ACNUSA, Autorité de contrôle des nuisances sonores aéroportuaires, Paris (F)

AirportWatch is an umbrella movement uniting the national environmental organisations, airport community groups, and individuals opposed to unsustainable aviation expansion, and its damaging environmental effects, including climate change and noise. AirportWatch aims to oppose any expansion of aviation and airports likely to damage the human or natural environment, and to promote an aviation policy for the UK which is in full accordance with the principles of sustainable development (London, UK).

Airport Railways of the World (database). "This site helps you to find which airports have rail connections - and what sort of connections they are. It tells you the name, web-site, e-mail address and help-line number of the airport operator and the railway operator - or operators - where this is available."

Centre for Air Transport and the Environment Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)

Omega : Aviation in a sustainable world. Omega is led by Manchester Metropolitan University, together with Cambridge and Cranfield universities. Omega’s main objective is to develop and transfer innovative knowledge in the field of aviation sustainability.

Union Françilienne Contre les Nuisances Aériennes Portale francese sull’impatto ambientale degli aereoporti e dell’aviazione, anche in inglese UFCNA English Database

Network di rilevazione inquinamento acustico sul territorio : SEA aeroporti di Milano (Linate e Malpensa)

STATFOR - Air Traffic Statistics and Forecasts Eurocontrol Agency: Monthly Statistics, Short-Term, Medium-Term and Long-Term Forecast


Ipek Gençsü and Miyuki Hino, Raising Ambition to Reduce International Aviation and Maritime Emissions. Working Paper. Contributing paper for Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC, 2015, 24 p. [formato PDF, 849 kB]. "Global aviation and shipping together produce about 5% of global CO2 emissions, and by 2050 this is expected to rise to 10–32%. Yet these sectors offer some of the most costeffective emission reductions available today, particularly through improved fuel efficiency. There is a 27% difference in the fuel efficiency of the least and most fuel-efficient US airlines, and the most efficient crude oil tankers are about one-fifth as fuel-intensive as the least efficient. While domestic aviation and shipping are covered under national policies and emissions inventories, international aviation and shipping, which make up the majority of emissions, are not. Two specialised UN agencies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), govern international aviation and shipping activities, and are therefore best placed to drive further action. While ICAO has committed to introducing measures to cap net emissions at 2020 levels, and new IMO design efficiency standards for new ships are expected to lead to efficiency gains that will save an average of US$200 billion in annual fuel costs by 2030, progress in both sectors has been slow. The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate recommends that emissions from the international aviation and maritime sectors be reduced in line with a 2°C pathway through action under ICAO and the IMO. ICAO should take a decision in 2016 to start implementation of a market-based measure (MBM) from 2020, and should also introduce a stringent aircraft CO2 standard. The IMO should adopt a global emission reduction target, and promote fuel saving through strong operational efficiency standards and a supporting data-sharing system. These measures could help reduce annual GHG emissions by 0.6–0.9 Gt CO2e by 2030".

D. S. Lee, L. L. Lim and B. Owen (Manchester Metropolitan University), Bridging the aviation CO2 emissions gap: why emissions trading is needed. Centre for Aviation Transport and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2013, 29 p. [formato PDF, 5,48 MB]. "Aviation emissions currently account for 2 to 2.5% of global CO2 emissions. Scenarios of future aviation project strong increases in air traffic and therefore emissions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has set a number of ‘goals’ for the environmental performance of international aviation: (1) a global annual average fuel efficiency improvement of 2 per cent until 2020 and an aspirational global fuel efficiency improvement rate of 2 per cent per annum from 2021 to 2050; (2) a medium term global aspirational goal of keeping the global net carbon emissions from international aviation from 2020 at the same level. Additionally, the US, Canada and Mexico have previously proposed a more ambitious, global goal to achieve a collective global goal of carbon neutral growth by 2020 based on a 2005 baseline, while Europe has proposed a 10% reduction by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. In this work, the mitigation potential of i) technology and improved operations; ii) biofuels, and iii) the extension of current regional market-based measures to 2050 are quantified for low, central and high traffic growth projections. Of the three types of measures studied, extension of current regional market-based measures (emissions trading) offers the greatest mitigation potential. None of the measures, or their combinations, for any growth scenario managed to meet ICAO’s aspirational 2020 carbon-neutral goal by 2050, the 2005 stabilization of emissions goal, or the 2005-10% stabilization of emissions goal. The 2% goal would only just be met by 2050, through assuming maximum reductions from technology, operations, and “speculative” availability of biofuels. If a global emissions trading scheme were to be constructed that covered all international aviation, the emissions savings could be even larger than all other measures calculated in this study."

Benoît Chèze, Julien Chevallier, Pascal Gastineau, Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?. (EconomiX Working Papers, 2012-35). Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Nanterre, August 2012, 27 p. [formato PDF, 702 kB]. "This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. "scenario of type I") recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2°C."

Marisa Korteland, Jasper Faber, Ban on night flights at Heathrow Airport. A quick scan Social Cost Benefit Analysis. Delft, CE Delft, January 2011, 47 p. [formato PDF, 444 kB]. "Night flights are often considered an essential element of airline networks. Long haul passengers who want to arrive in Europe at the beginning of the day often need to land during the night, especially when they arrive at a transfer airport such as Heathrow from where they take another flight to their final destination. However, the noise they create is detrimental to human well-being as it causes sleep disturbance, increase in medicine use, stress and (environmental) insomnia. Around London Heathrow Airport, a large number of people are affected by aircraft noise during the night time. As the UK Government reviews its limit on the number of night flights allowed at Heathrow, this report endeavours to quantify the costs and benefits to the UK of a ban on night flights at Heathrow before 6.00am. It uses social cost benefit analysis (SCBA) to do so. SCBA systematically identifies all the direct, indirect and external effects of a night flight ban and expresses them in monetary terms so that the net costs or benefits can be calculated. It uses the broad definition of welfare, in which all items that add to the well-being of the society are benefits, and all items that decrease well-being are costs. The boundaries of SCBA presented here are UK welfare effects. The presented SCBA is a quick scan SCBA, based on values from the literature. We assess the costs and benefits of a night flight ban against a baseline scenario in which the current regime is continued. Airlines and passengers can respond in several ways to a night flight ban. We identify three extremes: 1. All flights and connections are rescheduled to daytime operations. 2. All flights are rescheduled to daytime operations but connections are lost, leading to a decrease in the number of transfer passengers. 3. All flights currently arriving or departing during the night are cancelled. Most responses are likely to fall within these boundaries. Likewise, the costs and benefits of a night flight ban are likely to fall between the costs and benefits of these extremes. This report finds that the impacts of a night flight ban on UK welfare are likely to range from an increase of £ 860 million to a decrease of £ 35 million over a period of ten years (2013-2023). The loss would occur if all current night time passengers stopped travelling to Heathrow once a night flight ban was introduced. That however is highly unlikely. The most likely scenario is that a proportion of them will continue to use the airport. If that is the case, a night flight ban before 6.00am will bring economic benefits to the overall economy. This is because there will be a significant decrease in the costs associated with sleep disturbance. The savings that will bring, in terms of improved health and well-being, are expected to offset the main costs of a ban - passengers’ time and airline profits - by a wide margin. The results are sensitive, however, to the valuation of night noise, and we recommend studying the benefits of noise reductions in more detail. Other items that require more study are the impact on passenger choices, on airline networks and on tourism. Our overall conclusion is that a ban on night flights at Heathrow is likely to be beneficial to the economy as the economic costs of the ban will be outweighed by the savings made by the reduced health costs of the sleep disturbance and stress caused by the noise of the night flights."

Jasper Faber, A Night Flight Ban on Heathrow. Overview of the Social Costs and Benefits. Presentation, Main findings. Delft, CE Delft, January 27th, 2011, 18 slides [formato PDF, 444 kB].

Eberhard Greiser, Claudia Greiser, Risikofaktor nächtlicher Fluglärm. Abschlussbericht über eine Fall-Kontroll-Studie zu kardiovaskulären und psychischen Erkrankungen im Umfeld des Flughafens Köln-Bonn (Risk factor night-time aircraft noise. Final report on a case-control study in the vicinity of Cologne-Bonn International Airport). (Schriftenreihe Umwelt & Gesundheit Nr. 01/2010). Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, März 2010, 32 p. [formato PDF, 1,38 MB] + Anlagenband (Supplementary Notes) 606 p. [formato PDF, 4,09 MB]. "The aim of the case-control study was to determine the possible impact of aircraft noise, especially at night, on cardiovascular diseases and on psychiatric diseases. The data of more than 1.020 Million persons, insured in compulsory sickness funds with place of residence in the study region (City of Cologne and two counties adjacent to the airport (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis) were linked using a geographic information system to environmental noise data, area-specific social welfare rates as well as local nursing home bed density. The study populations comprises more than 55% of the total population of the study region. Multiple logistic regressions were calculated by gender. Results show an linear increase of disease risk for cardiovascular diseases from 40 dB(A) Leq onwards in all investigated time windows (6-22, 22-6, 23-1, 3-5 hours) and from 35,25 dB(A) onwards for 24-hours Leq. This does not apply to acute myocardial infarction. For psychiatric disorders there is one consistent result, only: depressive disorders in females. In most of the analyses there is a considerably larger increase of disease risk for that part of the study population which was not entitled to reimbursement of noise prevention measures for bedroom windows. A discussion of available scientific evidence according to epidemiologic criteria of causation (Hill’s criteria) ascertains that there is sufficient evidence for causation of cardiovascular diseases (except myocardial infarction) by aircraft noise."

David McCollum, Gregory Gould, David Greene, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Challenges. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, December 2009, 56 p. [formato PDF, 2,11 MB]. "This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050—reductions scientific studies suggest are necessary to stabilize the climate and avoid the most destructive impacts of climate change (IPCC 2007)—will require lowering GHG emissions across all sectors of the economy. Aviation and marine transportation combined are responsible for approximately 5 percent of total GHG emissions in the United States and 3 percent globally1 and are among the fastest growing modes in the transportation sector. Controlling the growth in aviation and marine transportation GHG emissions will be an important part of reducing emissions from the transportation sector. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that global demand for aviation increased by 5.9 percent and demand for marine transportation by 5.1 percent, during 2005 alone (IPCC 2007). Business-as-usual (BAU) projections for CO2 emissions from global aviation are estimated at 3.1 percent per year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine transportation emissions is more uncertain. BAU growth projections by the IEA (2008b) and IMO (2008) are between 1 and 2 percent per year. By 2050, international marine transportation emissions are estimated to increase by at least 50 percent over 2007 levels. In summary, the potential for mitigating GHG emissions from aircraft and marine vessels is considerable— reductions of more than 50 percent below BAU levels by 2050 from global aviation and more than 60 percent for global marine shipping are possible. For these reductions to be realized, however, international and domestic policy intervention is required. Developing an effective path forward that facilitates the adoption of meaningful policies remains both a challenge and an opportunity."

Autorité de contrôle des nuisances sonores aéroportuaires (ACNUSA), Rapport d'activité 2008. Paris, 2009, 108 p. [formato PDF, 4,21 MB]. Contiene il capitolo "Survoler sans gêner" sugli interventi già realizzati e da intraprendere per ridurre le emissioni sonore del trasporto aereo.

Eric Pels (VU University, Amsterdam), The environmental impacts of increased international air transport. Past trends and future perspectives. Global Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008, Guadalajara, Mexico. Presentation and text, 2008, 22 p. + 22 slides [formato PDF, 428 kB + 200 kB].

Fiona Berry, Sarah Gillhespy and Jean Rogers, Airport Sustainability Practices. A Synthesis of Airport Practice. (ACRP Synthesis 10). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 124 p. [formato PDF, 3,92 MB]. "This synthesis study is intended to inform airport operators, stakeholders, and policy makers about a range of airport sustainability practices gathered from a literature review and web-based survey. It specifically targets airport operators and provides a snapshot of airport sustainability practices across the triple bottom line of environmental, economic, and social issues."

Matthew A. Coogan, Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. (ACRP report 4). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2008, 215 p. [formato PDF, 5,92 MB]. "The report examines key elements associated with the creation of a six-step market-based strategy for improving the quality of public mode services at U.S. airports. The report also addresses the context for public transportation to major airports, explores the attributes of successful airport ground access systems, presents an airport by airport summary of air traveler ground access mode-share by public transportation services, and more."

Odette Deuber (Univ. of Cologne), Climate externalities of aviation – Particularities, economic evaluation methods and emissions trading as internalisation strategy. GARS Conference "Aviation and Climate Change", Amsterdam, July 2008, 23 p. [formato PDF, 297 KB]. "Aviation emissions contribute to climate change by causing environmental damages which in general are not or not adequately reflected in the air transport prices. As long as third parties are affected they represent climate externalities. Non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses of society may occur unless policy intervention is undertaken. To design effective climate policies in aviation, policy makers should assess the full impact of candidate policies, while also accounting for potential interdependencies with other externalities. There is a variety of potentially important impacts and trade-offs with regard to aviation and climate change, for example the trade-offs between short-lived and long-lived climate effects like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and aviation-induced cloud formation. Therefore the identification, quantification and economic evaluation of aviation-induced climate externalities and their interdependencies seem to be a valuable basis for evaluating climate policies in aviation. In 2006, the EU Commission adopted a proposal for legislation to include aviation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). Although full climate impact of aviation is more comprehensive, the proposal puts forward a CO2 based scheme. In this paper the economic theory of externalities is reviewed. Subsequently the particularities of climate externalities (in aviation) are pointed out and discussed in the context of economic evaluation approaches. It was shown that human-induced climate change is at its most basic level an externality. However, climate change has some special features that together distinguish it from other environmental externalities. Furthermore aviation-induced climate impacts take a special position in climate externalities. Evaluating and regulating short- and long-lived climate impacts in parallel present a great scientific, economic and political challenge. Economic evaluation methods focusing on well-mixed GHG fall short when looking at the aviation sector. The role of market-based option emissions trading as internalization strategy is highlighted and exemplified by the planned EU-ETS in aviation. It is a first step towards an internalization of climate externalities in the aviation sector. A short evaluation of the planned CO2 EU-ETS finalizes the paper."

CESUR, Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon) and Department of Transport and Regional Economics (University of Antwerp), The Consequences of the Growing European Low-Cost Airline Sector. Study. European Parliament, December 2007, 76 p. [formato PDF, 1,28 MB]. "The study provides an analysis of the impact of the changes in air transport market as a consequence of the emergence of low fares airlines. Evidence proves that this development has had a significant impact on established airlines, the main airports, and also on intra- and intermodal competition, European tourism, passenger flows and regional development." (Documento disponibile anche in lingua francese e tedesca).

Sven Kesselring, Globaler Verkehr – Flugverkehr (Il trasporto globale - il trasporto aereo) in: Schöller, Oliver, Weert Canzler, Andreas Knie, Handbuch Verkehrspolitik, Wiesbaden, VS Verlag, 2007, p. 828-853 [formato PDF, 477 KB]. (interessante analisi socioeconomica delle tendenze del trasporto aereo mondiale e del ruolo degli aeroporti).

Andreas Petzold, Aviation particle emissions and airport air quality. UBA Workshop, Berlin, 14 June 2005. 24 slides [formato PDF, 346 KB]. Relazione sulle nanoparticelle emesse dai motori degli aerei.

Observatoire des politiques et des stratégies de transport en Europe, Les stratégies aéroportuaires en Europe. Dossier n° 8, Conseil National des Transports, Paris, Mars 2007, 113 p. [formato PDF, 1,11 MB]. "Ce dossier répond aux préoccupations suivantes : comment s’organisent les principaux aéroports en réponse à la concurrence (rôle de hub, spécialisation dans le trafic national ou international, importance du fret et des voyageurs, développement des low cost, liaison avec les autres modes…) ? Quel est leur statut (public, privé, en partenariat) ? Une approche transversale complète la présentation des dix pays étudiés." Analisi della situazione degli aereoporti in Germania, Belgio, Spagna, Francia, Grecia, Italia, Paesi Bassi, Polonia, Regno Unito e Svizzera. La parte sull'Italia è del prof. Sergio Bologna.

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, The Environmental Effects of Civil Aircraft in Flight, Special Report. London, 2002, 48 p. [formato PDF, 655 KB]. Tra le conclusioni del rapporto: "We have made recommendations in this Report which encompass a wide range of measures that the government ought to be taking to reduce demand for air travel and to moderate the damage caused by the future growth that does take place: impose climate protection charges for aircraft taking off and landing within the EU, and press for such charges to be adopted beyond Europe; restrict airport development to encourage greater competition for, and raise the implicit price of, the available take-off and landing slots, in order to optimise the use of those slots towards longer-haul flights and to increase the prospects for a modal shift to rail for domestic journeys; encourage a modal shift to more environmentally benign methods of transport for short-haul flights, including the development of major airports into land-air hubs integrated with an enhanced rail network; include international aviation in the emissions trading scheme that is envisaged as one of the Kyoto Protocol’s implementing mechanisms."

Clearing the Air: The Myth and Reality of Aviation and Climate Change, Bruxelles, Transport & Environment, Climate Action Network , 2006, 47 p. [formato PDF, 868 KB]. Recentissima pubblicazione di T&E sugli effetti del trasporto aereo sui cambiamenti climatici e sulle misure possibili per contrastarli, compresa la tassa sul cherosene.

European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) , Low-Cost Carrier Market Update, Bruxelles, September 2005, 18 p. [formato PDF, 561 KB]

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, For greener skies: reducing environmental impacts of aviation. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2002, 56 p. (electronic book)

Francesco Marangon, La valutazione dell'impatto acustico degli aeroporti. Aspetti socio-economici, Working paper Series in Economics, n. 3/2003, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Università di Udine, 25 p. [formato PDF, 80 kB]

Eric Cordina, Aviation and the Environment. A study on ways to limit the environmental harm caused by engine emissions and an assessment of future environmentally friendly aircraft technologies. Thesis submitted as part of the requirements for the award of Masters in Air Transport Management from London City University, July 2002. 77 p. [formato PDF, 375 kB]