that the congestion charging schemes could assist in attaining both the UK government’s targets on air pollution as well as those relating to climate change and other international obligations."

Wim van Beek, Harry Derriks, Peter Wilbers, Peter Morsink, Luc Wismans, Paul van Beek, The effects of speed measures on air pollution and traffic safety. European Transport Conference 2007, October 17–19, 2007, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, 17 p. [formato PDF, 308 kB]. "This paper focuses on the relation between travel speed on the one hand and external factors on the other hand. External factors included are traffic safety, climate effects and air quality. The paper shows how these relations are known in theory and what type of speed related measures recently are undertaken in the Netherlands. Aslo the paper show a number of models for assessing these measures. The paper includes the following measures: - Speed reduction freeway 80 km/h. Main reason for this measure were air quality problems at several places around the Dutch highway system. Research at four of five locations where the measure was implemented showed a positive effect on air quality. Also the average travel speed reduces on all locations. However also the level of congestion increased at three of five locations. This last effect was often mentioned by several newspapers. Implementation of this measure is reconsidered by the Dutch government. - Improved speed enforcement. This measure consist of additional means for mobile speed cameras, unnoticed surveillance and a strict enforcement measure using section speed control on some parts of the Dutch highways. Research showed a significance effect on the travel speed distribution on highways: with the introduction of the improved speed enforcement less people drive at a speed of more then 130 km/h (maximum 120 km/h is allowed). This results in less energy consumption and thus less CO2 emission. Traffic safety also benefits and it could be expected that also air quality improves. - Speed alert. This measure includes intelligent speed adaptation measures and speed alert systems. Both are implemented in the Netherlands. The effect on average speed are significant and positive effects on safety and air quality are assumed. - Ecodriving. A large programme (Het Nieuwe Rijden) is carried out the last ten years to increase the number of people using an ecodriving style. The programme is successful and results in a large CO2 effect. - Drive slow go fast is aiming at redesigning the space for car driving. A unique combination is the result: the link speed decreases (drive slow) and the journey time is lower (go fast). Effects are all positive, typically a no regret measure. This recent experience in the Netherlands with travel speed related measures has led to the following conclusions and discussion points: - The overview shows that most measures have positive effects on most external indicators as air quality, climate effects and traffic safety. For some measures however also negative effects are found such as travel time increases or growing congestion. On the societal level it is not always clear which combination of effects is approved by politicians. The speed reduction measure for example resulted in some areas in a combination of improved air quality and more congestion; - In the last case also the attitude of the public is important. Negative articles in newspapers could affect the measures. Communication about the effects is crucial; - To get a clear picture of the total effect of the measures all effects should be considered. With this knowledge a better choice can be made by politicians and other decision makers; - The only measure with only positive effects on all factors is Drive Slow Go Fast. The reason for this is that speed decreases but travel times are improved.

Per Kågeson, Market-based instruments for NOx abatement in the Baltic Sea. (Air Pollution and Climate Series, 24). Air Pollution & Climate Secretariat (AirClim), the European Environmental Bureau (EEB) and the European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Göteborg, November 2009, 40 p. [formato PDF, 655 KB]. "Large emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a cause of major environmental problems in the Baltic Sea area. Ships account for a large and growing share of these emissions. However, in 2008 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided to strengthen somewhat the NOx requirements for new ships from 2011. In addition, the IMO decided that in Emission Control Areas (ECAs) very stringent rules will apply from 1 January 2016. Ships will have to reduce emissions of NOx by about 80 per cent from the current limit values that took effect in 2000. The States surrounding the sea are expected to apply to the IMO for a Baltic Sea ECA for NOx. However, a problem in the context of the new rules is that they will apply to new ships only, and the turnover of the fleet is slow. The aim of this report is therefore to assess potential market-based instruments for reducing emissions from existing vessels and an early introduction of efficient NOx abatement technologies for newly built ships (ahead of 2016). This paper proposes the introduction of a NOx-differentiated en-route charge. Port authorities around the Baltic Sea would be mandated to assist a common authority that collects a mandatory charge reflecting the visiting ship’s NOx emissions during its latest trip in Baltic Sea waters. The charge would correspond to emissions emitted from the point of entry into Baltic Sea waters or since departure from another Baltic port. A rough calculation of the emission reduction potential indicates that application of an emissions charge, as outlined above, could cut NOx emissions from ships in the Baltic Sea by 72 per cent in 2015. If it is assumed that only four out of five of ship owners respond to the incentives in the way foreseen, the actual effect on emissions would be lowered to 58 per cent. This would correspond to a reduction of about 270,000 tons in NOx, from a business-as-usual level of approximately 460,000 tons in 2015."

Mario Contaldi, Ilaria D’Elia, Francesco Gracceva, Francesca Rizzitiello, Strategie per l’abbattimento delle emissioni di ossidi di azoto (NOx): analisi curve dei costi settoriali al 2010 e strumenti di policy. (Rapporti 102/2009). ISPRA, Roma, 2009, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,33 MB]. "Il Rapporto analizza la curva nazionale dei costi degli Ossidi di Azoto (NOx) riferita al 2010. Un primo risultato che emerge dalle analisi di dettaglio è relativo all’aggiornamento dei valori di riduzione delle emissioni stimati dal modello Rains-Italia. È stata eseguita un’analisi sulla fattibilità delle misure proposte dal modello, limitatamente a quelle con un potenziale di abbattimento superiore a 5 kt/NOx anno e ritenute implementabili entro il 2010. I risultati del lavoro mostrano un potenziale di abbattimento complessivo per tutte queste misure pari a circa 213 kt, vedi Tabella 7. Per le stesse misure, sempre all’orizzonte 2010 era stimato dal modello un potenziale di 347 kt, vedi Tabella 6. Un secondo risultato che emerge è la notevole sproporzione che esiste tra le potenzialità di riduzione delle emissioni di NOx stimate dal modello Rains-Italia per il settore dei trasporti (140 kt) e le potenzialità stimate per gli altri settori (40 kt per i grandi impianti di combustione, 30 kt per l’industria e nessuna per i processi industriali ed il civile). Questi risultati indicano l’importanza del settore trasporti in una politica di riduzione delle emissioni. Questi potenziali di riduzione delle emissioni vanno confrontati con l’obiettivo di riduzione aggiornato da conseguire, pari a 198 kt, vedi la valutazione nel Capitolo 4. I risultati del lavoro mostrano comunque che una riduzione delle emissioni di questo ordine di grandezza sarebbe possibile. La Figura 6 mostra che occorrerebbe utilizzare tutte le misure realisticamente adottabili in tutti i settori. In particolare le misure del settore dei trasporti, delle centrali elettriche e del settore industriale (combustione e processi). L’analisi puntuale delle misure da adottare che avrebbero il potenziale di conseguire l’obiettivo di riduzione ipotizzato di circa 200 kt di ossidi di azoto fa però notare alcune difficoltà nell’adozione pratica delle misure stesse: – le tecnologie considerate nel settore dei trasporti sono relative in gran parte alle navi ed ai trattori agricoli, di cui si chiede l’aggiornamento agli standard emissivi euro 1, oltre all’esclusione dalla circolazione delle automobili inferiori allo standard euro 2; la messa in atto di queste azioni nel giro di circa un anno è problematica; – nel settore dei grandi impianti si tratta di modificare molti impianti esistenti, dotandoli delle tecnologie migliori disponibili, opzione tutt’altro che praticabile in tempi brevi, visto che gli standard emissivi proposti sono spesso inferiori alle emissioni autorizzate; – nel caso dell’industria le misure previste comportano l’adeguamento di pressoché tutte le caldaie (anche quelle di piccole dimensioni) almeno al livello di bruciatori a bassa emissione di ossidi di azoto. Dal punto di vista degli strumenti di policy più appropriati per mettere in atto le misure ipotizzate per il settore dei trasporti (quello con maggiori potenzialità) lo strumento più adatto sembra essere un approccio graduale che consiste in una introduzione progressiva di diversi strumenti, anche combinati tra loro. Chiaramente tali azioni dispiegano i loro effetti nel medio periodo, oltre l’orizzonte 2010. Gli strumenti adottabili sono i seguenti: a) una tassa differenziata nei porti, caratterizzata da un’introduzione graduale e in un primo momento anche facoltativa (per i porti), ma fortemente incentivata; b) uno standard sulle emissioni delle navi (che potrebbe riguardare anche la navigazione nei canali navigabili interni, da cui “in potenza” può derivare una riduzione significativa delle emissioni, circa 20kt, a costi molto contenuti, circa 0,5 k€/t); c) in un momento successivo, si potrebbe procedere verso un vero e proprio sistema di capand- trade passando per ulteriori programmi volontari, basati sul benchmarking (in cui eventualmente gli operatori possono riunirsi in consorzi per ridurre i costi di abbattimento) e poi su un meccanismo di crediti di emissione, che potrebbe rendere più economico il soddisfacimento degli obblighi di fonti “terrestri” soggette parallelamente a un meccanismo cap-and-trade."

European Environmental Agency, Assessment of ground-level ozone in EEA member countries, with a focus on long-term trends. (EEA Technical Report n.7/2009). EEA, Copenhagen, 2009, 56 p. [formato PDF, 6,00 MB] "In this study, long-term measurements of rural background ozone levels are analysed and compared with modelling results and sensitivity analyses. Rural background stations are used in order to rule out the influence of local conditions close to sources of ozone precursors (mainly traffic). Reference is also made to several national and regional studies of ozone levels in Europe, which have generally reached the same conclusions as the present Europe-wide analysis. Ground-level ozone has become a hemispheric or even global air pollution problem. According to measurements at remote sites (e.g. in Ireland), the O3 background concentration has increased by about 2 ppb (approximately 6 %) per decade since 1980 and is expected to rise further. The background concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is now 35–40 ppb. At the same time, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, ranked third behind carbon dioxide and methane. There are therefore good arguments for integrating ozone abatement into local and regional, but also global strategies and measures addressing air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions simultaneously".

Stefan Hausberger, Markus Schmitzberger (Forschungsgesellschaft für Verbrennungsmaschinen und Thermodynamik mbH), Emissionsverhalten von SUV - Sport Utility Vehicles, Umweltbundesamt, Wien, 2008, 46 p. [formato PDF, 947 kB]. "A measurement campaign was conducted for six SUV with type approvals according to EURO 3 and EURO 4 emission standards. The results show that, besides the higher fuel consumption – and thus higher CO2 emissions – in comparison to conventional passenger cars. Compared to average passenger cars, SUV had a surplus in fuel consumption of 35% up to 75%, depending on the test cycle under consideration. Specifically NOx emissions from SUV with diesel engines are of relevance in environmental politics when travelling with higher loads and at higher speeds. On average, NOx emissions from SUV were 16% to 100% higher compared to the average diesel car. Especially at high vehicle speeds (130 km/h and more) all diesel-powered SUV showed high NOx levels, which were as high as – or higher than – NOx emissions levels from modern 40 ton (EURO 5) semi-trailers on the motorway. Since the tested SUV emit approximately 50% of the NOx as NO2 (and semi-trailers only 10%), heavy diesel-powered passenger car categories (class II and III) may – if the number of new registrations continues to increase – soon have to be considered a major source when NO2 air quality targets are exceeded near motorways."

European Environmental Agency, Annual European Community LRTAP Convention emission inventory report 1990–2006. Submission to EMEP through the Executive Secretary of the UNECE. (EEA Technical Report n.7/2008). EEA, Copenhagen, 2008, 82 p. [formato PDF, 2,25 MB] + 5 annexes. "The report shows that road transport remains the single main source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and the second-most important source of fine particulate emissions (PM10 and PM2.5) in the EU-27. This report contains essential data that helps understand the evolution of air pollutant emissions since 1990. This inventory report accompanies the annual emission inventory submission of the European Community to the UNECE Convention on Long - Range Transboundary Air Pollution. It presents an overview of air pollutant emission data reported by the EU-27 Member States between the years 1990 to 2006. In particular, the report highlights the significant contribution to air pollution made by the transport sector - this sector is the most significant source of NOx, CO and NMVOCs and the second most important source of particulate emissions (PM10 and PM2.5). Across the EU-27, significant emission reductions have occurred for various air pollutants since 1990 - the reported emissions of nitrogen oxides in 2006 have decreased by more than 35 %, and sulphur dioxide by almost 70 %. The emission reductions have taken place across many of the economic sectors reported by countries."

Legambiente, Mal'aria di città 2008. Dossier. Roma, 22 gennaio 2008, 49 p. [formato PDF, 367 KB]. La qualità dell'aria in 63 città italiane (dati 2006 o 2007), le emissioni inquinanti in Italia, le emissioni dei trasporti stradali, le proposte di Legambiente per la mobilità urbana.

Air Quality Expert Group, Air quality and climate change: a UK perspective. Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London, 2007, 317 p. [formato PDF, 5,31 MB]. "The report draws together the most up-to-date research on the linkages between climate change and air quality. It examines the scientific background to these interactions and identifies synergies, where measures to improve air quality can help to ameliorate climate change, and trade-offs where policy measures in the two areas act in opposition."

Patrizia Bonanni (APAT), Stato di attuazione delle misure adottate e della loro efficacia. Relazione al convegno "Inquinamento dell’aria da polveri sottili: La situazione, l’evoluzione, le cause, la valutazione delle misure adottate e linee di indirizzo per gli interventi futuri", Roma, 18 giugno 2007, 35 slides [formato PowerPoint, 4,20 MB].

Veronika Eyring (DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics), Past, Present-day and Future Ship Emissions, presentation at the seminar "How to make the sea green: seminar on air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport", Brussels, 17 October 2007, 24 slides [formato PDF, 2,00 MB].

European Environmental Agency, Air pollution in Europe 1990-2004. EEA Technical Report n.2/2007, Copenhagen, 2007, 84 p. [formato PDF, 15,0 MB]. "This report analyses and presents changes in air pollutant emissions and their possible health or ecosystem impacts in Europe covering the period 1990–2004. Estimates indicate that up to 43 % of the European urban population were exposed to PM10 concentrations in excess of the EU air quality limit value between 1990–2004. The worst affected areas were Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary as well as in the Po Valley in Italy and southern Spain. Up to 60 % of the European urban population was exposed to ozone concentrations in excess of the EU air quality limit values between 1990–2004. Exposure of crops and forests to ozone exceeded limit/critical values over very large areas of central and southern Europe."

Mario C. Cirillo (APAT), Città: il punto sulla qualità dell'aria. Dai provvedimenti emergenziali a un approccio razionale. Relazione al seminario di formazione "Aria e mobilità", Milano, 29 settembre 2007, 19 p. [formato PDF, 248 KB].

Mario C. Cirillo (APAT), Inquinamento urbano, extraurbano ed emissioni di CO2. Relazione al seminario di formazione "Aria e mobilità", Milano, 29 settembre 2007, 72 slides [formato PDF, 2,58 MB].

Dan Meszler, Air emissions issues related to two- and three-wheeled motor vehicles. An initial assessment of current conditions and options for control. International Council on Clean Transportation, 2007, 106 p. [formato PDF, 532 KB]. "This report is intended to summarize the current state of air emissions issues related to motorcycles, which satisfy a significant portion of the personal and commercial transportation requirements in many metropolitan areas. While this may be surprising to readers in the Western Hemisphere and northern Europe, where motorcycles are viewed primarily as recreational vehicles, the great popularity and wide ranging utility of motorcycles is obvious to readers in southern Europe and especially Asia."

European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Reducing NOx Emissions on the Road. Ensuring future exhausts emission limits deliver air quality standards. OECD, Paris, 2006, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,68 MB]. "This publication examines the gap between tested NOx emissions and emissions on the road and makes recommendations on improved test cycles to close the gap."

Philippe Richert, Qualité de l'air et changement climatique: un même défi, un même urgence. Une nouvelle gouvernance pour l'atmosphère. Paris, Février 2007, 120 p. [formato PDF, 3,03 MB]. "Philippe Richert, sénateur et vice-président du Conseil national de l'air, a été chargé par le Premier ministre de dresser un bilan de l'application de la loi du 30 décembre 1996 sur l'Air et l'Utilisation Rationnelle de l'Energie (LAURE), d'évaluer la politique mise en oeuvre par les différents acteurs concernés afin de réduire la pollution atmosphérique, notamment le "plan air" adopté en 2003 et le plan national santé environnement adopté en 2004. Il devait proposer, le cas échéant, des pistes d'amélioration de cette politique, en lien avec les politiques de préservation de la biodiversité et de lutte contre le changement climatique."

APAT, La qualità dell'aria in Italia: dati, problemi, prospettive. Edizione 2006. Roma, dicembre 2006, 320 p. [formato PDF, 5,50 MB]. Le cause dell'inquinamento dell'aria, lo stato della qualità dell'aria nelle città, i piani e i programmi per il risanamento e la tutela dell'ambiente atmosferico.

Commissione Nazionale Emergenza Inquinamento Atmosferico, Relazione conclusiva. Roma, 20 marzo 2006, 69 p. [formato PDF, 1,31 MB (zippato)]. Comprende i trend dei principali inquinanti atmosferici e riduzioni ottenute in Italia dal 1990 al 2005.

Romeo Danielis, Air pollution and road transport in Europe. A cluster and a regression analysis among countries and cities. Paper presentato all’8. riunione scientifica della SIET (Società Italiana Economisti dei Trasporti), Trieste, 29 giugno – 1 luglio 2006, 22 p. [formato PDF, 356 kB]. Danielis esamina i dati dell’inquinamento da PM10, ozono, biossido di azoto e benzene in oltre 20 paesi europei (dati medi), raggruppa diversi paesi a seconda dei livelli raggiunti (cluster) e mette in rapporto questi dati con alcuni indicatori (numerio di autovetture e PIL procapite, prezzo della benzina ed altri). I cluster vengono applicati anche ai principali centri urbani.

European Environmental Agency, Air pollution at street level in European cities, EEA Technical Report n.1/2006, Copenhagen, 2006, 48 p. [formato PDF, 1,04 MB]. Traffic-related air pollution is still one of the most pressing problems in urban areas. Evidence of the adverse health effects of fine particulate matter is continuously emerging and it is alarming that most of the traffic-related emissions are in the fine particulates range (< PM2.5). Human exposure to increased pollutant concentrations in densely populated urban areas is high…

EMEP-CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook, 3rd edition, EEA, Copenhagen, 2002 update. [formato PDF]

Inventario delle Emissioni in Atmosfera (CORINAIR IPCC) (Italia) : banca dati delle emissioni nazionali, provinciali, dei fattori di emissione

National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (UK)

RIVM Annual Survey Air Quality 2002(NL), 2004, 93 p. [file PDF, 4,43 MB] (in Dutch, English summary)

Baseline Scenarios for the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme. Final Report, IIASA, Laxenburg, 2005, 90 p. [formato PDF, 3,67 MB]

Legambiente, Lucia Venturi e Giorgio Zampetti (a cura di), Smog e dintorni: l’inquinamento atmosferico e acustico nelle città italiane. (26 gennaio) 2005, 55 p. [formato PDF, 423 kB](la situazione nelle città, le proposte di Legambiente, la normativa in vigore)


Silvia Moroni, in collaboration with Ario Ruprecht, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts on traffic and environment. Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio, Milano, 2014, 51 p. [formato PDF, 2,55 MB]. Relazione dell'ing. Moroni per le autorità cinesi, farà parte della pubblicazione "International Best Practices for Congestion Charge and Low Emissions Zone". "Milan is located in one of the most polluted area in the world and is historically affected by traffic congestion problems due to its central economic and cultural role in the Northern part of Italy and to one of the highest motorization rate in Europe. Air quality is mostly affected by road traffic, therefore Local Administration is working to reduce exposure to traffic-related air pollution both by mean of short time interventions during winter season - when persistent episodes of high stability lead to the longest period of EU Limit Values non-attainment episodes - and by mean of structural measures in the context of the Sustainable Mobility Urban Plan. In Milan traffic emissions, noise, accidents and congestion give external costs for more than 5 billion euros/year, for related health and life quality problems, material damages for buildings and artistic patrimony, global climate change and time losses in transport. Milan launched several measures to face air pollution and traffic congestion including two innovative road price schemes applied to the historical center, the first, started in 2008 and called ‘Ecopass’, based on the ‘polluter pays principle’, and the second and definitive scheme, launched in January 2012, called ‘Area C’, which combine a Congestion Charge scheme with the banning of the most polluting vehicles. The ‘Area C’ LTZ was introduced in observance to the results of a public referendum indicating that the vast majority (79%) of the Milan voting citizens wanted to potentiate public transports and to limit traffic-related pollution. Thus the Area C was conceived as a congestion charge measure aiming to improve environmental conditions in the city of Milan and consequently to enhance the life quality and health both of citizens and city users. The successful results of the Area C measure are the following: Less Traffic - 30,2% (reduction of daily entrance - 39.864 vehicles, compared with 2011 Ecopass, the previous pollution charge scheme); Less Road accidents - 23.8%; Less occupation of on-street parking -10% (with a gain in public space availability); Increase of public transport speed (during peak hours: +9,3% for buses and +5,4% for tram); Less pollutant vehicles: - 49% (-2.400 pollutant vehicles entering every day the Area C); More cleaner vehicles + 6,1 % (from 9,6% to 16,6% of the total vehicles); Less polluting vehicular emissions: Total PM10 -18% ; Exhaust PM10 -10%; Ammonia -42%; Nitrogen Oxides -18%; Carbon Dioxide -35%; Less Airborne Black Carbon (BC) concentrations: -52% (Summer, at kerbside) and - 28% (Winter, residential site). Briefly, almost one out of three cars was left at home, the number of clean vehicles has almost doubled thus road traffic emissions had important reductions (in particular for CO2) and inside the ‘Area C’ LTZ traffic-related toxic compounds, traced by airborne Black Carbon measurements, Eco-Zone in Milan: Policy design, enforcement and impacts 140540010_00 rev. 00 20/02/2014 6/51 were found lower from 1 to 3 epidemiological change units (Janssen et al., 2011), attesting an important benefit in public health. In the framework of the Urban Traffic Plan (PGTU), as part of the Environmental Report required by the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure, it was assessed that ‘congestion charge’ scenario at 2015 leads to a decrease of exposure to the highest Black Carbon traffic emission levels (>50 grams/day) for about 9,000 residents with respect to the ‘Loop’ circulation scheme (an alternative option for the same area), with an important improvement on public health. This result supported, together with other evaluations, the adoption by the Municipal Board, in March 2013, of the ‘Area C’ Congestion Charge scheme as a permanent and strategic measure, after one year trial period. All the Area C LTZ incomes have been reinvested in projects for Sustainable Mobility such as the strengthening of public transport and the development of the bike-sharing system. A survey carried out in April 2013 analyzing the perception of the citizens of Milan stated that 58% of residents expressed favorable views of ‘Area C’ measure. Possible perspectives of road pricing schemes are going to be discussed in the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) process, just started. The Environment Mobility and Transport Department of the Municipality of Milan is responsible for the implementation of the Area C measure. AMAT, the local Agency, provides monitoring and assessment technical services. ‘Area C’ LTZ description and monitoring results can be accessed at the websites:;;;"

Frank Kelly, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, H. Ross Anderson, Ben Barratt, Sean Beevers, Derek Cook, Dave Green, Dick Derwent, Ian Mudway, and Paul Wilkinson, The London Low Emission Zone Baseline Study.(Research Report n.163). Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, November 2011, 116 p. [formato PDF, 3,05 MB] "This report describes a study by Dr. Frank Kelly of King's College London and colleagues evaluating the feasibility of studying potential changes in air quality and health associated with the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ), which went into effect in 2008 and restricts entry of older, more polluting vehicles into Greater London. Based on their earlier study of London's Congestion Charging Scheme, the investigators conducted emissions and exposure modeling to estimate the projected effects of LEZ implementation. They also assessed the feasibility of using medical records from private practices to evaluate the relationships between exposure to traffic and indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular disease."

Charles Buckingham (Transport for London, UK), The London Low Emission Zone: Impacts summary and update. Conference "Monitoring Ambient Air 2008. Airborne Particles: Origins, Composition and Effects", London, 16th-17th December 2008, 25 slides [formato PDF, 514 kB]. "The first phase of the London Low Emission Zone, affecting heavier goods vehicles, was successfully introduced in February 2008. In July 2008 the scheme was extended to include larger buses and coaches. Further phases, affecting lighter goods vehicles and involving a tightening of the emissions standards for vehicles already affected by the scheme, are expected for 2010 and 2012 respectively. High levels of vehicle compliance with the requirements of the first two phases of the scheme have now been achieved. Transport for London is undertaking extensive monitoring of the impacts of the scheme. This work presents signifiant new opportunities for understanding both the nature of the vehicle population in London and the response of ambient PM10 to a 'step' change in a key emissions source. Using a network of numberplate reading cameras, it has been possible to measure the Euro class profile of London vehicles for the first time - allowing comparison with previous projection-based approaches. Furthermore, although the aggregate impacts of the scheme on emissions and concentrations can be predicted with some confidence, aspects of the more detailed nature of the response are less clear. The various monitoring initiatives being progressed by TfL will offer significant new insights into the effectiveness of abatement technologies and the chemical and physical characteristics of road transport PM. This presentation describes the key features of the scheme and currently-achieved levels of vehicle compliance, before looking in more detail at selected aspects of the monitoring work, with the aim of highlighting the data that are available and the new analyses that are becoming possible."


Eleonora Pieralice, Lucio Triolo, Scelte modali e impatto sanitario del PM10. Rivista di Economia e Politica dei Trasporti (REPT), 2013, 1 (25 p.) [formato PDF, 0,99 MB]. "L’applicazione di metodologie per valutare l’impatto sanitario del PM10, derivante dall’uso dei trasporti, alle indagini dei comportamenti individuali per ottimizzare percorsi e uso dei mezzi, consente di valutare i benefici sulla salute associati a nuovi scenari di emissioni legati alla propensione al cambio modale. Dalle conoscenze teoriche si può simulare l’impatto ambientale derivante dall’uso del mezzo privato, e quindi definire gli ambiti di intervento per l’abbattimento di emissioni inquinanti in atmosfera. Queste emissioni sono costituite da sostanze gassose e da polveri (PM10, PM2.5 e particolato grossolano) le quali oltre ad alterare l’ecosistema globale creano rilevanti effetti nocivi agli ambienti locali e alla salute umana. Lo studio analizza gli inquinanti atmosferici generati dai sistemi di trasporto su strada, contiene una review di alcuni studi internazionali sull’impatto sanitario del PM10, e infine utilizza le funzioni dose-risposta di vari studi epidemiologici e tossicologici per stimare gli impatti sanitari espressi in termini di mortalità e di morbilità determinati dal particolato e da gas inquinanti. L’obiettivo è valutare i benefici per la salute prodotti da nuovi scenari di emissione, associati al cambio delle scelte modali degli utenti del trasporto privato, che determinano una diminuzione delle concentrazioni di PM10. La ricerca, che impiega indici di rischio empirici, si sviluppa su due percorsi: i) l’assessment della mortalità per tutte le cause, per tumore al polmone e per altre patologie croniche quali l’infarto del miocardio, l’aterosclerosi e le malattie ischemiche, è effettuata considerando concentrazioni medie annue di PM10 in termini di aumento degli effetti per incrementi del 10% delle concentrazioni in atmosfera delle polveri PM10; ii) le valutazioni dell’incidenza di morbosità per cause respiratorie in bambini e adulti, sono calcolate in termini di diminuzione del rischio, considerando riduzioni di concentrazioni per intervalli di 10ug/m3. La metodologia proposta mostra scenari potenzialmente importanti per abbattere le emissioni inquinanti e conseguire il risultato di attenuare gli effetti nocivi sulla salute delle popolazioni. L’affermazione di tali scenari migliorativi è regolata principalmente dai cambiamenti dello stile di vita delle persone. A livello europeo i progetti, le esperienze e le soluzioni in tal senso, che hanno riscontrato ampi successi, sono numerose. Le competenze e le politiche per la mobilità sostenibile dispongono di soluzioni per un sistema di trasporti più efficiente ed efficace. Gli studi a sostegno di una mobilità più sostenibile rappresentano lo strumento per creare una visione più cosciente e consapevole della natura al fine di condividere un vivere sociale più responsabile, ma lo strumento può divenire pratica solo se l’esperienza degli uomini è capace di trasformarlo in scelte politiche intelligenti e pragmatiche. La ricerca scientifica prosegue la sperimentazione di nuove linee e la messa a punto di nuove metodologie, ma senza l’applicazione nella realtà sociale delle conoscenze scientifiche e tecnologiche, ne risulterà solo un accanimento diagnostico e progettuale. Inoltre l’assenza di scelte politiche responsabili non consentirà di verificare l’efficienza e l’efficacia delle terapie messe a punto per curare le patologie indagate."

Nicole A.H. Janssen, Miriam E. Gerlofs-Nijland, Timo Lanki, Raimo O. Salonen, Flemming Cassee, Gerard Hoek, Paul Fischer, Bert Brunekreef and Michal Krzyzanowski, Health effects of black carbon. (ISBN 978 92 890 0265 3). WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2012, 96 p. [formato PDF, 2,10 MB]. "Black carbon is a good indicator of combustion-related air pollution, and was only recently recognized as a short-lived climate-forcer, which contributes to warming the Earth's atmosphere. This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon in ambient air. Epidemiological studies provide sufficient evidence of the association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality with exposure to black carbon. Toxicological studies suggest that black carbon may operate as a universal carrier of a wide variety of chemicals of varying toxicity to the human body. Although black carbon may not be a major, directly toxic component of fine particulate matter, reducing people’s exposure to particulate matter containing black carbon should reduce its effects on their health, as well as helping to mitigate climate change. This review is of particular interest to environmental health professionals concerned with assessing and reducing the health effects of air pollution, as well as to those who use scientific evidence in support of climate change mitigation policies."

Giovanni Invernizzi, Ario Ruprecht, Il black carbon: un nuovo indicatore capace di identificare i benefici sulla qualità dell'aria nei microambienti urbani a minore intensità di traffico. La campagna di monitoraggio ECOPASS / Black carbon 2010 a Milano, EUROEPI2010, 34° Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Epidemiologia, Firenze, 20 ottobre 2010, presentation, 33 slides [formato PDF, 1,24 MB].

Roy M. Harrison (Univ. of Birmingham and National Centre for Atmospheric Science), Airborne Particulate Matter: recent studies of sources, pathways and health, 4° Convegno Nazionale "PM 2010", Venezia, 18-20 maggio 2010, presentation, 60 slides [formato PDF, 4,27 MB].

AIRPARIF, Synthese des connaissances sur les particules en suspension dans l'air et des travaux d'Airparif sur ces polluants. Paris, Octobre 2008, 105 p. [formato PDF, 5,62 MB].

Richard Wolff, Diskussionspapier PM10. Zu viel Feinstaub an Zürichs Hauptverkehrsstrassen - Gesundheitliche und wirtschaftliche Folgen der zu hohen Emissionen des Verkehrs. (documento base di discussione sulle PM10. Troppe polveri fini nelle strade principali di Zurigo. Conseguenze sanitarie ed economiche delle emissioni troppo elevate dovute al traffico). INURA Zürich Institut, Zürich, März 2006, 41 p. [formato PDF, 1,48 MB]

Umweltbundesamt, Experten-Workshop "Verkehrsbedingte Feinstäube in der Stadt" 14./15.02.2005 in Leipzig. (Workshop di esperti su "Polveri sottili causate dal traffico nella città"). (Texte 18/06), Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, Juli 2006, 91 p. [formato PDF, 2,76 MB]. Relazioni sugli effetti sanitari, la misurazione e i provvedimenti per la riduzione del particolato sottile emesso dal traffico urbano.

Particulate matter: a closer look. The state of affairs in the particulate matter dossier from a Dutch perspective. Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, 2005, 63 p. [formato PDF, 1,97 MB]. Una sintesi delle conoscenze sul particolato in Olanda e nel contesto europeo.

Particulates: small but dangerous. Environmental Fact sheet No.20, April 2006, Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, Göteborg, 6 p. [formato PDF, 204 kB]. Scheda sulle emissioni e danni alla salute del particolato - PM 2.5. Comprende definizioni e categorie, per origini e dimensioni.

EEA, Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2004 : Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during April-Septembre 2004, Technical Report n.3/2005, 34 p. [ formato PDF, 3,09 MB]. In summer 2004, the levels of ground-level ozone were high in southern Europe with widespread exceedances of the information threshold value (180 µg/m3), as laid down in the ozone directive (2002/3/EC). The exceedances of the information threshold were similar to earlier years, except for summer 2003, when there was a record number of exceedances. Also the directive's long-term objective to protect human health, 120 µg/m3 of ozone concentration over 8 hours, was extensively exceeded in the EU and other European countries. The target value to protect human health was also exceeded in southern and part of central Europe. The highest levels were reported from Italy and Spain, with a maximum ozone level of 417 µg/m3. (le soglie dell’inquinamento da ozono per quanto riguarda la salute umana sono state ampiamente superate nell’estate 2004, particolarmente in Italia e in Spagna).

Paul Scherrer Institut, EMPA, Verifikation von PM10-Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehr, 2003, 203 p. [formato PDF, 6,29 MB] (fattori di emissione di PM10 del trasporto stradale)

BUWAL, PM10-Emissionen des Verkehrs. Statustbericht. Teil Schienenverkehr. Bern, 2002, 50 p. [formato PDF, 1,29 MB] (emissioni di pM10 del trasporto ferroviario)

WHO Europe, Review of Methods for Monitoring of PM2.5 and PM10, Report on a WHO Workshop, Berlin, Germany, 11-12 October 2004, WHO, Copenhagen, 2005, 18 p. [formato PDF, 574 kB]


Xiaojian Hu, Nuo Chen, Nan Wu, Bicheng Yin, The Potential Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Urban Air Quality in Shanghai City. Sustainability 2021, 13, 496 (12 p.) [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. Open Access. "The Shanghai government has outlined plans for the new vehicles used for the public transportation, rental, sanitation, postal, and intra-city freight to be completely powered by electricity by 2020. This paper analyzed the characteristics of vehicle emissions in Shanghai in the past five years. The potential reduction in road traffic related emissions due to the promotion and application of electric vehicle in Shanghai was evaluated. The potential reduction was quantified by vehicular emissions. The vehicular emissions inventories are calculated by the COPERT IV model under the different scenarios, of which the results indicate that promoting electric vehicles is the efficient measure to control all road traffic related emissions and improve urban air quality. The results also provided basis and support for making policies to promote and manage electric vehicles."

Rocío Rodríguez Quintero, Candela Vidal-Abarca Garrido, Hans Moons, Miguel Gama Caldas, Oliver Wolf (JRC), Ian Skinner (TEPR), Anouk van Grinsven, Maarten 't Hoen, Huib van Essen (CE Delft), Revision of the EU green public procurement criteria for transport. Technical report and criteria proposal. JRC Science for Policy report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, 155 p. [formato PDF, 2,5 MB]. "Public authorities' expenditures in the purchase of goods, services and works (excluding utilities and defence) constitute approximately 14% of the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Europe, accounting for roughly EUR 1.8 trillion annually. Thus, public procurement has the potential to provide significant leverage in seeking to influence the market and to achieve environmental improvements in the public sector. This effect can be particularly significant for goods, services and works (referred to collectively as products) that account for a high share of public purchasing combined with the substantial improvement potential for environmental performance. The European Commission has identified (road) transport as one such product group. Road transport covers a wide scope of vehicles (cars, LCVs, L-category vehicles, buses and waste collection vehicles) and services (mobility services, public bus services, waste collection services and post and courier services). The main environmental issues at the use phase addressed by the criteria are GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions and noise emissions. The impacts from the manufacture of batteries used in electric vehicle are also considered, leading to criteria on minimum and extended warranty of batteries. This revision has coincided with the evaluation of the Clean Vehicle Directive and the introduction of new test procedures to measure CO 2 and air pollutant emissions of vehicles (WLTP, Real Driving Emissions in Euro 6). All these policies have been taken into account in the revision process of the EU GPP criteria for transport, to ensure a full harmonisation of the EU policies."

Massimo Muraro (ARPA Piemonte), Come ridurre le polveri sottili, Università di Trento, APPA, 29 novembre 2006, 39 slides [formato PDF, 7,93 MB]. [! documento eliminato dal sito dell'Universita' di Trento !]

Francesco Avella (Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili), Le nuove tecnologie per la riduzione delle emissioni degli autoveicoli, I° Convegno nazionale sul particolato atmosferico, Università di Milano Bicocca, 12-14 maggio 2004, 28 slides [formato PDF, 625 kB].

Francesco Avella (Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili), Qualità dei combustibili e tecnologie motoristiche, Giornata di Studio "Emissioni Autoveicolari. Qualità dell'Aria e Salute", Pavia, 26 ottobre 2007, 26 slides [formato PDF, 936 kB].

Axel Friedrich, Falk Heinen, Fatumata Kamakaté, Drew Kodjak, Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from ocean-going ships: impacts, mitigation options and opportunities for managing growth. Executive Summary, International Council on Clean Transportation, March 2007, 16 p. [formato PDF, 706 kB]. "This report describes the results of the ICCT review, focusing on the emission-reduction potential, feasibility, costs, and cost- effectiveness of available environmental mitigation measures for the shipping sector. It also analyzes the legal context within which local, regional, and international programs can be developed. The report concludes with a series of policy recommendations aimed at achieving steady, incremental progress towards reducing emissions from marine vessels that will result in significant environment and public health benefits."

Reinhald Grünwald, Perspektiven eines CO2- und emissionsarmen Verkehrs - Kraftstoffe und Antriebe im Überblick. (Prospettive per un trasporto con ridotte emissioni inquinanti e di CO2, una panoramica dei carburanti e dei motori). Vorstudie zum TA-Projekt. (Arbeitsbericht Nr. 111), Büro fur Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB), Berlin, Juli 2006, 244 p. [formato PDF, 2,88 MB]. Lo studio, sviluppato per conto del parlamento tedesco, prende in esame la riduzione potenziale delle emissioni per i vari modi di trasporto e per i vari sistemi di propulsione (motori a benzina e diesel, ibridi, elettrici, celle a combustibile) e combustibili, le necessità produttive, di importazione e di infrastrutture per le varie soluzioni (metano, idrogeno).

APAT Tecnologie di riduzione delle emissioni

Energy Saving Trust, TransportEnergy Cleaner fuels and vehicles: “to help the government meet this target, the Energy Saving Trust was established. As a non-profit company, we were initially founded to tackle domestic energy consumption. In 1996, a new division was developed with the specific aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transport as well as contributing to improved air quality in our cities and towns. Known as TransportEnergy, we receive the majority of our funding from Government (in particular, the Department for Transport and the Department for Trade and Industry), as well as the private sector.” Interessante esempio di agenzia o fondazione per la promozione dell’uso razionale dell energia


Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment (English) / L’Encyclopédie de l’Environnement Atmosphérique (Français)

Non solo aria sito italiano dedicato all’inquinamento atmosferico


FAIRMODE, Forum for Air quality Modelling in Europe. In view of the requirement for increased modelling use in air quality assessment as put forward within the frame of the new Air Quality Directive (AQD), the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) were activated towards setting up a Forum for Air Quality Modelling to promote synergy between the users - at a local and national level - as well as exchange of relevant information.

Clean Air for Europe (CAFE): "a programme of technical analysis and policy development which will lead to the adoption of a thematic strategy on air pollution under the Sixth Environmental Action Programme by mid 2005. Its aim is to develop a long-term, strategic and integrated policy advice to protect against significant negative effects of air pollution on human health and the environment. The European Commission will present its Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution during the first half year of 2005." CAFE Factsheet (from the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, November 2005).

AIRNET A Thematic Network on Air Pollution and Health(programma europeo)

EEA (Agenzia Europea per l’Ambiente)

ISPRA, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ex Agenzia per la Protezione dell’Ambiente e i servizi tecnici), Italia

SINAnet Rete nazionale di informazione in campo ambientale, curata dall’ISPRA

ARPA Friuli-Venezia Giulia

ARPAV Veneto

APPA Trento Agenzia provinciale per la protezione dell’ambiente del Trentino

APPA Bolzano, Agenzia provinciale per l'ambiente/Landesagentur für Umwelt, Bolzano/Bozen

ARPA Piemonte

ARPAL Liguria

ARPA Lombardia

ARPA Emilia-Romagna

ARPAT Toscana

BOP (beleidsgeoriënteerd onderzoeksprogramma PM), Netherlands Research Program on Particulate Matter. "The goal of the Netherlands Research Program on Particulate Matter (BOP) is to reduce uncertainties about particulate matter (PM) and the number of policy dilemmas, which complicate development and implementation of adequate policy measures. Uncertainties concerning health aspects of PM are not explicitly addressed. This study is conducted under the auspices of the Netherlands Research Program on Particulate Matter (BOP), a national programme on PM10 and PM2.5, funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial planning and the Environment (VROM). The programme is a framework of cooperation, involving four Dutch institutes: the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and TNO Built Environment and Geosciences."

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research / Laboratorio federale di prova dei materiali e di ricerca.

CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d'Etudes de la Pollution Atmosphérique, Paris. Il regroupe 200 adhérents (industriels, fédérations et syndicats professionnels, producteurs d'énergie, constructeurs automobiles, éco-industries, bureaux d'études et laboratoires de mesures), constituant ainsi un véritable réseau interprofessionnel ou` circule une information pertinente et d'actualité sur les évolutions réglementaires et technologiques en matiere de pollution atmosphérique.

Environmental Research Group (ERG), part of the School of Biomedical and Health Sciences at King’s College London (UK). The group combines air pollution science, toxicology and epidemiology to determine the impacts of air pollution on health and the causal factors. We work closely with those responsible for air quality management to support policies and actions to minimise air pollution health effects.

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Transportation and Air Quality)

IAPSC (Investigation of Air Pollution Standing Conference). IAPSC is a forum for the exchange of information and best practice in the field of air quality measurement and management in the UK.

NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research

RIVM The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (NL)

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (UK) "An independent standing body established in 1970 to advise the Queen, the Government, Parliament and the public on environmental issues."

SEPA, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

UK National Air Quality Archive.

Umweltbundesamt (D)